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Re: Rock flower nems        3/22/17
This is that material I was trying to explain
<Bizarre Tom... looks like some sort of polypoid life, but what? Do you have other images; showing tentacles, mouths? Bob Fenner>

Re: Rock flower nems        3/22/17
Semi gaping
<These Phymanthus crucifer are looking MUCH better. I would keep running chemical filtrants (PolyFilter and ChemiPure) at double, and checking ORP as THE indicator of water quality. Bob Fenner>

Re: Rock flower nems        3/22/17
sorry but have no ChemiPure but have gfo
<Remove the Ferrous. Chemoautotrophs NEED HPO4>

and carbon. also have a good size skimmer running currently and have been doing a 25% water change daily just to keep it clean and the " stuff" cleared off any that are still ejecting it. should i still keep up with the simple sugar and iodide treatment?
<Yes. B>

Emperor angel mouth reddish in colour; too long in QT, Cu exp.         3/22/17
Hello Bob or reef crew I have had a 4.5in juvenile in a 35 gallon long hospital tank for about 7 weeks. Ph about 8.1, salinity 1.022,
<Raise this>

temp 80 degrees. Used filter with filter floss seeded from refugium for about a week. Large pipe for hiding.
First four weeks were great as it looked perfect was eating everything with no meds. Then appeared to be showing ich so I dosed Cupramine slowly increasing the dose to 4-5 ppm.
No issues over the 14 days at full treatment level. I did a 50 per cent water change and used carbon for two days to remove copper. Then I thought I'd use PraziPro again using recommended dosage in case of internal issues. It's day 3 of 5- 7
recommended and I've noticed all day it hasn't eaten and a red colour in the mouth and around it externally.
<...>
I have also been doing 50 percent water changes every 3-5 days over the time it's been in the tank as its eating so much, and dosing appropriately when I replace water. I've been measuring copper concentration to ensure
its ok.
<Stop this>
The red colour looks like blood near the surface of the skin and is very concerning as it looks like a severe skin irritation of some kind.
<The copper, stress>
Looks like fish is labouring breathing but still around 60 breaths a minute. I read Bob said 80 was bad.
Hate to not treat with PraziPro for internal pests for full term of 5-7 days. Wondering if I should use carbon and water change to remove as much PraziPro as I can to get emperor back to health...
<Yes>
Do I risk the internal pests issue arising once it's in my 340 gallon display?
<Some, yes, but I'd be MOVING this fish; now>
Or try once again w PraziPro. I feel it really deserves to get into the display soon!
<I STRONGLY agree re moving it NOW>
Thanks so much!
Sandip
<Bob Fenner>

Re: Question about Freshwater Links        3/22/17
Hi Bob!
<Mer>
Hope you've been doing well.
<Yes; thank you>
I find a lot of these breeders are hesitant to try learning new technology.
The storefront never really went anywhere so I had to take it off :/
<Ahh>
Not to be a bother... but would you mind changing the link to just go to my homepage, https://puregoldfish.com ?
Thanks so much. WWM is awesome! :)
Meredith
<Thank you. Will do today. Bob Fenner>

Anemone identification. No pic       3/21/17
Hi! I’m new to the hobby, tank has only been running around 8 months. About a month or so ago I noticed two little anemones growing on some rock. They haven’t moved, split or caused any harm. I have tried to identify them but after contacting lots of forums and Facebook groups opinion is split 50/50 on them being either some kind of BTA or a majano. The advice on the latter is to wipe them out but I would like a more definitive identification before taking drastic action. I hope with your vast knowledge you will be able to advise me.
Thank you.
Brian T.
<Mmm; more likely Anemonia... or Glass Anemones... Do you have a photo to share? Bob Fenner>

Spiny Eel Compatibility       3/21/17
Good Evening WWM Crew! I have read the WWM page regarding Spiny Eel compatibility, and while the page was very informative, I did not find the answer to my question. I have a 75 gallon tank with three Rope Fish in
it. The tank has been up and cycled for 4 years now and is filtered by 2 Cascade 1000 canister filters (I'm all for over-filtering), and is set up for the Rope Fish. I use pool filter sand for substrate, RO/DI water with Equilibrium to replace minerals, Alkaline Buffer to boost kH, Acid Buffer to maintain a pH of 6.6 - 6.8, and Stability to keep my biological filter fully charged. I also have a tank cover that is both grated and smooth to prevent escapes. Haven't lost a rope fish yet.
<Good; they are escape artists>
The tank is fairly heavily planted (java fern, wisteria, and Rotala) with two large ceramic caves on opposite ends of the tank. But I recently read an article on Peacock Eels (Macrognathus siamensis) and was completely charmed by such a beautiful fish. So what I was trying to find on the WWM page regarding this fish is whether it would make a good tankmate for three Rope Fish.
<This Mastacembelid would be fine here>
Also, if it would work, would a Peacock Eel be happy as the only one of its species with the three Rope Fish or does it need others of its own kind.
<Is fine either solo or in a group>
I ask because although I have plans to move them up to a bigger tank, its at least 6 months away, and with the potential size of these species, I want to be careful not to overstock - even with the big filters. Your opinion would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!
<Welcome! Bob Fenner>
--
*Life is not about how fast you run or how high you climb, but how well you bounce. ~Vivian Komori*
*Renee *

Reef critter ID, input re comp.       3/20/17
Hi i need help with an id on this creature. I believe it's some sort of Nudibranch just don't know the exact name and whether it is a reef safe or not. Thanks.
Kind regards,
Fredy
<Is a Nudibranch... don't recognize the species right off; but would keep an eye on... IF it's eating something/s that aren't of interest to you; I'd keep. Bob Fenner>

Re: Deer Vs, Water Lily      3/19/17
Thank you for reply Bob. I actually dropped off a few stock tanks with water lilies yesterday and wont be back for a few days. I'm hoping once my dogs move onto property they should keep the deer away but in the mean
time, I'm a bit worried. I'll keep you posted with any developments. Thanks for the great site.
<Am with you. Had the local deer eating my Avocado tree leaves... tried the wolf pee product, shiny ornaments... Finally fashioned four by welded wire (for driveways) around them. Then the price of water quadrupled!!! BobF>

angelfish swims weird      3/19/17
Hi,
<Hello Olivia>
I have had my angelfish for over a year and she seems perfectly healthy. I have her in a 20 gal tall tank (which I know is on the small side but I didn't know better when I got her and I can't get a bigger tank right now)
and I do a 20% water change twice a week. The temperature stays around 78.
I feed a variety of flakes, bloodworms, and shrimp. She lives with some cherry barbs. I was just wondering if it is normal behavior for angelfish to swim backwards and upside down.
<Not upside down, no>

She will usually swim normally, but sometimes she will swim kind of on her back or swim backwards slowly
around the tank. She is very friendly and comes right up for food and gets along great with the cherry barbs! The only thing is the weird directions of her swimming and is that normal?
<Not; and the issue here may be mostly genetic. Freshwater angels are tremendously inbred for most stocks. However, the flake food itself may be influential; I would substitute a fine grade pelleted food for the flake>
Thank you!
Olivia
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Question and pictures moor and 1 other goldfish      3/19/17
Alison; please re-size your images (90 some percent) and re-send. We can't accept large file sizes (yours are taking up more than half of our mail server space). Bob Fenner
Question and pictures moor and 1 other goldfish      3/19/17

Omg of course Bob, I'm so sorry, I am not so great with that stuff. Okay so for now here is the black moor. I added a pic of him about a week or so ago too so you can see him then and also the resized pics of what he looked like when I found him dead last night. :( he has this large black spot on him but of course I never noticed before because he was so black .
<Hard to know precisely what this is from the photo, but my money would be on an ammonia burn. The fish also seems to have a damaged cornea. In this situation I would suggest optimising water conditions (zero ammonia and nitrite, of course) and raising the hardness a little if your water is soft (Goldfish prefer hard water, so a teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate per 5-10 gallons can help a lot). Avoid very cold conditions when keeping fancy
Goldfish; Moors are fairly robust, but even they don't like water colder than, say, 18 C/64 F, particularly if they're sick or damaged. Certainly, don't expose fancy varieties to frosty, overwintering conditions outdoors.
Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Question and pictures moor and 1 other goldfish      3/19/17
Here is the other fancy fish that is now a weird tiny red spotted sick looking fish with a white sick hue to him. I hope you can see the pics? He is amazingly still alive after I took out the dead black telescope friend and put him in this different tank. He used to be a shiny silver grey color? His fin keeps clamping down he swims around all crazy. I'm so sad I don't know how to help!?
<Again, the red colouration of the fins suggests irritation (just as it would with humans) so I'd be looking at environmental conditions before anything else -- see my previous email. I'd also treat with an antibacterial or antibiotic as per Finrot just in case. Not Melafix or salt, but something more reliable, such as Kanaplex or eSHa 2000. By the way, that green-grey is the natural colour of Goldfish; they're all born that colour, and as they mature, they develop the colours we've bred into them. Some never quite change, which sometimes gives you interesting bronzy or brassy coloured fish that might not be as colourful as standard Goldfish but gives them an understated charm of their own. Cheers, Neale.>

Fine Filter Pads for Help Combating Ich/Marine Velvet      3/19/17
Hi Team,
<Brad>
I had an interesting hypothesis that I wanted to get your opinion on.
Would using fine filter socks/pads that are 50/100 micron be able to help control an outbreak of Marine Velvet and/or Ick?
<Mmm; would likely reduce incidence, but not totally control. DE (Diatomaceous Earth)... would be better>
I was doing some reading and it seems like the trophonts of each would be larger than 50 microns, so it would beg the question. Obviously like UV (which I think this would compliment) it can't eliminate it because it won't have full access to the entire volume of water at all times-but I would think that it could help prevent outbreaks when used in a sump in a tank with high water turnover and good circulation?
<Yes; help. Will/would require very frequent cleaning>

