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More Recent/Older, Accrued FAQs

Fish ID        3/29/19
Hi,
Can you please ID this fish?
<This appears to be a very juvenile Sharksucker, Echeneis naucrates. Bob Fenner>

Re: Can I add a grown up Oscar in my discus tank.      3/28/19
Ah, Thanks Neale,
<Hello again, Shriram>
Even I was not having the slightest idea or intention to mix them with my growing \ settling down discus tank.
<Prudent!>
The mail was a result of feeling sorry looking at the plight of the Oscar.
<Understood.>
Anyways its..no more with us..
<Oh! As in, dead? Sad to hear because they are nice fish.>
Thanks and regards,
Shriram
<Cheers, Neale.>

April calendar for the WWM      3/28/19
Hi Bob. Here is a calendar for the website. Hope all is well.
Cheers,
Mike
<Thanks Mike!
BobF>


Your opinion needed      3/28/19
Hello Crew!
Can anyone explain what is on the side of this Sailfin Tang??
It was with other tangs squabbling. Could it be injuries???
<Possibly; some sort of irritation otherwise... See WWM re Zebrasoma disease>
Thanks for your reply.
Jim Jesko
<Next time; (more) data, less file size. Bob Fenner>

 

Re: Banded cat sharks      3/27/19
I've had them since January. The tank has been running since June. The only other tank mates is a Naso Rank <Tang> and a volitans. Neither of wich <which> bother the sharks.
<I suggest you to do frequent 10% water changes and add a good vitamin supplement directly to the food to improve shark's health; also do read where you were referred to. Wil.>
Re: Banded cat sharks      3/27/19

I do at least a 20% water change every week and soak their food in vitamins. I'll also widen their diet and hopefully that'll help
<Me too, keep us posted. Wil.>


Patches on Sailfin tang /Wil      3/27/19
Hi Team,
<Hi Bodh>
I need your help in identifying the problem and solution for my sailfin tang Just look at the picture please.
In display tank nd water parameters are all fine.
<Numbers please;....other tank mates?>
She is eating like a pig. Does not look like a ICH.
<You’re right, it is not Ich>
It was in QT tank with ammonia slights high (.25 ppm) for 4 days.
<Ammonia can burn fish skin easily even if exposed for a brief period of time.>
What can be the issue ?
<Likely stress, please read the following: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/strpzebtgdisf.htm>
Does she needs medication ? If yes which one ?
<No medication needed here.>
Thanks in Advance
<Welcome Bodh. Wil>
Patches on Sailfin tang /RMF      3/27/19

Hi Crew and Bob,
<Bodh>
I am writing to you again from my different email address assuming my previous mail body was empty.
I very much need your help in identifying the problem and solution for my sailfin tang
Just look at the picture please.
<Mmm; likely a water quality issue here; or toxicity from... blue green algae? Not likely a pathogenic issue. I'd move this fish to another established system if possible. IF not, a massive water change, use of
chemical filtrants (Chemipure, PolyFilter...) would be my next choice. I'd also be augmenting the diet by soaking foods in a vitamin, HUFA supplement before offering AND pouring the same in the water every week.>
Now in display tank and water parameters are all fine. She is eating like a pig. Does not look like a ICH. These marks are looking like scratches and are not raised.
It was in QT tank with ammonia slights high (.25 ppm) for 4 days. Now in display tank with other fishes and eating well as I said before .What can be the issue ? Does she needs medication ? If yes which one ?
Thanks in Advance
Bodh Raj
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Patches on Sailfin tang      3/27/19
Hi Wil,
<Bodh>
Thank you soo much.
<Most welcome>
The parameters in display tank are Ammonia 0, Nitrite 0 and Nitrate near 0.
Other tank mates
1. 2 Blue damsels small (1 inch)
2. 1 Fox face
3. 1 Cloud Angel small (1.5 inch)
4. 1 Pink Anthias small (1.5 inch)
5. 1 Banana wrasse
6. 1 Green carper anemone
7. 1 Camel shrimp
8. 2 hermit crabs
9. 1 Percula Clown
Any advise or suggestion to me ?
<As stated….and please see Bob's input in your other e-mail.>
Thanks & Regards,
<Anytime, Bodh. Wil. >

Can I add a grown up Oscar in my discus tank.
Hi Crew,
<Hello Shriram,>
Just wanted to know if the combination would work out or lead to disaster.
I have a 50 gallon tank with a few discus and some blood fin tetras. There is a grown up Oscar in a ten gallon tank at my workplace which doesn't seem to be kept in a very healthy condition.
In case I take home this guy and add him to my existing tank, is it going to pose danger to my current tankmates or will they co-exist without any major aggression.
Look forward for your response.
Thanks and regards,
Shriram
<Sometimes we have difficult questions without easy answers. But sometimes we get questions that are unambiguous. This is one of them. Discus and Oscars are so different in behaviour that mixing them is VERY BAD idea.
Oscars are predatory, yes, but the problem is they are heavy feeders and tend to be territorial. They need big, basically empty tanks with heavy filtration and that can be cleaned easily and frequently. Discus are highly sensitive to nitrate levels, dislike strong water currents, and are so shy and nervous they can be scared by even much smaller fish. A tank designed for one species will be hostile to the other. Oscars would quickly pollute the still, warm water Discus prefer, while Discus would be deeply unhappy in an open tank with strong filtration. So no, while the two species are both Amazonian fish, any similarities end there, and I would not combine them. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Cichlid fish color      3/27/19
Here is the pic again
<This is a stressed cichlid. It's washed out appearance is typical of a cichlid that is not happy. If you want this fish to 'colour up' nicely, provide overhead shade and get rid of the artificially coloured substrate.
Plain washed gravel is fine, darker the better, and many aquarists find a black sand or substrate provides the best colouration. The fact the fish is resting on the bottom is also a typical stress behaviour, as Hemichromis normally swim about in midwater. Cheers, Neale>

Re: Vertical housing for an Asfur Angel        3/26/19
Thanks, Bob. I've researched for several hours. In fact, no one ever sees to have suggested a tank with the geometry or volume I am proposing, and every other instance involves multiple large angel species in the same tank--which is a radically different matter. I believe that this single specimen, being also the only large species in the tank, will have sufficient "psychological space."
Therefore, I will go forward with my plan. John
<Real good John. Do please send along periodic updates. Bob Fenner>
Re: Vertical housing for an Asfur Angel        3/26/19

Two more points on this tank. First while I am convinced the desk would hold its weight easily (as I said, all thick steel), I did not think to check on the floor.
<Yikes! IF not a concrete pad on soil I'd at least spread the weight out by placing a sheet of plywood under all feet>
The aquarium I have specked out will have unusually thick glass, in fact, and a very solid, supported aluminum frame, because of its dimensions.
<Have you considered acrylic?>
This will be a huge weight over a smaller than usual footprint, supported at only four points. Thanks for making the point about the weight.
<Sure>
Second, in all my reading I did not encounter one logical follow-up: if P. asfur is an aqua-dog, why do we not play with it accordingly?
<Indeed I would, have>
At the Eilat aquarium, a handler of an octopus told me if they didn't give this creature problems to solve (usually involving opening up different containers with food in them) it would die early. In fact, interaction with the fishes generally was more "personal" than usual. Why not treat our large angels, who are sometimes caught because of their curiosity, more interactively?
<I know lots of folks that do so interact w/ more intelligent groups of fishes>
Anyway, thanks for your ideas. I am finding this whole area unexpectedly interesting.
<Even a five foot long system will prove too small in as many years time... Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Re: Cichlid fish color (15 plus megs...)        3/26/19
<Please re-size and re-send your msg. WITH image files under a Meg in size.
B>

Coralline Algae Turning Black      3/25/19
Hi WetWebMedia Crew,
<Annie>
I really need your expertise. In the last year or so the coraline algae in my 14-year-old reef tank started to develop black and gray patches and I can't figure out what do about it. Have you seen this before?
<Yes; usually some "other" algae (BGA) involvement; but have seen evidence of bacteria, sponges.... Can tell by sampling, looking through a microscope. Mostly occurs in "older" systems, ones w/ nutrient limitation/s.>
I came across another hobbyist on Reef2Reef with the same unsolved problem, and posted pictures for comparison, but that's the only information I could find. I've attached two pictures of one of the patches (taken two months apart) and a third picture that shows how the edge can sometimes be white, versus a diffuse yellow. The black patches feel the same as regular coralline, and go straight through the coralline structure. The red coralline algae is unaffected, and potentially a light pastel purple variety.
In case it's helpful to know a bit about my tank, it's a 14 year-old reef tank (46 gallon) with soft corals, invertebrates, and two small clownfish.
I run an Ecosystem 60 filter (chaetomorpha algae & mud), and have Current Marine LED lights (switched from florescent about 2 years ago).
Parameters today: Ca 420, dKH 8, Mg 1270 (using Salifert test kits), SG 1.025, 76 degrees F, pH 8.2 (with pH meter). I normally keep the calcium a bit lower, but in the last few months I've been maintaining higher levels in hopes of encouraging faster coralline growth.
<All good, but... Do you have measurable HPO4, NO3? What would I do at this point? A series of weekly large water changes (50% or so), with pre-made, stored water.>
Thanks for taking the time to read this, and of course for all the great information I've found on your site over the years!
Annie
<Hundreds of Kbytes please... for file size; not Megs. Bob Fenner>

Banded cat sharks... health, nutr....       3/25/19
I have two banded cat sharks living in a 150 grow out tank until my 1000 gallon tank is finished for them. My female is extremely healthy, ten inches and had good, vibrant color. But my male has really Grey coloration, hasn't grown as much (only seven inches) and seems to have something growing on his eyes.
<Sometimes there are color variations in the same shark species>
They are BOTH eating healthy on vitamin soaked krill silversides and clams.
<This diet must be enlarged, silversides have poor nutritional value, try squid and shrimp instead. Are you familiar with Mazuri Shark & Ray formula?, it is a well-balanced food source for captive Elasmobranchs.>
Ammonia nitrite are both 0, nitrate is 20ppm pH 8.3 Carbonite<Carbonate> hardness 8 and salinity <Specific Gravity> 1.025. I'm  really worried about my male and was wondering what was going on, especially with his eyes, and if I could do anything to help him.
< Can you send us a pic?, is this unilateral or in both eyes? Wil>

Cichlid fish type      3/24/19
More pictures of my cichlids still dont know the type or if they are boy an girl
<These are some sort of Hemichromis, likely a hybrid, and they're juveniles, so any sexual differences won't be obvious yet. Commonly known (and traded as) Jewel Cichlids, these West African cichlids are easy enough to keep, but NOT community fish. They simply require soft to moderately hard water, ideally soft and slightly acidic if you want their proper colours. Again, if you want their proper colours, a dark tank with some overhead shade. In bright tanks, especially ones with funky gravel, and in the absence of overhead shade, they'll be washed out and kinda dull-looking, though you can see the blue speckles on the face they usually have. In proper conditions they'll turn some sort of red (the precise shade varies, likely with genetics as much as mood, from orangey through to a rich, almost cardinal red). The metallic blue spots on the flanks will be more obvious too. Juveniles are fairly easy going, but mature males and breeding pairs can be almost psychotic, some specimens simply destroying most anything kept with them. Some people do keep them in rough-and-tumble community tanks with big barbs and characins, but I wouldn't recommend that unless the tank is really big because such midwater fish will need plenty of space to stay out of trouble. Jewel Cichlids will eat anything, including flake and pellets, but enjoy small frozen invertebrates such as insect larvae. Colour-enhancing foods (such as brine shrimp) are useful. Maximum size is around 12-15 cm/5-6 inches, but stunting is common. Males tend to be slightly bigger with more pointy fish, as is often the case with cichlids, but these fish are notoriously difficult to sex. Pairs will form naturally, but if they don't, there's a serious risk of adult males killing
each other and/or unreceptive females. On the other hand, mated pairs are highly loyal and extremely effective parents, but before you try breeding them, think about what you'll do with the fry -- although beautiful, Jewels are difficult to house, so most pet stores will quickly be overwhelmed if you give them too many offspring. Cheers, Neale.>


Help! Swollen goldfish lip      3/24/19
Hi,
<Ave Maria>
I’m in desperate need of advice. I have a goldfish, Kyle, who is approximately 14 years old. A couple of years ago he injured his lip. I ended up removing all decorative rocks from his tank because it seemed like at least once a month he would re-traumatize it. Unfortunately that did not stop it from happening. It will get very bruised (pictures attached) and after about a week the busing subsides but his lip remains swollen. For the past year he has now formed a giant bump on his lip which sometimes swells with fluid and will eventually pop. Whenever it becomes an open sore or gets really bruised, I treat his tank with Melafix and stress coat+ for at least a week.
<The Melafix is worse than worthless...>
The ammonia levels in his tank are low as well.
<Needs to be 0.0...>

This time I have noticed that it has become more difficult for him to suck food off the bottom of the tank, which normally isn’t an issue. I’ve been hand feeding him the past week hoping he’ll get better. He definitely has not been his perky self lately. Is there anything else I should be doing? Could this possibly be a tumor or is it from all of the traumatization that has been done?
<The "Fix" is likely poisoning the fish, along w/ any ammonia... but; older gold/fish DO have (more) persistent "growth" problems with age (along w/ challenging environments, lack of nutrition factors)>
I’m in desperate need of help or advise. This little guy has been with me for a long time and I don’t want him to be in pain. Any help will be greatly appreciated.
Thanks
Maria Holland
<Please read here re others gf experiences of similar kind: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/GFGrowthsF7.htm
and the linked files above... Bob Fenner>

Vertical housing for an Asfur Angel      3/24/19
Hi Bob and crew. I have thought of what might be a good use for a '70s steel office desk (60 x 30 inches): a new aquarium! This desk is very heavy and stable, and so it should support a 60 x 30 x 40 inch tank (about 300 ga).
<Mmm; with substrate, rock... this system might well weigh in near 3,000 some pounds. I'd test it for such... out in a parking lot>
The last dimension is deliberate. I wanted to have a major drop-off so that while the upper level will have high light demanding SPS, I can take advantage of the loss of T5 lighting with depth and place medium or low-light SPS (e.g. certain Seriatopora) lower. But not too many. And rock will be fine, too.
I wanted to allow large areas of open space, shadowed caves, that sort of thing. I realized lately from a dive just how flat reef aquariums tend to be.
I had planned to have one big fish in this tank, an Asfur. I would probably add a small harem of Anthias, and another of flasher wrasses. Perhaps a group of cardinals as well. But these would not add much fish mass. The question is whether this tank length would please the angel. Some fish species "think" in terms of length mostly. Do you have advice about this particular angel species?
<Lots; do search WWM re; using the common, scientific name.... my article, FAQs input is archived there.>
Of course I also want to choose species that inhabit different levels of the tank. I do not want to see that artificial "pacing" that I've seen so often. And some "reef" fish do not like intense lighting.
Best wishes, John D.
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Invertebrate ID request     3/23/19
I was recommended by my local reef club to reach out to you in hopes of identifying what appears to have been a 'pest' in my reef. I certainly don't mean to bother you, but if you have the time, could you check these photos and let me know if you have an idea as to what the critter is?
<... appears to be some sort of... Seaslug. Head like a Melibe sp., other characteristics... breathing apparatus on its back...?>
I would greatly appreciate it! I found it appearing to be feasting on a Favia. It was no more than a quarter inch in length and as it certainly didn't look beneficial, I removed it promptly and there wasn't any visible damage to the Favia. I have only added a single small chalice frag & a few small Zoa frags in recent months. I dip everything prior to adding to my tank, and the frags weren't big enough to hide any hitchhikers, unless they were too small to be seen.
<Mmm; don't know re "feasting"; might be "just there"; but I'd likely remove as well>
I did post this on the #AskBRStv FB group and the only thought there was that it could be a Nudibranch, but it didn't appear to be any type of sea slug to me. It appeared to be grey, with an oval-ish head/body on one end and several short legs/appendages on the other,
<I agree w/ your desc.>
which are somewhat obscured in the photos due to what appears to be algae that this critter had adorned itself with. In the first photo, zoomed in, you can see some appendages that seem to come back towards the head/body, one or two of these seem to be in a "hook" form that tapers at the end, while one looks like a tube with an open end.
I appreciate any assistance you can provide! Thank you!
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Re: Invertebrate ID request     3/23/19
Thank you for the quick reply & your educated opinion, it is appreciated!
<Glad to share Per. BobF>

Eggy ADF with red scratch under mouth.      3/23/19
Hi!
<Good morning!>
This is my first time writing in but I have spent MANY hours on here reading up on ADF care. There is so much to learn.
My setup:
Established/Cycled 10 gallon tank with Aqueon HOB filter-upgraded to sponge & bio-ceramic rings and a sponge over intake filter, heater maintaining 78-80° and an air stone. Substrate is tumbled/smooth med-sized gravel, a driftwood log, a tall silk plant, 5 moss balls, a terra cotta pot for hiding and dish for feeding.
<Sounds great, though I might nudge the heater down a bit; 25 C/77 F is fine.>
Inhabitants: currently 1 male and 1 female ADF, and 2 Nerite snails
<All good.>
Background:
(I lost 2 ADFs to bloat and 1 to Red Leg disease about a week ago)... Since then, I got some Koizyme to add to the tank at 4 drops/week in order to help help snuff out gram neg bacteria, responsible for Red Leg, but my understanding is that I need to increase my alkalinity to around 100 ppm for it to work properly.
<Possibly. But Koizyme is a supplement for use with Koi carp, and absolutely NOT an antibiotic. I'd no more rely on this product to cure a disease than something like Melafix. What you want is a proper antibiotic, such as Kanaplex, or failing that, a reliable antibacterial medication such as eSHa 2000.>
So, today I started adding 1/2 tsp baking soda and plan to do this daily for 3 or 4 more days to avoid sudden changes that ADFs don't like. Is this okay?
<See above. What you're doing is not going to do any harm, but it's not a reliable fix either. Your frog might well get better under its own steam, and the Koizyme product will help create good conditions, though I don't really understand why you've selected a pond treatment for a tiny fish tank. Isn't dosing really difficult? The bottle seems to indicate teaspoon per 500 gallon doses!>
Water parameters:
PH-6.8 (hoping b.soda will help this move to more alkaline… > 7.0 )
<It will, but around neutral, 6.5-7.5, is fine for these frogs.>
Ammonia/Nitrites/Chlorine: 0
Nitrates: <15
Alkalinity: ~25
Hardness: ~70
Current problem:
I thought the other 2 adf's might also get bloat, decided to wait a bit before replacing any, and sure enough 2 days ago the female started getting bigger, but now-instead, I believe she is eggy because she looks much different than the others who got dropsy. She is not puffed up all over-- just her belly.
<Could easily be gravid, yes.>
But I confirmed today with a good picture that she has a red sore/wound? on the underside of her mouth. Should I go ahead and treat the water with something?
<I would always, ALWAYS treat wounds on frogs as per Red Leg, simply because healing sick frogs is extremely difficult. Best to use the medication as soon as wounds appear, rather than once those wounds becoming infected.>
(I don't have a hospital tank).
<Not an issue here. Antibiotics won't harm the other frogs or snails.>
Side note: I discovered that VitaChem can go a long way helping beta fish grow back their tails and is ultimately a great product for any and all fresh water fish…boosting their vitality. I should have some by tomorrow.
<None of these "boost" products is worth investing in. It's kind of like your doctor's opinion of vitamin pills -- for most healthy people eating balanced diets, vitamin pills contribute absolutely nothing of value whatsoever. Likewise here, anything marketed as a "boost" is more about extracting money from anxious fishkeepers. As/when fish or frogs get sick, you need to treat the pathogens involved with reliable medications, not vitamin supplements or whatever. You want an antibiotic here. Here in my country, the UK, antibiotics are only available from a vet, so for small fish and frogs, it's simply doesn't make much financial sense to visit a vet, so we tend to use antibacterial medications like Protozin or eSHa 2000 that work almost as well. But as I say, anything marketed in vague terms as a "boost" or "supplement" or "tonic" is probably a waste of money.>
Would this help my, frogs too?
<Almost certainly not. Your frog might get better of course, but the VitaChem likely won't have been the key factor in its recovery. Cheers, Neale.>

