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FAQs about Dragon Moray Eels: Systems

Related FAQsDragon Moray Eels 1Dragon Morays 2,
FAQs on: Dragon Moray Identification, Dragon Moray Behavior, Dragon Moray Compatibility, Dragon Moray Stocking/Selection, Dragon Moray Feeding, Dragon Moray Health, Dragon Moray Reproduction, Morays/Eels: Moray Eels 1, Moray Eels 2, Moray Eels 3, Moray Identification, Moray Selection, Moray Behavior, Moray Compatibility, Moray Systems, Moray Feeding, Moray Disease, Moray Reproduction, Zebra Moray
Eels, Snowflake Morays, Freshwater Moray Eels, Other Marine Eels,

Related Articles: The Hawaiian Dragon Eel Enchelycore pardalis by Marco Lichtenberger, Moray Eels, Zebra Morays, Snowflake Morays, Ribbon Morays, The "Freshwater" Moray Eels, Freshwater Moray Eels by Marco Lichtenberger, Other Marine Eels

Dragon morays... Hlth. diag., sys. f's      5/3/17
Hey Crew,
I'm a little concerned about CO2 and O2 levels in a basement tank. Set up is a 180 gallon 72x22x24 acrylic tank with 60 gallon sump large skimmer and lots of live rock in sump and display tank. My return pump is actually for a pond.
<Hopefully w/ no metal to corrode, leach into the system>
I have to restrict it with a ball valve to control water flow.
<Mmm; I'd be checking (the stamp AND consumption directly) re watts here. I live in a town w/ very expensive electricity. You may be better off investing in another pump>
I also have a large chamber in the sump with a mass of Cheto to control Nitrates. In habitants are two dragon morays
<Will need more room than this in time>
and a hand full of damsels, snails and crabs. So my one of my dragons has always had a faster respiration then the other but both breath harder at times then other morays I've kept? Is this a Enchelycore thing?
<No and no; s/b about the same>
My tank is in my basement should I be concerned about C02?
<I hope not; but I would check, AND install a CO2 meter>
Not sure how to post videos for you to actually see what I'm talking about
but here is a link?
<Ah, good>
<Mmm; the lighter colored animal IS respiring too quickly to suit me...
What is the water temperature here? I'd lower it to the mid 70's F...
slowing metabolism, increasing DO...), and the rock here? Appears to have a bunch of BGA on it (likely too toxic)... See, as in READ on WWM re limiting this. Do you have a DO test kit? I'd procure one ASAPractical and test here... AND in the meanwhile use a pound or two of GAC in your filter flow path and a pad or two of PolyFilter. Bob Fenner>
As always thank you not only for your reply but also for your service.
You guys are awesome.
Sincerely Brad.
Re: Dragon morays      5/4/17

Thank you Bob,
<Welcome Brad>
-Pond pump ( 2700 gph) is a sealed unit much like an aquarium pump no metal and only 30watts.
<Ah, good; and a bargain watt-wise!>
-I keep the temp @78 maybe I should lower it?
<Yes I would; at least for now... 74-75>
Water quality is as follows ( 0 ammonia , 0 nitrites and below .005-.010 Nitrates.
and rarely ever changes.
<How are Nitrates rendered thus? You may have a toxicity issue w/ chemical filtrants>
-I will read up about BGA
But tank overall has very little algae.
<The purplish red material on the rock is my concern. Need to sample, look under a scope...>
GAC will be added in sump.
<In a bag (likely Dacron/polyester), in the water flow path>
The lighter eel has always been like this but otherwise acts normal.
I do have the returns pointed to the surface and there is a lot of turbulence/ gas exchange.
<Good; this and the skimmer should render DO at saturation (7-8 ppm)>
There is one more thing I didn't mention. I have a auto top off which is feed through a 3 stage carbon filter. I do not have an RO unit. But I would suspect a ton of algae of my phosphates were over the top though.
<Mmm; not necessarily. Again, it may be that other real algae (Thallophytes) are being displaced, outcompeted by the Cyanobacteria>
I work in the auto field and understand trying to diagnose people's issues without actually seeing everything so I appreciate your willingness to give your opinion and expertise.
<Heeeeee! Don't you and I know it/this!>
And yes I will most likely have to re-home one of my beloved eels. Like Marco I absolutely love morays especially Enchelycore sp. thanks again Mr. Fenner.
<Cheers Brad. Will share w/ MarcoL. Bob Fenner>
Re: Dragon morays.     Here's Marco!      5/4/17

Hi Brad and Bob,
both eels breathe rather fast for my taste, especially the lighter one.
As Bob notes , that's not an Enchelycore thing. I'd try slightly reducing the temperature and increase the water flow on the surface even more. In addition, check the pH. Should be at least 8.0, better 8.2-8.4.
Also, ensure that the basement itself gets enough fresh air.
<Thank you/Danke Marco. BobF>

Dragon Moray in a 90 gallon... no reading, using WWM       5/12/16
I would like to have your thought on this set up. A dragon moray with a school of damsels in a 90 gallon FOWLR.
<.... Nah; too small; and the damsels, food....
READ here:
and the linked files above>
The tanks filtration consists of a 55 gallon sump with an oversized skimmer ( rated for 180 gallons) and some live rock.
I don't plan on any other fish but might like to add an additional medium moray ( Jeweled(Muraena lentiginosa) or Golden tail).
<No.... will be eaten>