Assume that you could have a decent combination of filters (e.g. 200 micron + 100 micron + 50 micron stacked together and changed often.
Anyone heard of trying this approach?
<Oh yes. Screening like this is commonly employed by facilities using natural seawater for culture. Bob Fenner>
Thanks,
Brad

Re: Is it possible?      3/19/17
Thanks again Earl haha, angels really do have the power to lure us in, sirens of the sea i may say haha. So i just got a hold of a lfs and the owner who i know very well due to the fact that i have worked there for a while said if i help him with his corals in his 125 frag tank he's setting up, he will give me a 100 gallon tank that he got from a guy that needs to be extensively cleaned up and resealed due to it sitting outside but once i clean it up and reseal it its all mine. So now that i have a plan for a bigger tank, maybe i could get this project going. Also, would a majestic angel be happy in a 100 gallon if there wasn't a lot of tank mates maybe just a pair of coral beauties and some smaller docile tankmates?
<Low and wide is definitely the way to go (pretty much whenever possible, imo). Probably a no on the majestic angel though...they can get 8"+. It seems like your interests and intents are better suited towards some of the
"middle-sized" marine angels (Lamarck's and other Genicanthus). Check them out. They are not hard to find in mated pairs, they are gorgeous, interesting behaviorally, and sexually dimorphic,>
I should include that the 100 gallon we are talking about is shaped like a 40 breeder just bigger dimensions. Thanks again Earl! -Aaron
<Make sure it's sealed very carefully if it's been out in the weather for any length of time. Once it's all done and seems ready, you can put layers of newspaper or similar underneath it, fill it, and leave it for a few days. If there are any leaks, the paper will reveal it. Also a good time to test bulkheads. Definitely have it drilled if it isn't. WWM has more info on this. On another note, a lower, wider than standard 100g tank is not easy to come by cheap so IMO it's probably a great score if you can indeed get it operational.>

Rock flower nems     3/18/17
Hey guys how has it been.
<Fine Tom; thanks>
Have a quick one about some rock flower nems that we have been getting and shipping in. We are having a large number melting the second or third day in. Cal 440, Mag 1350, alk 8 no3 5. They seem to be expelling a large
amount of why looks like green brown stringy material almost like a small hay.
<Mmm; trouble>

They are still solid feeling when introduced to the system.
<Alive up till then likely>
Could they have an issue with the substrate ?
<Doubtful... something/s else. Are they shipped one to the bag? Are their pedicles intact; i.e., not torn?>
We acclimate them with :30 float and :30 drip.
<I'd be dosing (over; like three plus times) with iodide-ate and lowering the spg of the acclim. water a thousandth or two>

Have kicked around putting them in a bare bottom and doing water changes ever hour till they quit expelling that material.
What chemicals can be used to help with these issues
<As above... plus poss. a simple/hexose sugar... as detailed by Hans Hass decades back and myself in recent ones>
Thanks again
Tom smith
Aquascape Chicago
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Rock flower nems     3/18/17

<Can't read this>
Re: Rock flower nems     3/18/17

Sorry about that
The nems all looked in tack in the bags and were shipped 5 per med sized bag.
<Mmm; I'd only ship one per... ALWAYS>

Just found the writing on the simple sugar treatment
What type is sugar works
Cane
Corn syrup
Simple cheap white ?
<Glucose is best... look for this at the supermarket for folks that do canning. Bob Fenner>

Is it possible? Coral Beauty Comp./Stkg.      3/18/17
<Hi Aaron, Earl today.>
Hello! Big fan here! I have a bit of a question to ask. I have a 40 gallon mixed reef with a coral beauty, approximately 3 inches and most likely male due to the fact that I got it from a shop who I saw had him in a tank to himself for around three months, anyways, I have been interested in possibly pairing up the coral beauty and was wondering if I could do it in the 40 breeder with no plan of upgrading tank size in the near future?
<This is playing with fire. Assuming they do not get along, and I would bet they will not, how prepared are you to physically remove one of them from a functional reef tank? I would not consider this but if you do, have a solid
game plan for rehousing one of the fishes if/when that becomes a necessity.
You would also need a way to monitor their interactions intensely (as close to 24/7) maybe with help from a spouse, etc.. Look up the topic of introducing potentially troublesome fishes on WWM (pasta strainer "shark
cages" and such; helped me with similar problems back in the day). In short, I would look into the many, many safer options and also ask myself "why?" as in, what is the motivation? Visuals? Interesting behavior? These
can be good reasons but with so many other options for a small reef tank and so much risk with the angels, I'd look elsewhere. All this applies to any same or similar species angelfish to some degree. Some of my favorites
and ones I will go out of my way (and budget, Argh!) to keep but they definitely have their share of attendant issues.>
Also, to add to that, I was possibly hoping to pair it with a deep water coral beauty. Would this be possible? I know pairing Centropyge species can be risky. Thank you. -Aaron
<Hope this helps and please follow up, this adds info for fellow aquarists to come! -Earl C.>
Re: Is it possible?     3/18/17

Thank you Earl! I figured it would not be possible (well maybe haha). The reason for the question was to see if I could possibly pair them and have a breeding pair as I am very interested in the breeding of marine angels
especially Centropyge and Paracentropyge species.
<If you can get that going, cha-ching! But that is a whole different ball of wax and not in the real of a hobbyist in their own home to attempt.
Breeding most marine fish is a herculean task, frankly.>
Also, it was going to be a pair only species tank with the two and the small yellow clown goby and skunk cleaner shrimp I have in the with the male right now. Maybe one day I'll upgrade but not in the near future. Thank you again!
<Get a bigger tank, use the 40g as a fuge/sump maybe ;) but this is coming from a guy who is looking at a switch to a 350 or similar to house a shockingly quickly growing queen angel. They lure you in and don't let go
once you fall in love with angelfish! Anyway let us know how it works out.>

Deer Vs, Water Lily     3/18/17
Greeting WetWebMedia Crew, I'm currently moving to a new property and am transporting a fairly water lily collection over. I've been told by previous owner they have a fair amount of axis deer moving thru property.
Do have any predictions on how the water lilies will fair. The house actually has 2 in-ground ponds and Im moving some above ground stock tanks over. Do you think the deer will be very attracted to the water lilies or do they have a chance of co-existing without netting and/or fencing?
Thank You
<Mmm; Axis deer will eat water lilies. Whether yours are attractive to this particular bunch though remains to be seen. You'll definitely notice in both cases. Bob Fenner>

Re: White Cloud swollen belly     3/18/17
Thanks Bob. I also have 2 Nerite snails. Can they tolerate the Epsom salt?
<At low concentration they should be fine. Some species are "salty". Bob Fenner>
Re: White Cloud swollen belly      3/18/17

Oops, I meant to say 1 tsp per 10 gallons
<Ah yes. Understood as such. B>

Diff. Ram species not getting along     3/17/17
I have 2 male 1 female Bolivian Rams and a male German Blue ram in the same tank it seams the German Blue ram is being aggressive towards the Bolivian Rams any advice what to do
<I'd remove the Blue Ram to elsewhere. UNLESS you have enough room here, there will be only further trouble. Bob Fenner>

White Cloud swollen belly, still      3/17/17
Hello again Fish Gurus:
<Hey Tracey>
I am still struggling with an intermittently sickly White Cloud Mountain Minnow. I did my best to get a couple of pictures of her (attached). What do you think is up with her belly?
<Well; is distended... but from what (cause?); trapped gas (happens sometimes from flake food..), a tumor, egg et al. binding? Some lumenal parasite or infectious agent?>
It does not look like a normal, healthy rounded belly to me. I have treated with PraziPro in the past so I don't
think it's worms. I'm starting to think maybe it's constipation, but I have been feeding peas once a week for ages. This fish is definitely up and down - sometimes active and swimming and eating with the crowd, sometimes
isolated and hovering with a bit of a wobble.
Any insight you might have would be most appreciated.
[Note: Further to your advice below, I couldn't get most of the meds you mentioned, other than Paraguard. All three fish had a round in the hospital tank with Paraguard and Epsom salts. They all recovered and got their appetites back. After a month of no issues, I restocked with 6 WCMM from another supplier. So far, all is good after 2 weeks - other than the one original fish this week as referred to above.)
Thanks from snowy Canada,
Tracey
<I'd re-try simple Epsom Salt here. Please read Neale's piece re:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/SaltUseFWArtNeale.htm
And do write back if you're not clear re. Bob Fenner>

Hawaiian Feather Duster vs. Toadstool       3/16/17
Good morning,
<Dave>
I've read through a number of FAQ's on Feather Dusters and Corals, and it sounds as though Feather Dusters are definitely reef compatible that seem to be unaffected by any chemical type battles between soft corals, etc.
I've had my large Hawaiian Feather Duster for most of three months in a 60g. He'd be open most of the day and I'd feed twice a week, alternating between PhytoFeast and OysterFeast. About ten days ago I introduced a
toadstool (4.5") and placed it in close proximity to the feather duster's tube (he wasn't out). After placement, the feather duster opened up and I could see the feathers touching the toadstool. I placed the toadstool about 6" away, and ever since then I have not seen my feather duster appear until two days ago. While feeding my tank and with the water still (all powerheads/pumps off), I can see something moving in the tube. Basically, I'd say it's the worm without the feathers although it does appear that there are small feathers growing back.
<They do this>
I plan to maintain the tank as per usual without further stressing the duster by putting him a quarantine tank. Is this normal? Stress induced?
Thoughts?
<I too don't know much/anything re chemical, physical issues twixt Featherdusters and soft corals. And I also would proceed as you're doing. Patiently. Bob Fenner>
Dave
Re: Hawaiian Feather Duster vs. Toadstool       3/16/17

