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Mud Turtle; shell concern        2/12/19
Hi!
<Hiya - Darrel here>
I have a 2-year-old mud turtle named Groot.
<Cool name. Yours and his>
Over the last year, his shell has started to turn black with little holes.
I am worried that it may be shell rot but I don't know. He has a little hole on the side of his shell that I have determined to be caused by shell rot but it is in a different part of his shell.
<I'm looking at the picture now and what I see is normal>
He lives in a tank with a few fish and has a basking dock (that he doesn't use a lot). We change his water every week or sometimes every other week if we are gone. He is eating fine and is swimming fine.
<Mud and Musk turtles are very shy out of water. Unlike a Slider they rarely get used to basking in company and will dive for the water at the first vibration near then. Their timidity is so severe that many people who own them will swear that they never bask... but they will do so frequently if they are able to do it in private>
1. What can I do to help him with the blackness of his shell?
<That mottled look is common - as is the algae that grows on the shell just as I see Groot seems to have.>
2. Does it look like shell rot?
<Shell rot is a feel (soft and mushy) and a smell (old socks when you scrape it and sniff the scraper)>
3. Should I be worried?
<Not from what you've told me. Make sure Groot has a basking spot that is warm and has unfiltered UV-B lighting. Feed him a high quality Koi Pellet or Repto-Min sticks (same stuff just more expensive) with an occasional earthworm (or teeny-tiny piece of beef or chicken liver) for added vitamins. Check every day that he is alert, moving around and eating well.>
Thanks,
Taylor

 

Purple tang skin issue       2/12/19
Hello,
<Howsit Bri?>
I noticed one of my purple tangs has a strange skin thing going on. It almost looks like peeling skin from a sunburn, or maybe mucus?
<So much the former, with a rxn of the latter>
It’s behavior seems unaffected, and it has no white spots. Not other fish impacted at all.
<A good clue>
No introductions to my tank for 6 weeks. Prior to that I introduced snails QTed for a full month. I did treat some Aiptasia with Kalk paste the day I noticed. Maybe it’s a chemical burn?
<Yes; biochemical>
Trying to rule out something infectious. I’ll attach several pictures. Thanks as always.
Thanks,
Brian
<I (fully) suspect a glance/exposure to a stinging-celled colony here. Should heal in time... days, weeks. Bob Fenner>

 

Crawfish has a white film on him?       2/12/19
My younger brother has a fairly new 10g tank (settled for a couple months or so) and added an orange crawfish. He recently had his first molt, but he now has this peculiar white/clear film developing all across his body.
Tank specs wise, everything looks good; only nitrates are a little high ~40ppm? And I add iodine weekly. Calcium may be the only issue, but he did consume his past exoskeleton. My guess is that this film is a fungus? What are my options to help him?
<There are some odd crayfish parasites out there, but my guess is that this is indeed some sort of 'aufwuchs'; i.e., rotifers, fungi, and other harmless organisms. In the short term at least, optimising water quality will be important, and I would also be providing a rich source of calcium for him to eat, such as unshelled shrimp. The exoskeleton is a mix of calcium minerals along with proteins, and if there's insufficient calcium in his diet, there's a risk the exoskeleton might become soft and prone to fungal infection. Regular water changes and brisk filtration should ensure good water quality, and yes, I'd be aiming to lower that nitrate level a bit. Make sure the food you offer him is not too high in protein -- crayfish are very much omnivores rather than carnivores. Algae-based pellets would be suitable as a staple, along with things like cooked peas or blanched lettuce. The only meaty foods offered should be "whole" rather than fillets, so that there's plenty of calcium. As mentioned, unshelled shrimp are good, but also offer things like frozen lancefish or bones from whole white fish you've used in the kitchen, such as tilapia. Smashed up crab legs, snails and mussels could be used too, so that the shell is mixed in with the meat. Cheers, Neale.>

Oscar Dying.       2/12/19
Hi,
Need some help asap. I recently added 2 pairs of Oscar in my fish tank. In starting hours they were fine but after a few hours, they went to the bottom. Hiding in the corners. After 24 hours they are like dead lying on the bed of the floor. This is the second time it happened. It happened before when I added a pair of Oscar. The same thing happens to them. I thought might be they are sick and unhealthy that way they are like this but this is happening again.
Tank Size:
450 Liter
Tank mates:
Tattoo Parrotfish. Tin Foil, Silver Dollar, African Cichlids, Dolphin Cichlids, Red Parrot, Giant Gorami.
Automatic Heater:
30’C 86″ F (The shopkeeper told me to make it up to 86'F so they can be cured. I also added 5 drops of water treatment before increasing the temp. Before that, it was on 28'C / 82'F)
Water changes on weekly basis over 30%
Canister Filter with UV 600L/Hour
Pictures:
https://ibb.co/JyT0qsb
https://ibb.co/ZGmGnWM
Please respond asap.
Thanks,
Abdul
<Hello Abdul. I'm not confident about the future here. Let's put aside for now that your aquarium really isn't big enough for all these fish (as adults, anyway). The Oscars seem to be juveniles, but very skinny. I'm not convinced they've had enough to eat over the last few weeks, and whatever other stress factors at work here, their lack of body mass will be making things worse. As a general rule, if a cichlid "goes loopy" after being introduced to a new tank, the usual explanation is environmental shock. Do check water chemistry in your tank is not too different to that of your retailer. While the 28C water temperature should be fine for Oscars, I wouldn't be keeping them a 30C. I would certainly be increasing oxygenation, and I'd be checking ammonia and nitrite are 0. Nitrate level should be below 40 mg/l, and ideally below 20 mg/l. Tankmates need to be suitable for life with Oscars. Tin Foil Barbs for example are usually fine, as are Giant Gouramis, but Dolphin Cichlids and other Malawian species require hard, alkaline water chemistry that is toxic to Oscars in the long term. "Drops of water treatment" means nothing to me. What I would be doing here is isolating these Oscars to their own dark, well-filtered aquarium, letting them settle, and then offering very tempting foods such as earthworms if they were swimming normally. If they were not swimming normally, I would simply keep the tank dark, quiet, and hope for the best. Cheers, Neale.>

Sunset Anthias Quarantine       2/12/19
Good Morning,
<Hey Jason>
I currently have 3 Pseudanthias parvirostris in a 29 gallon quarantine tank eating well and always out and about. I also have 3 more Pseudanthias parvirostris on the way and was wondering if they would be alright in the same quarantine tank as the first 3 or should I put them in their own tank.
<The new ones may not be welcome by the others, If these were mine, I would quarantine them separately and introduce the six at the same time to the display tank.>
On a side not could you tell me what is living in this tube as I've seen it attack a snail several times when close. I've attached a photo.
<If all the legs are about the same size, its an Amphipod, not dangerous.>
Thanks Jason
<Welcome. Wil.>

Re: Yellow Flank Fairy Wrasse “Hovering”       2/12/19
Thanks Bob! I’ll make sure to keep the Hikari stuff in mind when I buy next. Also I’m using Vitalis...
<The fish food... not the hair product I take it. Don't know much re this brand/make>
the fish seem to like it. Read that it is pretty good but will switch to Hikari.
Bob! Also, some hesitantly and cautioned good news! I’ve had the wrasse in magnesium chloride and BiFuran for two days now, with 100% W/C daily. He’s looking wayyyy better!
<Ahh great!>
Take a look at the video. Today I only dosed the BiFuran. He’s eating frozen, NLS pellets and flakes! He’s swimming around with more purpose and stays horizontal and on more control. He even spit some water out of the hospital bucket I have him in. Crazy! I will continue with the BiFuran treatment for the full seven days and report back. Let me know what you think about the video...Hope I’m not overly excited for nothing.
Thanks Bob!
Anik
<Thank you Anik. B>
Re: Yellow Flank Fairy Wrasse “Hovering”       2/12/19

Sorry, video attached.
<Oh yes! MUCH improved. BobF>

Re: Pond worms? Or whatever they are      2/11/19
You requested info and I sent it. Sorry you consider factual info "nonsense".
<... how many times does one have to respond, ask for gross dissection input....>
No further e-mails will be sent to you requesting assistance.
Linda
<Faeces, feces, heigh dee ho! Thank you, B>

Re: Striped Fang Blenny and Invertebrates      2/11/19
Thank you for the fast reply! I’ll watch the blenny closely over the next few days before making my decision.
<Ah; real good>
Many thanks,
Callum
<W. B.>

Sick Shubunkin please help      2/11/19
I have a Shubunkin, Negan, who is about 3 years old that we brought in from our pond this past fall. (Last year he overwintered in the pond and did fine.) Negan did great for about 8 weeks in a tank, though it was a bit small (10g and he’s about 9” long).
<Mmm; this won't work... Poisoned by its own wastes>
Before I could get him in to a larger tank, he started showing signs of what I thought might be swim bladder disease; listing to one side, lethargic, bloated. (Looking back, we probably did overfeed him.) So I stopped feeding him all flakes and pellets, changed out 1/2 his tank water and replaced the filter, and tried to get him to eat peas (no skin). He wouldn’t eat them. And despite doing 1/3 tank changes every other day, the ammonia and nitrates stayed elevated,
<Values please>
and the filter was covered in a reddish slime. This went on for 6 days until I was able to move him in to a bigger (40g), clean tank. I noticed then that his anus was red and very open.
<Environmental>
He pooped a big “tube” that had very little waste in it. I thought maybe that was a sign that he was getting past the constipation. But that was 2 days ago. He’s still not eating (not even blood worms) and there are several of these empty tubes in the tank (very long and milky colored, no waste whatsoever in them). He’s staying at the bottom, and when I nudged him to the top today to try hand feeding, he expelled a white discharge, though it looked like it came from a lesion on his right side where he’s also red and swollen (photos attached.) His smaller tank also has smaller aquarium gravel which he would occasionally suck up and spit out. It is possible he swallowed one and now it’s lodged in his intestine??
<Doubtful>
I just checked the water...it’s where it should be, though the ph is a little high,
<Actual readings... please>
so I’ve added a ph neutralizer. I sure hope you can help. I don’t want to see him suffer and don’t know how to help him at this point. Thank you for any information!
<Really... just good care at this point. Optimized, stable water conditions... NO ammonia, nitrite. I would NOT medicate this fish... likely just more stress. Bob Fenner>

Re: Sick Shubunkin please help      2/11/19
Additional info...I noticed too that now when he does swim he shakes quite a bit, starting with his head, then his whole body. He’s not flashing...he does this in the open water. Here are a few other photos of better quality to show the inflamed areas.
<Trouble... environmental... BobF>

Now: Corydoras/Betta/Frog compatibility; (was: F8 puffer care)      2/11/19
Hi sorry to bother you again I have a 10 gallon fresh water tank, currently I have one Betta, African Dwarf frog, and a green Cory catfish, I tested to see if my Betta was aggressive so i got ghost shrimp (I later feed them to my Puffer Fish) and he was fine so I added the other two, they all get along great, I wanted to add one or two more Cory's, could that make the Betta more territorial or aggressive, and it that too much in one tank?
Thank you!
<Yes, adding extra Corydoras should be fine. Bettas are not always predictable, but usually ignore dissimilar fish swimming on the substrate.
They're less tolerant of midwater and especially surface swimming species.
Ten gallons is a bit tight though, and while you might get away with 5-6 catfish, they're going to place an appreciable load on the filter, and more critically, compete for the food you're offering the frog. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Now: Corydoras/Betta/Frog compatibility; (was: F8 puffer care)      2/11/19

I have mainly feed the Frog frozen brine shrimp and bloodworms along with the Cory and Puffer,
<Not keeping the puffer with the frog and catfish though, surely?>
Thank you so much!
<Welcome. Neale.>

Is a single Pomacea diffusa safe with single Clea helena      2/11/19
Hello,
I have searched forums, the net, and your site, and have not been able to find an answer to my question.
<Oh?>
In my planted 10 gallon there is a Betta, a Pomacea diffusa and a Physa.
This evening I put in a single Clea helena (from a different tank) to deal with the MTS, ramshorn and Physa offspring.
<Understood.>
Am I looking for trouble as far as the Apple snail is concerned?
<Should be okay, especially if other prey/leftover food is available.>
I can move the Assassin to a different, established tank if you think that would be best and use another method to control the pest snail population.
<Clea helena tends to consume small snails that it can overwhelm, rather than biting chunks out of large prey. I've certainly kept them with Tylomelania spp., and while juvenile Tylomelania were certainly eaten, the adults did fine.>
Photo from a month ago shows the size of Apple snail-about the size of a ping pong ball, with the Physa on board.
Thank you for your time.
Jackie
<I'd say it's worth a shot, but I've not tried this combination myself, so can't guarantee it. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Yellow Flank Fairy Wrasse “Hovering”      2/11/19
Your deep history and understanding is why I bug you so often! I appreciate that.
<Ahh>
Bob, in your experience, what can I feed to make sure the fish get enough fibre/fibrous material to help keep them happy. I feed frozen krill, Mysis, both soaked in Selcon. Also feed omega 1/2 flakes and NFS pellets. I guess I’m asking about wrasses mostly given my other fish eat nori and everything else.
<Am a huge fan of modern formulated diets... for ease of provision, absence of disease pathogens, offering nutritionally complete diets, and value. I greatly favor the Hikari and Spectrum pelleted brands and San Francisco frozen offerings>
Hope that is good variety?!
<Most important is simply providing a good mix of useful molecules, in a service-able format of high palatability. Doesn't need to be "live".>
Thanks Bob!
<Welcome Anik. BobF>

African Dwarf Frog        2/10/19
Hey Wet Web Media,
My little African dwarf frog is having some problems. I got him some fungal infection meds but I am not sure what is going on and I need some help for my frog! It started off like the first picture and today it got really bad.
Anything you know would be great help!
Thank you!
Ashley
<Looks like he's got a mouth infection -- pretty bad one too, not even sure I can see the lower jaw properly. In any case, you really need to be using a combination anti-Fungal, anti-bacterial medicine; something like Kanaplex or eSHa 2000 would be my pick. Observe the frog carefully for signs of
distress, but these medications should be safe. It's a good idea to increase oxygenation of the water while using any medicine, and as always,
ensure water quality is good: 0 ammonia, 0 nitrite, and a steady pH around 7-7.5. Your blue gravel is way too rough for frogs, and may be what's caused the problem here. A soft, lime-free sand (such as smooth silica sand) is the ideal. Coarse gravel causes abrasions, and it doesn't take much for these to become infected. Since they stick their heads into the sand when feeding, a damaged mouth or belly would be exactly the place such wounds would be seen. Cheers, Neale.>