Restoring neglected reef tank help      3/22/19
Hello, Crew!
<Hey there!>
I have a 220 gallon DSB reef tank that is in need of help. To skip the long & painful back-story, a long and hard year resulted in a terrible neglect of a skimmer-less reef tank. Cyano and hair algae have covered all of the rock and I've lost most of my LPS and even the GSP.
<Yikes!>
I just ran a ChemiClean treatment--according to instructions--and will see how much that helps. I've also fired up the ASM G2 skimmer, even though it's so noisy and barely fits in stand/sump. I'm in the process of moving the sump to the basement so I can make it bigger, work on the components, and don't have to listen to them.
<Good>
Currently, the sump is just LR rubble and some Chaeto & Caulerpa. The DT has 270 lbs LR, 4" DSB, and roughly 5500gph of movement (4x 550 & 1x 3400 Wavemaker).
<How many GPH is your main pump?>
The coral left could happily live in a 29 gallon. The fish left are a 4" Desjardinii Tang, 3" flame angel, (both of which now pick at the Kenya Tree even though they're being fed properly) and 1.5" pajama cardinal. A few hermits are left and I haven't seen a snail in at least few weeks. Here are my current plans, if you think it makes sense: 1) Maintenance: 10% WC weekly, keep running skimmer, and remove algae by hand when doing WC. Top off w/ RODI & Kalkwasser. Build new sump to allow mechanical prefiter and PS at start, and rolling/rotating Chaeto. Use ChemiClean monthly until Cyano controlled. Consider adding UV (I already have one, just couldn't fit in the stand).2) Biology: revitalize DSB with activator from multiple sources, replenish snails (thinking 10-30 Nassarius, 20 Cerith, 20 Trochus, and 40 dwarf Cerith...or so. Restock fish slowly.
Any thoughts?
<Your plan sounds good, am not a fan of chemical additives though, so if this were my tank, I would do a major 30% water change (followed by the weekly 10% water changes you mentioned) while siphoning the top layer of the DSB… live rock can be cleaned of algae and Cyano with a brush in a separate vessel with tank water to keep most of the bacteria alive, the rest of your plan is OK. My plan B would be to keep the remaining habitants in the 29-gallon tank while reinstalling the 220-gallon from the very beginning. Choice is yours...Cheers. Wil.>

Re: Pairing gobies     3/21/19
Hi Bob, it's been a few weeks since adding my ywg and pistol shrimp and I said I would give you an update.
<Ah, good>
While the two gobies did not pair up there has been 0 issues housing them together. Honestly I am not even sure they know the other exists lol.
<These "meeting up" affairs often take time; just "happen" all at once at times. Patience>
Thank you for giving me the confidence to try it!
<Thank you for your report Nic. Cheers, BobF>
Re: Pairing gobies     3/21/19

That would be great if they paired eventually but all I really cared about was that they could coexist, so I am happy either way!
<What would our late mum state? (Just) Wait and watch... B>

Wrasse ID     3/21/19
Hi,
Can you please help in IDing this wrasse? Thanks.
<What the...?! Do you have other pix? Where was this collected (country, habitat)?
Bob Fenner>
Re: Wrasse ID     3/21/19

Just this one. Collected from the Bay of Bengal, India
<Okay... will look a bit more when am back from diving. Have you used Fishbase.org for the family and India? BobF>

Re: Wrasse ID     3/21/19
It does look like Timor wrasse to me. Let me know your thoughts.
<Ah yes; I do agree. This does appear to be Halichoeres timorensis BobF>
Re: Wrasse ID     3/21/19

No I haven't Bob. Happy diving!
<Thank you Beta. B>

Rocks and Cupramine      3/19/19
Hello Crew,
<Hello Chris>
Quick question around a debated topic. Will a small amount of rock (about 6-8 lbs.) in a 72-gallon hospital tank have a real effect on my Cupramine addition?
<Copper is always to be treated in a bare bottomed tank. Medications such as copper are rendered less effective or ineffective by the buffering action of calcareous media like gravel, sand, rock, coral skeletons, etc. (even in small amounts.) Furthermore, the media is now tainted for future invertebrates... ruined essentially... anemones, starfish, shrimp, etc. can overdose on the absorbed copper in the substrate even when the water tests copper free.>
I had to set up an emergency hospital tank out of my QT tank when I found that I am battling some sort of ich/MV breakout. Fish began to flash periodically and show small white spots and were completely covered.
Originally thought it was MV, but fish had "Lived" through it for a couple of weeks which I think would suggest Ich; MV would wipe the tank out much quicker. I went the Selcon, Garlic, water quality route to avoid breaking down my 265 reef, but it (whatever "it" actually is), came back with a vengeance and took 5 fish in 2 days. The tank is now fallow, and the survivors are in intensive care. This is not fun
Chris
<Certainly not fun. Cheers. Wil>

Center brace repair kit      3/17/19
I have a 125gal fish tank, old tank with one center brace which is pulling apart.
what to do?
<Is this a glass or an acrylic tank?...can you send us a photo of the damaged part? Wil.>
<<Refer them to the FAQs Wil. B>>

Re: center brace repair kit      3/18/19
Thanks for getting back with me.
<Most welcome>
Here are some pictures…the tear is about 5” long and 1/8” wide…we found a date of March 01 perfecto tank 47412126 125 gal
<I see, am familiar with these tanks and unfortunately this is too common. The tear is very likely to extend because of the water pressure, I recommend you to replace the frame, as there is no secure way to fix it. You will need to empty about half the tank to change the top frame. See this link for more information on frame repairs: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/glstkmoldng.htm.  Hope this helps. Cheers. Wil.>


Firebelly toad troubles       3/16/19
Hello,
I was given a Firebelly toad for my classroom. Yesterday he was fine yet today his head is being held to the side and swimming in circles. He is breathing rather fast and irregularly. His water is fine. He was eating fine but just today he is acting weird.
Any help would be greatly appreciated.
Judy
<Hello Judy. I'm sympathetic to your plight here, having recently had some Axolotls given to me by a student moving on, so now I've found myself looking after them -- and now some tadpoles! -- alongside my usual classroom animals and plants. Still, I'm going to direct you to some reading first:
http://www.xenopus.com/disease.htm
While tailored to another species, the basics apply to Fire-bellied Toads, Bombina spp. I'm also going to state the usual thing that we can't really offer much help unless you tell us something about the toad's environment. What do you mean by the "water is fine"? Do you have a mature biological filter here? What is the water temperature? What sort of foods are used?
Are there any other animals in the tank? Do you use water conditioner to neutralise chlorine with each water change? Is there any exposure to airborne toxins? Bunch of things I need to know before offering anything more specific to your situation. As is always the case with amphibians and reptiles, disease is MUCH easier prevented than cured. So ensuring you understand the basics and can house these toads properly is really important. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: deformed ACF tadpoles/froglets       3/16/19
Yes. This helps a lot. Thank you for your quick response!
<Most welcome. Cheers, Neale.>

Photo use        3/15/19
Hi there!
Who should I contact in your website for an authorization to use one of your photos? I am working on a scientific paper and it would be great to use a photo of Cirrhilabrus scottorum. This is for scientific purposes only (not commercial and I won't profit from the photo in any way).
Thanks,
Luiz
*Luiz A. Rocha, PhD*
Associate Curator and Follett Chair of Ichthyology
California Academy of Sciences
<Hey Luiz! Was going over a desc. by you and Randall in 08 today!
Which image is it... If mine, all are available, welcome for non-commercial use.
Will send/attach my best of the species to your email addy.
The one juv. shot from Moorea is tentative, those labeled IZOO 08 are aquarium shots.
Robert/Bob Fenner>
Re: Photo use

Thanks! Yes, it's the juvenile from Moorea that I am interested in. I will ask Bob!
Cheers,
Luiz
<Real good. Cheers Luiz. BobF>

250 gallon reef tank        3/15/19
I have 5 clownfish, 2 cleaner shrimp and 2 conch in QT tank for 4 weeks and was wondering if I can move them all to the DT/250-gal tank. No signs of ich and eating well.
<Well, it seems that they are ready to go;... I advise you to mix slowly the QT and DT water to minimize stress and ease the acclimation / adaptation process to the new environment.>
All tanks water parameters are perfect
<It would have been better if you had sent the exact numbers… >
Pls advise…Dan/Georgia
<Cheers. Wil.>

Re: Very sick Black spotted eel      3/14/19
Unfortunately our little Bartleby was too sick to save, he passed the morning after I emailed you.
<Sorry to hear that. The sad truth with Spiny Eels is that it is a million times easier to keep them healthy than to heal them when sick. So it really pays off to ensure substrate, water chemistry, and diet are all correct.>
I am absolutely determined to make the rest of them happy in their glass home though. Is this better for them? I've replaced all substrate and got a second filter for absolute pristine water.
<Sounds good. Did you send a photo? Nothing arrived. In any case, a clean tank with a soft, smooth substrate will help. Beyond the substrate, the other major cause of mortality is escaping the tank, so check for openings in the hood. As with all predators, a varied diet is key. Earthworms are the ideal staple (so readily taken they're like crack cocaine for these fish!) but a mix of seafood and white fish fillet will do fine. Smaller specimens enjoy bloodworms. I've avoid Tubifex because of how they are
farmed in essentially dirty water, though these are very readily taken.
Prawn and mussel meat is popular, but rich in thiaminase, so ensure only a small part of their diet.>
They all seem much more interested in me now.
<Good. When healthy and happy, these fish are widely recognised as being intelligent.>
Coming to greet me when I come home and swimming right up to the front of the glass. The littlest is even burrowing again! I feel like an idiot but you live and learn :)
<Indeed you do!>
Thank you,
Maddie
<Most welcome and good luck, Neale.>
Re: Very sick Black spotted eel      3/14/19

<<Looks much better with the sand. When you get a chance, I'd suggest replacing the rough rocks with smooth cobblestones too, and ideally, if the plastic plants feel sharp, replace them too. I'd strongly suggest floating Indian Fern. Floating plants do two key things. Firstly, Spiny Eels will "burrow" in a thick layer of floating plants, making them easier to watch.
Secondly, it inhibits their tendency to jump, so you're less likely to find them dead on the carpet. The bottom of the tank need only have sand; anything else is clutter as far as they're concerned, but anything hollow (like ceramic ornaments or clay pipes) will be used as hiding places.
Cheers, Neale.>>

Deformed ACF tadpoles/froglets      3/14/19
Greetings,
<Hello!>
I am breeding a batch of ACF tadpoles and I began noticing that the albinos (in particular) would start growing legs that were crossed and if they made to the froglet stage they were crippled.
I want to know the best practices for handling this. I am conflicted: should they be eliminated or should I let nature takes its course?? Thank you.
<Tough call, I know, and I'm in a similar situation right now with baby Axolotls, having hundreds more at one point than I could possibly rear.
Ideally, and probably most practically, cull any specimens less than perfect. Deformed specimens are going to have problems competing with healthy specimens for food, so unless kept on their own, would probably starve and be bullied to some degree. It's easier to cull them when young, using the method used for small aquarium fish; namely 30 drops Clove Oil (cheaply bought from health food shops and used for toothache) stirred into a bucket or tub containing 1 litre of aquarium tank water. Immerse the
tadpoles, and after a minute or two they will be completely sedated and immobile, and after at least 10 minutes (I'd suggest half an hour) they should be completely and utterly dead. Once air-breathing, things become harder because they would need to be culled as per amphibians, which I'm not expert in, and if you're dealing with froglets that size, I'd suggest calling a vet for advice on the best method. Clove Oil may still work, but I can't speak from experience. Hope this helps, Neale>

Re: Here's a weird question for you!      3/14/19
Thank you!
<You're most welcome. Wil>

Female Discus chases all Males.      3/14/19
Hi Mate,
<Shri>
I have a scenario in my tank. One of the Female Discus (who is the Queen of the Tank) keeps chasing the Blue diamond males (Both small and big ones).
He does not seem to disturb the other pair.
In total I have:
Males: 4 (2 small Blue diamond, 1 Big blue diamond and 1 with green and blue patterns))
Females: 4 ( 1 Green and Blue pattern, 1 big with blue dots, 1 big with blue patterns and 1 small yellow).
Sorry for the rough description.
Please suggest what would be the correct ratio and what changes should I be doing to have the right ratio.
<Mmm; more really has to do w/ the amount of space/room for all... such that they can form pairs, engage in tolerable fighting (with enough area to get away; avoid further pummeling). Sex ratios of about 1:1 are fine. IF one or more fish are getting "too beat"... as evidenced by darkening, hanging out at an angle, in corners, the surface; it is best to immediately move the one doing the damage elsewhere.>
Waiting for your response as always.
Thanks and regards,
Shriram Natarajan
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Here's a weird question for you! Truck bed liner pond      3/13/19
Hello Crew!
<Hey Renee,>
Haven't been in touch for a while so, of course, I had to
come up with the weirdest question possible to say hello!
<Okay>
The question is, can I safely use a preformed drop-in rigid pick-up truck bed liner as a liner for a fish pond? I mean, do you know if that
would be safe for fish or how I might find out if it is safe for fish?
<Several years ago, I did this to build a customer’s garden pond, and we didn’t have any issues with the truck liner, it appears that the plastic used in it is inert and don’t affect fish since it doesn’t release any toxic substances; I remember though using a pond liner as an extra backup but this was only to keep the water from leaking. I’d say that you can give it a try. Greetings. Wil.>

Re: Weird Zoas Behaviour     3/12/19
Hi Bob and thanks for the super quick reply, will do as advised and let you know !
All the best !
Francesco
<Thank you Francesco. BobF>

Re: More Spaghetti eel observation     3/12/19
Hello Neale and all you splendid people in WetWebMedia,
<Ben,>
Thank you for your quick reply! And thank you for complimenting my aquarium. Indeed it is a nice brackish aquarium community, low brackish at 1.005sg.
<Sounds great!>
The happiest inhabitants of my aquarium are the huge brackish tilapia (never get to know its Latin/scientific name. It is caught in the estuarium together with the mollies. I wonder what kind of tilapia is that?) and those two lovely Tetraodon nigroviridis. Interestingly, all those scary stories about pufferfish being aggressive barbarians does not apply on my tank, the puffers doesn't harm anyone, not even the smallest of mollies. In fact the tilapia is much more aggressive and greedy.
https://youtu.be/oUDXNEfEEeM
<Well, Sarotherodon melanotheron is the 'true' brackish water Tilapia, but most of the farmed species will handle brackish, even marine, conditions, including Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia rendalli.>
My puffers loves to bite on empty clamshells & sea snail shells, maybe they try to eat the worms and/or pieces of shrimps which sticks on the shells. Or do they like to munch on those to get more calcium?
<Might be either explanation, or both.>
As for shrimps, thank you for your advice, I will try to give my eels more varied diets as per your advice. Fish fillets usually does not survive human predation in my refrigerator ;) . So I will stock on squids for the eels. BTW what are cockles?
<Cerastoderma edule. But other burrowing marine clams probably just as good.>
Spaghetti eels are nice to have but I now understand why they are not popular as pets around here. Their lifecycle seems to consist of hiding under the sand, only came out for taking bits of food, then went back hiding for days. So most of the times, a keeper of spaghetti eels would feels like having no eels at all. They also said that larger morays would see much smaller eels as worms. So maybe I will have to rehouse my Whitecheek to accommodate more smaller eels, considering I will have Lamnostoma coming.
<Understood.>
I really hope I could upgrade to a bigger aquarium someday. Right now I usually give away my eels once they grown too big for the aquarium.
Well, thank you very much for your kind comments, and I will keep you posted!
Best Regards, Ben
<And to you, good luck! Neale.>