I've read conflicting material. They do this as reproduction, and there may be a duster and full crown hiding in my tank with this other crownless critter in the tube?
<These Polychaetes do just cycle out their crowns; regenerate. Might be stress related, hastened...>
Or, it is stress induced reproduction in an attempt to survive? Or, this isn't reproduction and the crown of feathers simply disappeared?
<Often tossed out. Again; the P word. B>

Re: Hiding Ranchu in Pond     3/15/17
Thank you so much Bob for clearing that up for me. I was wondering if I might have to make it my Ranchu's permanent home. Thank you so much.
<Ok. B>
Ranchu hiding # 3     3/15/17

I can't keep my Ranchu in the 40 gallon pond. I have no choice but to keep her in my 765 gallon pond with comets. What can I do to make her feel more secure. Should I include more hiding places. There are only 2 deep spots in
my pond. The rest is all too shallow for her. Should I place something for her to hide in within one of the deeper parts of the pond? What would you recommend I use for her to hide in that the other fish wouldn't get into?
Thank you.
<Look up Anacharis, Ceratophyllum and Myriophyllum on WWM>
Ceramic pvc and resin ornaments use in Goldfish ponds      3/15/17

I am looking for hiding spots in my pond for a- inch Ranchu. I was wondering if I could use ceramic mugs.
Also I was wondering, could I use pvc pipe or resin ornaments too? Thank you.
<You could; I would use floating plants as stated. B>
Re: Ranchu hiding # 3       3/16/17

Thank you Bob.
<Welcome Cam>
Re: Ceramic pvc and resin ornaments use in Goldfish ponds       3/16/17

Can I use fake floating plants? I got a few more fake lotus lilies I can use. Should I try them? Here is a photo of 2 of them already in the pond.
<Yes to using the fake; though some live would definitely be of use here.
BobF>

Re: Ceramic pvc and resin ornaments use in Goldfish ponds       3/16/17
Can I use fake floating plants? I got a few more fake lotus lilies I can use. Should I try them? Here is a photo of 2 of them already in the pond.
<Yes to using the fake; though some live would definitely be of use here.
BobF>

Re: Angelfish with ammonia poisoning     3/15/17
Hi Bob and crew!
<Julie>
I did typo
<?>
and wanted to clarify. The 55 gallon tank that I placed Triggered into the night he went crazy over the other angelfish that was put into his tank.
The 55 gallons filter was not working and I did not realize it when I put Triggered and Curly in there. The ammonia when I tested water that morning when I found Triggered struggling, was higher than the highest reading of
6.0 ppm. The color was darker then the 6.0 on the chart and nitrite was 200 ppm.
<Nitrate likely>
I don't remember the nitrite reading.
I was wondering what you meant Bob when you said, <Sounds/reads like a rogue>
<A rogue individual. Some particular freshwater Angelfish are REALLY MEAN! Have to be kept solo; lest they attack other life.>
after reading "I decided to move Triggered and Curly to 55 gallon for the night. Or I might of woke up to dead fish. The 55 has 2 blood parrots and 2 angelfish aggressive green Severums. I moved Severums to 5 gallon bucket with heater. Put angels in tank, In the morning
I seen Triggered was dying. I quickly tested water and discover ammonia was threw <sic> the roof. Higher the 6.0 ppm and nitrites 200 ppm.
<?!!!> <Sounds/reads like a rogue>
I had to move Severums out of the 55 gallon for the night before I put Triggered and Curly in there. Those Severums are angelfish aggressive and have torn the angels fins up before. Someone gave me the Severums and the only tank mates they don't terrorize is 2 blood parrots who live in the 55 gallon. I think because the two blood parrots are kind of bullies so they don't let the Severums push them around. Those blood parrots have never bothered the angelfish or any other fish that leaves them alone. The blood parrots however don't like other blood parrots. So I moved the Severums into the bucket because I was worried my cat would catch my angels in the bucket. The Severums are much faster and tend to stay towards bottom so I figured the cat wouldn't even really see them and certainly would not try to fish them out of bottom of 5 gallon bucket.
I wanted to say thank you for the help and taking the time to read this.
Julie
<Certainly welcome. BobF>

Kuhli Loach Question /Neale      3/15/17
Good Afternoon WWM Crew:
<Hello,>
Your help in the past has been invaluable, and I've had no issues since my last correspondence in November, but now have a question about an injured Kuhli loach.
<Indeed! Quite the wound.>
I'm attaching a photo of one of my Kuhlis (I have 3-5). I have a 29 gallon freshwater setup, heavily planted with Java fern, Java moss, and Anubias. I have white aquarium sand as a substrate.
<All sounds good.>
Most of my fish have been in the tank for 1-2 years, with the exception of 2 Corys, 2 Albino BNP, 5 Nerite snails, and one Glowlight tetra that I added in November 2016, and Red Cherry shrimp added in December.
<Understood. Nothing here sounds risky.>
On Saturday I did a 20%+ water change, routine, no issues, didn't dig in the sand with the siphon, but I did pick up a plastic cave ornament to siphon underneath, and seeing no fish underneath, put it back down and wiggled it a little to settle it into the sand, just a bit, nothing really hard or forceful.
The next day, on Sunday evening (about 24 hours later) I noticed one of my Kuhlis lying against the side of the tank, which is unusual, as they usually hide in the plants. Upon closer inspection, I saw what appears to be a bite or gouge on her side, see photo.
<Indeed. Looks like an ulcer, could be caused by the physical damage, could be something else entirely coincidental with your tank cleaning exercise.>
Two other Kuhlis were lying "in the open" very close to her, laying against the outside of the "cave". They appeared to be fine, so I thought maybe they were staying by their friend. This morning she was in a similar position, but the other Kuhlis were not in view.
The tank mates in my 29g are as follows:
3-5 Kuhli loaches (I released 5, never see more than 3, they keep hidden)
4 Albino Corys
5 Glowlight tetras
5 Nerite snails
2 Albino Bristlenose Plecos (young, about 2-3" long)
<Do watch these don't rasp on the sore; while Ancistrus are normally pretty good, many Plecs will, given the chance, graze on wounded fish.>
1 Red Cherry shrimp (might be more, I released 4)
I have not read that Bristlenose Plecos are aggressive, but cannot imagine any other fish in the aquarium biting my Kuhli. I added the BNP in November, and have had no problems. I fear that I might have injured my Kuhli while cleaning yesterday.
<See above.>
The tank is heavily planted, and removing the Kuhli for treatment is probably not an option. I know adding salt is not an option, either, due to the tank mates.
<Unlikely salt would make a huge difference anyway.>
I keep the water clean (1 Eheim canister, 1 Aquaball, & 1 Marineland 200), pH 7.0-7.2, Ammonia 0, Nitrites 0, Nitrates 20-40 (it's usually at 30-40 when I do a water change, every 3-4 days). Water temp is 74-76F.
I'd appreciate your input on what you think might be the cause of this injury. I'm hoping my Kuhli survives, but if not, I want to prevent the others from a similar injury.
Thank you.
Lor, aka Fuzzi
<I'd be optimising water quality and using a good antibiotic or antibacterial until such time as the wound was obviously healing over. Fish *can* recover from flesh wounds like this rather well, all else being good.
So I'd be quite optimistic. Cheers, Neale.>

re: Help us please... FW Rays... rdg., using WWM      3/15/17
Hi Bob
Thanks for your response.
<Welcome Amir>
I saw than link you mention before . I think it is better to give you more information that you guide me better.
<Yes!>
I use volcanic media in aquarium sump
<Mmm; I wouldn't. Please read here re:

http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/fwstingrays.htm
and here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/fwraysysfaqs.htm
and i have gold Arowana with them and they grazes Tilapia every day .
<Need more than this>

At least we change the water twice a week around 30% . By the way ,i think its relate to bacterial or maybe fungal diseases . Please give me a remedy to treatment .
<? Did you read where I referred you?>

Thanks in advance for your response
<Can't help you if you won't read.
BobF>

Advertising on the site wetwebmedia.com     3/15/17
Good day! Can you tell me please with whom can I talk about placing the advertising? We are ready to propose you some interesting variants of advertising. Can you tell please some free places, possible sizes of placing and desired price.
<Yes; all posted here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/wwmadminsubwebindex/wwmsponsors.htm
Have a nice day
<And you, Bob Fenner>

Re: Hiding Ranchu in Pond     3/15/17
Thank you so much Bob for clearing that up for me. I was wondering if I might have to make it my ranchu's permanent home. Thank you so much.
<Ok. B>
Ranchu hiding # 3     3/15/17

I can't keep my Ranchu in the 40 gallon pond. I have no choice but to keep her in my 765 gallon pond with comets. What can I do to make her feel more secure. Should I include more hiding places. There are only 2 deep spots in
my pond. The rest is all too shallow for her. Should I place something for her to hide in within one of the deeper parts of the pond? What would you recommend I use for her to hide in that the other fish wouldn't get into?
Thank you.
<Look up Anacharis, Ceratophyllum and Myriophyllum on WWM>
Ceramic pvc and resin ornaments use in Goldfish ponds      3/15/17

I am looking for hiding spots in my pond for a- inch Ranchu. I was wondering if I could use ceramic mugs.
Also I was wondering, could I use pvc pipe or resin ornaments too? Thank you.
<You could; I would use floating plants as stated. B>

Help us please... FW Ray dis./losses; no info.        3/14/17
Hi, I have eight black diamonds stingray and some question about their
diseases.
<Yeeikes>
Now l lost four of them on two weeks ,and i didn't know about its treatment.
The sign of them stress ,breathing very fast,somthing like flukes on tail and loose appetite in final they live in 2600 l .
Thanks for your response
<Need more information Amir. What re filtration, water quality tests?
Foods/feeding/nutrition? Are there other livestock present? What? The history of this set up please. Have you read on WWM Re? Start HERE: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/fwraydisfaqs.htm
AND the linked files at top there. Bob Fenner>