Yellow Flank Fairy Wrasse “Hovering”... MOV       2/10/19
Good Evening Bob and Team!
<Anik>
As always, thank you in advance for your wise words and advice. I write to you tonight to ask about a new fish I have in my 60Gallon QT.
<Go ahead; have viewed, reviewed your video>
I noticed when acclimating the fish was kind of “floating” but not like a regular fairy wrasse, it was what looked like early signs of a swim bladder issue. Anyways, he’s eating and moving around and is able to duck into pvc at the bottom of the tank, but is swimming weirdly. I have attached a video for you to see.
<Yes>
I’ve read it can also be a digestive system blockage, so I dosed some magnesium to induce passing of any blockage. I am contemplating bifuran treatment to tackle any bacterial infection that may be causing the swim bladder issues.
<No... this fish was/is highly likely been damaged in collection. A punctured gas bladder ( by needling or too quick surfacing) >
Anyways, I’d like your opinion on what it looks like and what you think I should do please!
<I'd contact who sold you this fish; ask for credit or replacement. No a high percentage chance it will correct, heal>
The video is not the best, but if you look in the acclimation box, that’s him fluttering around.
Thanks Team!
Anik
<Welcome, Bob Fenner>
Re: Yellow Flank Fairy Wrasse “Hovering”       2/10/19

Thank You Bob;
<Welcome Anik. I do want to state a bit of my background as it pertains here. I've been in the collection side of the marine trade for five plus decades off and on and used needling techniques; decompression protocols et al... There is always some risk in doing so to the fish livestock... poking internal organs, over pressurizing them, adding trauma...>
At some point I’ll have the guts to no longer QT these fairy wrasses but this is another instance where I’m glad I did because his DT tank mates would have definitely given him a hard time on top of these swim bladder issues.
<Too likely so>
I’ll speak to the LFS and see if I can get a credit. I hate when this happens to beautiful fish like this, and all fish really, especially because of collection...poor thing.
<"It" really is likely "no ones purposeful fault"... Mistakes happen>
Anyways, Thanks again Bob!.
Anik
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Pond worms? Or whatever they are       2/10/19
Bob –
Just some additional info. Gathered about 7 of the unidentified worms? from the pond this A.M. All were about 5 inches long and about ¼ inch wide. I put Prazi in the pond hoping this might stop them from multiplying.
Linda
<.... stop sending nonsense. B>
Linda

Re: African Dwarf Frog       2/10/19
Hey!
Thank you for the quick response. I will defiantly get new gravel.
<Sand better. Much, much better. Even fine pea gravel runs the risk of being eaten.>
As I was examining him later today it looks like some how he has pulled his jaw off :( will it grow back?
<Not a chance. Death is certain. Do read here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/euthanasia.htm
Because frogs aren't fish, Clove Oil isn't reliable. Oddly enough, a good sized blob of regular 20% benzocaine gel works best, rubbed onto the underside, and then the frog is returned to the water. It will pass out almost at once, and be dead within minutes. There's a scientific paper on this here:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755021/
What is he kept with? Let me direct you to some more reading, here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/FrogsArtNeale.htm
African Dwarf Frogs are essentially best kept alone or with extremely docile tankmates that feed from the surface, such as Endler's Guppies or Hatchetfish.>
Also what’s oxygenizing water?
<Adding an airstone for bubbles. Or adjusting the flow of water from the filter so that there's more splashing and/or ripples.>
Thank you again for the help.
<Most welcome. Neale.>

Striped Fang Blenny and Invertebrates       2/10/19
Hi Team,
<Hey Callum>
Hope you’re all well.
<Most all; yes; thank you>
I recently added a Striped Fang Blenny (Meiacanthus grammistes) to my 34 gallon reef tank which includes a Blue Green Chromis and various invertebrates including snails and a Skunk Cleaner Shrimp. I was very surprised when at feeding time I saw him deliver a powerful bite to one of my Nassarius snails who was climbing up the glass at the time.
<Ah yes... mimic blennies as a whole are given to such "trialing" of many invertebrates>
Needless to say the snail went into shock but seems ok. I was under the impression these fish were completely reef safe?
<Mmm; do leave "corals" alone>
I am now concerned for the safety of my Skunk Cleaner Shrimp as these are very expensive to buy here in Australia!
<Mmm; might go after this/it if very hungry, or if the shrimp is molting, not able to hide>
Do you have any experience of these fish going after snails/inverts? I don’t know whether I should take him back to the store.
Many thanks,
Callum.
<Well; you'll have to decide... whether some/the risk is worth having the fish.
Bob Fenner>

Re: Help to identify worm in pond      2/9/19
When lifted from the pond on the net they flatten out so cannot cut up and some of them turn mushy.
<... not worms>
Also, if they are in fact fecal matter, which I believe is typically a dark color or green, why do some of them have something that looks like two pinchers on one end and are all a pink color?
Linda
<Need a better resolved, close up photo. Fecal material occurs in many colors; mostly dependent on what the animal's been eating. Have encountered this sort of thing many times in doing pond maintenance. BobF>
Pond worms? Or whatever they are      2/9/19

Bob –
<Linda>
You requested close-up pictures of what is in the pond. Attached are pictures of several of them I removed this A.M.
<Feces>
Hope this helps to ID them.
Thank you for your help.
Linda

Re: Aquarium 411      2/9/19
Your link has been placed on all our Helpful Links pages under "Other Indices" alphabetically.
The general link here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/WWMadminSubWebIndex/general_links_pg.htm
Bob Fenner
Re: Aquarium 411      2/9/19

Thank you!
<Thank you for your efforts. Bob Fenner>
Bernard Suen

What kind of pipefish is this?      2/9/19
Hello Neale and all you wonderful people in WetWebMedia!
<Hello!>
Neale, many years ago I was a pipefish fan, and I kept D. Boaja in my FW aquarium back then. So I know how difficult it is to keep them, especially when enticing them to eat. We did chatted about this in the past, do you remember?
<I do indeed. Most memorable.>
With that being said, when I was at my procurer's last week,. one of the fish sellers showed me some interesting Pipefishes. They are different with the ones I used to keep. Could you identify this species? I include the pictures of both the kind which I used to keep, and the one I just found.
<Do you have any idea where they're collected from? While a Microphis species such as Microphis retzii looks about right, given the short snout, it's hard to be 100% sure. Doubly so with not especially sharp photos! These fish are all pretty similar, so actually looking at live specimens in front of you is best. Can I direct you here:
https://www.fishbase.org/identification/specieslist.php?famcode=258&areacode=
Find the pull-down menu called "Select Ocean (marine/brackish) or Continent (freshwater)" and choose the likely area, such "Asia Inland Waters" and then choose the likely country (if you know it; bear in mind most fish collectors work out of places like Thailand, Indonesia and India, so those are good defaults). A bunch of photos will appear, and you can then choose from these which matches your fish best!>
The one I used to keep are bright yellow and have long snout. The one I just found are darker and have short snout. The species I kept hang out at the surface, while this darker species seems to hang out at the bottom.
Both species are now being kept in full FW by the seller. But maybe the darker one is one of those brackish water species (if any)?
<Indeed; if in doubt, add a little salt, maybe 3-6 gram/litre, as this'll do no harm to freshwater species but will help out the brackish water ones. Of course if the fish are feeding fine and swimming about, you may decide this precaution isn't warranted.>
Well, thank you for your time, and have a nice weekend!
Best Regards,
Ben
<And likewise, Neale.>

Re: Betta open Gill cover (RMF, alternative views?)      2/9/19
Good morning Neal! Thanks for responding.
<Welcome.>
Glad to know the problem is probably more likely environmental. To clarify, I tested the cup water that I purchased Chester (got to look up the Marx Brothers :) in it was the Ammonia that was 4-8ppm not nitrate. It was terrible.
<Got you now. 4-8 ppm ammonia would stress, probably kill most fish quickly.>
When I got home, Chester’s Gill was still sticking out, but now I see laboring in his breathing now. He’s slowing down. He swims around, but taking breaks to rest on leaves now and then. I added 1 TBS of Aquarium salt to the 5 gallons. I hope he pulls through.
<As do I; I would perhaps stick with optimal living conditions rather than medicating. Curled gill covers often don't return to normal (especially with bigger fish) but in themselves don't adversely affect the fish in question.>
Donetta
<Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Betta open Gill cover (RMF, alternative views?)      2/9/19

Sorry I realized I missed something! No I have a fake plant with lots of leaves. I didn’t put in an Indian almond leaf, I made an extract first by soaking it in hot water. Then pouring in the liquid.
Thanks again
<Understood. The muck is coming from something, perhaps uneaten food as you suggested. Stirring the substrate and siphoning the muck out would be useful. A turkey baster makes a great spot-cleaning tool if that's not practical. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Betta open Gill cover (RMF, alternative views?)<<Let's see>>      2/9/19

Good morning Y’all! I’m Donetta and back with a new Betta named Chester!
<Donetta with a Betta called Chester sounds like a Marx Brothers song!>
<<"Wanna buy a duck?">>
I set my tank up two weeks ago on 1/24/19. He’s a lone fish in a 5 gal, heater, filtered tank with a plastic plant. I cycled his tank with Tetra safe start which cycled in three days as always showing 0 Amm, 0 Nitrite and 10 nitrate.
<All good.>
Chester is a hmpk and super aggressive and has flared tremendously at his shadow for the past two weeks. I started turning on the light about four days ago for 4-5 hours per day trying to get him use to it. He seems like he is settling down a little bit. I also put Indian Almond extract that I make to help him feel more comfy. I also feed his a variety of foods i.e. pellets, Brine shrimp, bloodworms, and Mysis shrimp.
<Good.>
Last night I came home and noticed one of his Gill covers is a little open and flared out. He eases up to the glass and places the Gill on it ever so lightly to try and rub it. It’s not like flashing, put it’s definitely bothering him. Besides that he is eating and swimming normally. He blows huge bubble nests! Moving around very actively and lots of aggressive posturing. He it stressed by those shadows. I put on an aquarium background with plants and rocks to try and break up the shadows. It helps some, but I figure he just needs more time to adjust.
<Perhaps.>
I had to wait two weeks to clean his tank with the Tetra Safe Start. I decided to go ahead and clean the tank last night ( 1 day early) after I saw the open Gill cover. I went to clean the tank and had a problem with getting my siphon started. This kicked up all this debris. I couldn’t believe how much debris I saw. The brown poo I understood, but there was the white floating debris too and lots of it. I was confused. I never cleaned a Betta tank with this much debris.
<Is there a lot of (live) plants in here? Did you use Indian Almond leaves or similar? Both can/will decay to produce organic mulm. Not in itself dangerous -- indeed, it plays host to useful bacteria -- but too much can clog up filter inlets, compromising water quality. Regardless, any organic debris that settles in the tank does indicate insufficient mechanical filtration. Again, some fish don't need or water a lot of water turnover, which means that debris collects in their aquarium because it isn't sucked into the filter. But if you want a debris-free substrate, increasing mechanical filtration is the key, perhaps alongside more frequent water changes to siphon out debris.>
I did have an incident with the Mysis shrimp. It was the first time I used that food. I believe some of it fell to the bottom. It’s white so it was hard to see, no way did I think it could be that much. I ended up changing 80% of the water. I know this is a no no, but I just couldn’t leave all that gunk in the tank.
<Changing that much water is absolutely fine so long as water chemistry and water temperature aren't dramatically altered. After all, to paraphrase a Greek philosopher, a wild fish doesn't swim in the same river twice! They're constantly exposed to new water at varying rates, and to some degree, can adapt to slight changes without too much bother. On the other hand, cleaning the filter out too severely, which can get rid of the bacteria, is a no-no, but the water itself isn't a problem.>
I still think there is plenty more, but with my siphon issue I couldn’t clean properly. The tank is bare bottom so all this stuff was floating in the water column. I’m getting a new siphon today. Anyway when I changed the water I put in stress coat in hopes to soothe his Gill, Indian almond leaves extract. I also added a probiotic called Eco balance that I’ve wanted to use.
<Cool.>
I read that his Gill Problem could be bacterial.
<It can be, but is more often environmental. Most often happens when fish are exposed to high ammonia or nitrate, or cramped conditions, and perhaps high nitrate and low oxygen levels. So while some parasites can damage the gill lamellae, notably Velvet, I'd be looking at environmental causes first.>
The open cover happen in the span of 14 hours. I have Kanaplex at home, but I didn’t want to jump to that. If this can heal with clean water I’d rather just do that.
<This would be my approach, yes.>
I checked his water param.s before I did his water change and I had 0 Am and looked like 20ppm Nitrate. I purchased him from Petco. He looked and behaved normally, however for curiosity I tested the water in his cup he came in and the water was very dark green. It was 4 or 8ppm. Maybe this is affecting his Gills too.
<4-8 ppm nitrate is trivially low, so unlikely a stress factor. On the other hand, virtually no urban domestic water supply I'm aware of has nitrate that low, so unless you're using spring water or something, I'd be suspicious of any test kit that registers the nitrate this low.>
Glad y’all are here as always, this is my 5th Betta and I’ve inquired here about three of them. I remember Bob told me read the facts and I did. I’ve read over 90% of all of them!
<Cool.>
Thanks Bob!
<I've cc'ed him.>
Thank you!
Donetta
<Cheers, Neale.>
<<I concur w/ Neale's usual stellar input here. BobF>>
Re: Betta open Gill cover (RMF, alternative views?)      2/9/19

Alternative views, WOW I didn’t know y’all did that!
You guys are the best!!
<We have our moments!>
Thanks
Donetta
<Most welcome. Neale.>

Please ID this      2/9/19
These mushroom looking growths came on the live rock after a neglected time to as far as lighting was concerned. I purchased the rocks abt 13yrs ago...they came out when I just had a FOWLR saltwater tank...right now they are in a new tank with an AI Prime HD lighting...wondering what they are
and their ideal lighting requirements. Thxs for your time
<This, these appear to be some sort of Rhodophyte, red algae... are they
brittle to the touch?
Do review what we have re such on WWM:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/RedAlgID8.htm
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>


Eels, ID      2/9/19
Hi,
<Hi Charlie>
I was wondering if you can help me ID an eel in Indonesia?
<Ahh yes...it appears to be a Harlequin snake eel (Myrichthys colubrinus). >
Thanks, Charlie
<You’re welcome. Wil.>