Weird Zoa Behaviour    3/11/19
Hello WWM !
<Hey Francesco!>
Is very long time that i read your website, i mostly often found either what i was searching, either something that was very interesting and useful for my hobbyist knowledge.
This time i need advise...
I am Francesco, proud owner of a pico and a nano, 10 years experienced reefer that just since last September re-started some reefing after a life-changing event (no details needed here :) )
So, on September 2018 i re-started with a 8gal (im a metric man, however i think for the site reference is better to use imperial qtys) Fluval shrimp tank 12"x12"x12", converted... i was eager to re-start, but i had not enough space available for something bigger and however i considered my knowledge and past experience enough to start consciously a nano/pico ( a very small one let's say...)
The tank was setup with a Kessil A80, A Sera PS130 Skimmer (oh the little jewel...) and a HOB filter loaded with ceramics bio media, and a Tunze Turbelle 6040 with controller (oh the beast !)
Inside is now left a 7.7 lb of LR, after an excessive initial load (22lb) that was strongly limiting the water circulation.
Over the months (and especially in February) the system was "converted" with an external "reactor" Sera Prefix, moved by a Newa 1.200 (317 gph :D )
which returns with several spray bars in the cube, creating a soft but consistent multi flow.
Daily, a Jebao OW-10 (oh the little funny thing) kicks 4 times x 30min just to move a bit the water in a chaotic way.
Parameters :
KH : 11.0 - 11.5
CA : 430 - 450
MG : 1350 - 1380
PH : i do not remember last time i checked...
Temp: 24-25
Sal : 1025
Life Stock is
Lysmata Amboinensis ,1 Debelius, 1 Little Ocellaris, 1 Clibanarius tric. Several Zoanthus colonies (4 kinds), 1 hitchhiker green neon Paly, 1 yellow Parazoanthus, a hitchhiker Discosoma (i would say a neglectus ...), Pachyclavularia, a hitchhiker Gorgonia (no photosyn) and a Stylophora bicolor.
Everything is thriving (NO3 1-2 ppm, PO4 0.1 ppm), spreading, coloring, reacting, multiplying... the Gorgonia is now branching from the original little single branch (which i consider a personal success... for the moment...)
All but a little colony of Zoanthus (the last i have put into)
<This is likely an important fact>

that in the last 2 months reduced from 6/7 polyps to 2.
The colony was (and still is) on the frag plate, and was quite arrogantly (from me) positioned in the middle of another giant spreading Zoanthus colony (with some space ... 1" around).
<Mmm; not enough: Insufficient for chemical allelopathy>
While aware that could have been some "chem war", i witnessed many times a self assessment of the fighting parties (mostly softies) and also consider it a necessity for the creation of the coral palette on the LR, so i decided to put them there and observe.
<Okay>
The polyps started to die, one by one, showing the distress signs (irritated polyp, closed mostly of the day or just half opened for few very minutes) one by one, never together.
This behaviour, follow by the progressive shrinking and detachment of the polyp, led me to the conclusion that the disease was parasitic.
<? Really? Did you observe actual parasites?>
I continued so to observe the sick polyps trying to catch snails, Nudis, spiders, eggs, holes, excrements and whatever else anomalous, day and night... but nothing.
<Ahh>
Just once i removed an Asterina that was clearly eating one polyp, but i always had the suspicion that was an opportunistic behaviour from the star and not a predatory one.
However the star was removed.
The polyps continued to recede and die.
Two weeks ago i so decided to move the Zoas, and being the "little" tank quite overcrowded, i moved them to the "big".
Very fast : the "big" is a 20 gal tank with 3 movement pumps and a return (200gph) granting a very good diverse flow, has some kind of sump system (my project, quite long to explain, but the functionality is a sump functionality), Sera PS 130 Skimmer (oh i damn love Sera skimmers...) and the parameters are a mirror of the "little".
The tank is equipped with a Kessil 360 which runs at 80% peak (30% blue) 10hrs/dd.
The "big" has started on 07 December 2018, is a quite younger tank but however had a good cycle and just recently got the first load of softies (1 Ric, 1 Rhoda, 2 Discosoma, 3 Zoanthus, 1 Clavularia) all of them "ultra" (as i would like to have finest specimen there, only) and has the classic (for me) Amboinensis + debelius set, and an Ecsenius bicolor that was called in for the algae/GHA initial war as well with 4 Clibanarius tric. and 3 Trochus.
I placed the "sick" Zoa in a very open place, with no neighbours, good light and good movement. Probably i placed them in the best spot of the tank that i was reserving for the (very) future SPS i wanted to try there... but hey... my Zoas are sick !
The behaviour of the sick polyp seemed initially to persevere, with a huge anxiety from my side due to the possibility of having introduced a parasite in the "big" (who is yelling since the start of my email "QUARANTINE TAAAAAAANK!!!!" ??? :D)... however is now a couple of days that the polyp
does not close anymore, however now both of them are stretching up with half closed mouth (also the mouth is stretching to the light), the foot has a length that i never seen in a Zoas... almost 1" ...
So... what is going on by your opinion ? I would exclude a light problem as mostly they now receive a bit more of light, PAR wise... water parameters are ok, and under direct feed (reef powder food from ocean nutrition 2xweek), they positively react...
I do not see an immediate threat and generally i never act on the rush if a catastrophe is not already ongoing, but i exhausted all my possible explanations and i do not feel comfortable so...
While waiting for your reply, and apologizing for the long (and still incomplete) email, i express my whole admiration for the WWM knowledge shared base, the crew and the thousands of times that directly or indirectly you provided help to some reefer pal in trouble...
Thanks and My Best Regards
Francesco
<My best guess is that the continuing odd/stressful behavior was a continuation of the allelopathy from the smaller system. I would leave the one odd-acting Zoanthid colony where it is for now; and not worry re possible pathogen involvement. I might step up your dosing of iodide-ate here.
Please do write back in a few weeks time regarding your further observations. Bob Fenner>

Re: African dwarf frogs      3/10/19
Hello Neale!!
<Erica,>
Thank you for helping me!
<Most welcome.>
Can these antibiotics be used on the frog that shares a tank with two other frogs And fish?
<Yes and yes! Do be careful about mixing fish and frogs -- often ends up bad for the frogs.
Cheers, Neale.>

More Spaghetti eel observation      3/10/19
Hello Neale, Marco and all of you good people at WetWebMedia,
<Hello Ben,>
Here are more observations of spaghetti eels behavior.
https://youtu.be/0h3ZRQzUKXQ
https://youtu.be/miFpO_fSUP4
<Very cool. Looks like a great brackish water community tank you've got there.>
I traded the larger eel with a medium sized one. Now they both seems to be same species. I also look forward to receive a Lamnostoma kampeni eel maybe within a few months.
<Now that's something you don't see in the trade very often!>
My spaghetti eels now spend much more time under the sand. Often for days.
They only come out when hungry. But once they feel hungry, they will come out and will take chunks of shrimps bigger than their mouths.
<Cool. Do be careful with shrimp, prawn and mussel meat though. Contains a lot of thiaminase. Implicated in long-term vitamin deficiency problems in carnivorous animals. Use as maybe one-third or less of the food offered. Use white fish fillet, cockles, squid and other thiaminase-free foods for
the majority of their diet.>
They also make the interesting body knots like morays when eating. And they also capable of snagging food 'from above' like a snake eel.
<Interesting.>
My procurer recommend me to put my moringuas in full FW, or if I really have to have brackish (for my GSP and brackish tilapia), he recommend low-end brackish. Higher brackish would make uncomfortable both Moringua and Lamnostoma, he said.
<Certainly worth experimenting. With these eels what you tend to see is a hunger strike if the salinity is wrong, weeks or months before the fish dies. So if the fish continue to eat well in low-end brackish or freshwater conditions, and there's no evidence of skin infections, then they could well be fine. Realistically, they likely move in and out of estuarine conditions, and there might be no "perfect" salinity, and instead offering a few months in salty water, then a few months in fresh, would actually be best.>
Well, that's my current observation. I will report more when I received the Lamnostoma. Thank you and have a wonderful weekend!
Best Regards, Ben
<Thanks so much for writing. Lovely videos! Neale.>

Very sick Black spotted eel        3/9/19
I write to you because I am at the end of my rope with this poor guy, his name is Bartleby, I bought him and his 4 friends (who are all lighter in color then him) from a exotic fish store 12 days ago.
<Do bear in mind that Mastacembelus species tend not to be social. If this really is the Black Spotted Spiny Eel, Mastacembelus dayi, then you can expect adults around 50 cm in length. I'm a little skeptical that these really are Black Spotted Spiny Eels because that species is very rarely traded and expensive, but if you did get some, well done! They're nice fish.>
He was in better shape, not as ragged as he is now, but cloudy eye. One of the others has a could eye too, but is active and eating and doing awesome after I treated them. Then live in 125 gallons with two bichirs. The guy at the fish store said they hurt themselves because they were in very coarse gravel tank and sent me home with Methylene blue and said they'll be fine.
<Nope. Methylene Blue is essentially and anti-fungal treatment, and your retailer really should know better. Your Spiny Eel has a bacterial infection, almost certainly caused by the rough substrates he has been exposed to. The substrate you have is MUCH too coarse for these fish; just looking at it made me wince. Either smooth lime-free sand for these fish, or else something organic such as coir fibre or peat. Never, ever gravel.>
I treated as it says on the bottle and got zero relief for him.
<Indeed.>
The guy said well I don't know then, he'll live or die. My water parameters are good for the species and no one else is like this.
<When you say, "good", what do you mean? Please do send us the water test kit results next time. To recap, neutral water chemistry is ideal for Spiny Eels, with the addition of a little salt (not enough for brackish, but 1-2 gram/litre) often being helpful. Indawgyi Lake, where your species comes from, has slightly soft to medium hardness and an around neutral pH, so I'd suggest pH 7, maybe 5-15 degrees dH. Avoid extremes. Obviously zero ammonia and nitrite, as with any fish. Replace the substrate with smooth silica sand (such as pool filter sand, though check this is soft and lime free first) and medicate as per Finrot using the best antibiotic or antibacterial remedy you can get; Seachem KanaPlex would be a good choice if you live in the US or somewhere else antibiotics are sold in aquarium shops. Alternatively, a proper antibacterial, such as eSHa 2000 or Waterlife Myxazin. A little salt, as described above, will help. Do not use any general purpose or New Age cures such as Melafix as these are completely useless even at the best of times, and your Spiny Eel needs urgent help. It won't recover in a tank with gravel, so if changing the gravel today isn't an option, use a hospital tank with no substrate but several hollow ornaments he can hide in. Also, bear in mind what a white substrate like yours will stress any fish, so really, needs to be disposed of just for their sanity, let alone physical health. Fish despise upwelling light as it is so unnatural.>
I've been reading through everything I can on here and I'm just not sure what to do for him. I'm willing to try anything, we've grown very attached to him.
<I would imagine! These are superb fish, so a good catch.>
Maddie
<There's a bunch of reading I'm going to direct you to, here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_4/v4i3/Spiny_Eels/Spiny%20Eels.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/spinyeelsmonk.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/matacembelids.htm
Hopefully these'll get you some more information for long-term success.
Cheers, Neale.>

Tropical Water Lily        3/9/19
I have a 200 gallon pond with one flowering tropical water lily. This week I added a filter with a heavy water spout. Is it true lilies cannot have moving water?
<Yes, this is correct. Lilies are adapted to ponds with no water current, or else very sluggish water bodies, such as canals and ditches. If their stems are pulled too hard, the plants are simply snapped or uprooted. If the current is not that strong, but still brisk, then what happens is the stems of the leaves and flowers get twisted up and tangled, resulting in the leaves and flowers dying. Another problem is if water droplets splash on the leaves. These cause some sort of 'burning' that damages the leaves, leading to rot. So by all means have a filter, fountain or waterfall in your pond, but plant the Water Lilies well away from them, in a spot with little current and no risk of splashing. This might be in a shallow edge away from the waterfall for example, protected by rocks that diminish the water current.>
Thanks
Alfredo
Puerto Rico
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

African dwarf frogs, systems, trauma        3/9/19
To who it may concern,
<That'd be me!>
My name is Erica and my I have had three African dwarf frogs now for three weeks and all are doing great except last Sunday, one of my little guys got his leg stuck in our filter intake.
<Oh dear. Avoid internal canister filters, and instead use air-powered sponge filters if possible.>
We removed him and it definitely appeared he broke his leg.
<Certainly seems plausible.>
I isolated him for almost two days until he jumped out and went back into general population. Now today there is some huge white gross thing growing out of his leg and I have no clue what to do! Please help!!
<Going to direct you to some reading. First here, and if you look at the 'Red Leg' section at top, the antibiotics recommended are probably your best bet:
http://www.xenopus.com/disease.htm
More generally, do read here for care:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/FrogsArtNeale.htm
While these frogs are adaptable and easy to keep, they do have a few non-negotiable needs.
Cheers, Neale.>

Question
Can I keep a Pangasius shark with Koi?     3/8/19

<Theoretically, yes. But in practice it will be very difficult. Pangasius Shark get to over 100 cm in length. They are truly massive fish. So you'd need a huge aquarium (thousands of litres) and more likely, a pond. You would also want to keep temperatures moderate, around 22-24 degrees C suiting both the Pangasius and the Koi. In the tropics it would be possible to keep specimens of similar size together in a pond. But big Pangasius would view smaller Koi as food, and you also have to work around their very
different diets, Koi being herbivores and Pangasius more omnivores, though both should thrive on good quality floating pellets. Finally, Pangasius are nervous, highly active, even migratory fish that normally live in groups that swim up and down rivers. It's very hard to keep a singleton happy for any length of time, and they usually end up damaging themselves (often their eyes) when they panic. Again, a large, circular pond would be ideal for a group of both species, but it's hard to justify keeping a single
Pangasius in an aquarium or small pond.>
Thank you.
<You're welcome. Neale.>

Re: Final Stocking--Wrasse Confusion     3/8/19
Hello Again, I'm pretty sure Live Aquaria sent me 3 male Whip Fins. Their find are already long and colorful. I've attached a pic. Am I right?
<Mmm; yes; but not "very" male...>
And if they are all males, I'm assuming they can't be in the same 90 gallon aquarium, can they?
<I'd go ahead and place them... This species is often crowed together, all-males at wholesalers... and seems to get along... at least in the short/er term. Likely one of the trio will further develop into the
primary, alpha male, and one, two might revert to (more) female coloration, def. behavior>
Hope you are able to answer quickly because I'm afraid to put them all in the same tank. Thanks,
<Cheers, BobF, headed back home tonight for under a week>

re: Tiny little bubbles on everything.       3/7/19
Hi Bob,
<Mandio>
No, as a matter of fact, the bubbles were bad first thing in the morning and have disappeared over the daylight hours. Very strange.
<Indeed. BobF>
Mandy
re: Tiny little bubbles on everything.       3/7/19

I copied this from the Faq page link you sent me,......Eric R. Wrote this.
Perhaps this nitrate cycle is more active at night? Turning Nitrate to Nitrogen bubbles?
<Mmm; maybe... never encountered personally. B>
Mandy
<<Hmm, I wonder if we have a different situation here? Bubbles rising from your substrate is a natural and desirable function of the nitrogen cycle which is always ongoing in your tank. As nitrate is converted to nitrogen gas in your substrate, the gas is liberated and rises as bubbles to the surface of the tank. If your "problem" is these bubbles you see when water movement is stopped in the tank, then you have no problem at all my friend>>

Re: Sick guppy - black spots       3/7/19
Hi Neale,
<Luciana,>
OMG, I'm very sorry for the photos sizes! I've forgot to change it. Wont happen again.
<Cool.>
Actually, the pH went a bit up, from 7.2 to 7.4, my tap water is alkaline.
And as for ammonia, I check the parameters one per week, 2 days before the water change it was normal (by normal, I mean less then 0,25).
<You do want zero. Any ammonia is bad. Check your tap water. Sometimes this has ammonia in it. Use a good water conditioner to neutralise this.>
Uhn, I have some ramshorns on that aquarium, they were acquired in a store.
They are there before the fish (this particular one is with me for 2 months, the snails are with me for 4, I guess - I have the red, and I wanted the blue ones).
<Should be harmless.>
Thank you a lot for your considerations. Is there any "soft treatment" that you would suggest in his case? He is quite stressed, and I would not like to go with treatment since is not possible to know if it might not be a fluke.
<If the fish is happy and feeding now, I'd not treat with anything. If you are only keeping Guppies, you could add some salt, maybe 2-3 gram/litre.
This will help recovery.>
And thank you for your time :)
<Welcome.>
Luciana
<Cheers, Neale.>

Sick guppy - black spots        3/6/19
Hi guys,
<Hello Luciana,>
Could you please help me?
<And if you could help us, too, by not sending 18 MB of photos! Such big files fill up our email mailboxes, causing other people to have their messages bounced back. Some of us travel around the world and rely on using phones or modems to access the Internet, and it goes without saying that
big files really cause problems in that situation.>
I was reading through the conversations you published, but I thought it would be better to ask directly.
<Sure thing.>
I have some guppies living in a planted aquarium. I've done a water change 2 days ago and yesterday I noticed one of my white guppies had his tail crumpled. I went to check the parameters and they are fine (no ammonia, nitrites, nitrates), the pH has changed a bit, and the temperature, due a change on the water dropped a bit ( I live in Brazil, so it was quite hot, and now the temperature dropped, so the aquarium has went back to the usual 26 Celsius).
<Guppies are adaptable, but they dislike soft, acidic water chemistry. So when you say the pH has changed, do you mean down? A steady pH around 7.5 is ideal for Guppies; anything below 7 tends to cause problems, at least with farmed 'pet' Guppies. There may well be wild populations living in softer, more acidic water conditions.>
The aquarium is heavily planted (and I use dirt under a layer of 1. 1/2 inches of black basalt).
<Sounds fine.>
I do not know if the last change disturbed the soil or something else, but anyway, my white guppy got black spots. I've checked the other fish and they seem fine, but this guy was very upset since the change, so I'm guessing he is the only one affected.
<Indeed. The two commonest explanations for black patches are these:
Firstly, exposure to ammonia. This causes chemical burns, and the dark patches reflect that. The second is sometimes called Black Spot Disease, and it is caused by a parasite that occurs in ponds and other environments where its complex life cycle is viable. Neascus is one such parasite; there may be others. Because their life cycle needs snails and/or birds, this parasite never lasts for long in aquaria. But in ponds it may persist for a while, infecting healthy fish.>
Besides the spot on his back and had, he had one on his tail too. I believe it's a fluke, but since I did not know for sure, I made a blue Methylene dip of 10 minutes with him
<Methylene Blue is mostly for fungus, and doesn't really help much with anything else. I'm skeptical of a fluke, but since your photos are after the dip, it's hard to be sure. Flukes are very varied, and difficult to
identify without a microscope. Praziquantel is the most popular option for treating Flukes, though other antihelminth medications may work better. Often you need to use several treatments for a complete cure.>
He was not happy, but then went quiet. After the dip, I notice that some of the spots turned vivid red (I'm guessing it's a sign of blood) and he was very prostrated for one hour. Now he seems better, he has eaten, but he still have some black spots.
The pictures are from after the dip.
Could you please help me? And if you can, please tell me what I should do to prevent other fish to get sick.
Cheers,
- Luciana
<Hope the above helps. Cheers, Neale.>

Zebra Nerite Snail Anatomy - 03/06/19
Dear WWM Crew,
I have scoured WWM (and the internet) trying to find an answer to my question which is:
What is the function of the white apex (i.e. tip) found on Zebra Nerite Snails? (i.e. what purpose does it serve?).
<The function/purpose? As with the stripes, it's likely just part of its camouflage. There are lots of insects and animals which have a prominent central spot, or pair of spots, as part of their coloring. Theories as to the purpose these spots serve are largely speculative. Depending on the animal, they could either serve to confuse predators or perhaps attract mates - or maybe both.>
Can you help?
Thanks in advance.
John P Coates
<Cheers,
Sara L.>
Re: Zebra Nerite Snail Anatomy        3/6/19

Hi Sara,
Many thanks for your speedy reply, which is very much appreciated. I posed the question for two reasons. Firstly, because I am simply curious to find out about these things. Secondly, because someone suggested that it was caused by erosion.
<Well, of course, without a photo or specific species identification, I can't say for sure, but from what you are describing, I doubt it. There is some natural subtle variation among individuals, the apex of some will be just a bit flatter or whiter than others.>
I don’t think it is the result of erosion as it is too perfectly formed. It is a complete white circle that is indented at its centre. Erosion would likely take on an irregular shape.
<Typically, yes, erosion is less symmetrical.>
John P Coates
<Cheers,
Sara L.>

Tiny little bubbles on everything.        3/6/19
Hi Bob Fenner,
<Sass>
I've looked and looked on your site, but all I see are articles about bubbles from skimmers or leaks in plumbing, but that's not what I have.
<Mmm; scattered about, did you try the search tool (on every page):
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/bubtroubfaq2.htm
and the other FAQs files linked above>
I have tiny little clear bubbles on my macro algae and on my peppermint shrimp, on the glass and the back wall. Now it's not like these are covered with tiny bubble, but there are enough that it's noticeable. Even on my pulsing Xenias! It's very strange.
<Mmm; as in "unusual"? Not really>
I thought, OMG! I'm boiling the tank, the heater must have malfunctioned, but no, the temp says 76.8 degrees. I have one of those hang in the tank thermometers in both my tanks. A little bit lower than it will be by noon.
Usually runs about 78-80 degrees depending on the amount of sunshine. This is a 13 gallon peninsula tank,....and it looks fine. Has been up for a couple years,...and now and then I do see bubbles, but not on the peppermint shrimp! Nothing in the tank seems upset or anything,....it's just weird.
The only thing that has changed is I took a small live rock from my 25 gallon reef tank and moved it to the 13 gallon to try to get some macro algae in that tank. It's makes it looks so much better to have some green! 
Someone mentioned Nitrogen bubbles?
<?... I'll offer suggestions re what these bubbles may be below>
And I do have a deep sand bed for the anaerobic bacteria, and now and then a bubble or a few will come out and percolate up to the top,.... So I suppose it could be that. But why all of a sudden are they on my peppermint shrimps? Certainly I can see the bubbles in the deep sand bed if I look at the glass sides.
<... could be gaseous anaerobic product... H2S, not N2... but not likely; as hydrogen sulfide would likely kill your livestock>
They look more like tiny O2 bubbles, but I don't have that much macro algae in there!
<Ah yes; MUCH more likely... from "over" productive photosynthesis... Do you have/notice this bubble presence more as the (day) light progresses?>
Just a little bit on 1 live rock. The other rock is covered in sponge and xenias.
<Nice>
This isn't an emergency I don't think,...but I'd like to know if it is normal? Or should I be concerned?
<I would not be concerned; might turn my lights, lighting down a bit time and/or intensity wise... Will pass on its own in time; out-gas to the surface w/ no dire consequences otherwise>
Thanks again,
Mandy in NJ, USA
<Cheers, Bob Fenner out in Kona currently>

