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Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas 1767), the Banded
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eBook on Amazon
Doing what it takes to keep Bettas healthy long-term
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Note: RMF is out dive/travel adventuring 5/15-6/8...
hence the dailies posting may be erratic.
Could you please help me find a book?
Thank you so much for offering this incredible service to help us better
our aquarium keeping skills. Much appreciated.
I have a rather odd query today, and I am turning to you with the hope
that you might aid my search.
I am trying to recall the name of a freshwater aquarium book which I
remember reading in a library (which I am no longer a member of) in my
school days in the *late 1980s*. If my memory serves me right it was a
hardcover book which was more landscape in format, like an album, (or at
least square), pretty thick and had many colour photographs. I mainly
remember the excellent biotope correct layout design illustrations
(drawings) it had with inputs for applicable plants, fishes and
<Mmm; there are a few that come to mind. I collect printed works in the
ornamental aquatics field (and write, produce them)>
I have tried searching the web, especially Amazon.com pretty extensively
for images that may trigger a 'total recall' but it is still eluding me.
I have purchased "The Living Aquarium' by Peter Hunnam, but it was not
With your vast experience, does the (rather vague) descriptions ring any
<The late 80's, squarish, good biotopic presentations... Let's see,
Takashi Amano's works would rate, but they were reproduced in English in
the early 90's... Dick Mills' "Tropical Aquarium Fishes", David Coffey,
"The Encyclopedia of Aquarium Fish"... Do use BookFinder.com and links
there to look up these editions... Do you recall details re the cover
art? Overall physical size? Publisher? Am cc'ing Neale Monks here as
well... His short pc. on the topic mainly includes books past this date.
Barring our input;
visiting a large library, cruising the "QL" section in the Dewey Decimal
accord might prove fruitful.>
I would be much obliged if you can give me some concrete inputs or at
Thanks and regards
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Re: Could you please help me find a book?
Thank you so much for the reply.
I know you are a celebrated writer and producer of books on ornamental
aquatics, I have the pleasure of owning a couple of titles by you!
The suggestion of bookfinder.com is very helpful. I am using the advance
search option to peruse the links individually.
<Ahh! A very useful site, tool. I use so often that it's on my faves
I am finding that the same titles are often printed with different cover
arts in different editions, so though the Dick Mills book you suggested
did not trigger an immediate connect, I will explore it further.
<Yes; this does occur...>
As for the one by David Coffey, I have placed an online order for an
used copy, as anyway it will be a nice book to add to my collection.
To my frustration I do not recall the cover art, but it was a large and
heavy book, rather thick, a good way across (left to right), maybe 15
inches or thereabouts. I do not recall the author's name save a vague
(maybe wrong) idea that the name sounded German or Dutch and thus
wondered if the 'Complete Aquarium' by V. Ramshorst could be it. It was
not, but again it is a nice book to have anyway.
<Well... you could also add browsing the listings (via covers) on
eBay... re aquarium books; fun, but time-consuming>
I shall definitely await Neale Monk's valuable inputs.
Meanwhile I shall be 'at it' and update you if I nail it.
Thanks a lot for all the help.
Re: Could you please help me find a book? /Neale
<<'The Living Aquarium' by Hunnam is certainly one that springs to mind.
It was very definitely a book with a section on ecology and biology, but
'Complete Aquarium' by Peter Scott was much more biotope-focused, with
six-page sections on each sort of biotope tank. Two pages of the
complete tank, two pages of setting it up, and two pages of livestock.
Although a bit dated now, this book is one I continue to recommend
because it's so clear and easy to follow. There was another one, called
'Aquarium Design' by Matthew Christian that was similar in aim, but in
my opinion, bonkers.
Besides a range of naturalistic set-ups, there were these more sort of
avant garde designs, often using weird materials (such as steel wire and
plastic baubles) to create funky designs. Anyway, other classic books of
the era included 'The Complete Aquarist's Guide to Freshwater Tropical
Fishes' edited by Legg; the excellent 'Complete Aquarium Encyclopedia Of
Tropical Fish' by Ramshorst; and (a bit more of a pot-boiler this)
'Practical (or Interpet) Encyclopedia of Freshwater Tropical Aquarium
Fishes' by Mills & Vevers. Cheers, Neale.>>
Hemorrhagic septicemia and ulcer issues
Dear WWM team,
I have had an established freshwater, 45 gallon tank for 4 months now. When I
upsized from my 30gal, I poured about 15 gallons of established water from the
smaller tank into the larger one and added another seven fish.