I know larger is always better but I have this tank established and ready to go.
Oh and one more thing, the tank currently has a yellow Edged moray (<http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatget.asp?genid=384> Gymnothorax 
<http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatget.asp?spid=57813> flavimarginatus 
)in it. I had ordered a Jeweled (Muraena lentiginosa) but received this one instead, but once it arrived in the mail there was no turning it away.
<I'd stick w/ this fish here. Not add others>
Seller wouldn't take it back either So I have found another home. Have you ever housed one of these eels?
<PLEASE; use, as in search on WWM before writing us>
I have had many Morays in the past and this guy seems very docile. He is only 20" now but seems to be growing every
time I look at him. Also I feed my eels fresh fish and squid from whole foods.
Do you see any issues or concerns I need to know feeding grocery store sea food?
Thank you for taking the time to read this.
Sincerely Brad
<As sincerely, Bob Fenner>

Dragon moray eel growth rate; sys.; comp.        6/24/14
Hello to whom ever reads this at WetWebMedia, hope all is well!
<Ah yes; thank you>
Just a few quick questions if you could spare a minute of your time would appreciate it :)
Basically, I had a disease in my tank known as brooknella that wiped out most of my livestock, so I now have the chance to get my dream moray, the Japanese dragon moray.
So, my question is, how fast would a 12-18 inch dragon moray out grow a 48x18x24 inch tank.
<Mmm; a year or two... VERY important to get/use a SECURE lid... something with all large-enough openings covered/screened AND either tens of pounds of weight AND/OR a latch system to prevent the eel from pushing, getting out>
It would be the only inhabitant for 2 years except a few damsels and a dragon wrasse.
<May well eat these>

So would this stocking list be ok?
. Japanese dragon moray
. Dragon wrasse
. Various damsels x4
The new 60x18x24 inch tank will be ready in 2 years time for the dragon to be moved too, this sound like a good plan?
Thank you!
<I'd aim for as large a system as you can... And do review what we have archived on WWM re this and all Muraenids in captivity.
Bob Fenner>

Refugium dragon... eel placement/sys.       10/10/12
Hey guys I've got a question, first off I hope everyone is doing well. I have a 240 with a 75 gallon sump and an extra 100 gallon that I was going to use for a refugium, just a dsb rock and macro algae. The main tank will
hopefully be some triggers haven't decided what kind yet.
<Do take care here; Balistids aren't really very "mix-able" behaviorally>
The question is, would I be able to put a Hawaiian dragon eel in the refugium to avoid trouble with the triggers?
<In the 240, possibly>
 I will mostly be using it for a nutrient export I guess what I'm saying is, will a big messy eel negate the helpfulness of the refugium?
<Not really; if food/s, maintenance are matched>
 The dt might just be one bruiser like a clown or queen trigger
<I wouldn't mix/place an eel with these. Too likely to be bitten>
 so it won't be crazy overstocked. Well thanks for the help and for listening to my ramblings.
<Rambling guy Bob Fenner> 

Re: Fimbriated Moray Questions, fdg/nutr., sys.  - 02/01/11
I have yet more questions! I seem to be full of them, I apologize, but I greatly appreciate your will to answer them and the more information I can get is all the better in terms of my moray's well-being.
Wednesday will be the next time to feel the eel and squid is planned. Also, I've been told to use garlic as a main supplement.
<You can do that... or not.. doesn't matter.>
I feel like quite the novice now that I've began reading up on vitamin and mineral supplements. I went and asked a friend of mine who works at the zoo here. It's one of the best in the nation and I had wished I had brought this up with him earlier but he said some of the foods put out by Mazuri would be good for the eel. The gel diets don't dissolve quickly in water, or so he told me. It makes sense being that they're intended for fish.
Being that I want the very best for this moray, do you know what the best brands I could use with him that are available to me here in the United States?
<I personally prefer the brand fish market... Seriously, a variety of fishes and sometimes crustaceans and cephalopods is what I recommend and use for piscivorous morays myself. Avoid thiaminase containing species when known and when feeding frozen food add vitamins to replace vitamins lost due to freezing and thawing. Variety is important.>
One website mentioned stuffing Nori into silver sides and other food items. I did more poking around in terms of the sand eels too. They're loaded with omega fats according to the products on the net. They're the same fats people associate with good health though it should be noted by myself that they're often marketed under "fish oil" which would lead me to believe he'll get the same benefit from the silver sides as well.
<Yes, that's what most/all fatty fishes contain... high in calories, though, and therefore best mixed up with less fatty foods.>
Maybe there are other things he could gain from sand eels.
<Stomach content and bones can be considered useful when feeding whole fishes. If this is essential can be doubted, though.>
A bit more looking around on that subject needs to be done on my part. I'm still hesitant to make any solid choices at the moment being that I'm hesitant whenever I make an investment in something. I always want to make sure it's the right choice. Just to be sure, however, how large should those feedings be? About the size of his head as you mentioned if I feed twice a week?
<Yes, as a rough recommendation for about 3 times a week. Can consist of a few pieces comprising this size. >
Is loading their food with Nori very reliable?
<Won't hurt, but probably cannot provide all vitamins.>
I've heard morays are sometimes omnivores but it sure doesn't look that way for my Gymnothorax fimbriatus.
<Omnivores? They either prefer fishes or crustaceans. Anything else is eaten less frequently or in the case of algae in the stomachs of herbivorous fishes unintentionally.>
More questions...
Digging around leads me to believe they enjoy somewhat turbulent waters.
<Mmm... no... they occur in areas with little current, too. In real high current areas you don't find many morays. They just need enough oxygen, gaseous exchange, not current per se.>
To what degree do they mean? On the site I read you can give too much aeration to the point of making the eel's veins stand out if memory serves me well. He seems to breathe easily enough.
<Does not make sense to me. Provide a nice surface current by having one or two streams or powerheads parallel to the surface and have a sufficient skimmer and you will be fine.>
I've never seen him gape except when there have been water changes and he's trying to intimidate me. It seems right now his water is circulated enough.
Again, I appreciate your input. I hate to rely on one source of information alone and it would appear I've found the best people to go to with my questions.
<A wise decision.>
I've only taken one piece of advice without asking for second opinions. It cost me my first moray, my Gymnothorax tile.
<Sorry to hear that.>
Thanks! Trevor
<Welcome. Marco.>