Re: Goldfish Listless need help       3/5/19
Hi Bob. - Hope you are well. Lina here again.
<Yes Lina; thank you>
My fish tank water reads perfectly and my goldfish of 22 years is getting better slowly. But that's because I gave up on just salt and water changes and added Maracyn 2 as directed.
<Ah good>
My fish had a couple symptoms that I didn't see right away - one of his front fins looks like it is partially
torn and his left eye has a whitish circular discoloration where the iris would be. He is eating now is no longer listless but his 2 above symptoms look almost the same after the 5 th day of Maracyn 2 treatment. I am changing out the water tonight putting in new filters etc. should I wait a few days and try the Maracyn 2 again or just stop meds altogether and wait longer ?
<I would use either/both Maracyn products for three consecutive treatments, three days apart, with substantial water changes twixt re-treatments>
Also I am feeding him small bits of some boiled organic spinach to supplement his regular flake food. ( He likes it.) Unfortunately I have to travel to Dubai and Nepal from March 11 to April 4 to work and Fishy will be in the hands of a pet minder so I am desperately trying to get his health back up to normal before my trip. The Maracyn 2 seemed to help. - he is better But not 100 per cent. But the little white bit on his eye is still there. I think his fin will heal I have stress coat and will use it with this 25 per cent H20 change tonight.
Thank you for your advice !!! Lina
<I say steady on w/ this plan. BobF>

Re: Striped Fang Blenny and Invertebrates; now foods, feeding       3/5/19
Hi Bob,
<Howdy Callum>
I emailed a while back regarding my Striped Fang Blenny who was biting my resident snail population. Thank you for your advice, I have been keeping him well fed and have had no issues since.
<Ah, good>
However, something odd happened after I successfully weaned the blenny on to high quality Dainichi & Spectrum pellet foods. He now shows little interest in the foods he once devoured, like garlic enhanced frozen Mysis, Brine Shrimp and live Black Worms! Yet once I add the pellets he goes crazy for them and even out-competes my gutsy Green Chromis. I just thought I would share this as I’ve never come across a fish that almost shuns frozen food (he stills eats some) in favour of dry foods.
<Some have exceptional gustatory preference... Like children's cereal eh?>
I suppose it may not be a bad problem to have but I will work on getting him to eat more frozen
offerings. If you have any insight into this I would love to hear from you.
<High quality dried, pelleted foods of complete nutrition are fine as a staple diet>
Many thanks,
Callum
<As many welcomes. Bob Fenner>

Tetra sudden illness        3/4/19
Howdy,
<Doody,>
We’ve a 29 gal tank we clean & test weekly. Normal ranges. 5 Serpae tetras, 3 other tetras (silver?) a loach and a Pleco. been with us 2+ years with no problems. Everyone ELSE is fine.
<Cool.>
Between yesterday morning roll call and today’s, this Serpae tetra went ghost pale, floating weird a la swim bladder, and I think he/she looks bloated. Wedged itself into plant leaves. And stopped moving & swimming. Infrequent breathing.
Any ideas on illness?
<Hard to say. Small tetras sometimes contract diseases that are all very similar in appearance (lethargy, loss of colour, disinterest in food, perhaps social behaviour oddities like leaving the group and hiding instead). In some cases they are bacterial, in others microbes of other types, like Pleistophora. In all honesty, with these very small fishes, it's often best to simply euthanise to reduce the risk of cross-infection. Clove Oil does the job nicely.
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/euthanasia.htm
Serpae Tetras are generally very tough, legendarily so, though they are also notoriously nippy towards other fish and aggressive towards their own kind, especially when feeding. There are some lookalike species (such as Ember Tetras) that aren't nearly so tough, and don't handle hard water (for example) as long as Serpae Tetras. So I'd keep an open mind in that direction, too. Cheers, Neale.>
Crack
I have a 75 gallon freshwater aquarium. I just noticed a small crack on my front panel near the top. I am going to replace the tank, but cannot do so immediately. Is my tank less likely to break if I lower the water below the crack?
<Yes; much more so the lower you drain the water down>
I have had (and moved) many tanks and am disappointed this one cracked as it is the only tank I haven’t ever moved. I really just want this tank to hold on until I can replace it. Anything advice to keep it going? Or is this an emergency situation?
<Can't tell from the data provided. See/Read on WWM re if interested>
Any advice would be helpful.
Thanks,
Deb
<Bob Fenner>

Crack        3/4/19
I have a 75 gallon freshwater aquarium. I just noticed a small crack on my front panel near the top. I am going to replace the tank, but cannot do so immediately. Is my tank less likely to break if I lower the water below the crack?
<Yes; much more so the lower you drain the water down>
I have had (and moved) many tanks and am disappointed this one cracked as it is the only tank I haven’t ever moved. I really just want this tank to hold on until I can replace it. Anything advice to keep it going? Or is this an emergency situation?
<Can't tell from the data provided. See/Read on WWM re if interested>
Any advice would be helpful.
Thanks,
Deb
<Bob Fenner>

Re: Final Stocking--Wrasse Confusion        3/4/19
Thanks for the quick reply! I was able to order the recommended fish
through Live Aquaria, which makes me happy as everything I've ever received
from them has been healthy!
<Ah, good. Most all their stock in turn is from Quality Marine; a paragon
of excellence in the trade.
BobF>

Re: Oscar health concerns      3/3/19
Hi Neale,
<Sean,>
A little update for you, because hell, this is what it's all about right?
<Something like that, yes!>
Now, I was mistaken when I said my nitrate levels were zero -- I didn't even have a test for nitrate, it was nitrite! Which, were indeed *near* zero.
<Good-ish. You do indeed want zero nitrite, and anything above that can honestly be a stress factor for many fish, even below 0.5 mg/l. Cichlids are notoriously sensitive to ammonia and nitrite compared with, say, Danios or Corydoras, which is why the latter have been used to mature new tanks, whereas cichlids almost never are. If you're detecting any nitrite at all, you probably need to decrease stocking, decreasing feeding, or increasing filtration, because the filter isn't keeping up with the amount of ammonia excreted by your fish. The backlog, so to speak, is the nitrite you detect.
The only exception here might be if the tank is relatively new, with a filter less than 6 weeks old, in which case the nitrite part of the biological filtration maturing process might not be completed yet.>
Having to get a test for nitrate, I bought some 5 in 1 API test strips and found the following: GH 0 mg/L, KH 0 mg/L, pH 6.0, nitrite 0-0.5 mg/L, and nitrate 80+ mg/L.
<Yikes!>
Immediately, I knew it was time for a water change and I even fasted them for a few days in hopes of mitigating the amount of ammonia they might produce until the situation was under control.
<Part of the solution, yes; but more frequent or more substantial water changes are the usual way of minimising nitrate.>
Taking your advice, I did a full Metronidazole treatment and the results couldn't of been better!
<Good oh!>
Whether this was the solution to my problem or not -- I know it is not the magic formula in having long term success. Unfortunately, I don't have the equipment to test the oxygen in the tank, but with tons of surface agitation and very few "dead spots," I don't see this as being a problem.
<Indeed.>
Having been about a week, everything looks great and I couldn't thank you enough.
<Glad to help.>
However, my waters nitrate levels still seem to be considerably high based on your suggestions -- that is, somewhere between 20 and 40 mg/L in the tank and nearly 20 mg/L out the tap.
<So this is, realistically, the minimum nitrate level you'll have in your aquarium. Not the end of the world, but you have to accept that this is not ideal for cichlids. Frequent water changes, light stocking, and minimal food input are the main things you can do here. In other words, ensuring the nitrate creeps up as slowly as possible. Oscars are greedy, but they're also omnivores, so with luck you can offer bulky, but less protein-rich, foods that will result in less ammonia. Many will eat peas and other vegetables, which is a good start. Otherwise, just be really, really careful not to overfeed.>
Is there anything I can really do here? Or is it time to enjoy the fish?
<A little from column A, a little from column B. Yes, you should be trying to manage the nitrate, but yes, if the fish has perked up, and you can keep nitrate below 40 mg/l, you should be fine. If practical, 'cutting' tap water with deionised water or rainwater will obviously reduce the nitrate a lot. Nice Fire Eel, by the way! Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Securing formalin      3/3/19
Thanks bob. I did call around the area and not one was willing to sell it or have any motivation to tell me where to get it.
<Did you call cemeteries as I mentioned?>
The stuff I have is 18.5 percent formalin, ad .44 percent malachite green.
If I wish to obtain the 37 percent formalin amount, which is normally done at 1 ml per gallon, if I did 2 ml per gallon, by weight that would give me 37 percent (18.5x2) but that would also increase the malachite green (.44x2)
Would this be too much malachite green in your experience?
<It is too much IMO/E>
Thanks, Bobby
Re: Securing formalin      3/3/19

Bob,
<Yo>
I did call two, the first said they wouldn’t deal chemicals to the public, second one asked why I was needing to obtain it, when I began my rant, she interrupted and said she couldn’t help me . I live in New Jersey, a very regulated state, perhaps they don’t want to take a chance .
You telling me it is too high is all I needed to hear.
I will see where else online it might be had.
Thank you kindly, Bobby
<You know... Kordon/Novalek used to sell 3 % solution... Can it be ordered, shipped there? >

Dragon Goby Injury      3/3/19
Good afternoon,
<Hello Joel,>
About three weeks ago, I noticed some injuries appear on my Dragon Goby. A few round holes appeared on his skin (see attached pictures) as well as redness localized to a few areas such as on the underside of his head, though these have since faded. He is also less interested in food and more
lethargic. I honestly thought he was dead yesterday given how little he moved during the day but it picked up some at night.
<I see these holes. While clean, which indicates bacterial infection is minimal, you're obviously looking at muscle, so the skin has been punctured quite deeply. Usually such wounds indicate either physical injury (e.g., abrasions) or attacks by other fish.>
The tank is a 55 gallon brackish tank kept at about 77F and 1.006 specific gravity.
<Sounds fine.>
I am unsure of the pH/hardness of the water, but the water used in tank changes causes hard water stains so I never was too concerned with brackish fish.
<Indeed. If you're using a good quality marine salt mix, pH and hardness should be taken care of automatically.>
Ammonia and Nitrites are 0, Nitrates were at approximately 40 ppm when I noticed the issues but this has been reduced to about 10 ppm. Tank filtration is done with two power filters adding up to about 7x tank turnover per hour. Current tankmate is a Silver Scat, about 6.5" long. I have seen no new issues with the Scat, though for the past year she has been skittish.
<They are skittish fish, and often settle down better alongside similar fish or even Monos or Sailfin Mollies. But even then, they are restless and they can be nervous. Silver Scats are beautiful though, and never seem to get too big, maybe 20 cm/8 inches under home aquarium conditions. So in a big tank, keeping three or more might be a possibility. My specimen, however, cohabited with a trio of Monos, a West African Mono, and an Archerfish. All got along fine in 200 gallons.>
Understand that this tank is too small for the adult size of these fish; I have purchased a new home that I move into in about 6 weeks which has a basement suitable for a 150-200 gallon tank.
<Ideal.>
After noticing the injuries, I tried a few things in an attempt to fix what I perceived may have been environmental root cause:
1) I did 33-40% water changes every other day for about 10 days. I also added a bit of marine iodide into each water change on three of the days.
Nitrate levels reduced but no positive change in behavior. In the event that low hardness was a concern, I also added in approximately 1 tablespoon of unscented Epsom salt per gallon of water changed to the buckets on two of the days.
<Certainly ensuring good water quality will be key, alongside a reliable antibiotic or antibacterial.>
2) I noticed gray areas in sand where anaerobic bacteria patches are. The sand bed is about 3" deep so understood that this is normal. I cleaned up the areas and added another half inch of sand to the bottom of the entire tank. No change in behavior.
<Is the sand too sharp perhaps? Are there any rocks in there, such as Tufa rock or dead coral, that might scratch the fish? One popular approach with these Gobies is to find some PVC pipe work of appropriate diameter and length, silicone on a nice layer of sand and gravel, leave to dry, and once cured, partially bury in the sand. The Goby will happily use this, and being smooth on the inside, it's nice and safe. Any hollow ceramic ornament is likely to be used, too, and things like clay sewerage pipes (obviously new ones!) look very authentic once covered with algae, giving a harbourside feel to the tank if used carefully, perhaps with a few empty oyster shells silicone on for decoration.>
3) I added in an air power box filter to the bottom of the tank, thinking additional oxygenation may be helpful. No change in behavior.
<A good call, though these fish are actually quite well adapted to low oxygen levels.>
I can think of a few potential root causes; physical injury from something rough in the tank or envenomation from the Scat are two I am leaning towards. Looking through the Handbook of Fish Diseases by Dieter Untergasser, the only skin condition which may fit the symptoms is Fish TB, but I am unsure if I see any bent spine concerns given how sinuous they move to begin with. But if that is the case, I'd like to take action sooner rather than later.
<I do not think a Mycobacteria infection is the issue here. The wounds are very clean, with little evidence of dead tissue or bacterial scum.>
The pH of my tap water is approximately 7.5, but the tests I use do not seem to work well with the brackish water and so I get varying numbers. I am confident, though, that the water here is hard and basic.
Any thoughts you have on the matter would be greatly appreciated. Thank you for your time.
Joel
<Hope the above helps. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Dragon Goby Injury (RMF?)<I'd remove the Silica substrate>      3/3/19

Neale,
<Joel,>
Thank you so much for following up.
<Welcome.>
The sand is approximately 85% pool filter (silica) sand with the rest being aragonite sand mixed in for buffering purposes and a small amount of rounded gravel for aesthetics.
<Sounds fine.>
There is a few pieces of lava rock in the tank which could very well be the cause here.
<Would agree; remove.>
I sanded down the rock until it was smooth to my skin (though "your mileage may vary" as the saying goes) and used cyanoacrylate to adhere oyster shells to it, creating an oyster reef look which I had gotten from WetWebMedia. When I upgrade I will consider whether I want to leave this out or not.
<Understood. I'd be removing any/all abrasive rocks/shells for now. Have only the soft substrate and water worn cobbles or whatever. See how the fish recovers. If all goes well, you can probably be sure the rocks were the cause of abrasions, e.g., when the Goby was burrowing. They're adapted to mudflats and have little need for rocks, nor understanding of how to avoid them.>
Interestingly, I do have some PVC pipe in the tank but the Goby mostly ignores it. Half the tank I have unlit to allow the fish to come out only if they choose and the Goby historically spent it loafing openly on either side.
<Fair enough!>
As an aside, I have gotten great mileage out of your book Brackish-Water Fishes, and have used it for reference on many occasions. It is by far my favorite aquarium hobby book in my collection.
<Thanks for saying so. It was a team effort, most of the authors being other hobbyists who I met on a long-defunct mailing list (remember those!).
While I'd change a lot if writing the book now, I'm pretty proud of what we achieved.>
I will look into a suitable antibiotic for this situation.
<I am optimistic that together with clean water and removal of sharp rocks, this Goby should recover. Have seen fish survive similar deep, but clean, wounds before.>
Thank you again for your assistance with this.
Joel
<Glad to have helped. Cheers, Neale.>

Regarding Pinky      3/3/19
Hello Wet Web Crew,
I sent out an email last night and was wondering if it had been received.
Thank You,
Mary
<Hello! Nothing arrived last night that I saw. Cheers, Neale.>
<<RMF deleted due to too large file size. Did send note Re>>
Re: 3 y.o. Albino African Clawed Frog, Pinky

Hello Neale,
<Hello Mary. Please don't send big files like videos, and if you send images, please resize them to less than 1 MB. The reason for that is that we're all around the world and often rely on phones (or even dial-up modems) to access email. That way we can look for emergency messages even when travelling, as many of us do. But it does mean that big files make it impossible for us to access email or even move files. It's very frustrating. Thanks for your understanding.>
Pinky has made a turn for the worse. :'-(
<Sorry to hear that.>
Not sure what has happened. Last time I communicated with you I was taking her to the vet. I took her, they weighed and examined her, they swabbed the 2 lesions on her chest to check for bacterial infection - was negative, and took a sample and sent it out for a possible fungal infection they say frogs can get.
<All sounds helpful.>
I'm actually still waiting for the results of the fungal infection test. They force fed her, since she was going on 2 weeks of not eating. The vet said Pinky was not considered bloated, since she had been shaped like this for 3 years since I've had her.
<Good to know.>
They suggested x-raying her and doing an ultrasound, but that would have come out to over $1000, the visit was expensive enough.
<Indeed. At some point with these small animals you do the best you can with the budget you have, and if it's more complicating and expensive, euthanasia is the best thing. I agree, spending hundreds, let along thousands of dollars on a small frog would be ridiculous.>
They sent her home with 2 medications, an antibiotic "Baytril" and an antifungal "Sporanox."
<Good choices.>
The instructions were to give both medications for 14 consecutive days as follows: Baytril - 0.05ml by mouth once a day, Sporanox - add 0.5ml to 5L water and place Pinky in bath for 5 minutes once a day. The Baytril was started at the vet's office on 1/17 so they could show me how to administer it, the next day I gave her both medications and continued to do that daily until I left for vacation on 1/20. My good friend who accompanied me to the vet and is an animal lover and vegetarian most of his life, babysat Pinky and continued administering the meds to Pinky on 1/21 and continued until 1/25. On 1/25 my friend noticed that Pinky was swimming like a top, spinning around pretty quickly. He thought it seemed strange, but he didn't know, so he administered the meds that evening. The next day when he arrived at night, he noticed that Pinky seemed off and was still twirling around, so he discontinued giving her meds. Every day he gave her Reptomin pellets in the morning and at night. My friend said up until she started swimming erratically, she seemed calm and seemed to be eating because some of the pellets went missing eventually. I came home from vacation at 11:30pm on 1/28 and when I saw Pinky she was unrecognizable. I turned the lights on and walked up to her tank and she started swimming so fast, but her torso is disfigured and contorted and it basically looked like she was tumbling in a clothes drier. Sometimes she swims in tight twirls in every direction possible, even upside down and backwards, sometimes her legs flap almost entirely backwards as she's moving around quickly. She's not symmetrical anymore, so when she floats at the surface, she floats lopsided, pretty much on her side.
<It's unlikely the medication has caused the symptoms you are seeing. This is one of those times you have to trust the vet. But it does sound as if she's in a bad way. Perhaps the situation is terminal already, to be honest.>
She looks like she had a stroke and when she gets going, she looks like she's having a seizure. I don't know what to do. I feel terrible for taking her to the vet and am wondering if the meds made her this way.
<As I say, this is unlikely. Antibiotics shouldn't normally do anything harmful, and Sporanox is generally regarded as safe. So while it is possible the frog is reacting to them, it is very unlikely.>
What should I do?
<I would on principle always follow the vet's instructions. Especially with antibiotics, there's the problem of antibiotic resistance that happens if you don't follow the full treatment. On the other hand, I would do everything practical to ensure the frog is not stressed: water changes as often as practical, darkness, warmth.>
I wish I knew if she was suffering.
<As do I.>
I believe she has been eating.
<Good.>
I got a little video of her swimming around erratically, but am afraid to send it and cause your server to crash.
<It may indeed, or at least make it very difficult to manage the email. It doesn't take much for the email account to "fill up" (I think it's 50 MB) and once that happens, new messages are bounced back to the senders, crew members can't move emails to their folders, and other annoying things.>
I am including some pictures I took on 2/29.
Thank You,
Mary
<Hope this helps. If things don't improve in the next couple days, and the symptoms become worse, I'd certainly be considering euthanasia at this point. Cheers, Neale.>