Killer ferts?      2/8/19
Good evening WWM crew,
<Linda>
I think I may have injured my Bolivian ram with dry fertilizer.
<Mmm; for all (you and browsers into perpetuity), a good idea generally (unless using specially diluted, slow-release FOR AQUARIUM products) to dilute such in water, use sparingly; with test gear>
I do EI fertilizer dosing in my display tanks with dry fertilizer. I generally dose K2SO4, KH2PO4, and CSM+B, and let the fish take care of providing the NO3.
<Okay>
Shortly after I dosed my 120 gallon a few days ago (following the usual 50% water change), I happened to walk by the tank and notice that my male Bolivian ram was not with his mate (quite unusual; they were a breeding pair and generally don’t wander far from one another). After a few moments, I spotted him lying on his side, still breathing (a bit rapidly, but not gasping) and still moving his pectoral fins. He’s full grown; I’ve had them both for about four years, and I thought perhaps he got in the way of the ferts and got stunned, so I left him there to see if he’d recover.
<Mmm; well; a note re such large water changes. Given that so many places have varying water quality, concentrations of sanitizer (chloramine mostly in the west), I encourage folks to limit percentages to 20-25% at any one time... AND if at all practical, to store, heat (add supplements) to new change out water... Perhaps keeping it a week ahead of use. In other words, I'm inferring that perhaps some influence here may be due to the new water, not simply the fertilizer>
Parameters in the tank were 0 ammonia/nitrite and between 10-20 ppm nitrate. Temp was between 74-76F (room temperature in my house), pH 7.2, gH and kH in the 50-100ppm range (I use remineralized RO/DI water so my parameters are very consistent in that regard).
<Good>
A few hours later I checked on him; he’d moved a bit, swimming backward and still on his side, and wedged himself between two stems of Rotala. He was still breathing and moving his pectoral fins, his color was good, and he didn’t appear bloated or have any visible signs of disease or injury other than his lack of buoyancy control. His mate seemed to be watching over him anxiously. I left him there, and hoped for the best.
The next day he was in the same spot, and I assumed he had passed ... but when I went in to remove him, he swam away — still upside-down. His condition was no better or worse than the day before.
However, at this point I decided to put him in quarantine to see what I could do. He’s now in a bare bottom tank with the same parameters (little to no nitrate) at 80F and 2g/L NaCl; so far, no change, but he does seem to be swimming a bit more. If I set him upright, he does the ‘belly scoot’ for a moment and then falls over again.
<Mmm; I'd've left this fish in place; would move it back now.>
Before I start throwing meds at him, I figured I’d check with the experts so I don’t accidentally make him worse. I haven’t tried feeding him, but I doubt very much that he’ll eat in his current condition, and I know the first-line treatment for swim bladder issues usually includes fasting the fish.
<I would NOT add medicine, nor do anything extraordinary in the way of offering foods>
Photo included in case you see symptoms I missed. Sorry about the lighting; my QT and hospital tanks are inside my stand.
Thanks for reading,
Linda A
<Thank you for sharing. Again, I would move this Cichlid back to the main/display; pre-mix fert.s, pre-make and store change-out water. Bob Fenner>

Help my turtle please T^T      2/8/19
Hi WWM! I'm Lisa from Malaysia...
I have concerns for my turtle, Ponyo.
<Cool name!>
First of all this is not my turtle, it belong to my sis...She put the turtle in shallow water all the time w/o basking area. From that moment I knew she killing that poor thing. I myself never pet a turtle my entire
existence. I don't know Ponyo was acted normal or being sick, but I knew something was wrong.
<Indeed.>
Ponyo not active at all. His eyes squint/closed almost all the time, either on land or water.
<Not good.>
When I took it out from water, he not walk around. I try submerged him to see did he swim well. No he's not.
<Not good either.>
He just float and not even flutter his legs. His shedding his leg, but his nail seems to be off too. Is it normal?
<No.>
He has some discoloration on his shell. For now I regularly put him outside for sunlight.
<Good!>
He also have some algae around his shell, due to be in water all the time.
<Usually harmless. But he should be able to climb onto a rock to bask and dry out.>
I try to clean it using soft toothbrush and change his water regularly using tap water. I clean his home too. Did I do the right thing?
<Probably.>
He also not eat any of his pellet. I try feed him various of greens and fruits, but no response.
<Sometimes won't eat "greens" if they have pellets. Starving them a few days can help.>
I don't know how long my sis have Ponyo ,therefore I don't know how long Ponyo being like this. I never have a turtle, any tips or additional
information much appreciate!! Thank you so much in advance and sorry for my English, hope you guys able to understand it.
<English is fine! Anyway, it is probable that your turtle has either a
bacterial infection or a dietary problem. Do start reading here, please:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/treating%20RES%20Dis%20DarrelB.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/turteyedisart.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/turtrespart.htm
Antibiotics, and likely a Vitamin A injection, will be the usual treatment.
<<Do also read the following, from our turtle expert Darrel. Cheers, Neale.>>
"Get him warm and dry right away
The article covers dry docking.
See that he has UV-B lighting if possible, if not 10 minutes in the sun at least 3 times a day -- not through glass which filters out the benefits of the light.
If he's not too far gone this will help him rest and recover and in a few days you may see him moving about the box or whatever he's in ... and then you can try the shallow bowl bath and then a feeding. I'd suggest tiny bits of liver (beef or chicken) which are packed full of vitamins.
D"

Betta Disease Identification      2/8/19
Hi there! I noticed you guys haven't posted an answered Betta question in a while, but I wanted to give it a shot anyway, as I'm at a loss with my current boy. I've done SO SO much independent research, but I'm coming up short.
<Let's see>
I have had this fish (Hans Gruber) for 5 weeks now, and he has what I initially suspected was a fungal infection covering half his head and his left gill/left pectoral fin.
<Does look like some sort of infectious agent at work here...>
I had my eye on him for a month at the pet store before I finally brought him home, and he has had this then entire time, so at least 2 months.
<Mmm; then, perhaps genetic/developmental. IF a pathogen at work, very likely this fish would have died long ago>
I brought him home hoping I'd be able to treat him and re-home him. (He is a Twin Tail Half-Moon, with a dulled red color for now)
He lives in a heated, filtered, and cycled 5.5 gallon temporary/hospital tank. I didn't cycle it traditionally, but instead added cycled bio-media from a previously established tank.
<I (too) prefer this method>
My tank water didn't contribute to the development of the disease, but in case the water stats may be affecting treatment, here they are:
-Ammonia:0
-Nitrites:0
-Nitrates: 5ppm
-pH: 7.6
-Temp: 80F, consistently
-Added Indian Almond Leaf, no carbon in the filter.
-No live plants while medicating.
Since initially believing I was dealing with a fungal infection, I gave Gruber medicated baths daily with a mixture of Methylene blue and aquarium salt, for 3 weeks. There has been no change at all, and the meth blue isn't dying the "fungus" blue at all, which leads me to believe it's not a fungus. It isn't fuzzy at all, but more of a "mushroom-y" growth.
<Mmm>
I moved on to try treating for a bacterial infection, knowing that was a long shot, but hoping maybe that was the nature of the illness. Two weeks in to that, and there isn't any improvement. In fact, it appears to be worsening. The bacterial treatment I'm using (Artemiss Microbe-Lift) treats several kinds of infections, so I had high hopes, but no luck.
Gruber's demeanor, thankfully, doesn't seem to be affected at all by his condition. He is extremely happy and active, eats like a little pig, and loves to play and get attention. His diet consists of Fluval Bug Bites
Betta formula, along with frozen bloodworms, mysis shrimp, and brine shrimp. He gets lots of variety, and eats twice daily. No bloating, or constipation.
At this point, my main concern is cancer ("cauliflower disease" is as close as I have come to a diagnosis). I know that's really common for Betta, and not treatable.
<Yes; and almost always lethal w/in a few weeks max.>
However, I haven't been able to find pictures that match exactly what I'm dealing with. It's not a huge obvious tumor (yet, anyway), but it isn't responding to fungal or bacterial treatments, so I wanted to
get a more professional opinion. The attached photos are chronological, taken weekly with the last one being the most recent.
Thanks for taking the time to review this, sorry it's so long! Any input is appreciated!
-Katelyn
<Well; other than you, or having someone else make a sample, look under a powerful-enough microscope... possibly culture, stain for a causative agent, I'd not treat this fish further. I suspect the issue here is not-treatable, nor (very) deleterious. Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Re: Betta Disease Identification      2/8/19
I was afraid of that. Thank you so much for the quick response! I really appreciate it!
<Likely all will be well Katelyn. Anima bona fac; be of good life. BobF.>


Help to identify worm in pond      2/8/19
Attached are pictures I took of a worm? I found in my pond. I have found these in pond for over a year. They do not bother the fish, stay at the bottom of the pond, and do not damage the fish in any way. I have tried unsuccessfully contacting various sources, but no one can tell me what these are, how they came to be in the pond, and how to get rid of them. . Today, I found about ten small ones in the bottom of the water. I remove them with a net and discard them. The next day I look into the water, and there are several more. The pond is about 2000 gal, with a waterfall with two aerators. The water is crystal clear. I have never had any type of worms like this in the 10 years the pond has been in existence. I have only experienced small blood worms in my filter in the summer. The attached picture of the worm? is about 2 ½ inches long. In the past they have ranged from ½ to 4 inches.. I researched all worms on the website, and they don’t seem to match any of them. The pond is all rocks and no dirt. It does not appear to be an anchor worm, horsehair worm or round worm, just an aquatic worm of some kind. Don’t know where they came from but I want to totally eliminate them from the pond in the future but do not know what to use.
I need your help to let me know what it is and what I can purchase from a company to eliminate any future ones in my pond. I live in Las Vegas and my tel. no is 702-453-XXXX. E-mail address is XXXX@cox.net.
Thank you for any assistance you can give me.
Linda
<Mmm; do these objects move? What life is there in the pond that you know of? What plantings in and around the basin? Bob Fenner>

Hi dee ho?

Re: Help to identify worm in pond      2/8/19
Bob -
<Ms. L>
They appear to just stay in one place - I don't see any movement until I move them with the net. They then float upward and I can retrieve with the net for discard. Sometimes when I retrieve them with the net, they become split apart in segments. They are always on the floor of the pond and the koi swim above them. I have 10 large koi in the pond, approx 20 lbs each, and these worms? don't appear to bother them in any way. There are no plants surrounding the pond, only flagstone. There are some plants above the pond surrounding the waterfall that goes into the pond. These have been there for approx 10 years.
Linda
<I suspect these are not worms; but likely fecal material... from...? Perhaps migrant birds... DO cut one up with a sharp knife and tell me if you can discern any internal structure. BobF>

Aquarium 411      2/8/19
Hello,
<Bernard>
I'm the webmaster of the new aquarium links directory -
Aquarium411.net <http://Aquarium411.net> <http://Aquarium411.net>. We're currently building our directory with the best aquarium fish links and retailers. We are interested in adding WWM to our directory. Please let me know if you're interested.
<You're welcome to list WWM. Have looked your URL over and will link it in turn. Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Bernard Suen
Webmaster
Re: Aquarium 411      2/8/19

Hi Bob,
<Bernie>
We added your site here - http://www.aquarium411.net/general.html
Please let me know where you added our website.
Thanks,
Bernard Suen
Webmaster
<Will send along. BobF>

Betta open Gil cover      2/8/19
Good morning Y’all! I’m Donetta and back with a new Betta named Chester!
<Donetta with a Betta called Chester sounds like a Marx Brothers song!>
I set my tank up two weeks ago on 1/24/19. He’s a lone fish in a 5 gal, heater, filtered tank with a plastic plant. I cycled his tank with Tetra safe start which cycled in three days as always showing 0 Amm, 0 Nitrite and 10 nitrate.
<All good.>
Chester is a hmpk and super aggressive and has flared tremendously at his shadow for the past two weeks. I started turning on the light about four days ago for 4-5 hours per day trying to get him use to it. He seems like he is settling down a little bit. I also put Indian Almond extract that I make to help him feel more comfy. I also feed his a variety of foods i.e. pellets, Brine shrimp, bloodworms, and Mysis shrimp.
<Good.>
Last night I came home and noticed one of his Gill covers is a little open and flared out. He eases up to the glass and places the Gill on it ever so lightly to try and rub it. It’s not like flashing, put it’s definitely bothering him. Besides that he is eating and swimming normally. He blows huge bubble nests! Moving around very actively and lots of aggressive posturing. He it stressed by those shadows. I put on an aquarium background with plants and rocks to try and break up the shadows. It helps some, but I figure he just needs more time to adjust.
<Perhaps.>
I had to wait two weeks to clean his tank with the Tetra Safe Start. I decided to go ahead and clean the tank last night ( 1 day early) after I saw the open Gill cover. I went to clean the tank and had a problem with getting my siphon started. This kicked up all this debris. I couldn’t believe how much debris I saw. The brown poo I understood, but there was the white floating debris too and lots of it. I was confused. I never cleaned a Betta tank with this much debris.
<Is there a lot of (live) plants in here? Did you use Indian Almond leaves or similar? Both can/will decay to produce organic mulm. Not in itself dangerous -- indeed, it plays host to useful bacteria -- but too much can clog up filter inlets, compromising water quality. Regardless, any organic debris that settles in the tank does indicate insufficient mechanical filtration. Again, some fish don't need or water a lot of water turnover, which means that debris collects in their aquarium because it isn't sucked into the filter. But if you want a debris-free substrate, increasing mechanical filtration is the key, perhaps alongside more frequent water changes to siphon out debris.>
I did have an incident with the Mysis shrimp. It was the first time I used that food. I believe some of it fell to the bottom. It’s white so it was hard to see, no way did I think it could be that much. I ended up changing 80% of the water. I know this is a no no, but I just couldn’t leave all that gunk in the tank.
<Changing that much water is absolutely fine so long as water chemistry and water temperature aren't dramatically altered. After all, to paraphrase a Greek philosopher, a wild fish doesn't swim in the same river twice! They're constantly exposed to new water at varying rates, and to some degree, can adapt to slight changes without too much bother. On the other hand, cleaning the filter out too severely, which can get rid of the bacteria, is a no-no, but the water itself isn't a problem.>
I still think there is plenty more, but with my siphon issue I couldn’t clean properly. The tank is bare bottom so all this stuff was floating in the water column. I’m getting a new siphon today. Anyway when I changed the water I put in stress coat in hopes to soothe his Gill, Indian almond leaves extract. I also added a probiotic called Eco balance that I’ve wanted to use.
<Cool.>
I read that his Gill Problem could be bacterial.
<It can be, but is more often environmental. Most often happens when fish are exposed to high ammonia or nitrate, or cramped conditions, and perhaps high nitrate and low oxygen levels. So while some parasites can damage the gill lamellae, notably Velvet, I'd be looking at environmental causes first.>
The open cover happen in the span of 14 hours. I have Kanaplex at home, but I didn’t want to jump to that. If this can heal with clean water I’d rather just do that.
<This would be my approach, yes.>
I checked his water param.s before I did his water change and I had 0 Am and looked like 20ppm Nitrate. I purchased him from Petco. He looked and behaved normally, however for curiosity I tested the water in his cup he came in and the water was very dark green. It was 4 or 8ppm. Maybe this is affecting his Gills too.
<4-8 ppm nitrate is trivially low, so unlikely a stress factor. On the other hand, virtually no urban domestic water supply I'm aware of has nitrate that low, so unless you're using spring water or something, I'd be suspicious of any test kit that registers the nitrate this low.>
Glad y’all are here as always, this is my 5th Betta and I’ve inquired here about three of them. I remember Bob told me read the facts and I did. I’ve read over 90% of all of them!
<Cool.>
Thanks Bob!
<I've cc'ed him.>
Thank you!
Donetta
<Cheers, Neale.>