<Ah, do remember the nitrifying bacteria are not in the water, but attached to
solid surfaces in well oxygenated areas. Transplanting filter media is the
ideal, but floating plants with established root systems, or plants with
feathery leaves, are almost as good. Even moving the topmost layer of
sand and gravel will help. But alas, 'old' water contains few bacteria, and
while it'll surely contain some, the number will be so few that the cycling
process will barely be abbreviated at all.>
In all, I have 2 dwarf gouramis, 2 cardinal tetras, 4 skirttail tetras (2 white
and 2 black),
<If these are Gymnocorymbus ternetzi, they can be nippy. I mention this because
aggression and physical damage can, will lead to Finrot and other opportunistic
2 mollies, a Redtail shark,
<Another potentially aggressive species.>
a common Pleco ( 4 inches) and 2 angelfish.
<Should also remind you that while sociable enough when young, adults are
territorial. Mated pairs can work, but in groups fewer than 6, you can end up
I had another angelfish, though it died a couple of days ago from what appeared
to be hemorrhagic septicemia.
<Angels are prone to this, or so it sometimes seems. In truth they are probably
no more sensitive than any other cichlid, but unlike most other cichlids,
they're popular choices among beginners and those stocking smaller community
tanks, so commonly exposed to what are, to cichlids, stressful levels of
ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate.>
After closer analysis of the other two angelfish, I think there may be the very
beginning of the red discolorations to their fins as well.
<I would treat as per Finrot to start with.>
The 30gal tank now has my older 'establisher' goldfish, one molly and a common
Pleco and that tank has been established for almost 9 months. The only new
additions to the tanks were the angelfish and 4 new tetras, as well as some more
Nerite snails, and that was several months ago. The tanks are planted, again
with no recent additions, and the temperatures sit at a steady 78-80 degrees F.
Mechanically, I upgraded the bigger tank to a canister filter with a UV light
several weeks ago. The old filter for that tank then shifted down to the smaller
tank which needed an oversized filter with the mess that 3 medium goldfish make.
I also got the 30 gallon an independent UV light to help with some of the recent
algae outbreaks from too much sunlight this time of year.
These are only 2 of my 6 tanks and they usually have the most cross
contamination out of all of them due to location and the amount of work they
need done to maintain them.
Admittedly, a decent amount of material from the bigger tank makes its way into
the goldfish tank since the goldies like chowing down on some of the more
delicate leaves I keep in the other tank until they no longer look nice. So, it
comes to no surprise to me that the goldfish seem to have a slight discoloration
(a pink hue) in their tails and pectoral fin articulations. I am currently
treating both tanks with Furan 2.
<Don't believe the Angels are 'catching' something from the Goldfish, but if all
else fails, isolate the two tanks as perfectly as possible. This would include
separate nets, buckets, etc., or at least, the use of
sterilising agents in between uses, as done in tropical fish shops.>
The goldies had some flashing/ flitting fin and scraping issues a few months ago
with no visible issues and so they have been through the gauntlet of parasitic
treatments- Artemis, ParaGaurd, Anchorworm/Lice, salt baths. None seemed to work
individually until I tried a concentrated salt bath for 45 min.s and then a week
of ParaGaurd. They have been fine for several weeks until this new issue.
At least 30% of the water is changed either weekly, or biweekly depending on the
water parameters and how clear the water is. I like my tanks to be crystal
clear. The gravel is vacuumed thoroughly.
Nitrates are usually 0-10ppm (for sure less than 25 for the goldies even on a
Total Alk 80ppm
The biggest angelfish has what seems to be an ulcer on the top of his head right
on a dark part of his marbling. I found it one day after changing the tank water
and rearranging the plants and decorations and I assumed that I must have
dropped something and it hit him. But, he has had it for several weeks now and
it seems to be growing as he grows. There is no inflammation or 'cotton' like
fluff coming out of it, but there is a slight depression like something just
took off a layer of skin. The subdermal area is dark in color like the black
dermal area that used to cover that area. There appears to be a whitish
periphery along the edge of the ulcer and it looks slightly lose and water
logged compared to the taunt skin surrounding the area (a low-profile fungus?).