Final Stocking--Wrasse Confusion      3/3/19
Hi Bob and Crew,
I recently sold a 180 gallon tank along with the big tank fish (tangs, Foxface, etc.) I've downsized to a 90 gallon, which I've aquascaped into a bommie tower by using a PVC structure and a separate cave.
<I see this in your pic>
I think it will look really good once the coralline and Zoas grow in. Plenty of hiding places and rock to pick at. I've attached an image. I've kept Zoanthid colonies and the following inhabitants:
Banana Wrasse (Halichoeres chrysus)Captive Bred Orchid Dottyback (Pseudochromis fridmani)Blue-Green Chromis (Chromis viridis) (The sole survivor if anyone wants to learn from my experience. Started with 9 in the 180 gallon. Maybe I didn't feed them frequently enough?)Flame Hawkfish
(Neocirrhites armatus)Captive Bred Orange Skunk Clown Pair (Amphiprion sandaracinos)Yellow Prawn Goby (Cryptocentrus cinctus) and Pistol Shrimp Combo
All are getting along just fine. I'm seeking some color in the water column. I'm considering a Bristletooth tang, either the Yellow Eye Kole (Ctenochaetus strigosus) or the Two Spot (Ctenochaetus binotatus). It
seems they are similar in habits and care and okay in a 90 gallon.
<Yes; either one of these would make a good addition>
Or do you have opinions otherwise?
I'm experiencing much angst over wrasse choices. I've read myself in circles. Would I have room to place three wrasses in the 90 with the tang?
Without the tang?
<With or w/o depending on the species; there are several small/er labrid species that are easy going>
I've read that it's best to keep a male with a couple of females, but I'm not sure in a 90 gallon. Here are some of the choices:1. Three juvenile Whip Fin Fairy Wrasses (Cirrhilabrus filamentosus)--In some places I've read they are peaceful and others state they can become terrors. Will they get along with the Dottyback and Banana Wrasse?
<Yes; should>
2. Three Sub Adult/Male McCosker's Wrasses (Paracheilinus mccoskeri)--Not sure if they are placed together one will become a male and the two others revert to female?
<Likely only one will be/come a male>
3. A combo of any of the following: Male Carpenter's Wrasse (Paracheilinus carpenteri), Male Ruby Headed Fairy Wrasse (Cirrhilabrus cf cyanopleura), Multicolor Lubbock's Fairy Wrasse (Cirrhilabrus lubbocki), Scarlet Pinstripe Wrasse (Pseudocheilinus evanidus), Sub Adult/Male McCosker's--How
many and which combo would be most desirable?
<Just one Pseudocheilinus; a trio of the others/Cirrhilabrus>
Thanks for all you do to promote conscientious fish keeping. I hate to make mistakes and see others make mistakes that cause animals to suffer.
Casey
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Re: 3 y.o. Albino African Clawed Frog, Pinky      3/2/19
<PLEASE stop the madness!~ ONLY small Kbyte files. Yours have been deleted. B>

Asterina; comp.       3/1/19
Noticed our 125 gal salt water tank has some tiny star fish.
I would like to put my sea urchin in my 125 gal tank, will they kill him?
<Not likely; no. Do read here re:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/asterinaidf.htm
Bob Fenner>

Dictyota Algea - Rabbitfish      3/1/19
Bob,
<Eric>
My tank is being taken over by this invasive plague. Researching online it seems this algae will be consumed by S. Doliatis, Two Barred or Scribbled Rabbitfish. The issue I am having is finding this fish. It seems everyone only brings in S. Virgatus and they look very similar. Do you think this fish will eat Dictyota?
<Likely to some extent; yes>
Thanks,
Eric
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Large white/red lump protruding from side of Senegal Bichir 2/28/19
<Uhh, you failed to comply w/ our file size req.s and have crashed/overloaded our email. Yours has been permanently deleted. Re-size (hundreds of Kbytes) and re-send. Bob Fenner>

Securing formalin 2/28/19
Hi bob,
<Bob>
Hoping all is well.
<Yes; thank you>
Would you happen to know any places that have 37% formalin?
<Maybe; it's restricted in some States... >
The quick cure I have from Mardel/fritz states it’s 17.5 percent formalin. From everything I’ve read, that’s not enough.
<Meh; tis for all we're interested in>
I suppose if I double the dose, that would yield me the necessary formalin product, but would also double my malachite green percentage (states it has .42 percent malachite green) not sure if doubling the amount would result in too much malachite.
<Oh>
Thank you, bobby.
<Look at the chemical supply places in town... and cemeteries (yikes). BobF>

Discus Aggression 2/28/19
Hi Crew,
<Hello!>
I recently came to know that that WWM crew works out of time to respond to the high email traffic you guys get and run the site. YOU GUYS ARE DOING A GREAT JOB by providing sensible and practical advise to the fish keeping fraternity.
<Thanks for the kind words.>
I am sure I have dropped in many annoying emails to you guys and I keep checking my mail waiting for your response.��
<Sure thing.>
Here is my question for today.
I have 3 pairs of discus in my tank out of which 2 are bigger in size and the other 4 are smaller. Out of the 4 2 are blue diamond which seem to be more timid and of the weaker section.
<Can happen. All the artificial varieties are inbred, and a rule, the more extreme the variety compared to the wild fish, the more inbreeding has happened. Consequently things like genetic diseases, poor growth rate, inept breeding behaviour, and overall lack of vigour can be commonly seen in such varieties. Not always for sure, and farmed Discus are generally easier to keep than wild-caught specimens. But there's a fine line between breeding fish to favour a particular colour pattern and inbreeding them so much they're demonstrably weaker than the more genetically mixed wild-looking (rather than wild-caught) Discus.>
I observed recently that one of the bigger discus seems to chasing the blue diamonds every time they try to come out to the open. This bigger guy seems to only like to chase the blue diamonds alone. He doesn't seem to disturb the other smaller pair. This has led to the blue diamond to hide and stop eating. I would like to know if adding another pair of smaller discus would reduce the aggression or do I need to add a pair of bigger discus to divert the bully.
<It's a challenge. Yes, usually adding extra specimens reduces bullying. So often people keep Discus in large groups, 8-12 specimens, if they want to keep a school of them. Bear in mind that wild fish only school together outside of breeding, so it's entirely normal for them to form territorial pairs once breeding.>
The count of my discus (3 pairs) is it a good number or are any changes required. My tank should be around 50 gallons
<Here's part of the problem. A pair of Discus will hold a territory with a radius around 30-45 cm around their egg-laying rock or whatever. So you really need to allow a circle maybe 60-90 cm in diameter for each mated pair, and any extra Discus will be chased away if they get into that patch. Realistically, you're not going to be able to have that sort of space in a 50-gallon tank. You'd do rather better keeping a single pair, perhaps alongside suitable dither fish (Silver Hatchetfish, Rummynose Tetras and Cardinals are classic choices) and bottom dwelling catfish (Corydoras sterbai is the definitive catfish for Discus set-ups). I doubt additional Discus will be tolerated for long in a tank this size.>
Waiting for your advise as always.
Regards,
Shriram
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

Re: African Cichlids wasting away
Crew, Thanks for the prompt reply,
<Most welcome.>
will run the water tests, the problem has been that this tank is in the local YMCA and the feeding has been erratic, no live foods only flake and pellets for African Cichlids.
<Flake and pellets safest, so likely not a problem here, though some fresh greens (such as cooked peas and spinach) do help many types of cichlid, including Mbuna.>
Yes they are almost all Lake Malawi Cichlids. The aeration is good, oxygen in the water should not be problem, filtration is performed by two Aquatop 500 with UV canister filters. I can only perform so many water changes
since they are paying and will only authorize so many.
<Understood.>
I am removing 30 to 50 percent of water each time.
<Sounds good.>
The parameters have not been ideal as far as feeding but the pH is set up for African Rift Lake Cichlids especially for Malawi Cichlids.
<Understood. But bear in mind that not all fish will handle such conditions well. Conversely, Rift Valley cichlids won't thrive if the hardness and pH aren't right.>
Will run water tests this weekend while I have access to the tank and let you know.
<Cool.>
pH was at 7.6 with Ammonia and Nitrite at 0,
<pH is far too low for either Malawian or Tanganyikan cichlids -- and just to be clear, mixing them is a really bad idea with one or two exceptions.
You really want to make sure the general hardness is high, and the carbonate hardness is high. The old Rift Valley Salt Mix is a cheap and effective way to provide this:
Per 5 gallons/20 litres, add --
1 teaspoon baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)
1 tablespoon Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate)
1 teaspoon marine salt mix (sodium chloride + trace elements)
Stir into the bucket until all dissolved, and then add to the tank. The baking soda should stabilise the pH around 8, while the Epsom salt helps avoid bloating. The marine salt mix, while optional, is helpful in adding tiny amounts of a few other chemicals that keep cichlids in good shape. You can of course use commercial Rift Valley salt mixes, often called 'cichlid salts' or similar. But the recipe above is good 'n' cheap!>
however the Nitrates have been high in the past but will retest this weekend for updated parameters.
<Anything above 40 mg/l can easily explain unexpected cichlid deaths.>
Originally the crew that put this tank up had this scheduled for maintenance once a month and we reduced it to every three weeks, when that was not enough now we do it every two weeks. Thanks
Mike
<If time/money is an issue, the easiest option is to reduce stocking level.
This will slow down the build-up of chemicals between water changes, making it much more easy to maintain good conditions. Tanks often experience problems after a few years, so if the tank is old, with a lot of muck in the substrate, pipe work and/or filter, and thorough break-down and deep clean can work wonders. Do, of course, think about how you're going to keep the fish and the filter bacteria happy while doing this! Cheers, Neale.>

Mbu Puffer, Teef
My 5” puffer had teeth but what’s interesting it disappeared. It has a hard time eating now. Confused and don’t know what to do.
<Really do need a picture here! The usual problem with pufferfish is that their teeth grown too long, in which case they can't open their beak properly, ultimately leading to starvation. Trimming such teeth is doable; see for example here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/smpufferdentistry.htm
But pufferfish actually losing their teeth entirely is something is very uncommon. Sometimes they crack a tooth and lose part of the tip, and on occasion they may even lose most of the tooth. But to lose all four? That's really remarkable! Given the size of their teeth, and how strongly they're built, they shouldn't just fall out for no reason, so there's something else to this story. Did you offer your pufferfish some food that was much too tough? Like a whole crab or crayfish? Or a big snail? That's the most likely way they can damage their teeth, but as I say, losing all four teeth is very difficult to explain. So some background on care, diet, and of course some photos, would really help. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Mbu Puffer
Thnx for your help!
<Welcome. Neale.>

Subject: BB Campaign (Bula Buddies books, KickStarter)
Hi Bob,
We have just launched our book on KickStarter and need all the help we can get to start moving the campaign along with people in the aquatics industry and hobby.
The book creates awareness about the coral reefs and also helps to support the ADE project.
In one of the rewards you can even become a character in the nest book.
Is there anyway we can get a post, short story about the project and the link on WWM?
I would really appreciate it ... we need a shove.
Thanks,
Walt
https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/bulabuddies/bula-buddies-a-childrens-book-of-underwater-advent?fbclid=IwAR0Eb0xSzfkanmPzscICGGi3hZsiqmOtgwR6y5R4G71RKRUAw5Px9sHpCaw
<Hey Walt,
Yeah mate; if you recall we'd talked re the possible up and downsides of KickStarter... You'll soon see. Will upload to WWM. Am out on the Aggressor dive boat off Kona presently. Cheers, B.>

Re: Platy problem
Thanks a lot. I’ll keep trying.
<Way to go Laura. BobF>

African Cichlids wasting away   2/26/19
Folks,
<Hello Mike,>
I am taking care of a tank (180 gallons) that recently has had problems with assorted African Cichlids. The fins on the fish are looking ragged, the fish are lethargic, most hovering over the same spot, have had quite a few losses, now all other fish are not really affected, have Synodontis cats, several Bichirs, some clown loaches, and two Parrots.
<This is not exactly a textbook community, is it? Even if it isn't overstocked -- though "some" Clown Loaches could easily fill 180 gallons on their own -- it's a mix of fish with different needs. Hard to imagine the conditions are ideal for them all, simply because they cannot possibly be.
Clowns need soft to medium hard water with a slightly acidic to neutral pH.
Such conditions would be toxic to Rift Valley cichlids. Furthermore, "African cichlids" covers a lot of different types. West African cichlids like Kribs are happiest in soft water, while Malawian and Tanganyikan species want hard water. Given you have a number of predators (in the form Bichirs) then chances are you're offering meaty foods (please, no live feeder fish!) and that in turn means high levels of nitrate are very likely. Nitrate is very toxic to cichlids, much more so than for most other fish; 20 mg/l can stress then, and 40 mg/l will noticeably increase mortality via things like Hexamita and HLLE/HITH infections.>
No new fish were added. I have tried to treat with Seachem Kanaplex as it appeared to be a bacterial infection which did not help or stop the progression. Due to increased feedings I have had to adjust my water change schedule to every two weeks and I am removing thirty to fifty percent of the water, will email the water parameters upon demand, but have increased the water temperature to 80 just to see if it would help, I am at a loss with this (I am maintaining this tank but not responsible for the feeding and additions). Please help. Thanks, Mike
<Cichlids are very much the miner's canary when it comes to high nitrate, low oxygen, and overstocking. They're exactly the fish you'd expect to see becoming stressed and sick. I can't pin down the exact problem here, certainly not without things like water quality test results (nitrite and nitrate in particular) not to mention water chemistry (general hardness and pH, for a start). But I'd bet dollars to doughnuts that the problem is environmental, not a specific pathogen that's sneaked into the tank. A thorough review of stocking, feeding, aeration, filtration and water changes will need to be carried out. I'd be looking to clear out the tank a bit, ensuring it's optimised for one particular set of conditions --
whether softish rainforest type environment or a hard, alkaline Rift Valley setting. I'd then be aiming for the usual zero nitrite and ammonia, and for a cichlid tank especially, nitrate levels below 40 mg/l, and ideally below 20 mg/l. While the classic Metronidazole plus an antibiotic combo is a useful one with cichlids showing vague, but severe, sickness, I'd still only be doing this alongside a complete environmental review. Hope this helps, Neale.>

Longnose Hawkfish injury   2/26/19
Good afternoon --
<Hey Vince>
I was looking at your site and found a great deal of valuable information.
I am having some trouble with my Longnose Hawkfish and was wondering if you had any advice.
<Let's see>
About 3 days ago I looked in my tank (95 gal FOWLR) in the morning and noticed that my Longnose Hawkfish had what appears to be a bad bruise on its upper jaw -- it's red and swollen, but not bleeding nor does there appear to be an open wound. Its mouth also is staying open slightly and doesn't appear to be able to close. The same morning, I noticed that my Foxface had some damage to the rear of his dorsal fin and a bruise where the fin meets the back.
<Mmm; well, Rabbitfishes can easily injure other fishes... have seen them "challenging"; raising spines, tilting head down toward others. REALLY painful (even possibly venomous) to be stuck by them... The family, Siganidae is AKA the "Spinefoots">
I've never noticed these two fish skirmishing before, so I don't know if they got into a battle overnight, or if this was a mere coincidence.
<Could be... either>
Of possible relevance is that the preceding evening, I had done one of my regular partial weekly water changes of 22 gal. This never seemed to cause any change in behavior in the tank before. The water
quality was fine and not seemingly any issue. All my water parameters are well within normal range
The Foxface is doing fine and his fin, although a bit ragged at the end, looks to be healing. So my concern is for my beloved Longnose Hawkfish.
He (or she) ate a little that first morning -- with some difficulty, and ate even less during the evening feeding. For the past 2 days, the fish tries to eat, but doesn't appear to be able to open its mouth to get the food. I've tried putting some small brine shrimp in front of it, and it tries to get it in, but just can't open its mouth any more. I've moved the fish to my 10 Gal QT tank -- a difficult feat catching it in a big tank -
for observation and to try to let it heal.
<Mmm; do try to be patient. Hawkfishes are very tough, capable of notable regeneration. The fact that yours is feeding is very good news>
I suspect one of two things occurred the other night -- 1) the Longnose Hawkfish and Foxface did get into a fight and the Hawkfish got some venom from the Foxface's dorsal fin, or 2) as previously mentioned the two fishes injuries are coincidental and the Longnose Hawkfish injured its jaw on a
rock or the tank by darting around. I'm no vet, so I can't tell if the upper jaw is broken or not. But I can tell the fish is not able to open its mouth and eat regularly.
All my water parameters remain within normal range in the display and QT tank.
Can anyone give any advice on how to help this fish and what else I should be looking out for? I certainly don't want to let it starve to death, but I've only euthanized a fish when it was obviously on death's door due to disease.
Your guidance would be greatly appreciated.
Vince
<Really just waiting, watching. No treatment, or movement... Bob Fenner>
Re: Longnose Hawkfish injury

Thank you for the words of wisdom. I do hope he is able to heal. He's a wonderful addition to the tank. It's the fourth one I've had over the years and love keeping them. I never saw one injured like this before.
<I've encountered many injured Oxycirrhites over the years... in good conditions (water quality, nutrition), they are fast healers. BobF>

unknown critter - 02/26/2019  MOV
Good morning Bob,
<I'm sure Bob will answer here too.>
Here is the video of the unknown critter that David asked me to send to you.
Thank you for your help in identifying this, but since I wasn't sure at the time if he's a good guy or a bad guy I took him out of my tank just to be safe.
<I can't tell for sure, but it certainly looks and behaves like a hermit crab - the way it has little claws and appears to be bringing food to its mouth with them. IF it is a little hermit crab, of the sort that stays
small, they are neither "good guys" nor "bad guys." They can be a bit of a minor menace is a reef tank, picking at corals and pestering snails.
Otherwise, they are just harmless scavengers.>
Thanks
V/r
Kat
<Cheers,
Sara L.>
unknown critter   2/26/19