Hiding Ranchu in Pond. Mixing comets w/ fancies...       3/14/17
I worry about my little Ranchu. She lives in a 765 gallon pond with other goldfish. Some of which are comets. The comets never hurt my Ranchu the few times she has met them. But she is also only about 2 inches, not including
her tail fins.
<Can't compete w/ them for food. Comets are much faster than fancies>
But she still only hides under the filter and won't come out. I have to lift up my pond filter to feed her. It has been about 4 weeks. What do I do to get my Ranchu to stop hiding? Thank you.
<IF the fish is thin, it will have to be moved, separated. BobF>
Re: Hiding Ranchu in Pond       3/14/17

She is not thin. She gets plenty of food. I make sure of it. I just can't get her to stay out from under the filter. Really scratching my head in confusion on this one. Just can't seem too get my finger on what the problem could be. It is like she is scared but I have no idea what she is so scared of. The comets don't harass her or anything. They get a little pushy at feeding time, but certainly nothing out of the ordinary for goldfish. Should I just put her in the 40 gallon pond I was planning for if I have move?
<Yes I would. B>

Kuhli Loach Question       3/14/17
Good Afternoon WWM Crew:
<Lor/Fuzzi>
Your help in the past has been invaluable, and I've had no issues since my last correspondence in November, but now have a question about an injured Kuhli loach.
I'm attaching a photo of one of my Kuhlis (I have 3-5).
<I see your excellent pic and ouch!>
I have a 29 gallon freshwater setup, heavily planted with Java fern, Java moss, and Anubias. I have white aquarium sand as a substrate.
Most of my fish have been in the tank for 1-2 years, with the exception of 2 Corys, 2 Albino BNP, 5 Nerite snails, and one Glowlight tetra that I added in November 2016, and Red Cherry shrimp added in December.
On Saturday I did a 20%+ water change, routine, no issues, didn't dig in the sand with the siphon, but I did pick up a plastic cave ornament to siphon underneath, and seeing no fish underneath, put it back down and wiggled it a little to settle it into the sand, just a bit, nothing really hard or forceful.
The next day, on Sunday evening (about 24 hours later) I noticed one of my Kuhlis lying against the side of the tank, which is unusual, as they usually hide in the plants. Upon closer inspection, I saw what appears to be a bite or gouge on her side, see photo.
<Yes; a physical trauma>
Two other Kuhlis were lying "in the open" very close to her, laying against the outside of the "cave". They appeared to be fine, so I thought maybe they were staying by their friend. This morning she was in a similar position, but the other Kuhlis were not in view.
The tank mates in my 29g are as follows:
3-5 Kuhli loaches (I released 5, never see more than 3, they keep hidden)
4 Albino Corys
5 Glowlight tetras
5 Nerite snails
2 Albino Bristlenose Plecos (young, about 2-3" long)
1 Red Cherry shrimp (might be more, I released 4)
I have not read that Bristlenose Plecos are aggressive, but cannot imagine any other fish in the aquarium biting my Kuhli. I added the BNP in November, and have had no problems.
<Usually Ancistrus species aren't aggressive...>
I fear that I might have injured my Kuhli while cleaning yesterday.
<Possibly>
The tank is heavily planted, and removing the Kuhli for treatment is probably not an option. I know adding salt is not an option, either, due to the tank mates.
I keep the water clean (1 Eheim canister, 1 Aquaball, & 1 Marineland 200), pH 7.0-7.2, Ammonia 0, Nitrites 0, Nitrates 20-40 (it's usually at 30-40 when I do a water change, every 3-4 days). Water temp is 74-76F.
I'd appreciate your input on what you think might be the cause of this injury. I'm hoping my Kuhli survives, but if not, I want to prevent the others from a similar injury.
Thank you.
Lor, aka Fuzzi
<If this were me, my system, fishes, I would leave all as is (not treat, not move the fish...). Just maintain the system as you've been doing; and hope this fish heals given time, good maintenance and nutrition.
Bob Fenner>

Re: Dragon goby companions       3/14/17
Hi Neale,
Thank you for your reply! It is great to get such friendly expert advice.
<Glad to help.>
After some more research and thought, I've decided to scrap my original idea of only using fish from North America. I watched a bunch of videos of brackish tanks, and the fish I liked best weren't from NA.
<Oh!>
Archerfish totally wow me, but I bought one a few months back and it was dead within minutes of being released into my aquarium.
<Unusual. These fish are generally quite tough once settled in. Skittish, but not delicate. Bad luck, I fear. Very beautiful fish, and they keep those vivid colours into maturity, which isn't true for all fish.>
I couldn't figure out what was wrong. 0 nitrites & ammonia, nitrate under 20. SG at 1.003. I suspect stress, but am scared I totally screwed up.
<Is indeed odd.>
He was going nuts in the bag - jumping and bashing himself so much.
<Ah!>
I made sure the water in the bag & tank were the same temp and then transferred him to the tank after a few minutes of mixing a few tablespoons of tank water into the bag at a time. I thought he was going to injure himself and hoped that a rushed transfer to the tank would be safer than a slower transition. There was so little pet store water in the bag that I didn't think my usual bucket acclimation method would work. Because I'm not sure what killed the little guy, I'm very nervous about trying again.
<Sounds like he was bagged too tightly. Have them bag your fish in as big a bag as possible, topped off with oxygen. Brackish water fish (like marines) aren't (usually) well suited to low oxygen conditions.>
He was about 2.5" from nose to tail and the store put him in a small bag about 1/4 full of water. He'd been at the store for around a month and was active, alert, and I didn't see any sign of injury before I brought him home. I'd been to the store several times and watched him closely before buying. The clerk said he was eating well - floating pellets. He was the largest and healthiest looking of the 3 they had. I feel terrible that I took an apparently okay fish and killed him.
<Oh dear.>
Archerfish are one of my dream fish, so if I can do it right I'd jump at the chance! Any ideas of what I did wrong and how I might do better if I try again?
<See above.>
In case I decide to go for archers I have some questions.
<Fire away.>
Are Toxotes microlepis the only archers that do well in brackish water? If I choose archers is SG 1.003 the saltiest I can go?
<All will tolerate low brackish, SG 1.003. Toxotes microlepis (a fresh and brackish water species) will be fine up to SG 1.005, perhaps even a little higher. But two entirely brackish water species, Toxotes jaculatrix and Toxotes chatareus, will go half-strength seawater easily, and rumour has it they spawn in fully marine habitats. The remaining four or so species are true freshwater species, and will tolerate slightly brackish water but don't need (or want) it. The freshwater species are not common and usually very expensive -- check out Toxotes blythii to see why! It's a stunning fish from one tiny part of the world. Distinguishing between the three truly brackish water species is difficult. I've got some sketches on my Brackish FAQ that might help, here:
http://brackishfaq.blogspot.co.uk/2016/08/archerfish-family-toxotidae.html
Basically, it doesn't matter if you stick at SG 1.005, which is what most aquarists do. Toxotes microlepis stays small, and it's my favourite species if you can find it.>
How many T. microlepis would be appropriate in a 125 gallon? What about T. jaculatrix (provided they tolerate brackish water)?
<None of the Archerfish work well in twos or threes, being apt to be bullies. So I'd tend to go with either a singleton or a decent group, perhaps four or more. They are schooling fish though, so singletons are more easily spooked than groups. A group of 4-6 Toxotes microlepis would be fine in 125 gallons, all else being equal, given their adult size is around 12 cm/5 inches.>
If I have a choice of sizes when I order should I go for the smallest? I know many fish seem to travel better when they're small.
<Yes, but whatever happens, choose equal sized specimens to minimise bullying.>
Would a 55 gallon quarantine tank be large enough for one of these groups?
If not, what size should I have ready? I'd prefer to have the quarantine tank filled and ready when they arrive, but if they are shipped to me in fresh water will it be okay to have brackish water in there to start with?
<Yes. Acclimating to brackish conditions across a few hours will not trouble Archers.>
Is 4 weeks of quarantine long enough and should I proactively treat for any kind of parasites or bacteria, etc?
<Four weeks should be fine, especially in brackish water (which tends to eliminate external parasites quickly).>
Now, on to stocking choices for the bottom level of the tank. This is all assuming I go for only archers for stocking the top and mid water levels.
<Very much "top" fish.>
I have the one violet dragon goby. He's pretty active and spends a lot of time digging and swimming in place (not sure what this is about, but it's fun to watch) in his current set up. I've seen VDGs kept together get pretty rough with each other over burrows and during feeding time, but they never seemed to cause any damage to each other. I found the posturing interactions interesting to watch. Do you think 2 VDGs in a 125 would be appropriate as long as I provided multiple burrow locations per goby? If so, would I need to grow the second goby before putting them together?
Generally they're pretty small when sold locally. And is 4 weeks sufficient quarantine time? Is it a bad idea to add a second goby if the first has had the whole tank to himself?
<They are territorial, so squeezing multiple specimens into a single tank is risky. If done, I would keep three or more rather than two; and would also ensure multiple hiding places (tubes, burrows) so that competition was minimised. It's probably the males that squabble, but how to sex these fish I do not know...>
I love my goby and want him to have a pleasant a life that is as close to "wild" as I can provide. Do you think he'd be happier alone or would the territorial interactions be a valuable mimicry of nature? I'm not sure how close dragon gobies live to each other in the wild.
<Not. As I understand it, males maintain burrows into which females are enticed for spawning, then driven out, the males looking after the eggs.
Both sexes maintain burrows to use when the tide is out, these fish inhabiting tidal flats as often as permanent bodies of water.>
I worry that the floor space of a 125 is too small and the nearness would be unduly stressful. I also don't want to set up a situation where he won't feel comfortable coming out to forage and explore.
<They aren't wildly active, and there are ways to "entertain" them. Rocks with algae on will be scraped, and tiny plankton in the form of Daphnia or brine shrimp will be gulp-fed.>
What other bottom dwellers should I consider? I like oddballs, eel-like fish, funky catfish, etc. I'd love something similar to the saltwater toad fish but I haven't run into any brackish types in my research.
<Oh, many, MANY brackish water toadfish and similar; Neovespicula depressifrons is the obvious one, an adorable and very active fish, about 10 cm/4 inches long, sometimes known as the Butterfly Goby Waspfish.
Another obvious pick is a sleeper goby, Butis butis, widely sold as the Crazyfish. Adults are around 15 cm/6 inches long, very impressive. Both these species are highly predatory. No risk to your Violet Goby or adult Archers, but will view livebearers and snacks. Let me also direct you to the true Toadfishes, of which several species are traded very
occasionally:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/toadfishfaqs.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/waspsmidship.htm
Good aquarium fish, if a bit inactive.>
Thank you!
Meghan