Hawaiian Dragon Moray Issue, sys., hlth.   11/10/10
Hello crew,
<Hello Josh.>
I'll try to make this short as I'm sure you have plenty to get to. About a month ago I stumbled upon a 32" Hawaiian dragon moray with tank and everything for a price I couldn't run away from ($500). Basically the lady didn't have any idea what her husband had left her with. To get to the point, when I got the eel home and moved (I took all the water with me) I checked the water and realized that the nitrates were 100 ppm+ and all they had been feeding it were silversides and krill. I immediately started with the water changes, and have now got the nitrates down to about 30-40 ppm.
Still not great, I know, but it is getting there and I'm trying not to do to much at once to avoid to much stress on an animal I know a lot of people never get a shot at owning.
<This issue needs to be addressed. Changing from high nitrates to low nitrates fast is not very stressful for a fish given a stable pH (it's like getting some fresh mountain forest air for us), the other way round is much
worse (this would be like coming from the forest and moving into a hardly aerated basement office).>
My problem is, in the last week or so I have noticed that the nostril flares on the front of the eels face were turning red. Today I checked him over, and one is nearly gone with the other looking not to excited about
still being there.
<Bacterial infection.>
He also was eating like a champ when I got him, and now just acts mildly interested but just twitches and turns away at any food I offer. It has only been about a week and a half without eating, not much for an eel I would imagine, but I can't help but think it is somehow related to what's going on with his nose area.
<You are certainly right.>
One of his eyes is also slightly cloudy looking, but I had just chalked that up to poor water quality for such a long period of time in his past home, so I'm not really to worried about that at the moment.
<Probably also a part of the infection.>
Anyways the ammonia is 0, nitrites are 0, nitrates are 30-40 as stated (and getting better), salinity is 1.024, temp is 77 degrees.
The tank is 120 gallon with probably about 50-75 lbs. of live rock, 80 lbs. of black reef sand, and 10 or so assorted damsels. It has a wet-dry filter, with an average protein skimmer, and a Hydor Koralia 1 powerhead in the tank for more flow.
<If this is the only powerhead in a 120 gallon tank it should be close to the surface and almost parallel to force as much gaseous exchange as possible without bringing air bubbles into the water. If you have another powerhead available add it. In moray eel tanks of this size I personally use powerheads moving about 2.500 gallons per hour or sometimes more to move the surface in addition to a skimmer.>
Since I got him I changed his diet to clams, shrimp, haddock, and squid (which he loved)....feeding him twice a week. I also began adding Brightwell Aquatics Vitamarin-M, and Brightwell Aquatics AminoMega with HUFA's to his food one time a week.
<What you feed sounds very good.>
It just drives me crazy, having improved everything about his conditions and seeing him now acting lethargic, hanging his head over rocks and just kind of laying (not supporting himself I guess). He does sometimes seem to "scrape" the side of his face along some of the rocks in the tank like something is bothering him. And there is the obvious loss off the nostril flares and not eating. So basically I am at a loss on what to do with this one.
<What I would do: One or two large water changes to get the nitrates to 20 ppm or lower, probably re-think the surface current, check pH. If this does not help within a week (not a good sign), a treatment with an antibiotic such as Maracyn 2 might be necessary.>
Any ideas would be greatly appreciated, Josh
<Good luck. Marco.>
Re: Hawaiian Dragon Moray Issue  11/11/10

Man, you are quick with the help, I really appreciate it.
<No problem.>
I thought sure I had remembered to add the pH info......at any rate, the pH in the tank is 8.2.
<Sounds fine.>
Upon reading your response I checked the pump coming up from the wet dry, that they had on there, and it's only pumping about 400 gph or so at the head pressure it is at. So, the next addition will be a Supreme Mag 9.5 pump in the next week I think. I took the existing 400 gph Hydor powerhead and put it up at the surface on one end of the tank, along with directing the wet dry return up towards the surface in the middle. In addition I went and got another Hydor powerhead, the 1,050 gph and put it on the other end of the tank blowing across.
<This should help a lot with water movement and gaseous exchange.>
Did a 50% water change today, and hoping to do another 1 or 2 before the weekend is out. He looks a little better, showing less red in the affected area of the nostrils anyway. And he seems to be a little less lethargic and more alert.
<These would be good signs. Hopefully he will recover again.>
Probably going to try to feed him a little in the next day or two. I really don't want to have to medicate, but I guess if that's what it comes to it has to be done. Just makes me really nervous.
Anyways, thank you so much for the help. Any other thoughts, I'm all ears.
<Sounds good so far. I'd be interested in the progress of the situation.
Cheers, Marco.>
Re: Hawaiian Dragon Moray Issue 11/17/10