Good morning Bob,
<Hey Kat>
Here is the video of the unknown critter that David asked me to send to you.
<Ah yes>
Thank you for your help in identifying this, but since I wasn't sure at the time if he's a good guy or a bad guy I took him out of my tank just to be safe.
<I'd leave in. Is a small hermit crab... in what appears to be a tusk, scaphopod shell. Not likely to get too large or destructive>
Thanks
V/r
Kat
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Majano for nutrient export?   2/26/19
Hello Bob,
<Good morrow Joanne>
Thanks! I may just do that - this past weekend I acquired a majano-covered
rock from my wonderful LFS ("You want WHAT???").
<Hee hee>
They are set up in a species tank as I am interested in studying them. And I am also in the process of setting up a new tank with a refugium so why not try it?
<Sure>
Although a majano refugium will certainly be no good for exporting pods to the aquarium, LOL!
<Maybe; you'll soon see>
I have noticed over the past two days that a number of the majanos on my rock have "let go" and drifted to a new location in their aquarium.
Something to keep in mind in a refugium - make sure they can't escape!
<Generally bits and pieces is their mode of extending themselves in space and time in captive systems... pedal laceration, fission... being sucked into pumps and overflows!>
A number of aquarists have written about having one or several majanos in a tank for YEARS without them splitting or moving, so maybe this behavior is in response to either a) being placed in a new environment, and/or b) overcrowding (the rock is COVERED with them). Another thing for me to study!
<Ah yes; I suspect either dire or propitious circumstances brings on their adventitious behavior>
As a parting note, check this out:
https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/82072250.pdf  New Anemonia species discovered in Chile, Anemonia alicmartinae. Here are a few pics (hope they come through):
<Interesting. And yes; nice images>
*Joanne White*
<BobF>

Platy problem   2/26/19
My female platy, who has given birth before, has a small, bulbous match extruding from her anal orifice. It looks as if a fry got stuck being born. What is happening?
<Likely a degree of prolapse... part of the combined sex and excretory process extending outside the body... Usually due to nutrition, water quality issues; with a modicum of genetic predisposition mixed in>
The fish is still eating and swimming well.
<Good>
I am struggling with excessive mold in this tank. Thanks for helping.
<Do your best to keep up the environment, provide sufficient roughage/greenery in the diet and this bit should pull back in on its own.
Please read here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/platyfdgfaqs.htm
Bob Fenner>

Majano for nutrient export?   2/25/19
Hello WWM! I wonder if you have ever heard of anyone using majano anemones in a refugium as a means of nutrient export, the way some people use Xenia?
<Oh yes; even Aiptasiids>
I'm curious if anyone has tried it and if it has any good potential. Would the majanos stay isolated in the refugium, or can they spit out planulae that can enter the main tank?
<Mmm; they fragment, don't know re successful planulation in captive systems>
Thanks for your input on this! I have tried researching but haven't found much info on this particular topic.
*Joanne White*
<I encourage you to write up your findings, speculations and submit them here, elsewhere for others edification. Bob Fenner>

Introducing Additional Hippo Blue Tangs   2/24/19
Hello Bob -
<Howsit John?>
I've been able to successfully introduce, long-term, an additional (3) Yellow Tangs into a 265 gallon where an existing Yellow Tang resided.
<Ah, good>
I simply made sure that I introduced the new Yellow Tangs with the night (moon) lights on and made sure that the newly introduced Yellow Tangs were smaller than the established Yellow Tang. I kept a close eye on the tank for a few days and well fed the tank more than usual following it up with
an earlier than usual water change.
<Good technique>
What's your advice on my potential success for doing the same into a different 265 gallon where an established Hippo Blue Tang resides? I would likely introduce a group of 3 Hippo Blue Tangs, all smaller (likely 3" to 4") than the established Hippo Blue Tang who's maybe 5" to 6"), and again with the night (moon) lights on. From my observations of the Hippo Blue Tang, they seem to be one of least aggressive tangs that I've kept, so I am thinking that my chances might be good, but I am writing to the expert to
be more sure.
Thanks,
John
<You should be fine w/ the Paracanthurus additions as you list; I would place them all at once. Bob Fenner>

Re: Formalin question   2/24/19
Thank you bob, for this and all you do.
<Welcome and well-met>
Moral to the story, rather than use a stop watch and time it, let the signals the fish give dictate the length of the dip.
<Good>
I feel very confident on my qt protocol I’ve established. Prophetically treating for the known enemies, with the formalin dips, copper for at least two week before being moved into a sterile , clean observation tank, with Praziquantel and Metroplex to cover the plethora of evil enemies.
<Very good>
My fear is, now, when adding pieces of coral. With the majority of the fragments coming from tanks already harboring fish (most likely fish parasites too) placing them in my tank, hoping they do not have fish nasties in them .
<Mmm; I'd run these corals (hard, soft...) through iodide/ate and a thousandth or two reduced spg. for a few min.s ahead of using, moving... This procedure generally removes most all vectored pathogens>
I’m a few months away from that, so my next step in all of this is to research a type of coral dip , one that not only kills Acro pests, such as aefw, red bugs, etc, but also give me some comfort of biking potentiometer fish bugs as well.
Assuming the Bayer insecticide I will be using for aefw doesn’t kill fish parasitic organisms, perhaps using metrostanizole (sp?) , which is supposed to kill brook and Uronema, or maybe hydrogen peroxide, to potentially kill some ich or velvet spores.
<Yes; Metronidazole... but with more time than a bath exposure... I take it you mean adding such to the system water>
Open to suggestions , I know the right way is a quarantine fallow period for corals with no fish, however I even sold the piggy bank in order to put led’s on my main tank, can’t afford a separate system that could properly handle sps.
Lastly, what do you make of the Indo ban?
<This too shall pass. The usual civil service, bureaucratic jockeying, one-up brinkspersonship. No (as usual) scientific, economic or other basis for the stall>
Was this a long time coming, and an accurate barometer on the fish populations in the oceans? Or just political entities flexing their muscles?
<Much more the last>
Thanks again Bob,
Bobby
<W.>

Tessellata eel help   2/24/19
Hi
<Hi>
I have just moved I put my eel in a bin he is alive and ok for now but I have forgot the salt for me to do his fish tank and I’m not going back to my old place until mid afternoon tomorrow I was wondering
#1. is it okay to keep him in a small bin until tomorrow?
<How many gallons this bin holds?... you must add enough oxygen via an air pump or a water pump (wave maker) and don’t feed the eel until it is back in the main tank.>
#2. Can he survive in a mixture of freshwater and the salt water he is in now?
<Moray eels can tolerate different salinities but not sudden changes; must be acclimated slowly.>
#3. I don’t know if I spelled his name right, so I will send a picture to show you what I have
<You have a Tessellata Moray Eel (Gymnothorax favagineus). Cheers. Wil.>

Oscar health concerns MOV   2/24/19
Hi WWM,
<Hello Sean,>
I have a 125 gallon aquarium with two 10"+ Oscars, one 12" fire eel, and a jack Dempsey. For their filtration, I use an aqua clear 110 and two 60 gallon sponge filters. Maintenance includes weekly 50% water changes, vacuuming, etc. Lastly, my water parameters show no sign of any nitrate or ammonia and is set at 78 F.
<I'm always skeptical of zero nitrate readings. Are you really sure your nitrate test kit is working properly? Or being used correctly? Zero nitrate is virtually impossible in an aquarium. You'd need to have zero nitrate in the tap water -- which is unlikely if you're using standard tap water in most cities, towns or anywhere near farmland. Pristine well water might have zero nitrate though. Anyway, most tap water has nitrate levels somewhere between 10-40 mg/l, and since the filter doesn't remove nitrate,
it'll only ever go up thanks to the biological filtration process that turns ammonia into nitrite and then into nitrate. Water changes dilute nitrate, of course, but that'll half (or whatever) the nitrate level in the
tank, not zero it. Furiously rapid plant growth can remove nitrate at appreciable levels, but you'd need intense lighting and would literally be cropping the plants back weekly if this was the case. Given your selection of fish, the idea you have rapid plant growth seems unlikely. So we come back to the original point, the nitrate surely can't be zero. Why harp on about nitrate? Because it's the silent killer for cichlids! Anything above 20 mg/l seems to stress them, and above 40 mg/l there will be increased
mortality, particularly with the more sensitive species (such as dwarf cichlids, Tanganyikans, and so forth). Oscars are among the more nitrate tolerant species, but prolonged exposure does lead to issues such as Hexamita infection and Hole in the Head disease.>
Overall, I think we have a happy and healthy tank, fish included.
<Good.>
However, I'm concerned with the looks of my butterfly Oscar. Now, he's always been an ugly boy with his lumps and bumps, but the amount of slime that covers his body has been progressively increasing.
<Slime generally represents the first line of defence against skin infections. Assuming no fish have been added recently that might have introduced, say, Costia, I'd be thinking about Hexamita infections, HITH,
and HLLE.>
I'm worried that it may be in response to something more serious. I've attached the following video.
<He looks chirpy enough, which is good.>
In general, he seems healthy - eats well (if not the most), swims around his companions, and has minimal instances of aggressive behavior (although, he is the moodiest). It's just the looks of him, like a kid with acne.
<Indeed. While I'm not seeing the classic pitting you associate with HITH and HLLE -- yet -- that would be my worry here. The classic combination of Metronidazole alongside a suitable antibiotic would be my recommendation if you have access to these. Certainly review nitrate levels, and if you can,
oxygen levels (high nitrate and low oxygen cause particular stress to cichlids). While your tank is reasonably large, you've got some big-ass fish in there, and since they're all carnivores, the sheer volume of ammonia being excreted will put a lot of pressure on any filtration system.>
Do you know what this might be? Our appreciation goes out to you and WWM in advance. Thank you!
Kindly,
Sean and Lumpy (the butterfly Oscar)
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frog suddenly sick   2/24/19
Hi,
<Hello,>
I’ve been having some issues with my female ADF who is in quarantine before I add her to a bigger tank. I’ve provided information about the current quarantine tank and my maintenance of it below, as well as a description of the problems.
<Understood.>
The tank is a 2.6 gallon Fluval that’s been running for 3 months.
<Much too small. While these frogs aren't all that demanding, I'd be looking at something around 5-10 gallons as the absolutely minimum for a singleton or small group. Smaller tanks aren't ideal for a variety of reasons we've gone into many, many times before.>
I’ve had the frog for about 2.5 months now; she’s in 3-month quarantine for chytrid and I’d hoped to move her into my 10 gallon cycled tank after.
<Ah, good, yes, 10 gallons much better!>
It’s filtered with the input and output flow baffled by sponges, and kept at 76F. I do 30% water changes weekly/a little more than weekly with Seachem Prime.
<Good.>
It's bare bottom except for like 5 pieces of gravel (it didn't used to be bare bottom) and I use a turkey baster to suck up all detritus on the bottom of the tank during every water change; I started doing 30% changes daily as soon as the ADF started getting sick.
<Sounds like you're maintaining the tank well.>
The pieces of gravel are all bigger than the frog’s head so she wouldn’t be able to swallow them.
<Good! I do prefer fine lime-free sand for African Dwarf Frogs.>
The tank was instantly cycled using seeded media from one of my other cycled and well-established tanks prior to acclimating and adding the frog, and I use the API Master Test Kit to test parameters (0,0,0, but it's cycled; I've just been doing 30% daily changes recently and these are my most recent readings). pH is 7.4.
<Do be skeptical of 0 nitrate levels. These are very unlikely in aquaria.>
I feed thawed frozen bloodworms and brine shrimp about 2-3x a week, and occasionally I use ZooMed frog and tadpole bites instead but I'd say no more than once every two weeks. I feed her until I see that her stomach is a little round.
<Good.>
As for the issues that came up with her, basically I’ve been seeing some reddish spots, a spot of torn webbing on her left foot, a bump on the back of her neck with some fuzziness, a lump on left side of abdomen, and puffing out of her mouth – all suddenly arising on Thursday/Friday.
<Does sound like an opportunistic bacterial infection, possibly with a fungus component as well. Cotton wool-like tufts are usually fungus. Anything more like off-white slime or speckles with pale reddish patches tends to be bacterial. Essentially the same thing as Finrot on fish, and treated the same way.>
She was hiding a lot on Thursday but now isn’t; she stays on the bottom as usual and seems relaxed when going up for air but overall seems a little tired and less reactive. I thought she had tattered sheds at one point and was freaking out about chytrid but turns out she was just biting at it and tearing it after it came off in one piece.
<Hymenochirus, like Xenopus frogs, will moult sheets of skin periodically. They will use their front legs and their mouth to sometimes tear sheets off. So if the shreds are clear, very thin sheets, they're probably dead skin.>
I've had this frog since December 3rd and as said earlier I am quarantining her for chytrid. (Originally I had a small male frog with her as well, but he never ate in my care no matter what I tried and passed away about a month later; I think he was sick when I got him but I never figured out what it was.)
<I would agree; often these frogs are starved in the tank at the retailer, and stand little/no chance of recovery.>
I last successfully fed this current frog with thawed frozen bloodworms on Sunday and she looked and behaved normally for the next few days, but Thursday night I noticed a large bump on the left side of her abdomen and it seemed to be filled with gas since she kept floating to the surface - she had to wedge herself under some driftwood in order to stay at the bottom. She also kept puffing her mouth up; this was when I started daily water changes even though upon testing the water the parameters were normal and temperature was still 76F. Friday morning she was halfway out of the water when I woke up but went back down when I dripped some water on her with the turkey baster; she seemed a bit better then and could stay at the bottom of the tank but her left side (the side with the bump) kept floating up a bit so she was kind of tilted.
<Odd, yes. Do suspect a bacterial infection. I'm going to direct you to some of my favourite reading on frog health, here: http://www.xenopus.com/disease.htm
While you're dealing with Hymenochirus rather than Xenopus, basic healthcare is very similar. Bloating can be a problem with both types of frog, with bacterial infections one possible explanation. Antibiotics, alongside a small amount of Epsom salt in the water (1-3 teaspoons per 5 gallons/20 litres) can help.>
Later that day I noticed a red spot on her chest near her right front leg and also a red spot on the back of her left back leg; I did another 30% change that night. Saturday morning the red spot on her chest seemed a bit bigger (also looks like it’s spreading up to her throat) and I noticed some redness on the veins of her right front foot; there was also a small hole in the webbing of her left back leg, as well as a small bump behind her neck which looks a tiny bit fuzzy. Another 30% water change was performed (of course, all of these are done with temperature-matched water and Seachem Prime). This morning (Sunday) the bump looks fuzzier and red. Her mouth is less puffed up but she’s still kind of tilted. She didn’t respond much to bloodworms on Thursday night and isn’t responding to brine shrimp today.
<Again, I do think you're dealing with a bacterial infection.>
I haven't started any treatments, though I have ordered Maracyn 2, API fin and body cure, and Methylene blue, all of which will arrive on Monday.
<Maracyn 2 is a good choice here. Methylene blue is a treatment for fungus, and if you're not dealing with fungus, isn't necessary. Too many medications can cause new problems, so it's best not to use ones you don't need.>
I currently have Fungus Clear (active ingredients Nitrofurazone and potassium dichromate) but haven’t used it because I don’t know if it’s safe for frogs and I can’t seem to find any information about that online.
<Nor I; while Nitrofurazone is probably safe, I don't know about potassium dichromate at all.>
The only thing I've been doing is the daily 30% water changes since Thursday in the hopes that it was just some issues with water quality even though the API water tests that I did didn't show that anything was wrong, and the redness just seems to be spreading and the fuzziness appeared yesterday morning despite the water changes. She seemed perfectly healthy when I got her 2.5 months ago. As of today (Sunday) she hasn’t eaten, and last night I noticed something which I’m about 99% sure was poop but she still has the lump on her side and although she’s not floating uncontrollably to the top anymore she’s still tilted as if there’s still gas in the lump.
I'm thinking it's potentially red leg/some bacterial thing, constipation/impaction (though I'm not sure what she would be impacted from), and maybe fungus? I’m also wondering if it’s possibly an internal infection that’s causing the lump, but of course I’m not an expert. I'm just at a loss of what to do since it all came on so suddenly and it seems like there’s so many things wrong with her so I don’t even know what medication(s) to use. I know tetracycline is the recommended product for red leg, but it doesn't come up on Amazon - API Furan-2 comes up instead, but I'm not sure if that's the same thing.
<Is not; API-Furan 2 contains Nitrofurazone; whereas tetracycline is an antibiotic.>
The active ingredient in Furan-2 is Nitrofurazone and I wanted to double check before I ordered it in case it's not safe for frogs. What do you recommend me do in terms of medication, feeding, and anything else I could do for her?
<Do see above.>
Thanks in advance,
YJ
<Hope the above helps. Cheers, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frog suddenly sick   2/24/19
Hi,
<Hello,>
I’ve been having some issues with my female ADF who is in quarantine before I add her to a bigger tank. I’ve provided information about the current quarantine tank and my maintenance of it below, as well as a description of the problems.
<Understood.>
The tank is a 2.6 gallon Fluval that’s been running for 3 months.
<Much too small. While these frogs aren't all that demanding, I'd be looking at something around 5-10 gallons as the absolutely minimum for a singleton or small group. Smaller tanks aren't ideal for a variety of reasons we've gone into many, many times before.>
I’ve had the frog for about 2.5 months now; she’s in 3-month quarantine for chytrid and I’d hoped to move her into my 10 gallon cycled tank after.
<Ah, good, yes, 10 gallons much better!>
It’s filtered with the input and output flow baffled by sponges, and kept at 76F. I do 30% water changes weekly/a little more than weekly with Seachem Prime.
<Good.>
It's bare bottom except for like 5 pieces of gravel (it didn't used to be bare bottom) and I use a turkey baster to suck up all detritus on the bottom of the tank during every water change; I started doing 30% changes daily as soon as the ADF started getting sick.
<Sounds like you're maintaining the tank well.>
The pieces of gravel are all bigger than the frog’s head so she wouldn’t be able to swallow them.
<Good! I do prefer fine lime-free sand for African Dwarf Frogs.>
The tank was instantly cycled using seeded media from one of my other cycled and well-established tanks prior to acclimating and adding the frog, and I use the API Master Test Kit to test parameters (0,0,0, but it's cycled; I've just been doing 30% daily changes recently and these are my most recent readings). pH is 7.4.
<Do be skeptical of 0 nitrate levels. These are very unlikely in aquaria.>
I feed thawed frozen bloodworms and brine shrimp about 2-3x a week, and occasionally I use ZooMed frog and tadpole bites instead but I'd say no more than once every two weeks. I feed her until I see that her stomach is a little round.
<Good.>
As for the issues that came up with her, basically I’ve been seeing some reddish spots, a spot of torn webbing on her left foot, a bump on the back of her neck with some fuzziness, a lump on left side of abdomen, and puffing out of her mouth – all suddenly arising on Thursday/Friday.
<Does sound like an opportunistic bacterial infection, possibly with a fungus component as well. Cotton wool-like tufts are usually fungus. Anything more like off-white slime or speckles with pale reddish patches tends to be bacterial. Essentially the same thing as Finrot on fish, and treated the same way.>
She was hiding a lot on Thursday but now isn’t; she stays on the bottom as usual and seems relaxed when going up for air but overall seems a little tired and less reactive. I thought she had tattered sheds at one point and was freaking out about chytrid but turns out she was just biting at it and tearing it after it came off in one piece.
<Hymenochirus, like Xenopus frogs, will moult sheets of skin periodically. They will use their front legs and their mouth to sometimes tear sheets off. So if the shreds are clear, very thin sheets, they're probably dead skin.>
I've had this frog since December 3rd and as said earlier I am quarantining her for chytrid. (Originally I had a small male frog with her as well, but he never ate in my care no matter what I tried and passed away about a month later; I think he was sick when I got him but I never figured out what it was.)
<I would agree; often these frogs are starved in the tank at the retailer, and stand little/no chance of recovery.>
I last successfully fed this current frog with thawed frozen bloodworms on Sunday and she looked and behaved normally for the next few days, but Thursday night I noticed a large bump on the left side of her abdomen and it seemed to be filled with gas since she kept floating to the surface - she had to wedge herself under some driftwood in order to stay at the bottom. She also kept puffing her mouth up; this was when I started daily water changes even though upon testing the water the parameters were normal and temperature was still 76F. Friday morning she was halfway out of the water when I woke up but went back down when I dripped some water on her with the turkey baster; she seemed a bit better then and could stay at the bottom of the tank but her left side (the side with the bump) kept floating up a bit so she was kind of tilted.
<Odd, yes. Do suspect a bacterial infection. I'm going to direct you to some of my favourite reading on frog health, here:
http://www.xenopus.com/disease.htm
While you're dealing with Hymenochirus rather than Xenopus, basic healthcare is very similar. Bloating can be a problem with both types of frog, with bacterial infections one possible explanation. Antibiotics, alongside a small amount of Epsom salt in the water (1-3 teaspoons per 5 gallons/20 litres) can help.>
Later that day I noticed a red spot on her chest near her right front leg and also a red spot on the back of her left back leg; I did another 30% change that night. Saturday morning the red spot on her chest seemed a bit bigger (also looks like it’s spreading up to her throat) and I noticed some redness on the veins of her right front foot; there was also a small hole in the webbing of her left back leg, as well as a small bump behind her neck which looks a tiny bit fuzzy. Another 30% water change was performed (of course, all of these are done with temperature-matched water and Seachem Prime). This morning (Sunday) the bump looks fuzzier and red. Her mouth is less puffed up but she’s still kind of tilted. She didn’t respond much to bloodworms on Thursday night and isn’t responding to brine shrimp today.
<Again, I do think you're dealing with a bacterial infection.>
I haven't started any treatments, though I have ordered Maracyn 2, API fin and body cure, and Methylene blue, all of which will arrive on Monday.
<Maracyn 2 is a good choice here. Methylene blue is a treatment for fungus, and if you're not dealing with fungus, isn't necessary. Too many medications can cause new problems, so it's best not to use ones you don't need.>
I currently have Fungus Clear (active ingredients Nitrofurazone and potassium dichromate) but haven’t used it because I don’t know if it’s safe for frogs and I can’t seem to find any information about that online.
<Nor I; while Nitrofurazone is probably safe, I don't know about potassium dichromate at all.>
The only thing I've been doing is the daily 30% water changes since Thursday in the hopes that it was just some issues with water quality even though the API water tests that I did didn't show that anything was wrong, and the redness just seems to be spreading and the fuzziness appeared yesterday morning despite the water changes. She seemed perfectly healthy when I got her 2.5 months ago. As of today (Sunday) she hasn’t eaten, and last night I noticed something which I’m about 99% sure was poop but she still has the lump on her side and although she’s not floating uncontrollably to the top anymore she’s still tilted as if there’s still gas in the lump.
I'm thinking it's potentially red leg/some bacterial thing, constipation/impaction (though I'm not sure what she would be impacted from), and maybe fungus? I’m also wondering if it’s possibly an internal infection that’s causing the lump, but of course I’m not an expert. I'm just at a loss of what to do since it all came on so suddenly and it seems like there’s so many things wrong with her so I don’t even know what medication(s) to use. I know tetracycline is the recommended product for red leg, but it doesn't come up on Amazon - API Furan-2 comes up instead, but I'm not sure if that's the same thing.
<Is not; API-Furan 2 contains Nitrofurazone; whereas tetracycline is an antibiotic.>
The active ingredient in Furan-2 is Nitrofurazone and I wanted to double check before I ordered it in case it's not safe for frogs. What do you recommend me do in terms of medication, feeding, and anything else I could do for her?
<Do see above.>
Thanks in advance,
YJ
<Hope the above helps. Cheers, Neale.>