Angelfish with ammonia poisoning       3/14/17
Good morning crew! I hope you can help me. I have several fish tanks. I just love my fishies! I have custom made 82 gallon with 4 angels. They paired up but not breeding. The boss is Triggered and his mate Curly. They are biggest angels in there. Also 2 Bala sharks,
<Yikes; will get much larger!>
4 Bavarian rams, black ghost knife, 2 blood parrots,
<And these>
1 pain in the butt male Betta and 2 Plecos.
<Tambien>
Everything is still pretty small except Triggered, Curly and 2 Plecos. As soon as my 150 gallon cycles most will be moved. Not the rams or Betta but everything else will be moved to 150 gallon tank.
<Ah, good>
Well my daughter was having a problem with dominate angelfish in her tank and we have tried this angelfish in about 9 different tanks here with him beating every fish up or terrorizing them. We made arrangements with pet
store to take him but we couldn't take him till morning. I wish I would of thought about putting her angelfish in the bucket with the heater before I put him in my tank for the night as well as 2 small angels because they were beating up on a tiny angelfish in her tank. Well Triggered flipped out and not only went after the big angelfish of my daughters but he went after everything in the tank, shredding everyone in his way.
<Sounds/reads like a rogue>
The newest fish is the Betta, All the other fish grew up together and get along well. The Betta is kind of a bully. I decided to move Triggered and Curly to 55 gallon for the night. Or I might of woke up to dead fish. The 55 has 2 blood parrots and 2 angelfish aggressive green Severums. I moved Severums to 5 gallon bucket with heater. Put angels in tank, In the morning I seen Triggered was dying. I quickly tested water and discover ammonia was
threw <sic> the roof. Higher the 6.0 ppm and nitrites 200 ppm.
<?!!!>

My filter was not working, not sure how long it was off. Ugh. I took water from 82 gallon and put into bucket, netted the 2 angels and 2 parrots putting them in the bucket. Tank temps are the same. I took them to 82 gallon and released them. Curly and 2 blood parrots were struggling but you wouldn't know it now. They are fine! Triggered was down, gasping for air, breathing hard. I took daughter's larger angel out and put in bucket, moved the other mated pair of angels to daughters tank so the wouldn't stress Triggered anymore then he already was. I seen Pleco's going near him and decided he would be safer in a container. His fins are a wreck, his eyes were fogged. He had about every symptom of ammonia poisoning. I put triggered into 2 gallon clear container floating on surface of tank, so his water could stay warm. I didn't want to cook him with my 5 gallon heater and didn't want the cat to fish him out of the bucket. I put air stone in, prime, aquarium salt, and Mela fix, I has been 4 days, His breathing is almost normal, I clean 40% of his water daily and been dosing with Mela fix. He is showing improvement. His eyes are clear, fins are no worse. On day 3 he tried to get up and swim, I think he is still weak. Today he is staying up little longer than yesterday but still can't stay upright. He gets up but can not stay up right for more than few seconds. He is trying so hard to survive and he is my favorite angelfish so I'm not giving up on him. I read fish can survive this, He doesn't have the red streaks or red blotches which would mean internal bleeding. My question is am I doing the right thing?
<Yes; just needs clean, stable water conditions>

I seem to be spinning my wheels. When using Mela fix <Am not a fan of this plant extract. You can scan/search WWM re>
I'm not suppose to do water changes but he seems to be more active and really tries to get up and moving afterwards. His water in bucket has registered .5 ammonia. This is reason I'm doing water changes. I'm not sure
how, I have not tried to feed him. The 82 gallon has 0 ammonia, 0 nitrite, 0 nitrate. Could ammonia be leaching out of his scales?
<Mmm; no; but out of gills and wastes/vent; yes>
How soon can I let him outta the container once he can stay a float?
<Whenever you want; elect to do so>
Should I continue using Mela fix?
<I wouldn't. Of no use; and may be worsening the issue/s here>

I was worried about secondary infection and fin rot. Last question, The other mated pair of angels (Sponge Bob and Sandy) Should I put them back into tank before I release Triggered?
<Yes I would>
Not sure he will let them back in once he is out of the container and back in his tank. They been raised together and they squabble once in a while but the tank is peaceful except for the Betta who is somewhat of a trouble maker. lol He defends his spot in tank and will flare and follow whoever entered his territory. He and Triggered squabble a lot but no damage is done. Their territories are next to each other.
<... Bob Fenner>

Re: Porcupine puffer emergency       3/14/17
So, I've read everything you said, and had already read that or knew it....she is still not eating and I have tried to force feed her and it all just comes back out...it's almost as if it is a soft bubble in her mouth ,
<This fleshy bit in your pic is natural... Sometimes puffers just DO refuse food... for weeks. This specimen doesn't appear overly thin. I would NOT handle/force feed the specimen (too stressful), but instead soak grass, ghost shrimp, smallish crayfish or such in a feeding supplement (HUFAs, Vitamins) as SeaChem's Appevite>
like she puffed up and some part inside her mouth won't deflate,
<Again; this is part of the puffers anatomy>

I'm attaching the best pic I can get. It's been like at least 2 weeks of no eating :( I think she knows what I'm trying to do when I get the tube and stick it in her mouth because she lets me do it but she can't bite down on it and she does not puff up ever when I try. The "bubble" is across her whole mouth inside ...I've even tried a turkey baster and she open her mouth really wide and let's me do it, then closed it all the way but then it goes back to half open...and again she doesn't puff up so that's what's getting me thinking she can't deflate inside somehow??
<More likely a B vitamin deficiency syndrome>

She had puffed up right before all this started im thinking now, for no apparent reason which is how she always puffed up when she did.im very stressed and with her being 14 years old, I think I'm stressing her out more..thoughts please...
<Yes to the added stress>
Stacy Burks
<Bob Fenner>

Exporting Live Tropical Marine & Fresh Water Fish. Sri Lanka     3/13/17
Dear Sir,
<Samantha>
We are exporters of Live Tropical Marine and Fresh water fish for more than 20 years, operating in Sri Lanka. Now we extended our business for import and re-export of Red Sea Fish, Maldives fish in view of expanding our international “buyers network”. To achieve our sales targets, we built good stock of Red Sea Fish, Maldives Fish, with Sri Lanka tropical marine fish and fresh water fish therefore we will be able to offer you attractive promotional discounts.
At the same time we can guarantee almost “Nil DOA” because our modernized facilities in our aquarium along with our 20 years experience in packing for long destinations, and maintaining healthy sanitary aquarium. Please refer attached stock list with promotional prices, for you to enjoy the special offers such as, 20% discount for marine fish and 30% discount for, fresh water tropical fish.
In order to see the condition of our fish, we propose you to start with a trial shipment. Please feel free inquire any further details of our company, international references as well as flight information to your destination etc.
We are available for your service at any time because we are customer oriented company.
Respectfully,
Samantha.
Aquarium Marine Fishes.
197/1, Padiri Pio Mawatha,
Thaladuwa, Negombo,
Sri Lanka.
Tele: - 0094 31 2223512
Mobile: - 0094 77 330 8380
E-mail:- amfishes@eol.lk
https://www.facebook.com/amfsrilanka
<Will post/share your message on WWM. Hope to visit you someday. Bob Fenner>

Musk turtle     3/13/17
Dear Crew,
<Hiya, Darrel here>
Hello, I had a question. I have a musk turtle(Hybrid) and a map turtle(Nin), both about 5-6inches(map is slightly larger not by much) now and share a 150gl aquarium with a 14inch basking area under a UV-B and Heat Lamp. Both are males, both in the same aquarium for 2 years both are fine with each other and have never bit nor snapped at each other, really they ignore one another except when basking they try to play king of the hill on each other. The musk is about 8years old now I got him as a hatchling and the map is 4 and I got him from my little step brother.
<All sounds good. As long as the relative size is the same, or favors the Map Turtle, there should not be aggression problems>
Now on to my question My musk randomly started shedding a couple months back, around the time I changed the food I don’t remember the original food(I would if I saw it I know it had dried shrimp and food pellets in it) but I changed it to zoo-med natural aquatic turtle food.
<Good stuff>
When I first noticed it I thought it was shell rot due to the discoloration(edges of scutes-hope that’s the right word)
<That is the right word>
looked almost white when he was submerged) until he scratched a piece off and underneath was, for lack of better words, shiny new and rich brown like it use to be. He had exhibited some major discoloration before I changed food(which is what prompted me to buy a food with more calcium) his shell had become a greyish brown before food switch, I clean them bi-weekly with a soft bristled toothbrush and tank is cleaned with a vac weekly with ¾ of the water changed monthly. Anyways on to the questions.
1.)Why would he suddenly start shedding?
<The technical term is to slough (pronounced "sluff") the scutes as the shell grows - this is a good thing
2.)Is it normal to be shedding for 2+months on musk turtles?
<yep>
3.)If not normal what actions need to be done?
<Keep doing what you're doing>