Hello again Marco.
<Hi Josh.>
I wanted to thank you for your help with my Dragon Moray.
I got the nitrates down to about 15, and now that he is mine, plan on keeping then there. I went ahead and added the Mag 9.5 pump yesterday, in addition to the powerheads I had already added last week. So the tank is turning pretty good, especially at the surface. All of the red has gone from the affected areas, and the other nostril flare never fell off.
<That's good news.>
It looks normal again, and the one that had gone away looks healed and hopefully will grow back?
<Yes, very likely it will.>
One eye is still a tad cloudy looking, but I wonder if it's just going to be that way.
<Probably this will go away, too, until both eyes look the same.>
He ate a little squid last night when I tried to feed him, first food in 2 weeks, so that was a relief.
<Very good.>
All of his color is back, and he is back in his spot and acting normal. I'm just glad I didn't have to medicate. Just goes to show one doesn't always have to jump to "worse case scenario."
<Hope for the best, plan for the worst.>
Took care of the obvious, and the eel did the rest himself, pretty tough bugger. The only thing I'm thinking about doing is investing in a chiller.
With that Mag Drive pump my temp. is running at about 82 or so. I would think he would probably like it a little cooler, but I could be wrong.
<No, you are right. Something between 72 and 77 F would be my choice.>
Anyways, thanks for the help and advice, if nothing else it kept me from freaking out and over thinking things. Hopefully I won't have a reason to be bugging you about this fella again. -Josh
<Have fun. Marco.>

dragon moray and zebra moray :)  10/30/10
hello crew
<Hi. First of all I have bad news for you: Your shift key seems broken.>
I was wondering if you could answer my questions as I cant see to find the answer first of all I can get a Hawaiian dragon eel for about £400 is this a good price
also I will be purchasing a 5x2x2ft aquarium and will also have a zebra eel in there with it is it possible for them to live together in that tank or will it be like a battleground :)
I already have the zebra eel and he is about 24inch and the dragon moray will be around 16inch apparently
<I do not recommend mixing them. It is probable the Dragon moray will attack the Zebra eel as soon as it has reached a similar size.>
also I have a Sailfin tang that is in need of a upgrade will it be safe with them 2 in that tank
<Can be bitten by the Dragon eel, too. Depends a lot on the individual eel you'll get. Many E. pardalis work rather poor with most tank mates.>
thank you for your time
A hopeful Hawaiian dragon eel keeper :)
<The key seems to work again. Hooray! Cheers, Marco.>
Dragon moray and zebra moray :) 11/01/10

To Marco
Thanks for the swift reply :) sorry about the grammar I'm not too good with things like that :)
Just a couple more questions: Will the Hawaiian Dragon moray eat all tankmates then or does it depend.
<Large tank mates that can stand their ground should be OK. Likely you can also have success with cleaner shrimps and sometimes even small fishes not worth a bite.>
and also how long do they live.
<Medium sized and larger moray eels can live more than 20 years.>
I think I may try it and as soon as I see any aggression I will remove one.
<The poor Zebra moray...>
I do love eels though and will be purchasing one about next summer. I think maybe I'll let you know how its going and send pictures.
<Always good to get updates.>
When I asked the guy he said £800 but then said a medium sized one is £400. I thought it was a steal.
Anyway thank you for your time and I wish you all the best. A hopeful Hawaiian dragon eel keeper :)
<Cheers, Marco.>
Re: Dragon moray and zebra moray :) 11/01/10
One more thing extremely sorry. What tank mates would you recommend if any I saw some groupers and such with a Hawaiian dragon eel at a Sealife centre which was really cool :)
<Yes, this is a combination that can work given enough space for the grouper. What I personally like the most is seeing them being kept as pairs. This works especially well if two are bought and introduced to the tank at the same time. Almost failsafe if the two have been caught together as a mated pair.>
Best wishes
A hopeful Hawaiian dragon eel keeper :)
<Cheers, Marco.>
Dragon and Zebra Morays; tankmates 11/1/10

Hello again
<Welcome back.>
About the dragon eel again.
<Please use "I" instead of "I" in your emails to us, I (or we) have to correct all of it to make these Email postable and honestly I got better things to do. That's not a difficult grammar rule.>
I also have a saddled puffer and I was just reading on a website that if a eel eats a puffer it will die is this true?
<Not because of the poison, but it is possible that the Eel tries to swallow the Puffer while it is puffing. It can get stuck inside its throat and eventually both fish die. Try Google with "Puffer fish kills big fish" or "Puffer fish kills Dolphin".>
if so I will give the puffer to a friend. I just love the Dragon eel but I am now very concerned about the Zebra Eel. Do you recommend I should give it a go or is there no chance it will work
<If they were my fish I would not try. I cannot exclude it could work, but from my experience I would not be willing to take the risk.>
I would like to see if it works but I'm not sure if I would do at the expense of my Zebra Eel. Would a Jewel Moray eel be a better choice? (the Zebra moray is 28inch now)
<As a tank mate for the Zebra eel: Yes. As a tank mate for a Dragon eel: No... too small... will be dinner at some point.>
Also thought that the Hawaiian dragon moray and the zebra eel would end up at 4ft and the dragon moray 2.5ft as they would be growing at the same rate or is this wrong?
<The Dragon eel will be much more massive with a significantly larger girth, and by far more aggressive. They probably will get along fine for some time, maybe even a few years, but at one point I'd bet the Dragon will clarify who is the top predator in the tank. The Zebra eel may be gone over night. I'd keep them in separate systems.>
I hope that you can give me some advice as I really want the dragon moray :) Good luck in the future and I appreciate your advice and help If I do purchase the eel I will keep you updated Callum :) (new tank - 5ftx2ftx2ft) (old tank - 4ftx20inchx15inch)
<Cheers, Marco.>
eels - 11/03/10