Florida/TWA Biotope stocking questions - 02/08/2019
Hello Crew! Hope this email finds you well.
<Aloha>
I am in the planning stages of a Florida/TWA seagrass meadow and patch reef biotope tank. I'd like to get the details and stocking selection done before starting to buy the equipment to help this go more smoothly and avoid impulse decisions.
<Good idea.>
The tank will be in the 65-75 gallon range. There will be a seagrass "meadow" (Thalassia) on one side of the tank, and a patch reef on the other side. I'll be getting South Florida and Tampa Bay aquacultured live rock for the patch reef, especially since this is the only way to get stony corals from this area. Then I will also add (as needed) gorgonians, Ricordea, Discosoma carlgreni, Zoas, and a selection of macroalgae including calcareous macroalgae that will grow "rooted" in the substrate.
<"as needed" - ? Why would any of these be "needed?" And with respect to gorgonians, I would not recommend them. They are very difficult to keep, especially in smaller systems.>
And some shrimp, snails, etc. as cleanup crew, and several rock flower anemones (Epicystis crucifer). I will also be seeding the tank with pods, copepods, live mysids, etc.
<Ok...>
As you know, the seagrass requires a very deep sandbed. I'm planning on at least 9 inches deep.
So I figured with a sand bed that deep, it would be good to put in fish who can take advantage of this.
<Not necessarily and not initially.>
First fish in will be a small group (3-4) of Jawfish, either Pearly, Blueheaded, or Dusky juveniles. They will be the only fish for at least several months.
<These should be the last to be added (unless you plan to keep the system without fish for a long while). The seagrass will take some time to take root. If you add the jaw fish before the seagrass is well rooted, they are liable to tear it up. Do read this lovely article by Sarah Lardizabal:
http://reefkeeping.com/issues/2006-04/sl/index.php>
So what other fish might be included? I am considering some Blue Dartfish (Ptereleotris calliura), Seminole gobies (Microgobius carrii), or similar fish.
When the seagrass meadow matures, a few pipefish or small seahorses would be a nice addition.
<Let me ask you something... have you ever seen a set up like the one you are describing? Have you ever seen seahorses and pipefish kept in a 65-75g system along with Jawfish, puffers, filefish, rock anemones and all? I do encourage you to read at length about all, starting here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/Pipehorses3.htm>
Is it likely that they would hang around the seagrass area rather than the reef area?
<They will likely hang out wherever they perceive is the best place to hide... and you will be crossing your fingers the whole time that they don't get blown into all those rock anemones at the other side of the tank.>
Other fish in consideration are a Lancer dragonet (but only after the tank is mature), a Slender filefish (Monacanthus tuckeri), Sharpnose puffer (Canthigaster rostrata), and/or Apogon quadrisquamatus, A. binotatus, Malacoctenus boehlki (Diamond blenny).
Sharpnose puffer is of interest because help keep seagrass healthy by grazing on it (also because I like them). Lancer dragonet is because I love dragonets, and this is the only one I could find that is native to
this biotope. Slender filefish is interesting, stays small, and more reef-safe than the other filefishes. The Cardinalfish/Diamond blenny can be kept as commensals with Corkscrew/Condy anemones which is cool, like a TWA clownfish set up. (Note: note planning on getting ALL of these, just looking for good possibilities).
Oh, and a question about corals. Obviously I will not be having any Acropora cervicornis in my tank, but is there another coral that would be a close look-alike? There are lots of Acroporas in the market but I want that golden brown color, and the majority of the Acros for sale are very colorful (not a bad thing but I am going for an authentic look here). Any specific suggestions?
Also I will not be including fire coral as I am afraid of it taking over the tank, plus I tend to become allergic to stinging things. Thinking of substituting Heliopora caerulea for the fire coral as the look is quite
similar but doesn't go out of control.
<See here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/blue,pip.htm>
Thoughts? Suggestions? Criticisms? Thank you so much for your help, which will certainly help me avoid making bad mistakes on this setup!
<Well, my first thought is that you need a bigger tank. Second thought is, go slow my friend. If sea grass is your thing, focus on that first. You're going to need quality lighting and have you thought about water movement yet? Do read that reefkeeping article, and also here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_3/cav3i3/seagrasses/seagrasses.htm>
*Joanne White*
<Cheers,
Sara L.>

Disappearing Malaysian Trumpet Snails - REALLY disappearing      2/7/19
Hello Crew!
I hope you can help me solve this mystery. I have four Walstad-style nano aquariums, all of which have had MTS snails introduced early on. They proliferated in all four tanks for a long time. Here's a quick run down of the tanks:
3 gallon planted tank with 1 beautiful male pea puffer, ramshorn snails, and live blackworm colony.
5 gallon planted tank with 6 moth catfish (Hara jerdoni), ramshorn snails, and assassin snails (Ramshorns were getting too much)
5 gallon planted tank with African dwarf frogs, ember tetras, ramshorn snails, and tadpole snails (great tank for ADFs, it's not the usual cube - it is longer, wider, and shallow.) This tank has a sponge filter as it is easier on the frogs.
15 gallon planted coolish tank (72-73 degrees) with trio of Jordanella floridae, a flock of pygmy corys, small group of Otocinclus, a few White Cloud minnows, and ramshorn snails.
<These all sound splendid.>
So last evening I was thinking about snails (doesn't everyone do that?) and thought it would be good to add a few MTS snails to my Opae ula tank. It was early evening and the tank lights were still on. So I went looking for some, went from tank to tank and couldn't find any. Well, I just figured they were all under the substrate.
<Indeed.>
Usually I would only see them first thing in the morning when the tank lights went on, then they would go hide.
So this morning I went looking again - still no MTS snails! What the hey??? I looked in every tank, and how could they just disappear?
<Hard to say. Might simply have not been the right conditions for them to thrive. Competition, lack of food, wrong pH; the usual complex of biotic and abiotic factors. Or they may be there, just not noticeable.>
All of my fish / frogs are healthy and thriving, the plants are all doing well, and there are tons of ramshorn snails everywhere (and tadpole snails in the frog tank). So what's going on?
<Planorbis and Physa do require less calcium and will thrive in soft, acidic water, whereas Melanoides will not.>
Some mysterious plague that only decimates Malaysian Trumpet snails?
<Not that I am aware of.>
For additional context, I do swap plants and/or plant trimmings from tank to tank as needed. And when I do water changes I just go from tank to tank with no effort to sterilize equipment between tanks. I would change this if there were any disease problems in any of the tanks, but there have not been any so far (fingers crossed). All the tanks are fed generously as per the usual Walstad methodology, and all the tanks get fed live blackworms a few times a month. They just stay in the tank until eventually all eaten.
No algae problems - indeed no visible algae at this point in any of the tanks due to the large number of plants. I have to supplement my Otocinclus with veggies to keep them healthy. And the ramshorn snails are all doing just fine.
Rather an interesting problem to have. What do you think could have caused this?
<Hard to say. The point is that you are creating viable ecosystems, and Melanoides patently do not thrive in all ecosystems, given their absence from many parts of the world. By bad luck or otherwise, you've come up with a set of conditions they don't like. Or perhaps they're there, just not on view.>
(BTW, tonight I will go on another snail hunt, just in case I missed any.)
Thanks for your help!
Joanne
<Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Disappearing Malaysian Trumpet Snails - REALLY disappearing      2/7/19

Thank you for your response! I think you hit the nail on the head with the comment about calcium and soft water.
<Ah! Good.>
I went on another evening snail hunt and managed to pull about six MTS snails (combined) from two of my FW aquariums. It was immediately evident that their shells were abnormal - a few had patches of thin/translucent areas, and the others were mostly translucent. And yet these same snails had been thriving in my tanks for a long time!
<Understood.>
Here's what I believe has happened: I live in Richmond, Virginia, and my tap water is sourced from the James River. Normal hardness parameters are generally in the moderate range. However, this past year we had record setting rainfall - and the rains came all throughout the year instead of clustering in spring and fall as usual. I believe this unusual amount of rain water entering the river caused the hardness to drop considerably. I just hadn't thought about it before. The MTS snails would probably have been ok if it were not for the presence of the other snails - as you pointed out they have lower calcium requirements than the MTS. And indeed, none of those snails have any shell abnormalities whatsoever. And of course the ramshorn snails are far more visible to me as they are out and about in the daytime as well as nighttime, while the MTS snails are primarily nocturnal.
Well, at least I managed to get those six snails for my Opae ula tank! They should have no calcium problems whatsoever in brackish water, with aragonite sand.
<Quite so; ideal conditions for Melanoides, which have a very high salt tolerance.>
Altogether an interesting problem to have, as most people have the opposite problem with being overrun by these guys! Thanks again for your input.
Joanne
<Glad to help! Neale.>

Delhezi Bichir hunger strike & hunting tank mates /Neale       2/7/19
Hi WWM Crew,
<Kim,>
My Delhezi Bichir was previously more than happy to eat beef heart, silver sides, and black worms, but recently has gone on a hunger strike... I was giving him the occasional treat of live saltwater crabs that I had been catching out of my saltwater tank, so maybe that spoiled him into only wanting to hunt?
<This is definitely true. Farmed Bichirs may be more than happy to take dead or pellet foods, but if they "discover" live alternatives, this can pique their interest. If starved for a while, they will go back to what
they know, but that's really only viable in a tank with other big fish. If they live with even potentially edible tankmates, they may try eating those before settling back down.>
He managed to snag a couple of my Congo Tetras that didn't quite grow fast enough to stay out of "bite size" range. Ever since then, he's trying to use the beef heart as bait for the other fish. He'll literally sit with his nose practically touching it while lurking under the driftwood or Amazon Sword leaves and just waits to see if any of the other fish are dumb enough to come snag a piece. He keeps lurking to try and catch more fish. I've tried offering market shrimp, scallops, crab meat, silver sides, beef heart, blackworms, live earthworms, and Massivore pellets, but he's snubbed them all.
<It isn't unusual for predators to stop feeding for a while. Hunger makes the best sauce of course!>
He's in a 75g with 2 Angels, 6 Congo Tetras, 6 Goyder River Rainbows, 4 Boesemanni Rainbows, and 1 Turquoise Rainbow at the moment. The Bichir is around 9" right now. The Angels, 4 Goyder River Rainbows, and 1 Turquoise Rainbow are all full grown and not at risk of being eaten, but the others
were restocks after I had a problem with an Opaline Gourami killing half my tank (who's since been removed)... I got the largest I could find to replace, but no one sells Rainbows or Congo Tetras larger than 2-3"... I knew it was a risk, but this guy's been so mellow and easy to feed until recently that I was hoping it would work.
<Delhezi Bichirs can be good tankmates, and generally ignore fish too large to eat. I'd expect adult Congo Tetras to be fine, having myself kept these with Polypterus palmas for example, and it's a very similar species. But as you say, anything the size of, say, a Platy will definitely be at risk.>
Is there any way to convince the Bichir to go back to non-live foods,
<Time; lack of food; hunger. You could also try offering half-way house foods, such as white fish or prawn fillet wobbled in front of his snout on the end of forceps or cocktail sticks. Bichirs have terrible eyesight, but a good sense of smell, so should fall for this trick if they aren't spooked.>
or do I just need to cut my losses and pull the Congo Tetras now?
<Could be a good move.>
Maybe if I isolated him in a spare 20g long bare bottom tank for a short time to keep him away from the tetras until he takes food again? Or would he just go back to his old tricks the moment he had fishy temptations again?
<Impossible to say for sure. I would not trust him with small teammates at all.>
Thanks!
~Kim
<Cheers, Neale.>

Mimic patches on face      2/7/19
Hello crew
<Hi Chris>
Attached is a photo of my latest addition; a mimic tang. I am trying to figure out if the white irregular shapes on one side of his/her face is parasitic, or from injury of some sort.
<I can see this in your very nice pic. It could be an injury made with a rough surface, if it don´t heal on its own in a few days, we are probably in front of a HLLE case at its early stages.>
The tang has been in the main display for ~ 4 weeks and the "patches" on his face appeared about 10 days ago.
<Are you using activated carbon? sometimes its use triggers this condition>
Please ignore what looks like a sprinkling of salt over the rest of him, it is just the debris in the water I could not avoid. He is absolutely clear outside or 3 or so white patches which do seem to be a bit raised but not by much. There has been no progression since I noticed it. He/She does not scratch, flare and is eating .well. like a tang. Diet consists of Omega one flakes, Red algae strips and occasional frozen cubes of mixed meaty foods..not to mention the constant grazing.
<Have you try Newlife Spectrum pellets?...have give me very good results over the years.>
His home is a 265 gallon SPS tank with a few LPS, Hammer coral and several Duncans. Tank mates are 1 Scopas about the same size, Ocellaris clown, 1 Chromis, 6 line wrasse, bicolor blenny and a Mandarin. There is really no aggression in the tank. The scopas and mimic will eat the strips greedily together.
Ammonia 0 detectable,
Nitrite 0 detectable
Nitrate really undetectable using API kit
pH 8.04 to 8.13 (tank is in basement)
Temp kept at 75 using Apex controllers
ORP ~310
Salinity 1.024
<Looks like a well maintained tank.>
Any thoughts on what this could be? My other fish I had had for anywhere from 4-6 years and they are not showing any signs of illness. I would like to add to the room mates, but I want this to "Clear" up before I do <Watch it for the following days and keep us posted.>
Chris
<Cheers. Wil. >

Common Plec; an oldie but a goodie       2/7/19
Hi, we have a common Plec who has reached the grand age of 20 with us.
<Neato!>
He is now on his 4th tank which is a big 6 foot tank. We had a few problems when we set this tank up but all seems to be fine now but was wondering how old common Plecs live to in general.
<Yours is a good ripe age. Have heard, read of some living to be "in their twenties".>
We love our boy (maybe a girl, unsure to be honest) and want to ensure we give him the best. Are there any food suggestions for his older age or stuff we should be doing. Thanks Debbie
<Sinking veggie wafers are always a hit, as are boiled and cooled zucchini and other soft squashes. Bob Fenner>

Re: Gillworm / flukes - 02/07/2019      2/7/19
Hi,
2 days straight no deaths. Dip+hypo definitely helped. I think its under
control now.
<Yay!>
Thanks a lot for your help.
<I'm not sure how much I helped, but you're certainly welcome.>
B.
<Cheers,
Sara L.>