Dragon goby companions        3/12/17
Hello all!
<Meghan,>
I'm going to be purchasing a 125+ gallon aquarium to house my violet dragon goby. He is currently in a brackish 55 gallon (SG about 1.003) with a few Dalmatian molly juveniles. He (she?) is around 14" at this point and still
growing. I will not be moving the mollies to the larger tank.
<Understood. Mollies are good companions, FWIW, and healthy, happy Dragon/Violet Gobies won't even eat their fry. At least, not quickly enough to cause problems.>
I'm researching possible companions for the VDG once the larger tank is all set up and cycled.
<Good. As gentle giants, they're often mis-combined. Better with small, peaceful fish than big, pushy species.>
I really want at least one tight-schooling fish and possibly some smaller, colorful shoaling fish, and some shrimp (perhaps ghost shrimp). I'm very fond of oddballs, intelligent fish, and those with interesting behaviors.
<I think shrimp are probably risky given they're the sort of food these gobies eat, though in a fully marine system, large shrimps such as Cleaner Shrimps should be fine.>
Ideally, I'd like all of the species to come from the same continent.
<Ah, now that's a bit more tricky. To start with, you need to ID the Dragon Goby you have. There are two common species. Gobioides broussonnetii from the Atlantic coastline between Florida and Brazil, and Gobioides peruanus, which comes from the Pacific coast from Mexico down to Peru. This second species has fainter purple bands on its flanks, so telling the two apart isn't too difficult if you go online and study a few photos of each species
before you look at yours.>
Are there any schooling fish that would move in a fairly organized fashion AND be appropriate? I'd prefer a peaceful species that won't compete with the VDG for food on the bottom.
<At low-end brackish, one of the livebearer species would be the obvious, authentic choice for Gobioides broussonnetii. A wild-type species might be more authentic, whether true Sailfin Mollies, or something less familiar
like a Limia or Micropoecilia species. Killifish are the other obvious choices for Atlantic set-ups, for example Florida Flagfish or, if you can get hold of them, something like Cyprinodon variegatus. Killifish do tend to form schools outside of spawning time, becoming more territorial when/if the males defend the eggs/fry. There are some catfish species that would be appropriate too, notably the brackish water banjo cats like Platystacus cotylephorus that eat similar foods but aren't likely to compete aggressively at feeding time, being more nocturnal than the goby. Finally, while Wrestling Halfbeaks aren't native to the Americas, numerous small halfbeaks and needlefish inhabit the estuaries along the Atlantic coastline, so as substitutions go, they're be perfectly reasonable. When it comes to the Pacific coastline of the Americas, the range of available species is a lot smaller. Apart from Colombian Shark Catfish, I can't think of any widely traded species that ticks the right boxes. It's not that there aren't any suitably small and attractive fish from the Pacific coast of, say, Mexico or Colombia; there are. It's just they're not often seen.
If you want things like Poecilia butleri or Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora, you're going to have to really search for them.>
If I decide on livebearers I'm leaning toward Micropoecilia picta and Limia nigrofasciata but am wondering if they would interbreed.
<On paper they should be at risk of doing so, but I've had a large tank of Limia nigrofasciata alongside farmed Guppies in my classroom, and no sign at all of any hybrids, even after 2-3 years.>
Also, are these really vigorous feeders? I had sailfin mollies with the VDG but they gobbled up the food so quickly he was getting skinny and I don't want to repeat that.
<Mollies are pushy fish. I think you'd find smaller livebearers wouldn't be so bad. But in any event, provided your Goby continues to grow, I doubt the competition with the Mollies is genuinely a problem.>
Any advice on other places to search for more information would also be appreciated.
Thanks!
Meghan
<And thanks for being among the few to keep these lovely fish properly!
Cheers, Neale.>

Something not quite right with Platies        3/12/17
Hello!
<Hello Lena,>
I'm writing in regards to my 150 liter Juwel aquarium. It's been up and running for around three months now, and the tank is fully cycled. It's parameters are
0. Ammonia,
0. Nitrite,
10. Nitrate
8.2 PH.
Temperate: 25 degree Celsius
<This all sounds good.>
The surface of the water ripples from filtration, so I assume aeration is adequate.
<Should be. These are well-designed tanks, and provided you don't overstock them, the built-in filter mixes air and water very well, ensuring good water quality.>
It's moderately planted with Java Moss, Java Ferns and Anubias, (plenty of hiding spaces) and has two filters running; the inbuilt one and a secondary Eheim. The fish seem to have no issue with the water movement; I added the Eheim as the focal piece of the tank is a large piece of store bought driftwood and its shape was causing dead spots.
<Good.>
The stock list is
5 Kuhli loaches (one of which has giraffe-like print? Is this common?)
<Not uncommon. There are several species of Pangio, easily confused, and frequently jumbled up in the trade. So you could easily have a true Kuhli (Pangio kuhlii) alongside Pangio semicincta, Pangio myersi or one of the
other Pangio species in the trade.>
2 Albino Corydoras
1 Whiptail Catfish
1 Male Platy
1 Male Swordtail
4 Female Platies (2 of which are orange High-Fins)
I have no plans on adding anymore fish, I'm already concerned that it's veering on the side of overstocked.
<In 150 litres you're fine. Indeed, I'd add a few more Corydoras so you get a decent school of 5-6 specimens, and if it were me, a couple more Whiptails too, as they're fun to watch in groups. The males hold tiny territories and do their best to flirt with nearby females.>
Every day they receive either spectrum community fish pellets or flakes (I like to change it up) and also an algae tab, which vanishes over the course of 5-6 hours. I also supplement their diet with freeze-dried blood-worms
once a week (The platies/swordtail seem largely disinterested in these, but the Corydoras and whiptail cat make short work of them).
My first attempt of purchasing Platies was a nightmare; of the original five, only one remains; the female Hi-Fin in the picture, which I assume was not related to the lot that died. The ones that passed away stopped eating, sat themselves above the filter out-take, grew mossy and white and passed away within one or two days. No other fish were affected. I purchased a female Oreo platy a week later from another store, no problems.
All fish are drip-acclimatized.
A week later, (and now about a week ago) I purchased three more platys from a different shipment to the same store where I purchased the original ones (I suspected the store was at fault, now I'm suspecting the supplier). Two of the platies, (female), have settled in with no problem, but the Male platy (pictured) has begun clamping and flashing. He is strongly swimming, attempting to mate with everything and has a full appetite, but I'm concerned about a repeat event. Are there any preventative measures I can take?
<See below.>
Additionally, my pregnant looking Hi-Fin has isolated herself from the rest of the pack since the new fishes introduction. I assumed she was just going to give birth, and I have spotted a handful of grey fry in the tank, but
I'm concerned about the fact that despite all her other fins are looking good, her pelvic fins are glued to her body and she looks to be in slight distress. Her anus also looks swollen, but could this just be from her giving birth?
<Possibly.>
Why would her fins be clamped up beneath her?
<Normally, stress.>
Thank you in advance, regards, Lena
<As you've experienced, the quality of Platies is middling to poor, at least in the UK. This is a problem with livebearers across the board really. All the farmed livebearers have been inbred to the Nth degree, and on top of that, because they're "easy" to breed, and sold as cheap fish, fish farms don't put a whole lot of effort into producing good quality livestock. Bacterial infections as well as things like Camallanus worms seem to be endemic. Your best approach is to buy specimens from a local breeder, as those should be much healthier, or alternatively, skip the farmed livebearers in favour of the less inbred wild-type livebearers such as Limia nigrofasciata. In any case, I'd tend to adopt a 'wait and see' approach here. I'd also be minded to use eSHa HEXAMITA, a product sold in Europe, or alternatively in the US, Metronidazole, to treat against Hexamita infections. At low level these and similar parasites cause wasting in a variety of fish, including livebearers. They're otherwise difficult to treat using the standard medications. Do also note that Platies prefer cool, hard, alkaline water and will never do well in warm, soft or acidic water. While middling temperatures (24-25 C) and hardness (around 10 degrees dH) should suit Platies and other community fish, anything warmer or softer than that isn't going to work. Cheers, Neale.>


Porcupine puffer emergency        3/12/17
Hi, I have a huge question...I have a porcupine puffer and I've had her for 14 years...she stops eating for days every once in a while.
<Not to worry; this is a "natural behavior". Please see here re:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/burrfishfdgfaqs.htm
Normal . my problem now is she hasn't eaten for a week, did a water change thinking it was due which it was, 150 gallon nitrates 40 normal for her tank no ammonia salinity 1.023 . I know she is old I'm worried maybe she has
lockjaw, her mouth won't close all the way ,

<Yikes; not good>
but when I look inside it looks like something maybe stuck in there, she gets clams in shells, etc. I do feed her frozen krill but not everyday, she gets a lot of diff things....
<Good>
I tried tube feeding her but she isn't having it, and it looks soft in her moth like something blocked...hard to describe, here is a pic best I can get.
Stacy Burks
<Please read the above link AND:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/BurrfshNutrDisF.htm
I WOULD supplement any offered foods AND the water directly as gone over...
Bob Fenner>

Re: Fish ID      3/11/17
Thanks Bob. Just landed in Belize.
<Enjoy!>
Cheers-
Gabe Walsh