Both angelfish appear to have slight pink markings that I don't remember being
present even last week. On the stripped angelfish, it is easier to see a narrow,
red vein that spans the distance on his dorsal region. Due to the demise of the
other angel and the red hues he had all over, I assumed that all of my fish in
the two tanks have been exposed and have hemorrhagic septicemia. All fish are
acting healthy and happy with normal poop, appetites, fins, and begging
What is the 'ulcer' on the marbled angel's head and how should I proceed given
that it has been allowed to advance for a few weeks?
Should I be assuming that every pink/ red mark on any of my fish is hemorrhagic
<Red patches on the skin indicate inflammation and/or congestion of the
underlying blood vessels, and just as with humans, such symptoms don't
necessarily imply just one disease. Finrot is far more likely in the situation,
and use of a reliable antibacterial or antibiotic would be my first move here.
Septicaemia simply means a bacterial infection of the blood, but tends to be
systemic (i.e., across the whole body) rather than small, discrete patches
(which tends to imply local infection of skin tissue).>
Thank you so much for your time! I am a fish person and I have a decent amount
of experience dealing with the common fungus/ fin/ ich/ parasite issues. But,
this one is a bit above me and I want to make sure that I'm handling it
correctly since septicemia is nothing to fool around with and I love my fishies!
Plus, the marbled angel ulcer has really stumped me and I'm wondering if it
could at all be related to anything.
Any and all advice would be greatly appreciated! Please don't hesitate to
contact me if I can answer any more questions for you!
<Hope this helps, Neale.>
Re: Hemorrhagic septicemia and ulcer issues
Thank you, Neale!
I will treat the tanks for fin rot! Do you have any ideas as to what might
be the cause of the ulcer at the base of the marbled angel's dorsal fin or
are you thinking that this is fin rot as well?
<Could easily be. Finrot is a generic term of Aeromonas and Pseudomonas spp.
infections, and doesn't specifically mean infections are centred on the
fins. You can have Finrot anywhere the skin is damaged sufficiently to allow
these opportunistic bacteria to get in.>
The ulcer is at the base of the fin, but it doesn't appear to touch any part
of the fin/ all the fin tissue looks healthy. When I first saw it, I did
treat the tank with Microbe-Lift Artemis for a few days, but stopped due to
no improvements. Should I just continue the treatment for longer this time
or try giving him a salt bath?
<Salt baths do little/nothing against bacterial infections.>
The potential fin nippers don't bother the angelfish at all as they keep to
different layers of the water column for the most part.
<I'd still watch them, carefully.>
All the fish have their own preferred spots in the tank (there's lots of
vegetation to hide in throughout the water column since I have shelves and
cups for plants/ décor on the tank walls) and they only get aggressive when
someone invades their favorite spot 'without permission'. It is strange to
me that the ulcer is in the place it is, especially since all fins are in
perfect condition with no nips or tears. Besides stress, which he doesn't
appear to be under, what could it be from?
<Hard to say. Different varieties of Angelfish are somewhat more prone to
disease than others, so there may be a genetic predisposition (e.g., a
weakened immune system due to inbreeding) in some cases. Ninety-nine times
out of a hundred these bacterial infections are caused by the environment.
The tricky bit is determining what the underlying issue was. Optimising
diet, water chemistry, water quality, oxygenation, and tankmates will tick
off the most likely factors. You might also try to the old
Metronidazole/Nitrofuran combo as a useful treatment against indistinct
Re: Hemorrhagic septicemia and ulcer issues
Thank you for your insights! Fingers crossed that everything works out well. Due
to your help, I’m much more confident in handling the situation.
<And here's hoping your fish gets better! Good luck, Neale.>
Help with fish ID please 5/4/19
Greetings WWM crew,
My LFS just got in a group of cool-looking cats that they labeled as ‘spotted
catfish’ but, so far as I can tell, it’s a descriptive rather than an actual
name. Any idea what these fellows are? They are currently about 6-8 inches long
and about 1-1.5 inches in diameter.
<What the?! This looks like the olde Albino Walking Catfish (to me); Clarias
Thanks in advance for your help!
<I thought was still illegal nationally... in the USA. Invasive and hard to
eradicate. Bob Fenner>
Re: Help with fish ID please 5/4/19
I KNEW they looked familiar! We used to get these suckers flopping down the
street down in Florida whenever we had heavy rains. Yikes!
They sure are cute (at their current small size) but I don’t want a 1-m-long
Hoover in my tank, even if they WEREN’T illegal!
Thanks for the swift reply!
<Thanks for sending in the pix of the plu duc dam... I think this is the olde
Thai name. BobF>
I have 3 female praecox rainbows in their second week of quarantine and today
during a water change I discovered one has a damaged eye.