Ph questions      2/7/19
Hey guys
<Hey there>
just wanted to reach out real quick having some weird pH issues with one of our main coral systems. It seems to be causing coral bleaching. we just re-calibrate the Apex probes and we are currently getting a pH between 7.5 and 7.8. we are thinking that with winter and the house being sealed up this is giving us a lower amount of fresh air and increased CO2 going into the skimmer. we have since plumbed in an outside airline that is passively pulling through The skimmer and we have seen .02 increase over the last
three days .we are looking at now adding an external air pump for forcing fresh air into the coral room and the skimmer. current water parameters is alkalinity 7.5 calcium 500 magnesium 1500 <this is a bit high> nitrates .05 phosphate .06 . thank you again for your time and you and all input is greatly appreciated.
<It is very likely that it is for the reason you mentioned, tanks located in rooms with low or no ventilation often have this problem, the airline dragged from the outside is a good idea, it may rise the ph a bit more in a few days; another quick and effective solution is to add a buffer, it will raise and maintain the ph between 8.2- 8.4, however if your system is really big (several hundred gallons or more) you may consider adding a calcium reactor. Greetings. Wil.>
Re: Ph questions      2/7/19

Thanks Wil for the quick response,
<You´re welcome>
we currently do run about 700 gallons total water volume and a 56 pound media calcium reactor with a Kalk reactor top off.
<It´s odd that you use a calcium reactor and still have ph issues.>
Do you think having forced air being pushed in from outside work better than the skimmer pulling the air source from 20 feet away into the basement
<Outside air is much better; ¿do you use ozone? ...it would be a good addition to your skimmer/system.>
Also with the dehumidifier going out affect us in anyway?
<I don´t think so. Cheers. Wil.>
Re: Ph questions      2/7/19

Yes we have an air drier and ozone with an ORP of around 430 and ozone set for 380 on to 400 off we also run two 40 longs as refugium.
< Well, then it is really airtight there!...how about water changes?... In case you haven't done recently, I suggest you do a partial water change; Try also with Seachem's Marine Buffer, this will stabilize the ph almost immediately. Wil. >

Re: ATS guide part 1      2/7/19
Looks great, and congrats on being the first in the world to post the first part :)
<I do thank you again; and hope/trust it's placement will help promote algal filtration methods and your business interests. BobF>

Re: Gillworm / flukes - 02/05/2019       2/6/19
Hi,
We did fw + Tremazol double dose + Methylene blue 6-7 min dip on all fish yesterday, lost only one since. (Already weakened meleagris leopard wrasse).
We started pumping freshwater in the system slowly, sg dropped 1022>1016 within 5 hours, we let it stay at 1016 overnight and are lowering it down to 1010 today. Plan is to do it over the course of 6 - 8 hours.
Fish look fairly better than yesterday, hiding less and overall looking more active.
<Ah, good. Sometimes fish are pretty tough.>
Your conclusion regarding 5 days seems logical, i hope you are right. It would make no sense to put fish through hypo if its not efficient, so i guess you are right.
<::crossing fingers::>
Thanks for your continues effort in helping with this matter.
<I feel for you. I do hope all turns out well.>
B.
<Cheers,
Sara L.>

Re: A bio., pic for WWM Crew Member listing       2/6/19
Hi Bob,
An apology for not sending my bio until now, but I was out for the weekend, hope you can add it along with my photo to the "About the WWM Crew Members" section.
I´ve been in the fish hobby since 1989; in 1991 I started a wholesale marine fish business, by 1994 I opened a retail aquarium fish store that not only sold marine fish, corals, invertebrates, freshwater fish and dry goods but also glass/acrylic tanks and filters, as well as offering aquarium maintenance service. Nowadays I still sell marine fish, corals, invertebrates, artificial corals inserts and still have the aquarium maintenance service business; for some time I am collaborating with pleasure in WetWebMedia .
Greetings. Wilberth
<No worries Wil. Am enjoying your responses BTW.
Will post! BobF>
<<Ahh..glad to know that!...thanks, Bob. Wil. >>

Delhezi Bichir hunger strike & hunting tank mates       2/6/19
Hi WWM Crew,
My Delhezi Bichir was previously more than happy to eat beef heart, silver sides, and black worms, but recently has gone on a hunger strike... I was giving him the occasional treat of live saltwater crabs that I had been catching out of my saltwater tank, so maybe that spoiled him into only wanting to hunt?
<Possibly a factor... I kept, fed Bichirs years back...>
He managed to snag a couple of my Congo Tetras that didn't quite grow fast enough to stay out of "bite size" range. Ever since then, he's trying to use the beef heart as bait for the other fish. He'll literally sit with his nose practically touching it while lurking under the driftwood or Amazon Sword leaves and just waits to see if any of the other
fish are dumb enough to come snag a piece.
<Interesting>
He keeps lurking to try and catch more fish. I've tried offering market shrimp, scallops, crab meat, silver sides, beef heart, blackworms, live earthworms, and Massivore pellets, but he's snubbed them all.
<Very strange that this fish refuses live earthworms...>
He's in a 75g with 2 Angels, 6 Congo Tetras, 6 Goyder River Rainbows, 4 Boesemanni Rainbows, and 1 Turquoise Rainbow at the moment. The Bichir is around 9" right now. The Angels, 4 Goyder River Rainbows, and 1 Turquoise
Rainbow are all full grown and not at risk of being eaten, but the others were restocks after I had a problem with an Opaline Gourami killing half my tank (who's since been removed)... I got the largest I could find to replace, but no one sells Rainbows or Congo Tetras larger than 2-3"... I knew it was a risk, but this guy's been so mellow and easy to feed until recently that I was hoping it would work.
Is there any way to convince the Bichir to go back to non-live foods, or do I just need to cut my losses and pull the Congo Tetras now?
<How long has it been since you saw it eat? Does it appear thin, the stomach "caved in"?>
Maybe if I
isolated him in a spare 20g long bare bottom tank for a short time to keep him away from the tetras until he takes food again? Or would he just go back to his old tricks the moment he had fishy temptations again?
<I wouldn't worry if it's only been a week, ten days, and this fish has a good index of fitness. I'd offer it a live earthworm every two, three days and be patient at this point>
Thanks!
~Kim
<Welcome, Bob Fenner>

Re: Zoas and mushrooms      /RMF       2/5/19
To make the long story short. I just need to make them believe that Zoas and mushrooms like Ricordea and Discosomas are not corals at all. They are anemones.
<They; Zoanthids and Corallimorpharians are NOT corals OR anemones. READ here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/cnidaria.htm
Im not making any thesis. I have a case with the government and im trying to prove to them by researching because i know that Zoas and Shrooms are not classified as corals.
Disregarding the classes and subclasses, they are more of anemones rather than corals right? Sorry if i am repeating myself and you.
<In some ways, yes>
There is only 1 country in the whole world where coral possession is illegal haha even soft corals is illegal here.
<Read on! Bob Fenner>
Re: Zoas and mushrooms    /Back to Sara        2/5/19
Thank you for the information. It is a big help. Sorry, actinos are Discosomas.
Actually, i just need to prove that Zoas and mushrooms are not corals but are classified more on anemones or colonial anemones and I need a concrete evidence to prove it. It will be a big help on my case.
<Again, "coral" is a somewhat ambiguous term. What exactly is your thesis?
Are you trying to make the argument that Corallimorphs, zoanthids and Actinaria should all be one subclass?>
Funny thing is, im being detained for culturing and producing these in my country as possession of corals is illegal here. Sad life.
<Oh! Yikes! Where are you?
Cheers,
Sara L.>
Re: Zoas and mushrooms       2/5/19

To make the long story short. I just need to make them believe that Zoas and mushrooms like Ricordea and Discosomas are not corals at all. They are anemones.
Im not making any thesis. I have a case with the government and im trying to prove to them by researching because i know that Zoas and Shrooms are not classified as corals.
Disregarding the classes and subclasses, they are more of anemones rather than corals right? Sorry if i am repeating myself and you.
There is only 1 country in the whole world where coral possession is illegal haha even soft corals is illegal here.
<I'm not sure we can help you here. You need a lawyer, not a pet fish enthusiast. Ok, granted, I happen to be both, but I'm not the kind of lawyer you need. If you can't get a lawyer, read the applicable law and try to find records of cases similar to yours. See if you can figure out how the authoritative powers and decision makers there decide what is and is not a coral.
Good luck,
Sara L.>
Re: Zoas and mushrooms -        2/5/19

Thanks you have been a big help. I have a lawyer but i think it is up to me to research on these to also help him in case we go technical.
<Interesting.>
The fisheries here dont know a lot of things and us hobbyists know a lot more. I don't know when they will wake up and realize that aquaculture is the main solution to the issue of coral bleaching due to global warming. Global warming is the highest percentage why corals are dying, not because of humans taking frags from the ocean.
<Generally speaking, I tend to agree with you. However, people taking "frags" from the reef can cause a lot of damage if such activities are not controlled. Just look at the damage groups of inexperienced divers can do even when they're trying not to touch anything.
Cheers,
Sara L.>
Re: Zoas and mushrooms - 02/05/2019

Government people here are so dumb and lazy
<No way! I don't believe it! ;-)>
that they dont want to think of rules and regulations to restrict people.
They just ban everything. People tend to do illegal stuff and will cause more damage than if they will legalize and control it.
I wanted to tell them its like farming. Will farmers harvest all of their crops and not leave anything for future harvests? Common sense.
<We had a president here once, a long time ago, who was quoted as saying something to the effect of, "common sense is not all that common.">
Just like corals. They just have to make these rules so people wont abuse them so much. Without these governing rules, people would just harvest them all.
<Such is the nature of man, and most all dominant predators. Have you heard/read the story of Lyall's cat and the Stephens Island Wren? Very sad.
Cheers,
Sara L.>

First pre-owned tank - what to do with filter media - tank drained 2 days ago /Neale        2/5/19
Hi WWM Crew,
We have decided to upgrade our tank again so that we can have lots more fishes :)
<Understood!>
Hubby suggested we swap the TV and tank so we get a 7' wall to play with. After reading conflicting reports about the rounded corner larger Boyu aquariums (liable to crack, hood filter is underpowered and hard to clean) we decided to go with a 72"x24"x30" custom-built tank, starting cost of £1000 + 200 mile delivery costs + heater, filter, lights as extras.
<Yikes! Quite an investment.>
Yesterday just before purchasing one of these I stumbled across a private advert posted yesterday, for the same tank dimensions complete with filter, heater and lights, only 2 miles away. We responded, went to see it, and it seems in good condition (although unknown age - seller is not first owner). It stands on a metal frame rather than a cabinet (easily solved with IKEA doors?) but at only £300 for everything it seemed a steal.
<Agreed.>
Current owners are moving house next month and have moved the inhabitants (a shoal of red-tailed catfish) into a pond in the office. The tank was drained 2 days ago, but the substrate and 2 external filters were left covered with tank water (probably thought this would keep bacteria alive).
<Might; but probably not in a working, active state. Assume the media will mature relatively quickly, thanks to the encysted bacteria, but probably not "live" as such.>
After not being able to muster enough hands to move the tank today we cannot move the tank until next at least next weekend, maybe 2 weeks, but have brought all the accessories home (some of the water was emptied from the filters at this point to help lift into car).
<Good.>
So I am assuming the bacteria in the filters are already dead as they were starved of oxygen 2 days ago.
<Bacteria don't necessarily die under these conditions, but go dormant. They will come back to life, somewhat, in a few days. As I say above, it'll likely cycle faster than it would from scratch, but won't be instant, so do allow some time to gently build up the bacteria population.>
The media ( 2 sponges, ceramic rings, and plastic spheres in each) look in good condition so I don't really want to throw them.
<Indeed not.>
My main question is - is my best option to take everything out of the water, rinse until clear in tap water and then dry until ready to be used again, or should I soak them in a light bleach solution to get rid of any nasty anaerobic bacteria/mould spores/pathogens that may have been in the previous setup before rinsing with tap water?
<Thorough rinsing under the tap would remove any organic muck. No need for sterilising though.>
Before starting the pre-owned tank I would want to put the pre-owned filter material in my Juwel to encourage some bacteria to grow on it, but don't want to risk the health of my fish and bacteria colony.
<Very unlikely pathogens will survive being neglected this long and without fish hosts to live upon.>
I would put as much of the pre-owned media as possible inside my internal filter, and place the rest inside a mesh bag in the tank.
<A good option.>
Of course at the time of a pwc I could let the pre-owned filter material sit in the dechlorinating water to ensure it is free of chlorine residue before putting it into my Juwel.
<Indeed.>
When we get the tank my plans are to clean the tank and the accessories thoroughly with dilute bleach, rinse, dry off, then wipe away any residue when completely dry. Next day setup the substrate ready for planting, add the new tank accessories, add some water then plant the new plants, add the old plants from current tank (after a short leaf-dipping in bleach solution (+rinse) to try and kill some of the algae), then fill with water from the garden hose to keep the plants alive and allow whatever to leach out of the substrate. I would get the heaters on asap (ground water currently close to freezing), maybe add a few kettles of hot to help along, and the dechlorinator.
<I think using bleach at all is overkill; would dump irredeemable plants, prune back ones with the odd bad leaf; install plenty of new fast-growing plants (floating Indian Fern ideal, but Hygrophila, Vallisneria, etc do the job well) to minimise algae growth while the specimen plants get established.>
When the tank is up to temperature I would set up one of the filters using the media that has been in the Juwel tank's filter, and maybe a large sponge from the Juwel, then refill the Juwel's filter with more of the pre-owned media that was in the mesh bag. Every couple of days I would take the move the pre-owned filter media out of the Juwel and add it to the external filter and refill the Juwel internal filter with the stuff in the mesh bag, until the new external filter is full, then I will put my sponges back in the Juwel.
<All sounds fine.>
In the new tank I would let the water settle and become less cloudy and would then move the substrate from my original tank across to the new tank. The current top layer would get put in some water with algae killer for an hour or so, then get rinsed with dechlorinated-water before being added to the new tank. I would start testing the water in the new tank for ammonia being leached from the new substrate. If levels are low I would 'feed' the new tank with the left-over food I was given to help with cycling and keeping the bacteria alive.
<A good approach. In honesty, a tank this side would handle a school of small fish, like Danios or Limia, without any real problems even from scratch. The sheer volume of water will dilute ammonia, and alongside regular water changes, such hardy species should sail through.>
I know I should drain the old tank to help with fishing out my babies, but I am thinking it would be less of a bioload shock to move them a few at a time over a couple of days.
<Agree 100%, but remember truly schooling species, such as Neons or Corydoras, won't be happy moved across in ones and twos, so move them as groups.>
So, I perhaps start with the peaceful platies, maybe the babies, then a few days later a few more, then move onto the guppies, then the Danios...?
<Sure.>
The remaining decorations in the Juwel could stay until I drain the tank to give the fish hiding spots. I would move the Juwel filter and media into the new tank, then drain the water, catch the remaining fish, then add algae killer into the tank to clean the remaining decorations before moving them across to the new tank (again after rinsing in dechlorinated water).
<All sounds good too.>
This is my first pre-owned tank. I'm thinking slow and steady wins the race as 1. I don't know the history of the tank I am purchasing, so want to be careful to ensure it is clean; 2. my Juwel is plagued with hair algae - I am not sure if it comes from the water supply, or came in with a plant or bogwood years ago.
<If at all possible, test the tank for leaks immediately after you get it home. Ideally, outdoors or in the garage, so that if it does leak, you don't ruin the carpet. Glass tanks are pretty robust, but twisting is the big killer, pulling the silicone away from the glass, and it's that which'll cause a sneaky leak, rather than obvious cracks or bumps, which most folk manage to avoid.>
I now know better, hence why I want to bleach-dip the plants before moving across, and kill the algae on all the décor.
<If you want to. Hot water and a good scrub probably just as good, since the algae can/will return if conditions suit: their spores are in the air and water, and they get into the tank no matter what.>
This is also why I don't want to move the tank water across. If it comes back I'll know it's in the water supply and there's nothing I can do to eradicate it, only control it. Sorry this is so long. Do you think all of the above is sensible - is there anything that is unnecessary or something important I have missed?
Thanks for your help, you guys are awesome!
Nicki
<Good luck, and hope this helps! Neale.>
Re: First pre-owned tank - what to do with filter media - tank        2/5/19