Hello crew
<Hi Cullum>
I am upgrading my tank as you may remember (still haven't decided on that Dragon eel :) ) I will have to take all my fish out of the aquarium and put them in buckets for a while. Do you recommend me putting the filter and a heater in there?
<Yes. Don't let the filter dry out. It needs to keep its bacteria alive.>
Also they will be going into the tank straight away as the filter I
have is rated for 180 gallon or something like that and I
will be moving the same rocks over and the water with some RO water is this ok?
<RO water? You probably mean saltwater mixed from RO water and salt. I'd definitely add some more live rock to the new system and use as much freshly mixed water as possible. If the old water has significant nitrate readings I'd dump most of it. The water itself contains not much beneficial bacteria you want to transfer. It's mostly the rocks, the filter and the sand/gravel that do. I'd transfer all the rocks and a part of the sand/gravel (and dump the rest just like most of the water). Transferring all sand/gravel will likely lead to very cloudy water, because a lot of the fine organic material trapped in between the grains will be released.>
The new tank is 5x2x2ft and the old one is 4ftx2ftx15inch is this enough water?
<For what?>
As the tank is going to be in the same place as the old one this has created a problem.
<Yes. That is why you need all the old rock, possibly some new rock and the filter. A skimmer would be very beneficial in this situation. I guess you do not own a skimmer and do not intend to buy one (If you do: good idea!). Borrowing a spare one from a friend would also be a good idea for the move. Also, after the change you should definitely check for Ammonia at least twice a day for about a week, to see if transferring the beneficial bacteria worked as intended.>
Any advise on a better way
<See above and see http://www.wetwebmedia.com/movelvstkfaqs.htm for other opinions.>
I have been talking to a guy at the shop about the Dragon eel with the Zebra eel and he said give it a go and if I see any aggression remove one but im
still not sure. Anyway this combo could work?
<See last emails. I would not try. How often do you intend to ask this question to get the very same answer from me? You won't get a "Do it" from me. Period.>
Any fish you recommend to go with these eels and in this size tank?
<Since I cannot recommend the combination of the eels, I cannot recommend adding anything else to this combo. The Zebra moray is compatible with a lot of peaceful fishes, the Dragon Eel only with large fishes that can stand their ground such as groupers or a second Dragon eel (see last emails).>
Thank you for your time Callum :) I love your website I have been reading it since I started my Marine aquarium keep up the good work :)
<I'm glad you like it! Cheers, Marco.>
re: eels; I like to move it... switching tanks - 11/03/10
Hello Marco
<Hi Cullum.>
OK but do you recommend me putting the fish in strait away after the tank is set up as this is my only option.
<Better than being in a bucket. I'd transfer them when the cloudiness is gone. As noted earlier a skimmer would be a good item in this situation, because it will add oxygen and remove some of the waste, which will be set free during the move of the rocks and possibly sand/gravel. A move like yours can be done, even if other options like cycling the new tank first for a couple of weeks are better. Just avoid transferring too much dirty sand/gravel, avoid too much dirty water and keep the filter and rock bacteria alive.>
What kind of size bucket do you recommend for a Zebra eel, Sailfin tang, Yellow tang and a Valentini puffer (sorry for spelling)
<The bigger, the better. A good old 6 gallon salt bucket would be my minimum per fish for about 6 hours, but if you have bigger containers available use them. You'll need additional space for the rocks. Keep the buckets well aerated and covered. Don't feed the fish one day before the move.>
I don't think my LFS or my friends can keep my 28inch Zebra moray in one of their tanks :) but if necessary I will ask So how much do you recommend me transferring over ( water )
<If the water is clean (not probable in a FO tank) and shows nitrates
<5ppm you can transfer most of it, If the water is polluted (nitrates>20 ppm) I'd transfer as little as possible. The filter and the rocks contain the bacteria, the filter and surface bacteria need to survive the move, the water is not so important.>
Sorry about asking about the Dragon eel again Thanks Callum
<Cheers, Marco.>
Re: eels  11/4/10

Hello Marco :)
OMG the questions never end :) sorry once again Should I put a heater in the bucket ?
<Yes, but don't let it get too hot.>
Also you said about keeping the bacteria alive how would I do this?
<Simply by having the filter running. Don't clean it during the move... wait at least a week.>
Could this create a ammonia spike?
<If you kill the filter bacteria by turning the filter off for a few hours or by cleaning it this could cause an ammonia spike.>
Would Nutrafin cycle be a good idea to use because it says it has live bacteria?
<I'd rather rely on the bacteria in your filter and on the rocks (don't let the rocks dry). You can add a live bacteria product if you want, but I do not think you need to.>
I'm just really worried about this move and can't have a safe state of mind without your expertise
<So far you sound quite well prepared.>
Thank you so much
<Welcome. Marco.>
Re: dragon moray and zebra moray :) Chapter 27 -- 11/7/10