Bob Fenner Sugar   2/24/19
I recently watched a MACNA talk by Bob Fenner about anemones in the trade, and near the end he mentioned using sugar as an easy energy source for ill fish and inverts. I have tried to find other information and recommendations about using sugar for this purpose, and wasn't able to find
anything yet. Can I get a little more guidance on this, recommended  dosage?
<There is a bit by Hans Hvass in one of the early MERGUS Angel/BF books by Steene and Allen and I think the Pet Library ltd. books in the hobby realm; otherwise you'll have to delve into a scientific literature search. (See WWM Re, and the use of hexoses, iodide/ate)... This is an old, but reliable
adjunct to re-stabilizing challenged aquatic (and terrestrial life). Am out on a dive liveaboard currently so don't have much capacity to look up, nor relate. Please write back w/ specific questions, concerns. Bob Fenner>

Re: Formalin question   2/24/19
Was thinking metro in a bath, the 20-30 minute variety, doesn’t sound long enough.
<Mmm; not likely worthwhile as a bath... DO see Ed Noga re dosage, application. Am out on a dive liveaboard currently or I'd look it up for you. Nelson Herwig's ref. on materia medica may have useful input as well>
Iodine...have never used this before , will have to research the in’s and outs. Hopefully it’s pretty straightforward.
<It is>
Hopefully the Indo mess resolves itself sooner than later. I know of a couple lfs here in NJ who are considering converting their holding/for sale tanks into freshwater. I am sure this has hurt many collectors/exporters.
<Yes it has; and unnecessarily. No one is being served>
Thanks bob
<Welcome>

Re: Introducing Additional Hippo Blue Tangs   2/24/19
Thank you Bob!
<Welcome John>

Re: Formalin question     2/23/19
Thank you kind sir
<Certainly welcome. You have read the "Guerilla Acclimation" piece on WWM I hope/trust. BobF>
Re: Formalin question     2/23/19

Your trust is correct, I have that Guerrilla acclimation piece bookmarked.
<Ah good>
If I am allowed to be confused for a second, you say to use freshwater as opposed to salt.
<Sure; confusion, interest is the beginning of delving, adventuring into understanding and ultimately (hopefully) clarity.>
If using formalin at that rate, in freshwater, how long can fishes stay in freshwater with the aforementioned formalin?
<Most species, specimens 5, 10 minutes... Oh; see this below. Smaller specimens, ones that are "physiologically challenged", some species (finer to no scales, association w/ invertebrates... ) trend toward more sensitivity; e.g. Clownfishes. These dips/baths should ALWAYS be attended to IN PERSON; never leave the dipping organisms unattended>
Was under the impression freshwater dips can go 5 minutes, 10 minutes max, where the formalin needed more contact time than that?
<Usually not. A useful lesson here re the non-discreteness of the universe... WATCH the fishes in the formalin mixed solution and be ready to remove them given signs of over-stress>
Thanks
<Welcome. BobF>

Re: for Bob - tank chipped in move     2/23/19
Hi Bob,
<Nicola>
Thanks for the reply.
Not wanting to give up just yet (surrounded by stuff to go in this tank, 6 week wait for a new tank).. another thought has struck.
A previous owner has siliconed 20" ceramic tiles to the bottom of most of the tank (except along the back 4" and cut around 2 bubble rings centrally). These are rippled like sand with thickness 8-12 mm (1/3-1/2").
I can see that black silicone covers the full height of the tiles where they are set against the tank walls. Do you think that if we apply a full inner seal around and between the tiles (and perhaps fill the gap at the
back with more tile, or glass, or acrylic) that this would act like a second base and be as good as adding glass strips around the chips?
<No; unfortunately>
I realise it doesn't give the re-enforced vertical strip but it creates a new internal joint thicker than the original, and the side glass is still attached to the base and the tile. The tank is also sat on a full sized 1" thick polystyrene sheet.
<I see/saw that; doesn't help>
If we can't get glass strips long enough would acrylic strips work as well as glass strips (will be below deep substrate so don't care about scratches)?
<Glass would be much better. Silastics don't really adhere to acrylic>
Why won't pouring a thick layer of resin across the bottom to create a new base work?
<... not elastic nor "sticky" enough>
Thanks again,
Nicki
<DO read as much as you can stand here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/GlasCracks11.htm 
and the linked files in the series above. BobF>

First pre-owned tank - tank chipped in move + ID catfish      2/22/19
Hi Guys, your input here would be much appreciated.
Seller cancelled moving the tank on Sunday when we had loads of people available, and chose last night in the dark, with only 4 people available to move the tank (6'x2'x2.5', with tiled base and sand still in tank). We used carpet off-cuts to slide the tank when it was on-end to get through doorways and around corners, however with hindsight we should have taped some cardboard onto the edges :( .
I was aware when the chip on the back of the tank happened - we were lowering the tank on the porch and I forgot the pillars had metal supports at the bottom slightly wider than the pillar, I heard a crunching glass sound, so we shifted before lowering down again. I didn't do a full inspection but thought it looked okay at the time. After dinner, with the tank in-site I noticed another larger chip on one side, and a chip on the front.
All chips are on the bottom pane of glass, along the outer edges but not at corners. They all look like impacts from the bottom of the tank that chipped a piece out of the edge, therefore they all have a
triangular-shaped chip on the tank underside, followed by a rounded chip up to the silicone level. I cannot see any cracks radiating from the triangular bit on the bottom of the side- or front-of-tank chips but I
can't get to the bottom of the back chip to check that one - although I can't see a crack looking from above inside the tank). All glass panes are 12 mm thick (~1/2"), and the tank only has a single bottom pane. The chips on the front and back are a maximum 2-3 mm deep into the glass. The chip on the side of the tank is 7 mm deep maximum, so just over halfway through the pane sitting above it. I have attached annotated images.
We were planning to strip all the inner silicone and reseal anyway as some appears to be missing. Would we need to strengthen around the side chip with extra glass on the inside, or will excess silicone do? Should we pour a layer of epoxy resin across the bottom of the tank?
Is this worth taking a risk, or should we immediately resell as a non-water tight tank and buy new?
On another note, went to get some rocks today and got given a 'free catfish' that was in a small bucket with the guy claiming it was a snowball Pleco and that it doesn't grow bigger than this (gestures ~10 cm /
3.5"-4"). He said he kept lots of them and they didn't develop a taste for fish when older. Anyway, I get home and spent about 2 hours Googling and even doing image search with my photos. Eventually I think I have identified it as a Synodontis Eupterus "Featherfin/Squeaker" Catfish (my photos attached). I am reading conflicting advice about these fish: size 10-30 cm (4"-12") but supposedly 6"-8" in aquarium, diet (omnivore vs. vegetation only), and smallest size of compatible tankmates. This fish is a bit bigger than my platys currently but I have baby platys, male Endler's guppies and the tiny Danio margaritatus. Do I need to get rid of this little guy asap, or will he be safe to keep when I get everyone into a larger tank? Also, I swear he changes colour - when we saw him in the white bucket he was a pale sandy colour with mid-brown spots, then acclimating in the bag he seemed to be darker and developed a reddish hue to his tail, and just now, turning the light on to feed with some of its sinking pellets it seemed a dark brownish colour.
Thanks again,
Nicki
<<I'm going to ask BobF to discuss the chipped tank, because I'm not expert on that topic. But yes, I'd agree your fish looks like a juvenile Synodontis eupterus, though there are any number of lookalike species, so it's hard to be 100% sure. Anyway, Synodontis eupterus is a nice species.
While it can get pretty big (I'd certainly assume 6-8 inches/15-20 cm) it is very peaceful. Like all Synodontis it is opportunistically predatory, and will consume very small fish, but anything bigger than a Zebra Danio should be fine even with adults. (But yes, I'd probably corral newborn fry into a breeding trap, or else let nature takes its course, depending on what you're trying to achieve.) Actually, these fish tend to be at the receiving end of aggression, being quite shy and placid, but because of their size, mistakenly dumped into robust fish communities with semi-aggressive cichlids and L-number catfish. They're actually a lot happier in carefully managed communities, and while they eat algae and things like cooked peas and spinach, generally ignore healthy plants. They do indeed change colour, something most Synodontis will do to varying degrees. Do make sure he has a nice cave to hide in, and if he's anything
like my Synodontis nigriventris, after a few weeks he'll become settled enough to come out and feed with the lights on. Bloodworms are like crack cocaine for these fish, though so far as staples go, algae wafers for Plec-type catfish are ideal. Basically a nice catfish for the right tank,
and adults are really impressive. You rarely see really big specimens, but even at 20 cm, the massive sail fin is quite striking! Cheers, Neale.>>
Re: First pre-owned tank - tank chipped in move + ID catfish (RMF, can you comment on the tank!)      2/22/19

Hi Guys, your input here would be much appreciated.
Seller cancelled moving the tank on Sunday when we had loads of people available, and chose last night in the dark, with only 4 people available to move the tank (6'x2'x2.5', with tiled base and sand still in tank). We used carpet off-cuts to slide the tank when it was on-end to get through doorways and around corners, however with hindsight we should have taped some cardboard onto the edges :( .
<Oh oh>
I was aware when the chip on the back of the tank happened - we were lowering the tank on the porch and I forgot the pillars had metal supports at the bottom slightly wider than the pillar, I heard a crunching glass sound, so we shifted before lowering down again. I didn't do a full inspection but thought it looked okay at the time. After dinner, with the tank in-site I noticed another larger chip on one side, and a chip on the front.
All chips are on the bottom pane of glass, along the outer edges but not at corners. They all look like impacts from the bottom of the tank that chipped a piece out of the edge, therefore they all have a
triangular-shaped chip on the tank underside, followed by a rounded chip up to the silicone level. I cannot see any cracks radiating from the triangular bit on the bottom of the side- or front-of-tank chips but I
can't get to the bottom of the back chip to check that one - although I can't see a crack looking from above inside the tank). All glass panes are 12 mm thick (~1/2"), and the tank only has a single bottom pane. The chips on the front and back are a maximum 2-3 mm deep into the glass. The chip on
the side of the tank is 7 mm deep maximum, so just over halfway through the pane sitting above it. I have attached annotated images.
We were planning to strip all the inner silicone and reseal anyway as some appears to be missing. Would we need to strengthen around the side chip
with extra glass on the inside, or will excess silicone do?
<Mmm; were it me, mine... I'd likely make this tank into a palladarium... vivarium? Reptile housing? AT the very least, I would run two, three, four inch wide pieces of glass in the inside long edges (both front and back), with Silicone, AND the cracks outside I'd likely Silicone 2" glass (triple strength, 1/4", 6 mil. will do here and inside) along the front and back... >
Should we pour a layer of epoxy resin across the bottom of the tank?
<No; of no use>
Is this worth taking a risk, or should we immediately resell as a non-water tight tank and buy new?
<Yes; this is what I would do; replace it entirely.>
<Sorry to be the bearer of bad/dire news. Bob Fenner>

 




Formalin question      2/22/19
Hi bob and crew,
How’s it?
<Fine Bobby; thanks>
Once formalin is mixed up, at 1 ml per gallon for prophylactic bathes, how long is it stable or good for?
<One milliliter,.. about a hundred fishes; or a few hours. WARNING to all: Formalin, Formaldehyde are biocides; they cross-link peptides, KILL all life. NOT safe to breath fumes or expose your skin to.>
For example , if I mix up 5 gallons of saltwater with 5 ml’s of 37% formalin, and I dip 2 fish for 30 minutes, can I remove that fish and immediately place in another fish in that same aerated , heated water?
<Yes you can>
From the time it’s mixed, to the time the second batch of fish is done, the formalin would have been mixed up for less than two hours.
Thank you, bob
<Welcome. BobF>
Formalin question        2/22/19

<Oh; and I'd use pH adjusted freshwater, not salt. B>

Re: Discus Tank Setup
Hey Bob,
Thanks for getting back.
<Welcome Shriram>
From my understanding, I should probably be placing driftwood spread across the tank to mimic their natural environment, instead of at one corner of the tank.
<One aspect, yes... and plantings>
I usually switch on the tank light, let it run for a while and then place the food in the tank. The one discus pair I was telling about doesn't seem to come out when the light is switched on compared to others. I have seen them come out when the light is switched off.
Does this indicate anything in specific.
<Mate... you haven't read where I referred you>
Do you have any advise on creating a black water setup for the discus, does that help?
Thanks and regards,
Shriram
Discus Tank Setup /Neale

Hi Team,
<Hello Shriram,>
I have recently purchased a 50 gallon and have some discus and rosy barbs housed in the tank.
<Discus can be contained in tanks this size, certainly as singletons or pairs. Groups will not thrive though. Too much risk of aggression because you need at least 6 specimens for them to get along as sexually mature adults. Furthermore, Rosy Barbs are subtropical fish. They won't last long at the 28-30 C needed for Discus.>
The tank has a driftwood and an artificial plant setup on one side of the tank and the rest of the tank being empty and bare bottomed.
<The bare bottom will reflect light, stressing Discus. Do use a thin layer of dark, lime-free sand or gravel. Even a few mm will do the trick while remaining easy to clean.>
I observed that the discus prefer sitting behind the decorations and seldom come out for a swim.
<I bet. See above.>
They all seems to be comfortable there. There is one pair of blue diamond which doesn't come out like the others for food as well. Is there something I am missing or that I need to do to make my discus make more use of the space rather then sitting in one corner.
<Do read above; Discus are not sociable in small groups, at least when sexually mature, and large groups (6+ specimens) will need more space. They are afraid of bright light, especially upwelling bright light, so a dark substrate and overhead share are both essential.>
This is my first discus tank.
<Plenty of websites and books; do bear in mind many accounts of Discus kept in small tanks without sand/gravel are breeding tanks, and used for mated pairs rather than communities like yours.>
As of feeding, I am currently feeding them a mix of tetra bytes, Hikari gold and frozen tubiflex worm.
<I'd probably avoid Tubifex. Too risky. Good quality flake and pellets are fine, alongside finely minced white fish fillet and seafood.>
Look forward for your advise.
Thanks and regards,
Shriram
<Cheers, Neale.>