drained 2 days ago Thanks for all the suggestions Neale, much appreciated!
<Most welcome.>
Don't know why I've never thought of using fast growing plants to out compete algae, maybe this is why we didn't have problems with the Fluval Edge 23 l... The elodea went rampant and other plants were happy, but most other plants died off when put into the Juwel 180 l.
<Quite so; the badness of the algae is usually proportional to the unhappiness of the plants. When plants grow fast, algae generally doesn't.
There are some biology reasons for that we don't need to worry about here.>
Do you think that planting the back 6" wall with elodea will be helpful in combating the hair algae? I don't care about the short algae it's a snack for the platys but they don't touch the hair algae and it traps fish.
<Indeed. Hair Algae tends to be a pest in tanks with sluggish plant growth and indifferent lighting levels. Rather than writing out my thoughts, I'm going to direct you to an earlier scribbling on the topic:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_6/volume_6_3/fwalgae.html
Should cover the basics!>
On another note... Any idea why female fish get aggressive in their old age? Currently my 6 year old female Danio choprai is a menace.
<My Danio choprae were as well, to the degree I ended up with just a single male from a group of six. My feeling here is that Danios (or schooling fish generally) become aggressive as the size of the group declines, rather than it being an age thing. So if you have just a few Danios left, aggression will become more noticeable than when you had lots of them. Remember, schooling fish *are* aggressive, and within the group there's background level of bullying that maintains the social hierarchy. In a big group, no
one fish deals out, or receives, too much aggro, so the fish are all, broadly, happy. But as the fish age, and some of them die, you end up concentrating this bad behaviour on smaller numbers of fish, and the result can be unpleasant. Some schooling fish become frustrated, too. These will attack dissimilar fish for want of anything else.>
The 6 year old male is fine. Until a few months ago both Danios were peaceful, swam around the base of objects and occasionally spawned. She now seems to set up large territories at the surface and charges at anything that swims into it (seeing fin damage on the light coloured platys who she seems to chase off more than the dark colours). Last time i saw this was 6 years ago when an elderly female Variatus play started beating up the other 3 platys (maculatus). I got her more tank mates (more platys and mixed school of Danio) and she calmed down until her death. Likewise I got more Danio choprae a few months ago. The male schools with them often, she only occasionally joins in, but they've all been schooling a lot all weekend (along with one guppy). Yesterday she allowed a small male to court her....
Then tonight she has claimed half the surface (cleaned the tank Saturday and removed a lot of algae at the surface).
<More than likely adding substantially more Danio choprae should fix the problem. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: First pre-owned tank - what to do with filter media - tank drained 2 days ago       2/5/19
Thanks Bob, found the pages on bleach soaking. Will research further before I taken any action.
<Real good Nicola. BobF>

Re: ATS guide part 1       2/5/19
Thanks much
<Posted today! Cheers Bryan. BobF>
Re: ATS guide part 1       2/5/19

Can you send link? I can't find it.
<http://wetwebmedia.com/Latest%20Articles.htm>

Tiny white or off-white organisms in shower       2/5/19
Coming from the lake house (fresh water lake) shower drain were these tiny white to off-white larvae or worms. Very small but moving so living organism in my book. It was almost like wiggling rice and on s ok me the end was more like a triangle formation (head). My first impression was flat worms, but they were so small I thought larvae too.
<Mmm; white, triangular headed... sounds like Roundworms/Nematodes... but moving quickly? More like insect larvae>
So sorry I didn't snap a pic. Any suggestions or hurry do something red flags with this information that y'all think would be helpful in identifying?
<A close up photo please; not likely problematical for human touch.>
I read a lot on line. They did not have a brown or black head. These were almost maggot like. But the maggots I've seen are more dense, these looked really squishy and almost like tiny tiny moving blobs of mucus. But I did see a few with the triangle-ish end (head). The others just looked like mushy wiggly
rice, just not maggots to me......
Any response us appreciated.
Thank you,
Jennifer
<Do see here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/AqInsect%20IDF.htm
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>

Snail Identification       2/5/19
Hi team,
Thanks for all the great work you do, I have learnt a lot from your site!
I noticed this white snail (see attached) about a month ago on my live rock and it has grown considerably quickly since. I have looked online everywhere and believe it may be a predatory whelk but I’m not too sure. Do you have any thoughts on what this snail may be?
Many thanks,
Callum.
<Please crop, re-size your images to hundreds of Kbytes, and re-send.>
Re: Snail Identification       2/5/19

My apologies, I hope this image is clear enough / meets the size restrictions (362kBytes).
Thanks
Callum
<Mmm; have you gone through the WWM SW snail ID FAQs?
Please do: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/snailidfaqs.htm
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>

F8 puffer care       2/5/19
Hi, I have an extra 10 gallon tank and really would like to put an Figure 8 Puffer fish, max size 3in. but the recommended size tank is a 15 gallon I could get a 20 gallon but I wanted to know if you think the F8 puffer could thrive ( no other fish) in a 10 gal.? Thank you!
<Short answer, is no, a 10 gallon isn't really going to work in the long term. A juvenile might be fine for 6-12 months, but they do grow quickly, and like all puffers, they're very sensitive to poor environmental
conditions. If the Figure 8 is a species you rarely see in your hometown, and there's one on sale now, then sure, a 10 gallon tank for the short term, until you buy a bigger tank, will work. But longer term, nope.
Cheers, Neale.>
Re: F8 puffer care       2/5/19

Thank you so much I just picked up a 20 gallon
<Good move! Enjoy your new pet. Don't forget this is a brackish, not freshwater puffer, so you'll need to add some marine salt mix to the water; around 5-6 gram (1 teaspoon) per litre works fine. Cheers, Neale.>

Gill worm / flukes /RMF       2/5/19
Dear Bob,
<Branko>
Flukes are back and this time they mean vengeance, we successfully eliminated them last summer with General cure, however we dont have access to it anymore and would take 45-60 days to get more. :(
<Ohhh>
We are struggling with Sera Tremazol (only stock solution available here), their recommended dose is slightly less than 5mg / l, while you recommended 20mg/l in one of the articles on WWM.
<Yes>
Additionally, while browsing online I've found one more method: " Another method that can be used for capsalid Monogeneans is hyposalinity. In one study, 15 g/L (ppt) salinity or lower for two days eliminated juvenile and adult Neobenedenia melleni. When 15 g/L was maintained for 5 days, the hatching of N. melleni eggs was prevented. It is important to note that some fish species may not tolerate this treatment method. " Will this kill eggs within 5 days, or they will hatch once salinity is brought up to normal?
<I don't know; but am concerned here. MIGHT it be worth "nuking" the system (bleach, possibly formalin...) and bathing/dipping all fishes (formalin, pH adjusted freshwater), to get rid of adult forms?>
This currently looks rather appealing to me, since it's easiest to administer. Additionally, we would setup a bath for all fish and put them through it, in order to eliminate adult specimens and relieve fish of pest
while let hypo do the work on the eggs/remaining flukes.
<Good>
We have already dipped all fish through 5-7mins Freshwater with adjusted pH + Tremazol + Furan2 dip, we've clearly seen flukes coming off. Fish looked relieved for short period (24h) but now infestation is blooming again so we need to deal with eggs in the system which are not controllable using Tremazol.
<Not fun>
In one of our emails, you have mentioned that some fish aren't tolerant to Hypo, is there a list of those species which I could look at? Currently we have Wrasse, Clownfish (not ocellaris), butterflies, tangs, angels both dwarf and large, various watchmen gobies, blennies, Dottybacks, damselfish, file fish...
<Of those you list, Clownfish are the most sensitive. I WOULD watch, be present while ALL are getting dipped>
If there is no list it would help if you could pin point those that aren't good candidates for Hypo. Idea is to move fish that can't go into hypo to other system where we would try to nuke it with high dose of
Tremazol to reach 20mg/l which you recommended.
Kind regards,
B.
<I wish you good fortune. Bob Fenner>

Re: Gill worm / flukes - 02/04/19 /Now Sara
Dear Bob,
<Sara L. here today.>
Flukes are back and this time they mean vengeance, we successfully eliminated them last summer with General cure, however we dont have access to it anymore and would take 45-60 days to get more. :(
We are struggling with Sera Tremazol (only stock solution available here), their recommended dose is slightly less than 5mg / l, while you recommended 20mg/l in one of the articles on WWM.
<So start with 5mg/l and see what happens. If that doesn't work, raise it to 8 mg/l, then 12 mg/l, etc.>
Additionally, while browsing online I've found one more method: " Another method that can be used for capsalid Monogeneans is hyposalinity. In one study, 15 g/L (ppt) salinity or lower for two days eliminated juvenile and adult Neobenedenia melleni. When 15 g/L was maintained for 5 days, the hatching of N. melleni eggs was prevented. It is important to note that some fish species may not tolerate this treatment method. " Will this kill eggs within 5 days, or they will hatch once salinity is brought up to normal?
<Possibly. I would have to read the study to know what the researcher/writer meant by saying that the low salinity prevented the hatching of eggs.>
This currently looks rather appealing to me, since it's easiest to administer. Additionally, we would setup a bath for all fish and put them through it, in order to eliminate adult specimens and relieve fish of pest
while let hypo do the work on the eggs/remaining flukes.
We have already dipped all fish through 5-7mins Freshwater with adjusted pH + Tremazol + Furan2 dip, we've clearly seen flukes coming off. Fish looked relieved for short period (24h) but now infestation is blooming again so we need to deal with eggs in the system which are not controllable using Tremazol.
<If what you're dealing with here is N. melleni, I wonder why the surviving fish didn't develop an immunity to the parasite after the first prolonged exposure.>
In one of our emails, you have mentioned that some fish aren't tolerant to Hypo, is there a list of those species which I could look at? Currently we have Wrasse, Clownfish (not ocellaris), butterflies, tangs, angels both dwarf and large, various watchmen gobies, blennies, Dottybacks, damselfish, file fish... If there is no list it would help if you could pin point those that aren't good candidates for Hypo.
<Hyposalinity will cause any and all marine fish a degree of stress. How much stress any given fish can stand is dependent on so many variables.
Whatever you do, make sure you acclimate the fish to the reduced salinity slowly.>
Idea is to move fish that can't go into hypo to other system where we would try to nuke it with high dose of Tremazol to reach 20mg/l which you recommended.
<Unfortunately, in these situations, no one can tell you for certain what is best to do. If I were in your position, I would first treat all the fish with Tremazol. If you are unsure of the dose, start at 5 mg/l, then go to 8 mg/l, etc. Unless this is a bare bottom, fish and live rock only system, I would not apply hyposalinity to the system as a whole.>
Kind regards,
B.
<Cheers, Sara L.>
Re: Gill worm / flukes       2/5/19

Dear Sara,
Tremazol didn't work in suggested nor increased dosage. We applied doses twice and we are still having issues fish are being eaten alive.
<What else have you tried?>
You will find quote regarding hyposalinity on this link on page 7:
http://fisheries.tamu.edu/files/2013/09/Monogenean-Parasites-of-Fish.pdf
<Wow. Great article. Unfortunately, it does not elaborate much on the use of hyposalinity for treatment of marine fish. I don't know if hyposalinity kills the eggs or not. Likely, if I had to guess, it probably damages them to the point that a significant percentage of them will never hatch. That might be sufficient to resolve the problem. Fish do have some ability to fight them off, when not overwhelmed. As far as which of your fish might not tolerate hyposalinity very well, again, it's hard to say. I would say
that any fish that is not known to be particularly hardy in captivity, generally, is probably going to tolerate any sub-optimal condition less than the more hardy species. The problem I see here is that you are going
to have to acclimate the fish to the hyposalinity, which will take at least days and preferably weeks. If I'm understanding you correctly, it sounds like you don't have that kind of time.>
I'm not sure which type of monogenean it is, but its killing off some of our fish rather quickly, from the moment fish changes behavior its dead within 24h with clear signs of being eaten, both on fins as well as head area, occasionally there are open sores/wounds on the body as well. While other fish look perfect and acting normally.
<Can you send in some pictures?>
All fish are in our 3600 liter quarantine system that's divided into boxes, each box has its own drain which takes water down to central filtration unit, where biological filtration and mechanical filtration are. Afterwards water is pumped through the UV back into each box.
Water can't go between boxes, it has to go through drain>filtration>UV>into box. While dosing Tremazol we did turn off UV and lowered skimmer foam so it doesn't skim the medicine out.
Fish arrived from Bali, on 25th January, and we are battling flukes since day 2.
That's why we are in need of changing the method, this has proven to be ineffective.
<The article you provided, from TAMU, mentions a lot of different treatment options, one of which is copper. Have you tried copper in the quarantine system?
Cheers, Sara L.>
Re: Gill worm / flukes - 02/05/2019