Hello Marco :) Again
Now I am thinking of getting a Snowflake moray for my aquarium as the Dragon eel is unsuitable. Will this be ok?
<Most likely it should get along fine with all of your fishes. See here http://www.wetwebmedia.com/snowflakemoray.htm and in the linked FAQs.>
And how fast do Zebra eels grow because mine has grown like 18inch in 9 months. Is this normal?
<Very fast for a Zebra eel.>
I checked his length today and he's about 3ft and when I got him he was 18 inch. I saw a Dragon moray in the shop today and it was beautiful and scary at the same time. Still its not really worth the hassle with my tank and all and I couldn't bare it if it died £400-£1000 down the drain. Thank you for your time :) again Callum
<Welcome. Marco.>
Re: dragon moray and zebra moray :) Chatting more  11/10/10

Hello Marco
<Hi Callum.>
I am planning on a eel but am not sure which one yet so.
I can't upgrade my tank for about a year now so if I only had a puffer and a tang in a 80 gallon tank with the 2 eels would this be ok for a while.
<I'd wait for the second eel until an upgrade is possible.>
Thank you for your time
Callum :)
<No problem. Marco.>
Re: dragon moray and zebra moray :)
Thank you for the advice but would this be possible or would a fish end up dead
<Overpopulated tanks often adjust the number of their inhabitants to the available space over time... If you put too much fish in there, your fish are going to suffer, possibly one or more might get sick and die. Your 80 gallon tank is full in my opinion... a large eel, a medium sized to large tang and a puffer are already pushing it. Therefore, I'd stop adding more until an upgrade is possible for the sake of your current pets.>
Thank you for your time
Callum :)
<Cheers, Marco.>

I like to move it... switching tanks... and some eel tank mates II - 11/03/10
I am really sorry for asking so many questions but I really need advice.
<No problem at all.>
By the way I have a protein skimmer rated for 180 gallon I think that has been running on my 4ft aquarium for a year and a bit without fault.
<Very good . This will make the move much easier for the fishes.>
My tank water is really clean with under 5 nitrates and sometimes 0 !!!!! :) which is really cool
<In this case you can transfer all of your clean water into the new tank.>
I think that I'm not going to get the Dragon eel so do you recommend any other eels? I appreciate your advice I love my zebra eel too much :)
<There is quite a number of medium sized semi-aggressive eels, which probably will get along with a Zebra eel and your tangs and puffer: Most Echidna spp. would suit well such as Snowflake eel (E. nebulosa), Chainlink (E. catenata), Barred moray (E. polyzona). Also some members of the Gymnothorax genus such as: Goldentail eel (G. miliaris) and the White eye morays (G. thyrsoideus and G. griseus). Quite a list to choose from. Even a Jewel moray (M. lentiginosa) should work with the Zebra eel, but the other fishes may not be totally safe.>
I'll attach some pics of him now and one cool pic of my puffer :) He's called THE KRAKEN :) Thank you for your time
<Thanks for the pictures. Look great!>
Once again Callum :)
<Cheers, Marco.>


Avoiding Reef Jerky Dear WWM Crew, <Scott F. at the keyboard tonight!> I am finally ready to stock my 437 gallon (80"x36"x36") Acrylic Tank with two Hawaiian Dragon Moray Eels, in a reef type environment.  The tank has two openings each measuring 16"x22". My concern is whether to leave these openings uncovered in order to enhance air exchange or cover them with acrylic panels to make the tank "eel proof", as well as control evaporation.  Lighting initially will be a 6 foot custom Sealife ABS Fixture with four 96W P.C.'s.  The tank is plumbed to a 150 gallon open sump and connected to a large Aqua Medic Protein Skimmer.  I would appreciate your advise on whether or not to cover the tank openings. Thanks, Ron Well, Ron, as you have surmised, Morays can slither out and around just about any form of confinement, if they feel frisky. I've even seen them many times, when I was fishing, slither right out of the water to eat fish that we were cleaning on the rocks - an amazing sight to see! I'd opt for a cover of some sort- either the factory supplied acrylic slot covers, or a finer eggcrate over the openings. Either way, you do want to secure them, or they can definitely become "reef jerky"! Regards, Scott F>

Tesselata Moray  9/8/05 Hi, I was wondering if you could give me some guidance, I'm  looking to have a custom tank built for a Tesselata Moray eel, would 60" x 30" x  30" be large enough. I'm planning to keep the eel on his own, with plenty of  hiding places. Also as the tank is going to look pretty empty until he has reached   maturity, how quickly to they grow if fed daily, and how active are they through  the daytime.                                                                               Thanks                                                                               Kev                                                                               >>>Greetings! That tank should be fine for quite some time. Whether or not it will be appropriate as a PERMANENT home is open to debate. This is due to the eventual size of the animal in question. Moral eels are very sedate though, and don't need much swimming room. Even still, I'd say you're on the edge here. I've seen adult specimens in captivity, and they are quite large. I'd shoot for a 72" tank if possible. Growth rate is tough for me to pin down, depends on feeding regime and frequency of water changes really. I'd say you'd be looking at an 50" animal in about 2-3 years though. Hope this helps. Jim<<<