<I see this in your excellent pix>
I'm positive it's trauma-related because the largest female is pretty aggressive
and is constantly nipping the others. My biggest concern is how bloody the eye
looks and the chunk of flesh sticking out. The pictures don't do it justice at
all, it's truly terrible.
<I do agree w/ the trauma-cause... usually one sided (unilateral) popeye
(exophthalmia) is due to such>
I have the fish floating in a container in the quarantine tank (I don't have
anywhere else to put her) and I'll be doing water changes daily, if not twice
daily, to try and help her heal, but is there anything else I can do?
<Perhaps addition of a modicum Epsom Salt... Do please see Neale's piece here:
Is it even possible to save her or the eye or should I euthanize?
<Is possible and no, I would NOT euthanize this fish>
I was thinking of adding a low dose of Epsom salt, something like 1/4 tsp per
gallon, to reduce the swelling. I don't want to risk further damage to the eye
by transferring her to another container for a stronger bath every day. I'll
also be adding Indian almond leaves or alder cones to try to naturally fend off
<Ah yes; I would go w/ your plan. Bob Fenner>
Re: Popeye/Injury 5/6/19
Thank you for responding so quickly!
The Epsom salt and Indian Almond Leaf weren't able to perform a miracle
overnight, unfortunately. I'm certain there's no saving the eye at this point
and I expect it to fall off. Other than frequent water changes, are there any
medications I should use to prevent infection?
<There are but... I wouldn't use them. Rainbowfishes/Melanotaeniids are
generally "very tough", and most likely rebound from such injuries sans any
medicine addition. My usual statement here re; in particular antibiotics, is
that many more troubles and losses of captive aquatic life are caused by them
than their non-use>
She's not interested in eating (I can't say I blame her), so would it be worth
it to add Vita Chem to her water or would it just increase the chance of
<The Vita Chem add would be fine, though it won't do much directly for the
fish/es... as they don't drink their environment; better to soak foods (when the
animals are eating) with such supplements>
If the fish survives she'll live out her life in a calm community tank separate
from the breeding group.
<Thank you for this further follow-up Sabrina. BobF>
7 Year old RES acts perky but I’m worried about her shell and
I have a red eared slider named Mikey (we didn’t know she was a girl
when we got her ��) who is about 7 years old now. She’s not fully grown
but is kept in a very clean tank, with both a whisper filter and
biological filtration through ghost shrimp, a few feeder fish, some
algae-eating snails and healthy, kempt green moss. Her basking spot gets
her completely dry and at leas a couple times a month I get her out and
very gently rub a soft toothbrush over her shell and apply some special
avocado pit- based shell oil I got at Petco (I never apply the oil more
than once a month.)
<Never heard of anyone using this product, but can't imagine it does any
harm! Just be careful with turtle shells. They're not meant to be
abraded clean, and loose scutes (the shell plate pieces) should never be
peeled off but allowed to fall away naturally. Otherwise there's a risk
of allowing bacteria and fungi into tiny cracks where the shell hasn't
completely hardened off.>
I also make sure to use medicated turtle eye drops sparingly and
occasionally (she had pink/inflamed eyes once when she was younger but
that’s far in her past) and try to get any excess food from the tank
when I feed her in there (she Houdini's her way out of our Tupperware
and bowls now because she’s a big girl so it’s hard to feed her out of
She sheds her scutes occasionally but in a very irregular manner,
and her shell looks bumpy (it isn’t rot though) with all of the air
trapped under her scutes that are in the process of shedding.
<Can happen. Provided the shell smells normal, not moldy, nothing to
I feed her a variety diet that includes greens, reptile vitamin and
various protein sources and sometimes Reptomin too, and tried giving her
Koi sticks for a while since they’re said to aid in shedding. I worry
that she’s going to get an infection because she doesn’t shed properly.
Also, on her red patches, I’ve noticed portions where her skin creases
have Turned a slightly darker, more dull red or near-grey. Overall
they’re bright red, just some concerning patches.
<Do review the three basics for turtle shell care. The first is calcium,
whether in the form of Reptomin or some other calcium-rich foodstuff.