Re: what kind of pipefish is this?
Hello dear Neale and all you good people at WetWebMedia!
<Hello Ben!>
Sorry for the late reply. I was distracted by other things for a few weeks so I was unable to visit the sellers. When I finally get back, the pipefishes has been sold. But they said new batches will be coming. I'll keep you posted!
Best Regards, Ben
<Maybe you can get a Latin name from them, and failing that, a geographical location. Do bear in mind many species are estuarine, so even if caught in freshwater, they might well live in brackish or marine conditions at times.
Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Diodogorgia nodulifera preferred foods
Hello Bob,
<Joanne>
Thanks for your encouraging words!
<Thank you!>
I would like to add one thing, so it doesn't look like I'm saying you can just plunk one of these into a tank, throw in some fish food, and everything will be fine. I also placed this gorgonian in a sort of filter feeder sweet spot in my tank. Any food added to the tank is concentrated and funneled past this area due to the configuration of the surrounding rocks, etc. And the tank is on the small side, which has the effect of
further concentrating the food. For example, if I had the same fish bioload in a tank that was twice as large, the same amount of food would be spread out over a much larger area, thus reducing the concentration.
These two things are very important in this situation. Change these, and I would probably have to entirely rely on target feeding to keep this D.
nodulifera alive and healthy. If it hadn't been for this combination of factors I might not have noticed it catching and eating the fish food, etc etc.
I do wish it were this easy to figure out how to care for other NPS corals! I think a lot of the lack of success in this area is due to not understanding their feeding needs and/or not having their preferred food
available. Maybe a particular NPS gorgonian or soft coral feeds on copepods, but only one or two specific types of copepods. Or some fussy combination of food size, food type, and very narrow band of water flow rate to be successful. I'm glad that D. nodulifera is pretty easy in this respect but unfortunately that won't translate well to other species.
*Joanne White*
<I do understand; and think others will better; with your further explanation here. BobF>

Ebony, a fish with fin slits
This is Ebony, she is a sweetheart.
<Hi Jade; the file/image isn't coming up. Would you please attach it here/ with your mail?>
I got her from Walmart. She lives in a ten gallon tank with a larger fish and another very small fish. I feed her pellets and fish flakes. I sometimes hand feed them. Theres only fake plants. I do a 25% water change every two days and I clean the entire tank at least once every two months. She has a water filter and bubblier. I use a water clearifier and a stress coat as directed. I currently do not have a water heater. I am afraid that there is something wrong with her. She appears to have some slits (2) in her tail and her entire left fin seems to have many slits throughout it and its worn down around the outside.
What do you think is wrong with her and what can I do to help her at home?
Thanks.
Preview attachment 20190220_135632.jpg
<https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0?ui=2&ik=3bdbb8b10a&attid=0.1&permmsgid=msg
-f:1626016752841302489&th=1690c59f27f0a1d9&view=att&disp=safe&realattid=1690
c5894843e971e0e1>
20190220_135632.jpg
3.9 MB
Re: Ebony, a fish with fin slits

Is this good?
<Yes; other than the file being an order of magnitude too large. I see your goldfish... Likely the issue here is environmental. Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebindex/gldfshsystems.htm
and the linked files above. It is very hard to keep a small system stable and optimized for goldfish.
Bob Fenner>

Would like Zed Hogan's email       2/20/19
I do a monthly newsletter for a day program I'm a part of. Normally I do plants/gardening but this time I'm branching off into giant fish
<Okay>
I would like the subject in this months newsletter to be about the endangered giant catfish of southeast Asia. namely pangasius sansitswongi and pangasonia gigas( probably misspelled but you know what I mean).
Zeb did a show about these fish on monster fish, and I figured he would be a great source of information.
plus I wanted to share with him ideas of how to help these fish in the wild.
Thanks for your time
Alex.
<Ok... BobF>
Would like Zed Hogan's email       2/20/19

<Oh, we don't retain, nor give out other's email. B>
Re: Would like Zed Hogan's email       2/20/19

ok I didn't know I will just have to find it then.
<Likely can contact via production co.... BobF>

Re: Acrylic Aquarium build.       2/20/19
Hi Bob!
<Miguel>
How about 1/2” interlocking children’s black foam play mat cut to the footprint of the tank instead of 1/2” pink Styrofoam for it to sit on.
<Well; thicker than it need be; but mighty fine! B>
Regards,
Mike

Fish ID       2/20/19
Hi,
<Hi Beta>
Can you please help in an ID for this fish?
<Looks like a Sand Hooper Blenny (Parapercis schauinslandi). Cheers. Wil.>

Re: Fish ID       2/20/19
Thanks Wil
<You're most welcome. Wil.>

Diodogorgia nodulifera preferred foods       2/20/19
Hello crew! Hope this finds you well!
<And you Joanne>
I do have a question but also wanted to share some information about my Diodogorgia nodulifera that will hopefully be helpful.
<Ah, good>
So, a few weeks ago I got a Diodogorgia frag as a "bonus" with an online purchase.
<Ugh; I really wish some folks in the trade wouldn't do this>
I know that they are not photosynthetic, but I have had a lot of success with various photosynthetic gorgonians so I felt I was up to the challenge.
<Ahh!>
I placed it in an appropriate spot - good amount of water flow, not too much light - and proceeded to attempt to feed it.
<Good>
Well, over the next few days I tried various filter feeding mixtures, slurries, etc. and failed to get any feeding response whatsoever, even though the gorgonian had all polyps extended. This was really starting to worry me, but then I noticed that the gorgonian was snagging food every time I fed the fishes! It turns out that the issue was food size, i.e. it was ignoring tiny sizes but going for the larger pieces.
<Yes>
It will grab and eat bits of food up to about the size you would feed, say, adult White Cloud Mountain minnows! It seems to do especially well with flake food, as it is light and blows around the tank really well, giving it multiple opportunities to feed. There seems to be an upper limit on the size of pieces of solid food it can grab and ingest, but I have seen it eat surprisingly large pieces of flake food. If an especially large flake blows into the gorgonian, several polyps will grab hold of it and gnaw on it until it (usually) blows away again. Smaller flakes of approximately 1-5 mm it will just grab and swallow.
I feed the fish twice a day. Now that I know how it likes to feed, I make sure there are some food particles that are the appropriate size for the Diodogorgia. I estimate that about 25-30% of the polyps manage to feed every time the fish are fed. Additionally, I have some Ricordeas in the tank that are target fed a few times weekly with Calanus or similar foods, so when I do that now I also give a squirt to the Diodogorgia.
It looks well and healthy so far, time will tell. So, for my questions - does EVERY polyp need to grab food, or is the food shared over the colony?
<They share. Gorgonians are "rindkorallen"; have connected circulation>
I'm guessing the latter as there is that shared rind / skin covering the animal but I'm not 100% sure on that.
<Oh; yes>
Second question, does this amount of food sound appropriate?
<Yes>
Like I said it looks healthy, polyps extended, no bad/decaying spots, etc. but have not had it long enough to know for sure.
Thanks again for your advice, and I hope my story may be helpful to others.
*Joanne White*
<Indeed; thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Discus Tank Setup       2/20/19
Hi Team,
<Shriram>
I have recently purchased a 50 gallon and have some discus and rosy barbs housed in the tank.
<Mmm; well these fishes really "like" different water quality: Warm, soft, acidic vs. cooler, harder, alkaline>
The tank has a driftwood and an artificial plant setup on one side of the tank and the rest of the tank being empty and bare bottomed.
<... not suitable for Symphysodon>

I observed that the discus prefer sitting behind the decorations and seldom come out for a swim.
<Expected here>
They all seems to be comfortable there. There is one pair of blue diamond which doesn't come out like the others for food as well.
<... I'd be concerned if they've been here for much time>
Is there something I am missing or that I need to do to make my discus make more use of the space rather then sitting in one corner.
<Yes... Read here re:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/discusfish.htm and the linked files above>
This is my first discus tank.
As of feeding, I am currently feeding them a mix of tetra bytes, Hikari gold and frozen Tubifex worm.
<... Only the latter will be taken by Discus. See WWM re feeding.... >
Look forward for your advise.
<You should investigate before buying livestock. Bob Fenner>
Thanks and regards,
Shriram

Turkey Wing Bivalve fell off the rock!     2/19/19
Hi,
<Morning. Mandy>
I have some man made live rock from Florida,....and it is as the gentleman told me when we spoke, all covered in filter feeders.
<Neat!>
I am having a wonderful time looking very very close and seeing all the fan worms and other filter feeders on it. Some are so tiny!
Like this hydroid colony. Some are bigger....and the clams are huge!
It also came with 4 clams. I believe they are Turkey Wings....there are two huge ones, one middle size one and one tiny one.
<Yes, they are Ark clams>
I feed Coral Frenzy coral food 2 times a week,...with the power head on and the filter off for about 1/2 an hour.
<Good>
I never see any of these clams open, I see a little white tube sticking out of one of the big ones all the time and they do shift their positions sometimes. But other than that, they don't seem to ever open up. Maybe Turkey Wings don't open?
<They do, when feeding or moving but remain most of the time closed>
I am worried that the one that fell off the rock might die and kill off my tank......how can I tell if he's dead or alive?
<When they die, they get loose/opened>
He's very heavy, if that helps, and he's very tightly close up. I can't even see where the foot fell off!
Here are pictures, let me know what you think, I don't want to take him out if he's not dead, but don't want him to die in the tank either.
< Take it out of the water for a moment and do a simple “smell test”, it should have a fresh ocean smell.>
Hope these help,....the other clams look just about the same. Are they supposed to OPEN up? They do react when I get close to them,....but I never see any sign of them opening up any appreciable amount. }
<As long as they react when you touch them, they are likely fine.>
Thank you very much again,
Mandy <Welcome. Wil.>

Re: Turkey Wing Bivalve fell off the rock!     2/19/19
Thank you, Wil,!!
<You’re welcome!>
I just went over and reached up over the clam to check his smell, and he moved! He saw me coming!
<Ahh… great!>
They don't even have eyes, do they??????
<They don’t have eyes, but photoreceptor cells… that’s why it “saw you coming”>
So, I guess he's ok. I put him up in the middle of some rock where there is a nice soft flow of water.
<Good>
Will he make a new foot?
<Did you actually saw the foot fall? >
Mandy
<Cheers. Wil.>
Re: Turkey Wing Bivalve fell off the rock!     2/19/19

I don't know, I saw the part that was attached to the rock,...I sent you a picture. It's still there.
<Mmm… that looks like something else, I'd try to remove it with tweezers...I think your bivalve is fine. please keep me/us posted. Wil.>
Re: Turkey Wing Bivalve fell off the rock!     2/19/19

But the clam was attached to that! Wasn't he? How else did he hand onto the rock?
<I see;….as long as the clam looks fine I wouldn't worry, if it has lost part of the appendage,
it will heal on its own in a few days; just keep an eye on it and if possible remove the remains on the rock. Wil.>
Re: Turkey Wing Bivalve fell off the rock!     2/19/19

I looked bivalves up on Google and the Encyclopedia Britannica had a really good article on them,....it said that some like to live in the sand, others like the rocks and some of those that choose rocks make themselves a kind of shoe with glands on their foot....to hold on. I think what I see is what is left on the rock, It's a hollow shoe that's attached to the rock by some fibers. I tried to remove it, but it's really on there tight, and it really is just a sheath. The inside is empty. Like an empty shoe. How awesome is that!
Here, I copied the important part for you.
"A triangular form, ventral flattening, and secure attachment to firm substrates by byssal threads (byssus; proteinaceous threads secreted by a gland on the foot) have allowed certain bivalves to colonize hard surfaces on wave-swept shores. The byssus is a larval feature that is retained by adults of some bivalve groups, such as the true mussels (family Mytilidae) of marine and estuarine shores and the family Dreissenidae of fresh and estuarine waters. Such a shell form and habit evolved first within sediments
(endobyssate), where the byssus serves for anchorage and protection when formed into an enclosing nest. "
https://www.britannica.com/animal/bivalve here is the link to the article.
I think this article is saying that his foot secreted a fiber which they use to make a safe enclosed space for their "foot", so the foot is safe from predators and held firmly to the rock.
I guess he just decided to move and that was him letting go of the shoe he made for himself. I never realized how much the Encyclopedia helped with research. It's so "Old school", but the article was great.
I guess we both learned something new tonight!
Have a good night and thanks for trying to help.
Mandy
<Thanks to you for sharing, Mandy! Wil.>

 

More Fish IDs     2/19/19
Hi,
Please help in IDing the fishes in the photos. Thanks.
<The one in the first pic looks like some kind of Serranidae and the second one, an Ornate Leopard Wrasse (Macropharyngodon ornatus).>
<Cheers. Wil.>

Re: More Fish IDs     2/19/19
Thanks Again
<Welcome, Beta. Wil.>

Re: Pairing gobies     2/19/19
Thanks so much Bob, you give me confidence :). I will give it a go and let you know the result.
<Thank you Nicole! BobF>

Re: Icp test questions... S2 issue      2/19/19
What are some sources for boron and ways to remove it?
<I would stick to frequent partial water changes, use of PolyFilter, Chemi-Pure or such IN a biological system. B>
Re: Icp test questions     2/19/19

Now would lent ph buffer be my source?
Was just reading an arrival from randy Holmes on effects of boron levels
<... What? "Lent"?... Do you mean Kent?
http://www.integrachem.com/msds/B8579Q_26698_101.pdf
Do you see Sulfur listed as an ingredient? I don't.
B>
Re: Icp test questions     2/19/19

> Subject: Re: Icp test questions
> Now would lent ph buffer be my source?
> Was just reading an arrival from randy Holmes on effects of boron levels
> <... What? "Lent"?... Do you mean Kent?
Yes Kent dhk buffer also looks like calcium reactors can be a source according To the article if it is not coming from the source water
> http://www.integrachem.com/msds/B8579Q_26698_101.pdf
> B>
<Please write out your queries. >

Goldfish Listless need help /RMF     2/19/19
Hi and thanks for your help,
I have a 22 year old goldfish who has been very listless at bottom of tank for about 1 week. He will eat if encouraged but does not come to eat unless encouraged. He's in a 55 gallon tank had ph 7.5 I buy spring water for his tank have for 8 years.
<Mmm; does this store-bought water have sufficient hardness, alkalinity?>
no nitrite or ammonia in tank. Some nitrate but not above 40ppm.
<Do please see WWM re Nitrate control. I would strive to keep this under 20 ppm>
His scales fins look good and his eyes. His fins are clamped though. I change water every 12 days to two weeks max. I use a bit of aquarium salt but not to excess about 1 tablespoon per ten to 15 gallons.
I treated him for parasites as he had a very long white poop and clamped fins. But the treatment didn't help. ( called general cure by API).
<Am familiar>
Is constipation the problem ?
<Doubtful; almost assuredly environmental; the Nitrate et al.>
I am not feeding him his normal tetra flake food now. I fed him a few baby organic spinach leaves I had boiled first yesterday. Nothing today yet. When he does swim he looks fine. He is not breathing heavily. His gills appear normal. He isn't breathing very obviously. He is normal in color - a large /white fish about the size of my hand. He had seemed slightly bloated but he has never been thin so can't tell if he actually was bloated or not. He ate the spinach offered last night.
Thank you !
Lina and Fishy
<Were it mine, I'd execute a good sized water change (perhaps 15-20 gallons); add some sodium bicarbonate (maybe five teaspoons, mixed in the new water), and (try to) be patient.
<Goldfish do "go through spells" of inactivity at time; though likely metabolite poisoning is at play here a bit... most easily reduced via dilution/water change, addition of a bit of bicarb., and salt.
Bob Fenner>
Goldfish Listless need help /Neale      2/19/19

Hi and thanks for your help, I have a 22 year old goldfish who has been very listless at bottom of tank for about 1 week. He will eat if encouraged but does not come to eat unless encouraged. He's in a 55 gallon tank had ph 7.5 I buy spring water for his tank have for 8 years . no nitrite or ammonia in tank. Some nitrate but not above 40ppm. His scales fins look good and his eyes. His fins are clamped though. I change water every 12 days to two weeks max. I use a bit of aquarium salt but not to excess about 1 tablespoon per ten to 15 gallons. I treated him for parasites as he had a very long white poop and clamped fins. But the treatment didn't help. (
called general cure by API). Is constipation the problem ?
<Certainly sounds like one possibility. Listlessness, lack of appetite, and long stringy faeces can be indicators of constipation. Do read: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/gldfshmalnut.htm
Going to suggest some further reading, re: diet, housing, etc., here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/goldfish101art.htm
Most problems with Goldfish are caused by diet and environment; while infections do occur, they're rare, and when they do happen, there's usually some environmental or dietary cause.>
I am not feeding him his normal tetra flake food now. I fed him a few baby organic spinach leaves I had boiled first yesterday. Nothing today yet.
When he does swim he looks fine. He is not breathing heavily. His gills appear normal. He isn't breathing very obviously. He is normal in color - a large /white fish about the size of my hand. He had seemed slightly bloated but he has never been thin so can't tell if he actually was bloated or not.
He ate the spinach offered last night.
<Well, that's promising! Do also try cooked peas, squished to make them easier to eat. Many other green foods will be eaten; see above links.>
Thank you !
Lina and Fishy
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Goldfish Listless need help     2/19/19

Thank you so much !! He is better this afternoon so I fed him his usual but not as much as usual. I will start adding greens with his food a few times per week
<Real good>
The water has never been a problem but air am testing it now for alkalinity. I had added some more aquarium salt this morning. Thank you Thank you thank you ! PS I've added a Nitrazorb pouch to his filter to
bring the nitrates down. Lina
<Very good indeed. Thank you DW II! BobF>
Re: Goldfish Listless need help     2/19/19

Hi Bob I tested the tank water for KH it is 5 degrees or about 100ppm according to the test kit and the GH is 11 degrees or about 200ppm. but Every time I do test the PH it is 7.4 exactly. What do you think ?
<These values are okay... Is your tap/source water not suitable by itself?
Bottled water is not only inconvenient and expensive, but often unnecessary. DO you drink, cook w/ your tap water? If so, it is fine for your aquarium use. DO read on WWM re water treatment>
My 22 year old gold fish has revived a lot today. Don't want to mess up his health as it seems improving from yesterday and last week. The tap water here is terrible so I have been buying natural spring water which I always test called Earth20. Supposedly it is 100 percent natural spring water from Opal Springs Culver Oregon. Have been using this same brand for 8 years in the tank with fine result.
Thanks again for your input !
Luna ( dancer and fish enthusiast. - but I am not a scientist although I do try !)
<Cheers Lina. BobF>
Re: Goldfish Listless need help      2/19/19

Thank you No I don't drink the tapwater it is 14 ph !
<.... Mmm; not this basic I'd warrant... Like drinking drain or oven cleaner... but you make the point>
It's an old well. I drink what the fish drinks. Thank you for the input on those values.
Cheers.! Lina Downes
<Cheers Lina. BobF>

Re: Sailfin Tang Heavy Breathing... Now spg vs. salinity, conductivity...     2/18/19
Hi Bob,
<Hey Charles>
Regarding your point about the difference in salinity and specific gravity - in your opinion, is it worthwhile purchasing a conductivity meter to have a second measurement? Would this be useful in identifying potential issues when the readings don’t match?
<Mmm; possibly... This general statement re: GIVEN folks doing frequent partial water changes (10-20% a week let's say), NOT having too much "other" sources of dissolved solids (e.g. foods/wastes, dissolving substrates, supplements...) utilizing a simple hydrometer or (better) refractometer and relying on it solely is likely fine>
Regards,
-Charles
<And you, Slippery Slope BobF>

Re: Yellow Eyed tang. Disease Ed. if they read      2/18/19
I haven't moved any fish yet. I wasn't sure if it was stress related due to the larger Foxface who can be a big jerk. Thanks for info, I'll read it.
<Do so.
BobF>

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