Substrate for Dragon Eel/Freshwater Top Off mix-up - 3/22/07   Thank you all in the process of getting my aquarium off and running.  I have learned so much since I stumbled across this web site 1 month ago. <No problem friend, that's why we're here. Glad to be of assistance.>   I will be starting a 240g (96x24x24).  The Hawaiian dragon eel will be my center piece.   <Wonderful choice, and an excellent configuration for such.> It will be a FOWLR system with a 90g sump, 250 lbs live rock and a  2-3" live sand bed or crushed coral.  Could you please offer me your expert opinion on which type of substrate would be best suited for this system?   <A sugar-fine oolitic sand always wins out in my books -- not only is it easier to maintain, I think it just looks better!> would you also recommend a refugium for this setup? <Absolutely, though no reason to add more to the tank -- a section of your sump will happily suffice.>   Further more, I was reading the section on specific gravity.  Mr. Fenner advises (if I understand the article correct) that one should not refill evaporated salt water with freshwater.   <Mmm, no, I do believe this is a misunderstanding on your part. You should always top off evaporate with freshwater.> He advises that one should do a water change when the water level noticeable evaporates.   <Which article are you referring to? This seems to counter everything I've ever read from Bob...> So my question would be, is a freshwater top off system necessary?   <Depends on your diligence and laziness levels! If you would like the majority of your tank to be blindly run to you, then an auto top off is a worthwhile investment.> When I notice the water level decrease a little should I do a water change?   <You should perform a water change regularly on a schedule of maintenance (a good 'rule of thumb' is once a week.)> How much can I expect my tank water to lose over the course of a week? I live in Calgary, Canada and it is very dry.   <This all depends on several factors, such as your ambient home temperature, the tank temperature, the lighting scheme used, the type of cover you employ, etc. I would say a safe estimate would be a half a gallon a day, give or take. Again, don't trust this as a set in stone factor, this is entirely determined by your configuration.> My original plan was to buy a auto top off system and use RODI water and do weekly 5% water change.  What would you recommend?  RODI auto top off and a 5% weekly  water change or when the water evaporates a little just do a water change? <Weekly 5-10% water changes, with whatever water top off scheme you choose will be sufficient.>   Thank you for your time,   Brent <Anytime, Brent. Glad to help. -JustinN>

Hawaiian (I'm here!) Moray Eel, sys.  3/28/07 > Hello all! >   Thank you for all your help thus far.  You guys must be avoiding my emails because I send them so often.  I do not try and waste your time.  I do as much research as I can before I bug you with my questions. <Mmm, something wrong here Brent... our mail server keeps returning outgoing to you...> >   My first question is, what is the girth of a full grown Hawaiian dragon eel? <Mmm, about the size of your forearm at its thickest> >   Second, I will be buying an aquarium that is 96x24x24 (240g). What size of intake and return holes are needed in the overflows to get the proper water movement?  I will also be using the Durso standpipes. <This, and much related material is archived here: http://wetwebmedia.com/marsetupindex2.htm Scroll down...> >   Third, the aquarium will house a Hawaiian dragon eel as the center piece.  All other fish are subject to the eels compatibility.  How much water should be turned over in 1 hour? <10-20 times is about right> >   Forth, I will be using a 90g sump with a refugium built in.  How many gallons should the refugium be?  What should be in the refugium for a FOWLR system? <Also posted... see the above index...> >   Fifth and final question, I will be employing the use of a Euro-Reef RC250 skimmer.  Would you recommend that I put the skimmer in the sump or plumb it externally? <In the sump, first area... with a weir to keep the water level constant, about the right level> Would the Euro-Reef RC250 be an appropriate size for the aquarium? >   Thank you very much for all your knowledgeable replies. >   Brent <Mmm, I think it will do fine for here. Bob Fenner>

Dragon Moray, sys...    1/1/08 Hi, I currently have a 2 year old 400 litre marine aquarium with a 30 watt UV steriliser, Eheim wet/dry canister filter, Fluval external filter, plenty of liverock, and a AquaMedic protein skimmer with a sander ozonizer. Its currently stocked with a 5" sub adult queen angel, a 5" dogface puffer and a 6" great barrier reef harlequin tusk. <Yikes... you're a good candidate for a larger system and much more filtration> I have recently seen a 2ft dragon moray at my LFS, I have been looking for one for 3 years and this is the first one I have seen. <Sometimes there are a few more of these to be found underwater, but most years... in diving a hundred, two hundred times in their geographic distribution I'll maybe see one> The store owner assures me I will not have a problem, but as the fish is 800 pounds ($1600 at current exchange rate) so I would appreciate your advice. <Where's my collecting gear!?> Thanks Kev Manchester, England <A good species, typically good specimens, but... your system is too small as it is, to house the fishes you have at what will be their about full size per the setting. I would go forward with the acquisition if you have a tank at least twice this size. Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Mexican dragon eel  10/21/05 Hi, I've wanted to setup a  saltwater tank for many years and was given a 55 gallon tank by a friend so I  decided to jump in. I've always wanted eels so I've been reading everything I  could find and came across your web site. Today I came across an eel  that I really liked and was informed by the owner that it was a Mexican  dragon eel.  My questions are, is a 55 gal tank big enough for this eel and  say a lionfish? <Mmm, no... not even just for this species of eel... needs at least twice this volume> Is this type of eel hard to find normally and usually expensive,  because I know Hawaiian Dragon eels are. <Is about the same retail in most places in the world... a bit cheaper closer to the source> And lastly how must live rock/and what  type of filtration should I go with? <Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/morays.htm and the linked files above> A friend is going to give me a wet/dry system that he was going to use on a 120 gal tank and I was looking at an Aqua C  Remora hang on protein skimmer. Is the wet/dry system needed for just these two fish? Any help would be appreciated. Thank you Larry <Please read on WWM re wet-dries, marine filtration... Bob Fenner>