The second is UV-B, which is important for all types of bone growth, not
just the shell. Most commercial UV-B lamps last 6-12 months. Other than
direct sunlight (i.e., not through glass) for 4-6 hours a day, UV-B is a
non-negotiable, and lack of UV-B is an extremely common cause of
problems. By the way, don't confuse UV-B with UV-A, this latter being
useful for establishing day/night cycles, but otherwise not needed by
most reptiles. Finally, there's dry heat. Turtles like to warm up on
land, rather than in the water. Sitting on a large dry rock under the
heat lamp will allow the shell to dry off, which helps to keep algae and
bacteria from seeping into the cracks within the shell. Dry heat also
encourages old scutes to dry out and pull away from the new shell plates
below them, and in doing so ensures more even shell growth. You can buy
combination heat and UV-B lamps, and while more expensive than plain
heat lamps, they're very convenient, killing two birds with one stone.
As the turtle basks under the heat, it'll receive the UV-B at the same
She’s a peppy girl who likes to swim and explore and is the opposite of
lethargic, and she’s not been sneezing or acting sick otherwise, but I’m
just afraid that she has underlying health problems that could become
something worse. I can send pictures if you are interested. Thank you!
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: 7 Year old RES acts perky but I’m worried about her shell and “ears”
Thank you for the quick and In-depth reply! I will make sure the bulb
I’m using (a reptile light, of brand I don’t remember) utilizes UV-B!
And I’ll definitely monitor her and make sure she gets completely dry
when she basks. I appreciate all your help! Thank you so much.
<Glad to help and good luck! Neale.>
QUESTION. Turtle blood in tank
Hi! I previously asked you sine turtle questions before and I have one
more question. I randomly seen blood in tank a couple months ago but
didn't see no physical injury to neither. Then I clean their tank then
leave and come back 3 hours later and my mom told there was lots of
blood but she didn't see anything. What would cause something like that?
<It's possible for blood to be lost from any 'end' of the turtle, and
not really a good sign. If being vomited with food, or lost from the
nose, those are not good things to see. Likewise blood in the faeces
isn't a good thing either. Turtles aren't social animals, and if they
are fighting, or you think they might be, isolate them for now. If the
blood stops appearing, then great, you've solved the mystery! If it's
still present, then at least you know which turtle is sick, and can
narrow down your treatments accordingly.
Re: QUESTION, turtle... 5/3/19
They don't act sick or have any problem eating anymore so its kind of
weird. I haven't seen them fight before or really bloody feces so it
just has me curious because the 1st time was a couple months ago the
blood was on top of their floating dock just a little puddle then 3
months go by and it all in their water and then I seen those dark ball
things which might have been feces I don't know I just know the male
kept tying to eat it then spit it out & then I seen a weird slimy ball
like thing floating around and he tried to eat that was well. Is it
possible for them to be sick but act completely normal?
<I guess... but I'd still keep an open mind. Things that look red/bloody
might simply be partially digested food of some sort, rather than actual
blood. Flip side, do review filtration, heat lamps, UV-B lighting, and
Thank you once again for your response!
Unresponsive Turtle need help immediately
I have a Indian Flapshell turtle named Snappy. Last night I
noticed he wasn't moving much and he suddenly stopped to eating any piece of his
<First thing is check his environment. Is the water clean? Is his heat lamp
working? Is the filter working? Is the water too cold or too hot?>
Today early morning when I got up he was laying at the bottom of the tank
oppositely and wouldn't moving. So carried him out and he was limp but kind of
moved his head. So I immediately gave him a sunbath in a bucket without water.
<Good. All freshwater turtles need some sunlight (or UV-B light) each day.
Turtles living outdoors use sunlight, but turtles kept indoors need a UV-B lamp
(glass blocks the UV-B light, so a sunny window won't do if the glass is
there!). Without some UV-B they tend to get sick over time.>
After an hour, when I put him back in the tank he just floated at the top and
has been just floating all day occasionally lifting up for air. He hasn't eaten
anything all day. Now I took him out again and put him into a Tub. He is not in
a good condition. There is no veterinarians here. Please help him and suggest me
what I should do now.
<Virtually all diseases we see in pet turtles are caused by environmental or
dietary problems. Usually people NOT doing something they should have done. Let
me direct you to some reading first:
Respiratory Tract infections are extremely common in turtles not kept correctly,
and being internal diseases, may present few external symptoms.
Such turtles may be lethargic and disinterested in food. Over time they weaken
and eventually die without treatment.
Hard to know your precise problem here, but double-check the UV-B lamp is
working (or get one if you don't have one) and remember the lamps often only
work 6-12 months. A vet really is your best bet for identifying the problem, and
none of the symptoms you have here are characteristic of just
<<End of resp...? RMF>>
Educational Fun Goldfish Event in San Jose CA
Hello Bob and Crew!