Hello,
I explained what we tried, Tremazol dosed fully twice, and fw bath with Nitrofurazone and Tremazol once.
<Yes, I saw. I was wondering if you had tried anything else. I see the answer is no.>
As for the article itself, yes it does explains vaguely and im unsure if it kills eggs was hoping you guys would know more about it :(
<The more I think about it, the more I think the article must be saying that 5 days of hyposalinity "killed" the eggs. Because if hyposalinity merely prevented hatching, why would 5 days be required? The statement seems to imply that the eggs still hatched if exposed to less than 5 days.
Thus, something must change after 5 days. The prolonged hyposalinity must cause some damage to the eggs after that period of time. I wish we could tell you for sure. It's not an easy thing to test/find out directly. The best anyone can do is observe to see if the eggs hatch. I suppose that if they don't hatch, then you might just as well assume they are "dead.">
As for copper, we do dose it to 0.12-0.14ppm for controlling possible protozoan infestations, didn't try to raise the dose due to wrasse and Centropyge being in this system, lastly article says copper can control but not kill flukes so im keen on applying more efficient method with, preferably less stress to fish than having 0.2 Cu.
<If all you need is 5 days of hyposalinity, maybe it's worth a shot. Again, my only worry is that you don't have time to acclimate the fish slowly enough. Tough choices.>
As for pictures here are couple i have on my phone.
<Yikes! I'm sorry you struggling with this. Do let us know if you use the hyposalinity and if it works.
Cheers and good luck,
Sara L.>

First pre-owned tank - what to do with filter media - tank drained 2 days ago - 02/04/19
Hi WWM Crew,
We have decided to upgrade our tank again so that we can have lots more fishes :)
<Yay!>
Hubby suggested we swap the TV and tank so we get a 7' wall to play with. After reading conflicting reports about the rounded corner larger Boyu aquariums (liable to crack, hood filter is underpowered and hard to clean) we decided to go with a 72"x24"x30" custom-built tank, starting cost of £1000 + 200 mile delivery costs + heater, filter, lights as extras.
<Nice!>
Yesterday just before purchasing one of these I stumbled across a private advert posted yesterday, for the same tank dimensions complete with filter, heater and lights, only 2 miles away. We responded, went to see it, and it seems in good condition (although unknown age - seller is not first owner). It stands on a metal frame rather than a cabinet (easily solved with IKEA doors?)
<If you're handy; or have friends who are>
but at only £300 for everything it seemed a steal.
Current owners are moving house next month and have moved the inhabitants (a shoal of red-tailed catfish) into a pond in the office.
<Hope this is a HUGE pond>
The tank was drained 2 days ago, but the substrate and 2 external filters were left covered with tank water (probably thought this would keep bacteria alive).
<I would flush the ext. filters, but the substrate microbes should be intact>
After not being able to muster enough hands to move the tank today we cannot move the tank until next at least next weekend, maybe 2 weeks, but have brought all the accessories home (some of the water was emptied from the filters at this point to help lift into car).
So I am assuming the bacteria in the filters are already dead as they were starved of oxygen 2 days ago. The media ( 2 sponges, ceramic rings, and plastic spheres in each) look in good condition so I don't really want to throw them.
<I wouldn't toss them. Just rinse, wash and let air dry for now>
My main question is - is my best option to take everything out of the water, rinse until clear in tap water and then dry until ready to be used again, or should I soak them in a light bleach solution to get rid of any nasty anaerobic bacteria/mould spores/pathogens that may have been in the previous setup before rinsing with tap water?
<I'd skip the chlorine...>
Before starting the pre-owned tank I would want to put the pre-owned filter material in my Juwel to encourage some bacteria to grow on it, but don't want to risk the health of my fish and bacteria colony. I would put as much of the pre-owned media as possible inside my internal filter, and place the rest inside a mesh bag in the tank. Of course at the time of a pwc I could let the pre-owned filter material sit in the dechlorinating water to ensure it is free of chlorine residue before putting it into my Juwel.
When we get the tank my plans are to clean the tank and the accessories thoroughly with dilute bleach, rinse, dry off, then wipe away any residue when completely dry. Next day setup the substrate ready for planting, add the new tank accessories, add some water then plant the new plants, add the old plants from current tank (after a short leaf-dipping in bleach solution (+rinse) to try and kill some of the algae), then fill with water from the garden hose to keep the plants alive and allow whatever to leach out of the substrate. I would get the heaters on asap (ground water currently close to freezing), maybe add a few kettles of hot to help along, and the dechlorinator. When the tank is up to temperature I would set up one of the filters using the media that has been in the Juwel tank's filter, and maybe a large sponge from the Juwel, then refill the Juwel's filter with more of the pre-owned media that was in the mesh bag. Every couple of days I would take the move the pre-owned filter media out of the Juwel and add it to the external filter and refill the Juwel internal filter with the stuff in the mesh bag, until the new external filter is full, then I will put my sponges back in the Juwel.
In the new tank I would let the water settle and become less cloudy and would then move the substrate from my original tank across to the new tank. The current top layer would get put in some water with algae killer
<Mmm; I'd skip the algae killer... too toxic>
for an hour or so, then get rinsed with dechlorinated-water before being added to the new tank. I would start testing the water in the new tank for ammonia being leached from the new substrate. If levels are low I would 'feed' the new tank with the left-over food I was given to help with cycling and keeping the bacteria alive.
I know I should drain the old tank to help with fishing out my babies, but I am thinking it would be less of a bioload shock to move them a few at a time over a couple of days. So, I perhaps start with the peaceful platies, maybe the babies, then a few days later a few more, then move onto the guppies, then the Danios...?
<Okay... can do slowly>
The remaining decorations in the Juwel could stay until I drain the tank to give the fish hiding spots. I would move the Juwel filter and media into the new tank, then drain the water, catch the remaining fish, then add algae killer into the tank to clean the remaining decorations before moving them across to the new tank (again after rinsing in dechlorinated water).
This is my first pre-owned tank. I'm thinking slow and steady wins the race as 1. I don't know the history of the tank I am purchasing, so want to be careful to ensure it is clean; 2. my Juwel is plagued with hair algae - I am not sure if it comes from the water supply, or came in with a plant or bogwood years ago. I now know better, hence why I want to bleach-dip the plants before moving across, and kill the algae on all the décor.
<See WWM re... light bleach soak, freshwater rinse, a few days air-dry...>
This is also why I don't want to move the tank water across. If it comes back I'll know it's in the water supply and there's nothing I can do to eradicate it, only control it.
Sorry this is so long. Do you think all of the above is sensible - is there anything that is unnecessary or something important I have missed?
<Have posted my thoughts within yours>
Thanks for your help, you guys are awesome!
Nicki
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

ATS guide part 1. Santa Monica Algal Turf Scrubbers  - 02/04/19
Bob and Crew,
<SMF>
Attached is a Part 1 of my new series on turf scrubbers. See if it will work for you, and have a great Monday coming up.
Bryan
Santa Monica Filtration
<Looks good. Do you want this posted next to your olde article? Bob Fenner>
Re: ATS guide part 1 - 02/04/19

Either that, or under the Nutrient Control section of the Marine Maint page.
<Oh! Will definitely link in all applicable subject areas. BobF>

Zoas and mushrooms - 02/04/19
Hello Wet Web Media,
<Hello Davy>
I would just like to know these few questions:
1. are zoanthids and actino/ricordeas corals? or are they anemones or some call colonial anemones? Are anemones corals too?
<I'm not sure what an "actino" is, but these other organisms are all Cnidarians (in the Phylum Cnidaria) and are within the class Anthozoa. Sea anemones are within the subclass Actinaria. Ricordea are within the subclass Corallimorpharia. Zoanthids are within the subclass Zoantharia.
The term "coral" is not scientifically defined per se. However, generally speaking, "corals" are all marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa, except for anemones. Now that I've given you the subclass names, I trust you can search either WWM or Google to learn more.>
2. regarding the questions above, please let me know the reference or where I can view the description of these two. I am not sure if I can trust Wikipedia or google. I need like some sort of a very solid scientific study on what class the zoanthids and mushrooms belong to.
<In my experience, Wikipedia is fairly trust worthy on these sorts of topics. It's monitored constantly by geeks such as myself who are always eager to correct an error or update a page with the latest scientific developments. However, if you are writing a report for school and need a more traditional source, I suggest you visit to your local library and look for books on marine invertebrates. If that is not an option for you, I would try going to the websites of respected marine conservation organizations. These websites often have educational pieces on corals which might help you. Here's one offered by good old NOAA: https://coralreef.noaa.gov/education/coralfacts.html>
Thank you and regards,
Davy
<Cheers, Sara L.>

A bio., pic for WWM Crew Member listing?     2/3/19
Hey Wil!
Wondering if you'd like to send the above along for posting on the site.
AND to know a bit more about you (folks are interested at times).
Do you use Facebook? I'd like to friend you there.
BobF
Re: A bio., pic for WWM Crew Member listing?     2/3/19

Hi Bob! sure, I send you here some photos, one with my wife. I don’t use Facebook, just twitter (@wilberthgamboa) and Instagram (wilberth.gamboa)
Kind regards
Wilberth
<Ahh; thank you Wil. BobF>

Re: Sick Loach     2/3/19
Thank you for the recommendations!
<You're welcome.>
I will look at getting one of the medicines you recommended above.
<Good.>
My fish is a dojo loach.
<A nice fish. One of the Weather Loach species.>
These are the conditions of my tank.
PH - 7.6
Ammonia - 0.25
<This really should be zero. Do compare with your tap water. If it is also 0.25, then the ammonia isn't a problem with filtration, but you will need to use an ammonia-neutralising water conditioner.>
Temperature - 23 C
<Much too high, and likely a stress factor. Aim for around 18 C; i.e., a cool room temperature. High temperatures are fine in summer, and the fish will gulp air during such seasons, but long-term care requires cool winters as well.>
Nitrite - 0
Nitrate - 5
I hope that this is enough information for you to help me. Thanks for the information you have already given me.
Abby
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>

Salt Mix; Fritz input     2/3/19
Hello WWM crew,
I'm getting back into the hobby after awhile away. Of course I have to come back to the best information on line WWM, thanks for still being here.
I have visited my LFS and see that they have changed salt brands from IO to Aquaforest, and now the latest brand is Fritz RPM. I have checked your site but can't find any reviews on this brand of salt and was wondering if anybody there had experience with this brand.
<Not personally; but... do know quite a bit re the company history (they ARE the real thing chemistry, chemical manufacturing wise), formulation... and "other hand" input. This is a fine product>
Has this brand been around for awhile?
<Only a few years; the formulation by and large for decades>
Thanks in advance for your opinion which means a lot to reefers everywhere.
Brian
<Thank you for prompting it. Bob Fenner>

Crab ID     2/2/19
Good Morning,
<Morning, Jason>
I have written to you recently about a stocking list for my 75g and asked for a snail I'd and now I'm asking about a crab id. I know crabs in general can't be trusted but am wondering the potential size of the crab and if it is more safe or less safe than most crabs.
<Certainly they can´t be trusted, especially as they grow>
The live sand and rock came from the Tampa Bay Area. I've seen about 6 or so in the tank ranging from a quarter inch to about 1 inch and they look like the same species. I did try trapping with some mysis in a glass but all I caught were some Nassarius snails but no crabs. If it helps the tips of the claws are black with spots on the body and a flattish head.
<Well, the crab on your image appears to be some species form Menippidae family, probably Menippe mercenaria; they can grow to 7 inches. I wouldn´t trust it but if you still want to keep it, watch its behavior closely, particularly if you have small fish. >
Thanks Jason
<Cheers. Wil .>

Re: Crab ID     2/2/19
Thanks Wil for the reply and I think you may be right. I don't trust them and would like to catch them but may be difficult since they are not falling for the crab trap and the snails get all the food. Right now there are no fish in the tank but will be putting in a shrimp/goby pair, Dartfish, Jawfish, and fairy wrasse. Maybe I'll try a mediumish wrasse that may go after the crabs that I could move at a later date.
<Good idea about the medium size wrasse, or, since there´s no fish in the tank yet…. you could borrow a triggerfish from a friend or LFS; and it will eat the crab if left hungry for a few days. >
Thanks Jason
<Glad to help, Jason. Wil. >

Some Thanks And Praise      2/2/19
Hello all,
<Hey Koren... Oh, any relation to the author of the "Treatise in Limnology" series?>
No questions, just some praise. Over the last few years I've come to realize that your site is the best place online for accurate, reliable information on such a huge wealth of fish and turtle keeping information.
You all really know your stuff.
<Ahh; yes>
My partner and I have gotten very into fish and turtle keeping over the last few years, and yes, we've developed multi-tank syndrome!
<Heeeee! It's contagious!>
I spend hours on your site reading the archives - the way you tag and categorize your posts is great - very easy to find the information I need. You've helped us with both diagnosing some issues, and by providing a wealth of knowledge as we dream up and research new tank communities.
<The pleasure; thank you>
A few years ago we went whole hog and set up a planted, turtle, fish and shrimp tank. 2 musk turtles, red cherry shrimp, a few white cloud minnows and zebra Danio, a true Siamese algae eater, a Chinese algae eater (I know - lesson learned) and a common Pleco. We wanted a fun and interesting, complete ecosystem. Pretty much everyone told us it couldn't be done - the turtles will eat the fish! The water quality will be terrible! But here we are now with a happy tank family and great water parameters, that's given us endless hours of enjoyment to watch. I think because all the occupants were introduced at the same time, as juveniles, they developed a remarkable tolerance for each other. The algae eaters and turtles (who are now rather equal in size) will sit on the tank bottom side by side, or on top of each
other, and the shrimp have been know to hitch rides across the tank on the turtles backs. We've yet to see an injury to any of the fish from the turtles, though the shrimp do need to be replenished regularly. The CAE sometimes acts like a jerk by latching on to a turtle shell, but generally it behaves. I've never seen fish so tolerant of being stepped on by a turtle as this CAE and Pleco, haha.
Anyway, in the course of setting up and maintaining this tank, I found your website and have been consulting it ever since. We are currently setting up a new 100 gallon as the turtles (a male and a female) have reached an age where it's time to separate them. We have plans for more tanks after this
and I have no doubt your excellent advice will be utilized for all of them.
Many thanks for all your time and effort!
Koren in Calgary, Alberta, Canada
<Again, thank you for your kind, encouraging words. Means so much. Bob Fenner>