Moray Eel Species Only tank for a 75g suggestions 12/28/07 <Hello Joe> I had been planning on making my now 75g grow out tank as a species only tank for a prized Japanese Dragon Moray eel. I know this eel max's out at 3' so I'm a little concerned that the tank may be too small even if he is the only one in it. If it is too small for a DME what size eel should I be shopping for to place in a 75g species only tank and do you have any good suggestions? <This tank should be fine for the eel as it will spend a majority of its time in a cluster of live rock waiting to ambush some prey. The main points of concern are not the 75g tank size which is the smallest tank I would use, but that water parameters are kept as constant and close to Natural Sea water (NSW) as possible. Keeping Nitrates and Phosphates as low as possible too will aid in the long term survival of this animal. Finally, feeding it appropriate foods is also very important. Train the eel to take frozen Saltwater Fish (as Freshwater fish will be too fatty) and thawed frozen shrimp from the grocery store. These are much cheaper than aquarium prepared frozen foods for predatory fish) Frozen foods are best as they will limit any introduction of parasite or disease that live foods could introduce. Hope this helps-Rich...aka...Mr. Firemouth> Thanks Joe

An expensive Moray Eel Gamble hey guys- I've got a 265g set up for about a week now. There is a sale at my LFS that has a healthy 2ft. Hawaiian dragon moray for $600 (good deal, for me any way). am getting a shipment of 90lbs of live rock in on Tuesday, but if I get the eel, I have to get him tomorrow (before the live rock). is this a hardy fish, do you think he will fare well and survive my tank or is this fish to risky to gamble that money? please let me know your opinions and quick, like I said, I have to act on this tomorrow. thanks, Justin <I caution you to wait here... though this species is tough, it will likely suffer tremendously being placed in such a new system... AND then suffering through live rock curing... better by far to be patient... another such "deal" will come along in time... when your system is well-enough aged and stable. Wait. Bob Fenner>

Large Moray eel Species only tanks - Need an eel expert Large Moray eel Species only tanks -- 01/07/09 Afternoon crew, <Morning Joe.> Over the past several years I have found myself falling in love with Morays more and more... <Happens.> and what's not to love (no sickness, easy to feed, not picky about water, long life, and on and on and on). I currently have a 30" Dragon Moray in a 75g (pic included) with a shoal of yellowbelly damsels (I know not ideal), but he is very happy, as well as a large 30" SFE and 18" Brazilian Golden in a 240 Community tank. Sorry, back to my question at hand..... I want to eventually do one of several tanks, but I'm not sure what is feasible. Need some guidance and recommendations. <No problem, I'm a fellow moray eel fan.> 1. For my other favourite species a Tesselata (I know 6' and killers), Can 1 be kept in these size tanks for life? 240sq (48x48x25) 240g (96x2x24) 375g (96x36x25) 500g (96x48x25) Bigger???? <I'd say the 500g is the minimum. 600-750 would even be better. I've done what you plan in about a 240 gallon and after a few years it's already becoming time to upgrade.> 2. Can multiple Dragon Moray eels or multiple Tesselata Moray eels be kept together in a species only tank if the tank is big enough? If so how many and what size tank? I have personally seen 2 large Tessie's together in a LFS, but not sure if that will work long term. I have also seen videos of multiple dragons in 1 tank, but again not sure if it would work long term. <Yes, for the E. pardalis. Especially in cases where two have been caught and imported together (mated pair), they generally can be kept together. In very large tanks (>800 gallons) even several pairs can work. Just adding a new one to a existing setup is more risky and can result in extensive biting. It's essential to provide a sufficient amount of rock work and caves and I would consider a 240 as the minimum for a pair. The new one should be slightly larger and adding the eel should be combined with a change of decoration. The G. favagineus is more difficult and rarely kept as pairs in home aquariums. In public setups of several 1000 gallons it should be possible to keep a pair. In smaller tanks I would not try this. It's best kept as a single specimen.> 3. Lastly with a Tessy if I wanted to add PVC pipe behind the LR to reduce the chances of him crushing himself when he gets huge how big of a diameter pipe would need to be used, I've yet to see a FULL size adult. <There you go: http://www.kapstadt.org/images/images-13/moray-eel-fish-fisch/moray-eel-muraenen-3g.jpg .> I was guessing 3" PVC but was not sure if that was enough. <Diameter of an adult is greater than 3'. 7' are more adequate. The rocks should be fixed with concrete to avoid them tumbling over again and again.> I like the simplistic approach of pick your favorite species and give him a tank with lots of small & cheap Chromis and Damsels. Easy to feed and care for. I would buy the absolute biggest skimmer and wet/dry I could for this tank and add tons of Live Rock and caves. Thanks for all the great information and wonderful site, hope to see one of you guys up at ThatFishPlace in April for the Spring Open House, I know Anthony has been there several times. Joe <Good luck with your endeavour. It's good you are planning ahead. Cheers, Marco.>


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