If you would not mind terribly I would appreciate it if you could help get the
word out about West Coast Goldfish Palooza III. It is an educational event put
on by The Goldfish Council, a non profit dedicated to keeping, sharing,
learning, and educating about goldfish (lord knows the humble goldfish needs all
the help it can get). Lectures, goldfish show, auction, raffle, the whole nine.
6/22 - 6/23 at Genki Koi in San Jose
Address: 1850 S 10th St, Ste 14, San Jose, CA 95112
$10 admission - proceeds go to putting on the show
Your humble servant and WWM Crew alumni,
<Glad to share. BobF>
Re: Educational Fun Goldfish Event in San Jose CA
<Ah my friend; excelsior! B>
cycling; FW 4/29/19
I am a new aquarist albeit I am 84. Some months back I bought a 87 litre tank. I
then researched and got as much info as I could about the set up.
I cleaned and filled the tank, I added plastic plants and ornaments. I use Tetra
aqua clear and I also used Fluval cycle, After a few days, I took a water sample
to my local aquarist. They said everything was spot on and allowed me 2 fish. I
chose 2 Zebra Danios because of their hardiness.
<Sounds/reads good thus far>
All has gone well for a few weeks. The fish are doing fine and subsequent API
tests showed all was ok.
<... So, you did register, measure increasing, then decreasing ammonia, nitrite,
eventual accumulation of nitrate?>
But. 3 days ago, tests showed a rise in ammonia. It total, it went from zero to
0.25 to 0.5 to 1.0.
After much research, this is what I think has happened. Apparently, Fluval cycle
produces a different bacteria than what is found in a normal cycled tank. One
knowledgeable person said " Once you use Fluval Cycle, you have to continually
use it via a weekly dose, or that particular bacteria dies.
In other words, you have to use it for the life of that tank".
<Mmm; well; yes... cycling bacterial products do vary. My fave is Dr. Tim's>
My 2 fish have been in that tank 17 days. For 14 of those days all was ok.
Now the rise in ammonia. I think, the tank has started to cycle normally.
I bought Interpet ammonia remover, but it had no affect. Somebody said that
using an ammonia remover will only delay the normal cycling period.
<This may well happen>
As I am new to this, I am worried and would like some feedback on the problem I
have presented to you
<Likely better at this point to feed sparingly and have the system continue
cycling naturally. IF you had other up and going systems I would suggest moving
some older/used filter media, perhaps gravel vacuuming and moving mulm to the
new tank. Thank you for sharing John, and do write us if you have further
Texas Cichlid 4/27/19
It seems my Texas Cichlid has something growing by his nostril.
I have no idea what it is. Please advise?
<Mmm; may be just a growth, transitory... of no notice; but could be the
beginning/manifestation of HLLE (Head and Lateral Line Erosion)... I would check
your water quality... NEED no ammonia, nitrite, and less than 20 ppm, even less
than 10 ppm nitrate accumulation. Otherwise... might be sign of
Hexamita/Octomita or such infestation... Please search/read re these organisms,
syndrome on WWM. Much archived there to assist you. For me, for right now; I
wouldn't panic. Unless the area enlarges, comes to occupy other areas of the
fish's body, I would not treat for Protozoans just yet>
<Welcome, Bob Fenner>
Freshwater Aquarium Articles & FAQs
- Set-Up: Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Filtration of All
Sorts, Sumps, Refugiums:, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration,
Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Light/Lighting:; Types of Systems:,
- Livestock 1: Stocking/Selection, Biotopes, Quarantine, Acclimation.
Fishes: Stingrays, Inadvanced Bony Fishes, Eels, Tetras & Their Relatives,
Killifishes, Livebearers, Catfishes, Goldfish, Barbs, Danios, Rasboras,
Minnow Sharks, Loaches, Misc. Fish Groups
eBook on Amazon
What it takes to keep
goldfish healthy long-term
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Gouramis, Bettas, Cichlids, Fresh to Brackish Water Fishes,
Invertebrates (Hydra, Worms, Snails, Insects, Crustaceans...),
eBook on Amazon
Doing what it takes to keep Bettas healthy
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
- Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance,
Algae, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition, Disease/Health,
- Freshwater Aquarium Science:
Behavior, Topics, Reference and Aquatics Writing Business, Reviews,