Re: What’s wrong with my fantail goldfish?      2/1/19
Thanks for getting back to me so quick!
<Welcome.>
Since the pus eruption the wound seems to have healed perfectly and there are no signs of a fungal infection yet. I had a look at the webpage you recommended and the original lump look like the post from 9/17/16 called ‘can goldfish develop tumors’. In that case i saw that the goldfish was substantially older, mine is around 2 years old and there's was 16/17. However i noticed that it was the same type of goldfish so perhaps there's some correlation?
<Unlikely. They're all the same species. But possible I suppose.>
I've have ordered the interpret goldfish disease treatment which says that it’s an all in one treatment for fungi, bacteria and parasites.
<It's a fairly generic medication for Whitespot and Finrot. Wouldn't put a lot of faith in it, but it might just prevent secondary infections.>
Im going to treat the whole aquarium with this is that recommended?
<Not really, but shouldn't do any harm. Generally, we don't recommend medicating unless you [a] know what disease you're dealing with; and [b] know the best medication for that disease. The problem with the scattergun approach is there's a real risk of poisoning the fish if medications are used too often, or in combination with each other.>
Furthermore, i have ordered some test tubes so that I can test my ammonia again. I have an API test kit. Also, i know that my nitrite is always at zero as i test the water once a week after water changes.
<If nitrite is zero, ammonia is probably zero, though do of course check for "false positive" ammonia readings by looking to see if your tap water has ammonia in it. If it does, then make sure your water condition neutralises ammonia (most do) and you can then ignore low levels of ammonia in the tank if nitrite is zero and the fish are otherwise fine.>
If there is any other advice you can offer such as medicines i would be grateful. Im from the UK so i know that some treatments are restricted here.
Thanks again :)
Liam
<Hope this helps. Neale.>

Eviscerated sea cucumber      2/1/19
Hi Wet Web Crew,
<Doug>
I received a sea cucumber from an on line retailer that had completely eviscerated it's intestines into the shipping bag.
<Not uncommon... this "throwing up ones guts, respiratory apparatus, gonads... IS a defensive mechanism of Holothuroids>
The water was quite cloudy and nasty with large bits of innards. The retailer suggested putting it into my Quarantine tank to prevent nuking my show tank,
<Good idea>
but I already have fish in quarantine that I have no intention of sacrificing. The cucumber's color looks OK, but it is quite large and potentially full of toxins. Is it safe to put into a 200 gallon show tank
after flushing out all the dirty water? Regards, Doug
<I would put it in another chemically inert container... and flush this out with system water a few times over hours time before placing it in the main display. Bob Fenner>
Re: Eviscerated sea cucumber

Thanks as always for great advice. DC
<Certainly welcome mate. BobF>

Just showing you: sleeper goby      2/1/19
Hello crew. I just wanted to show you today a local caught from a few months ago.
https://scontent.fsal1-1.fna.fbcdn.net/v/t1.0-9/fr/cp0/e15/q65/50312659_10217816472579282_6474942560572801024_o.jpg?_nc_cat=110&efg=eyJpIjoidCJ9&_nc_ht=scontent.fsal1-1.fna&oh=6de390514eb77b7862e416351befdb83&oe=5CB2DF07
I believe its a Dormitator maculatus right?
<Appears to be>
These are pretty common fish in estuaries, low land rivers and fishermen report them even in the sea. They are called "sambo" in central America. Pretty hardy fish, its incredible how well they adapt, readily taking food in its many forms. Coloration varies a lot ( or maybe different species?) Some are dull and black while others have striking red and white lining along with blue iridescent body.
<Yes! Found from Carolina to Brazil: https://www.fishbase.de/summary/3827 >
Definitely an underappreciated fish. They are bred in the country as a way to control mosquitoes, since they are so hardy.
<Ahh!>
Other species found in the same waters are Sicydium spp ( called "chuchas") and Eleotris picta. I just felt like sharing, i feel kind of blessed that we can get freshwater gobies rather easily, they dont seem to be too common worldwide.
Roberto.
<Indeed; a huge assemblage of fishes, most common freshwater fishes found on oceanic islands. Bob Fenner>

Re: Acrylic Aquarium build. Holes, placement      2/1/19
Bob,
<Mike>
I forgot to ask. I have to drill 2-2” holes for bulk heads half way up on the 36” side of the tank and off to the side. Also a 1” or 1.25” bulk head closer to the top of the tank on that same side. The return from pump is a Varios 8 from reef octopus. We’re talking up to 2700Gph . Should I be too concerned about the hole locations? Ex. Proximity to each other? Proximity to side corner or top? Any risks?
<Not too much of a concern. Please read over our replies to such: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/pbholessizeplace.htm
and the linked files above>
( regarding overflow bulk heads being half way up the side. It gives me the option to run the tank at a lesser volume in case there’s a weight bearing load issue.
<... as in on the floor? I'd have a structural engineer into check unless this is a concrete slab>
Also, a leaky bulk head will only drain half the tank. ;)
<Yes... but, a problem in the plumbing will drain it down this far. DO search WWM re Overflow Designs... I'd mount mine near the top... Bob Fenner>
Mike

Re: What’s wrong with my fantail goldfish?     1/31/19
Thanks for getting back to me so quick!
<Welcome Liam>
Since the pus eruption the wound seems to have healed perfectly and there are no signs of a fungal infection yet. I had a look at the webpage you recommended and the original lump look like the post from 9/17/16 called ‘can goldfish develop tumors’. In that case i saw that the goldfish was substantially older, mine is around 2 years old and there's was 16/17.
However i noticed that it was the same type of goldfish so perhaps there's some correlation?
<Mmm; well; "fancier" goldfish varieties do seem to incur these issues more readily>
I've have ordered the interpret goldfish disease treatment which says that it’s an all in one treatment for fungi, bacteria and parasites. Im going to treat the whole aquarium with this is that recommended?
<If you like. Am not a fan, promoter of "shot gun approaches" to medicine application. I am a user of such when the actual pathogen is identifiable, identified>
Furthermore, i have ordered some test tubes so that i can test my ammonia again.
<Good>
I have an API test kit. Also, i know that my nitrite is always at zero as i test the water once a week after water changes. If there is any other advice you can offer such as medicines i would be grateful. Im from the UK so i know that some treatments are restricted here.
<I am going to ask friend and fellow WWM crew member, Neale Monks to chime in here. He too lives in the UK>
Thanks again :)
Liam Wigmore
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: What’s wrong with my fantail goldfish?     1/31/19

Thanks, i hope to hear from you soon :)
Liam
<IF it were mine, I'd simply look to provide/maintain good water quality and nutrition. NOT treat with medicines. Cheers Liam. BobF>

Re: Old pair of Clowns, mean girl     1/31/19
Wil, thanks for your response.
<You´re most welcome>
I will get a new test kit & work on improving my water quality & also up my salinity.
<Good>
I would like to get another small fish as you suggested, but you also said Momma may be aggressive due to limited space? Can you clarify?
< Yes, I said that but if you rearrange the rockwork and add a new tank mate simultaneously, there are good odds that aggressiveness will cease or at least diminishes.>
If I do get them a tank mate, could you suggest one?
<A Yellowtail damselfish and/or a Royal Gramma would be my choices, they will give a nice looking to your tank and since they are small, they will not be a high bioload for a 36 gallon.>
I really liked my green clown goby (labeled as such by the lfs) but have never seen another one. The other problem I have is that the only lfs around closed & it’s at least a 2-3 hour drive to the nearest one,
<That´s bad news!>
so I don’t have a relationship with one & can’t just go browse until I find a fish I like.
<Maybe you could order online>
I’d also have to set up a quarantine tank because I wouldn’t want to introduce anything harmful to my clowns,
<Yes, it would be the route to go>
I’m really attached to them. Thanks for your help. ~Karen
<Glad to help, Karen. Wil.>

Re: What’s wrong with my fantail goldfish? /Neale      1/31/19
Thanks for getting back to me so quick!
Since the pus eruption the wound seems to have healed perfectly and there are no signs of a fungal infection yet. I had a look at the webpage you recommended and the original lump look like the post from 9/17/16 called ‘can goldfish develop tumors’. In that case i saw that the goldfish was substantially older, mine is around 2 years old and there's was 16/17. However i noticed that it was the same type of goldfish so perhaps there's some correlation? I've have ordered the interpret goldfish disease treatment which says that it’s an all in one treatment for fungi, bacteria and parasites. Im going to treat the whole aquarium with this is that recommended? Furthermore, i have ordered some test tubes so that I can test my ammonia again. I have an API test kit. Also, i know that my nitrite is always at zero as i test the water once a week after water changes. If there is any other advice you can offer such as medicines i would be grateful. Im from the UK so i know that some treatments are restricted here.
Thanks again :)
Liam
<<Nothing much to add to BobF's comments. Hard to know if the growth is viral, cancerous or other. So far as UK medications go, there isn't anything for viral infections that I'm aware of. Viral infections either heal by themselves or they don't. There is something called Carp Pox that sometimes affects Goldfish. Forms lesions or sores. No treatment as such, but usually self-heals. Some aquarists treat as per Finrot (e.g., using eSHa 2000 or similar) but that shouldn't be necessary if conditions and diet are good. Carp Pox is mildly contagious, but like a lot of viral infections is more likely when the fish are stressed: in particular low temperatures can trigger it. Keeping the tank at 18-22 C will help the fish's immune system get rid of the virus. Carp Pox is sometimes contrasted with the KHV virus an extremely aggressive and almost always fatal vial disease of Carp and related fishes, including Goldfish. Cheers, Neale.>>

Re: Acrylic Aquarium build.     1/31/19
Thanks Bob!!
<Welcome Mike>
Yea tank is 24.5” high but the 3/4” panels are 23.5” tall alone. That worked in the acrylic calculator on the DYI guys website. I could always cut the tank and make it shorter in height and re-glue the top back on.
<I'd leave all as is>
Thanks so much for your input Bob. It’s a heavy tank going on concrete slab.
<Thank goodness; and hey, could be worse. Think if it were made of glass! >
Best,
Mike
<And you, BobF>

Fish eating snails     1/31/19
Good evening,
I was hoping you could help me identify a couple of different snails that I have in my tank. I thought they were Nassarius snails and I still think the 1 is but not sure of the other.
<The upper right one does look like a Nassarius species, the lower left, darker one, perhaps a Cerithid>
I have attached a close up of what I believe to be 2 similar but different snails. I know Nassarius snails will watch left over food but what concerns me is this morning I found about 8 or so chewing on the fins of a lionfish that was living but not dead.
<Mmmm; these snails didn't catch, kill the Lion>
I know they will consume a dead fish but I did not think they would attack one that was living. The lionfish has since died not sure if it was already dying or because of damage from the snails.
<The former; assuredly>
There are currently no fish and the tank will house shrimp gobies Dartfish and fairy wrasses that build a cocoon at night. should I be worried that they would go after a wrasse that was sleeping at night?
<I don't think so, no>
Thank Jason
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Black Ribbon Eel     1/31/19
Hi crew and specifically the person replying to me. I started this tank with the end goal of getting a black ribbon eel.
<... Yikes; not easily kept>
Long story short I got things stable and bought two, actually got both to eat. Then one disappeared, turns out he lost the back half of his tail (I wrote to you all about this, and at the time really thought I did it). I now suspect that his tank mate, an angler fish, got him while he was swimming (caught him trying to eat the fox face, now he has a new home). Unfortunately, he died due to his injuries even though I did manage to get him to eat once while healing.
Anyway, my other eel was doing phenomenal. Every third day I would offer him a silver side by hand.
<Need more than this; nutritionally incomplete... see WWM by searching for "silversides">
He would swim to the top of the tank, grab it, and pull himself back into the rocks. This went on for 5 months. Now he's missed his second feeding despite me using an acrylic feeding rod to bring the food to him (how I trained him in the first place... wonder why they stopped selling those). I offered him krill as well, which he's also ate in the past, and he refused. Thoughts?
<As stated. Likely their genetic disposition (ill-suited for captivity) and nutritional deficiency>
Do eels take breaks from eating?
<Ah yes; at times they do>
I did have my ph drop to 8,0 from 8.4 recently, not sure if that could have thrown him off... Also, I'm dosing vinegar. But, he's eaten during my build up of dosing.
This is worth mentioning. He's also begun swimming the tank more. Maybe I'm just getting lucky and seeing it more, but I've never seen him completely out since he found his tube until this not eating started.
<May be "trying to get out"... again...>
Thanks again for your time!
V/R
-James Williams
<The Rhinomuraena I've occasioned that lived for long times (months, years) in aquariums had huge systems and supplemented foods. Bob Fenner>

450 gallon glass aquarium with (just) euro brace ?       1/30/19
Hi Bob ,
<Raj>
This is Rajindra from Trinidad & Tobago,
<Ahh! Have visited both. In fact, the International Hash House Harriers is returning to Trinidad next year; and I hope to be there>
I'm building a 450 gallon aquarium with 3/4" thick glass ,96" long x 36" wide x 30" tall, I want to do euro brace without any center brace, do you know what width and thickness of brace can hold this tank .
together .
Thank You .
<Mmm; well; I myself would add two equally spaced braces here... across, on top of your Euro-bracing... of at least a half foot width. The last time I was on Tobago, the ground REALLY shook during an earthquake. The place we were staying at had all the mortar in their brick barbecue come apart! I'd go with the bracing I mention Raj. Bob Fenner>

Sick Loach       1/30/19
I’m hoping you will be able to help me. I’ve had a sick loach for about two or three weeks now. He is an albino loach.
<What sort of loach? Like a Weather Loach?>
All of a sudden he stopped being active. He would always race back-and-forth across the tank. Then he started just to lay on the bottom which he did sometimes before because that’s what loaches do but now that’s all he did.
<Indeed. Both typical behaviours.>
As time went on I would find him laying on his side. Sometimes I would even find him upside down. We thought it may be swim bladder, but he never floats he just lays on the bottom.
<Loaches have a small swim bladder. Like other bottom dwellers, they've evolved to sink in the water, unlike midwater fish that hang in the water whenever they stop swimming. So while they certainly can get constipation, you probably wouldn't see the "floaty, bloaty" situation we associate with, say, Goldfish.>
The first one or two weeks, he would eat. Now he hasn’t eaten for a while. I tried to feed him a pea to see if it would help in case it was swim bladder. He would refuse to eat the pea and has been laying on his side ever since.
<There are other high-fibre alternatives that Loaches may go for. Try brine shrimp for a start. Frozen is probably easier for them to eat than live. Avoid dried foods though! These do seem to make constipation more likely.>
I have tried using Melafix and Pimafix but neither seem to work.
<Rarely do. Neither are reliable medications for anything. If you suspect a bacterial infection, always a proper antibiotic (or failing that, reliable antibacterial such as eSHa 2000 or Myxazin). Bacterial infections tend to manifest other symptoms, including reddish patches on the flanks and especially the belly, even if the obvious dropsy or fin rot aren't visible.>
Another concern is that sometimes he will stop breathing for around 20 to 30 seconds but then he will start breathing again. In addition I have also tested the water for pH, ammonia, and many other things.
<Could we have these values? Weather Loaches at least prefer relatively mild temperatures (18-22 C is probably optimal) and may get stressed in tropical tanks if kept thusly. They dislike extremes of pH and hardness, and around neutral to slightly basic, medium hardness water is probably optimal. Ammonia and nitrite should, of course, be zero.>
I was just hoping you would be able to help me. Thank you.
Abby
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

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