New Products      3/11/17
Hello WWM Crew,
I am wondering if anyone at WWM has ever used or have heard of Aquaforest Products. My two LFS are pushing these products and I would like to get a non bias opinion before I try them. Any information would be appreciated.
Thanks for the wonderful service you provide to everyone.
Thanks
Brian
<Think I responded to this last week. Yes to these Polish products. Are real; do work. Bob Fenner>

Fish ID          3/10/17
Bob-
<Gabe>
I've been really busy packing and such for vacation that I haven't even had time to check my own email. A coworker of mine sent me some pictures and wanted a fish identified. Pretty sure it's freshwater but I haven't really looked at it too well. Photos attached. Not sure if they're too big or not.
Please let me know when you get these.
Cheers-
Gabe Walsh
WWM Crew
<At first glance; this looks, looked like an Eelpout or such (family Zoarcidae)... Some relatives are freshwater, but most all are marine. Any chance of a larger, full-body pic? Bob Fenner>

Re: Fish ID          3/10/17
That's all the info they had for me. Thanks for the help.
Cheers-
Gabe Walsh
<Will post on WWM (and would on Facebook if the pix were bigger); hopeful someone will chime in. BobF>
Re: Fish ID          3/10/17

Here they are again. I'm sending them actual size. May be too big for WetWeb.
Gabe Walsh
<Thanks Gabe; have cropped, spiffed and posted on FB for help. B>

Re: Fish ID          3/10/17
<Gabe.... what the? Is this a leucistic Gyrinocheilus aymonieri? A CAE?!!!
BobF>
Here they are again. I'm sending them actual size. May be too big for WetWeb.
Re: Fish ID          3/10/17

You seem excited about this. Did I miss something? :) Rare find?
<Not rare; excited because it IS so common. B>
Gabe Walsh
Re: Fish ID          3/10/17

Ok. I never considered it being a CAE. It looks to me like the mouth is on the topside of the head unlike a normal CAE.
<.... no>
You think for sure that's what it is?
<Highly likely an "albino" (not albino) CAE; olde>
I haven't done freshwater in years...
Cheers-
Gabe Walsh
WWM Crew

 

RE: Filter photo          3/10/17
Can do! Here is some drawings I did of what the setup might look like when completed.
Thank you so much Bob. Your help means a lot to me. I greatly appreciate it.
<Ahh; very nice. Thank you for sharing>
RE: Filter photo          3/10/17

You are welcome

Re: Help identifying these marks please          3/10/17
thank for the reply. could they be yellow grubs (Clinostomum spp.)?
<Mmm; doubtful; though it may well be that these Macropodus were grown outdoors. Can only tell by sampling, examining under a microscope.>
the colouration of the fish is possibly giving them the darker look that im seeing?
<Stress often manifests itself in melanophore dispersion. BobF>

Help identifying these marks please /Neale's input           3/10/17
Hello. I work for an aquatic store in North Wales, United Kingdom. We have just taken a delivery of fish and have noticed that all of our delivered labyrinth species have something not quite right with them. We had paradise fish (see pictures attached), pearl gouramis and dwarf gouramis. As in the picture (which i know is hard to make out) they nearly all have black marks inside them, almost the same sort of shape to a young Argulus parasite, but it is definitely internal. I cant for the life of me work out what it could be. I am almost certain its a species of parasite, or larval form of another critter, but i am not certain. We had a few months back another delivery from the same supplier of some kissing gouramis (another labyrinth species) and they too had these marks, we were able to send them back on
that instance, but these ones are going into quarantine until we can work out what to do with them. Any help would be appreciated. Thank you.
<<I've taken a look at these, and black spots are usually one of two things. The first is simply ammonia burns. Such damage is limited to off-colour patches rather than discrete small, circular sooty-black spots.
The true Black Spot Disease is caused by various flukes that are sort of like Whitespot in being skin parasites, but different in having much more complex life cycles that require snails and birds as additional hosts.
While they can persist in ponds under some circumstances, the disease is normally only seen on tropical fish that have been recently imported from the tropics (whether on outdoor farms or wild-caught). The good news is that although the parasite can live in the fish for some time, it can't reproduce, and under aquarium conditions the life cycle eventually grinds to a halt. The bad news is that there's no cure as such, and there's nothing much you can do to tidy up the appearance of the fish beyond letting them naturally heal in their own good time. Cheers, Neale.>>

A Quick Follow-Up       WWM...            3/10/17
Good morning,
Hope you're doing well.
I was checking the inbox folder and found out that you didn't respond to my message I sent you a while ago.
I just wanted to ask you a question regarding the resources I found on this page http://www.wetwebmedia.com/wwmadminsubwebindex/general_links_pg.htm.
Are you the correct person to direct this question to?
Have a great day!
<If you're looking to advertise on WWM, please do read here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/WWMAdminSubWebIndex/wwmsponsors.htm
Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Filter photo       3/8/17
Thank you Bob. ��Yeah, the filter is a new one I am going to be trying. They tell me it filters and reviews say it keeps the pond clean. It has a gph of 265 and is recommended for ponds up to 500 gallons. It also has a uv and a fountain. They said it was designed for small ponds. I did what research I could on it. It seems to filter ok.
<READ on WWM re pond filtration.>
RE: Filter photo       3/8/17

Ok. Got another filter. What do you think of this one?
<How is biological filtration provided? SEE as in READ on WWM Re.>
Pennington Aquagarden In pond 5 in 1 300
3 stage filtration
203 gph pump
20 watt uv clarifier
Has a fountain feature
Dimensions 14” W x 15” D x 7” H
Water flow is adjustable

RE: Filter photo       3/9/17
How is biological filtration provided? Well, it has course foam pad, a medium foam pad, a polymer wool pad, and ceramic biomedia. Water flows through the top of the filter, through the foams, then through the ceramic media to the UV. Then it goes from there to exit through the pump. Does this answer your question? Anything wrong with this?
<It does sound like the stmt.: Triple filtration provided. This should work. I would move a good deal of your established ponds water to the new pond to prime the bio. B>

 

Help identifying these marks please       3/9/17
Hello. I work for an aquatic store in North Wales, United Kingdom. We have just taken a delivery of fish and have noticed that all of our delivered labyrinth species have something not quite right with them. We had paradise
fish (see pictures attached), pearl gouramis and dwarf gouramis. As in the picture (which i know is hard to make out) they nearly all have black marks inside them, almost the same sort of shape to a young Argulus parasite, but it is definitely internal. I cant for the life of me work out what it could be. I am almost certain its a species of parasite, or larval form of another critter, but i am not certain. We had a few months back another
delivery from the same supplier of some kissing gouramis (another labyrinth species) and they too had these marks, we were able to send them back on that instance, but these ones are going into quarantine until we can work out what to do with them. Any help would be appreciated. Thank you.
<Mmm; well; such black marks can be simply due to stress... but this might be Ichthyobodo (Costia); can't quite make out. Am going to ask Neale Monks to respond here; he is better versed with such matters and lives in the UK. Neale? Bob Fenner>

 

One last question on my 40 gallon pond I am planning. Overwintering small pond     3/8/17
As you know I have a 40 gallon pond I am planing. I want one fancy goldfish in the pond. The pond will be outdoors. I live in the subtropical desert region of the AZ desert. I might use common fantails, as they are hardier than most fancies. But I have got that Ranchu in my big 765 gallon pond right now. She is with 9 comets, 1 comet Shubunkin hybrid, 1 Ryukin, 2 common fantails, and 1 Oranda. She is very nervous right now. Just got her about 3 weeks ago. She is also the smallest and slowest fish I have. I am making sure she gets all the food she needs. But she concerns me the most out of my fish. I may I have to take her with me if I move anywhere. Or I may have to put her in this new pond I have planned. The whole purpose of me obtaining this new pond is so I can take one fancy goldfish with me if I have to move. It might wind up having to be the Ranchu. The Ranchu needs me the most. This pond must be able to work outdoors for any fancy goldfish I have to take with me. Any suggestions on insulating the pond or warming it with a heater during winter?
<Put it indoors, like in a garage during the cold months of the year (when nights are below 55F let's say) is what I'd plan on doing.
Bob Fenner>
Thank you.
RE: One last question <?> on my 40 gallon pond I am planning     3/8/17
Garage is not an option either. Anything else I can try?
<Spray foam on the outside? Building a wood box and lining it w/ Styrofoam and placing the pond inside? A submersible heater set on low?
B>
Here is a photo of my 40 gallon pond I plan to use.

<Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/PondSubWebIndex/contpdsart.htm
here: http://wetwebmedia.com/PondSubWebIndex/pddessiting.htm
and here: http://wetwebmedia.com/PondSubWebIndex/pdmaintwint.htm
and the linked files above.
RE: One last question on my 40 gallon pond I am planning     3/8/17

Will try those ideas. Thank you so much Bob! ��
<Welcome>
40 gallon pond Photo and Bubble wrap question     3/8/17

Here is a photo of the 40 gallon pond I have been talking to you about.
<... you already sent this>
Would bubble wrap work as temporary insulation too?
<Doubtful; IF the temperature vacillates too much diurnally; there will be trouble... Too much stress. I'd just keep the fancy goldfish indoors in an aquarium. >

Shallow sand bed questions      3/7/17
Dear WWM Crew,
<Hey Rick>
I have been reading all of the information on WWM articles and FAQs related to shallow sandbeds, and reviewing my copy of Conscientious Marine Aquarist, but am a little confused in a couple of areas. My experience has all been with DSBs in larger tanks, so going with a SSB is a bit new to me.
<There are reasons, and proponent of both; and none! Shallow ones look better than naught, but are easier to keep clean; do provide some additional alkalinity and alkaline earth materials, substrate for habitat/organisms...>
Here's the description of a new 60 gallon cube I am setting up for my wife. It will have a good amount of water movement with an Eshopps RS-100 sump, Reef Octopus 110INT skimmer, Sicce 4.0 return pump running at about 650 gph at the tank's head height, two Jebo PP4 programmable wavemakers (132-1850 gph) , and an MJ1200 pump feeding a mixed carbon/gfo reactor.
There'll also be an ATO added. She wants a shallow sandbed so planning 3/4 inches of CaribSea Special Reef Sand. The lighting is an Aqua Illumination Hydra 26HD mounted 8 inches AWL. Salt mix will be Instant Ocean Reef Crystals. Water changes and will be 10% weekly, including vacuuming half of the sandbed each week.
<A good regimen>
Livestock will be more towards corals with a medium population. Estimated total water volume after sand and rock is about 70-74 gallons.
My first question is on the amount of live rock recommended when running a shallow sandbed. I have always used the "1 to 1.5 pound-per gallon"' rule, but reading a lot and hearing at LFS that the current recommendations are for less rock, using around 3/4 to 2/3 pounds per gallon rule.
<Am more of a fan of this latter; and the use of less-dense (S. Pacific) rock. Bommies not walls is a motto>
Since my understanding is live rock has limited ability to reduce nitrates, what, if any, impact does the sandbed depth have on the amount of live rock to use?
<Mmmm; both aid in denitrification and interstitial fauna (food et al. organisms) production... Depending on composition and surface area both add the aforementioned chemical help>
Do you feel 40-45 pounds of rock is enough for his tank or is more recommended. I am using mostly Fiji live rock.
<This amount is fine. Try it and see; you can add more later if you want>
My other question is on the cleaner crew to add in a few weeks. I'm thinking of going with a couple of Sally Lightfoot crabs, a mix of smaller snails (mostly Nassarius, Ceriths and bumble bee) but beyond that unsure what to add.,
<Meh; am not a fan of crabs really; and just a few snails...>
My wife's heart is set on adding a goby and Peppermint or cleaner shrimps. But with a SSB I am concerned about starvation for them.
Any recommendation on mix and numbers for a cleaner crew?
<Naught more than we have archived on WWM; really>
Thank you for all of your help and all you do for our hobby!
Regards,
Rick Morris
Dacula, GA.
<A pleasure to share; aid your efforts. Bob Fenner>

2nd Goldfish GPH Question... Repeats       3/7/17
Hello again. Here is a repeat on the specifications on my pond. I have a 40 gallon oval pond. It's made of Ldpe Plastic. It measures 27" W x 40" L x 13" Height. I got a uv filter fountain hybrid with A 265 gph. The uv has a
13 watt bulb.
My question is, will the 265 gph be too much for 1 fancy goldfish?
<Already asked and responded to...>

I will only get common fantails, Ryukins, Orandas, or Ranchus. This will be an outdoor pond. I live in the subtropical AZ desert. Ice never makes the water freeze over. So that wouldn't be a problem. I got 2 fake pond lotus I plan to use as shade for the fish. They are both 6 inches in diameter. I have the option of adding two more if I need to. I don't want snails and have no luck with live plants. So my only option for algae control is algaecide. I am very careful with algaecide. Is there anything else you think I should do in the planning of my pond? Thank you.
<Am not a fan of pond algicides... too dangerous, toxic... at any concentration. READ please where you were referred to (again). B>
RE: 2nd Goldfish GPH Question      3/7/17

Ok. Thank you Bob. Just making sure I am correct by asking you first. You know a lot more than me.
<Am much older; studied in the field Cam. B>

Sick Anthias      3/7/17
We acquired 4 Lyre Tail Anthias from a private party on 2/24. The male died within 24 hours of acclimation. The largest female had a small but noticeable bump beneath the scales on its side. This bump has grown and come through the scales. I've included a picture below.
<A very bad sign...>

- She is general population tank and her attitude is good
- We are daily dosing with garlic and Selcon
- Shrimp is cleaning her
- The area has gotten worse each day.
Questions:
- Do we have to quarantine her?
<I wouldn't. This fish will soon be dead... VERY likely>

- Will the stress of catching him to do that be too great?
- Does he need antibiotics? what kind and how often?
- Can antibiotics be used in display tank with what we have. Fish, corals, stars, anemone, snails, shrimp, crabs and feather dusters.
- Is she contagious?
<Can't tell from the information provided. I'd leave all as is and hope...
Bob Fenner>

Re: Sick Anthias      3/7/17
Thanks Bob,
I appreciate you reviewing my email. Any general thoughts on what it is?
Chris
<A result of physical trauma, moving... Now bacterial>
Re: Sick Anthias      3/7/17

Can we does DT with antibiotics just in case?
<To be frank.... not of use. B>

Re: Nitrates gone wild!      3/7/17
Thank you so much for your quick reply, and thank you for easing my panic. I've read through this several times and I'm trying to come up with a plan - additionally, as I'm sure you saw in the pictures - I have a Sailfin Tang, not a Saltwater Tang �� I also have a few further questions, if I may ask?
<Go ahead>
I'm thinking that prior to moving the Mandarin to the refugium, I should increase the depth of the DSB as advised, and since it's completely made up of Miracle Mud, is that what I should add rather than sand?
<I would CAREFULLY (with the sand washed, damp... in a plastic hand-sized container) lay the new sand atop the mud. The latter will dissolve, decompose for the most part in time; and do some good here>
I mentioned three possibilities (removing egg crate, adding sand, and adding a sulfur denitrator) and I interpreted your response to mean that it would be a good idea to do all three?
<Yes; any or all>

Removing the egg crate can be done although it will be a major undertaking, particularly since some of the rocks are huge (probably 30 -40 lbs). I'm worried about the stress on the tank and the stress on the fish in proceeding in that direction... but if it needs to be done, so be it.
<Doesn't "need" to be; just would be better. The other measures mentioned above/prior would do ninety some percent of what can/could be done to improve water quality here easily>
My preference would be to add more sand without removing the egg crate,
<Then that is what I'd do>
but I don't want to waste the money or the effort in adding new sand if I'm only covering up the problem.
<Understood>
The sand in the tank is not quite a crushed coral but looks a bit like it, only a tad finer ... as described by the website where I purchased, it's ..." harvested well offshore in the ocean to be clean of pollutants and silicates. Live sand collected in this manner will be a mixture of sand, shell bits, corallines, bivalves, starfish, snails, and many organisms not visible to your eye". Would you suggest ordering more of the same or using another sand?
<More of this, finer in grade if available... most under 1 mm diameter>
And the third option is the sulfur denitrator. I've been reading up on them - but is there a specific model that you would recommend?
<Mmm; hold off on this till the other work is done and a month or two has gone by. Again; this is what I'd do>
Is there anything I have missed?
<Not that I perceive>
Again, I'd really like to thank you for your assistance with the tank. I get ridiculously attached to these little creatures and I really do want to provide an appropriate environment for them, despite appearances to the contrary as evidenced by my neglect the last few years.
<A pleasure, indeed honor to share with you>
Despite that, they've hung in there with me ... the Foxface is actually the first saltwater fish I purchased well over 10 years ago.
We all thank you.
Karen
<And all are welcome. BobF>

Cook Islands; collectors in the trade      3/7/17
Hi Bob,
<Howie>
I had a quick question for you. First, I wanted to say that I read and enjoy the info on your website. I was wondering if there is anybody new at this time collecting/exporting on Cook Islands that you're aware of?
<Mmm; just Chip Boyle>
I know Chip Boyle does and has been the mainstay out there, but when I reached out to him back in October via e-mail, he replied and said he's rarely doing it anymore, and only shipping to Quality Marine, and then said he's getting old.
<This is my understanding as well>
That said, I was wondering if anybody else might be taking over the reigns out there?
<Not as far as I'm aware. I'd ask Chip Re>
I haven't seen Cook Islands fish appear anywhere for months, and was really hoping to find a few, and/or even
start up an import/export relationship.
<Well; Roratonga (the principal island) would be the only practical site... w/ ready/speedy international freight service... and there's not "much" in shallow (scuba depths) to collect that can't be gotten cheaper elsewhere...
economics>
Thanks for your time.
Howie
<Certainly welcome. Bob Fenner>

re: Less than Mysterious losses       3/6/17
Was just about to re-message you when I saw your message. I was just about to start my tank change over when I noticed two black phantom tetras pooping what looks to be worms. Red and threadlike. I have read up Camallanus worms and this looks very similar to this. Could this be the source of the deaths?
<Yes; could be>
I have tried to read how to treat and get rid of them and the information is very confusing.
As for the Nitrates I have tested my tap water and this is 40ppm Nitrates,
<... VERY disconcerting
. I would NOT personally drink this water. I take it you have some sort of water conditioning system for your potable uses. IF not I would (and do) use a reverse osmosis device for such. ALSO I would take care to reduce this NO3 in your system and NOT change more than a quarter volume out at any given time w/ this source water>
0.25 ammonia
<?! You need to treat your new water before it is used.
I would have you read through SeaChem's site re: http://seachem.com/conditioners.php
and 0 nitrite. I removed a very large piece of Mopani wood from my tank
<Good; saw that you had mentioned its presence to Neale. Likely a source of trouble here
>
as I have had it for months and with it still leeching tannins in the water I thought it might be possible it is also leeching something nasty. Two hours after the water change I tested the water and the reading was identical to the tap water reading. Retested the water 12 hours later and the nitrates are registering at approximately 30ppm
<Ah good. Bob Fenner>

Re: Information about stocking our reef aquarium       3/6/17
I thank you so much for your quick reply! Please see a couple follow up questions below:
1. What are your suggestions for having some Nitrate and Phosphates? What levels of each are appropriate for our system? Will they naturally go up when the fish load goes up over the next year?
<I'd be less than fastidious re what is being processed here; less chemical filtrants, perhaps the addition of more meaty foods. Yes to aging, more biomass>
2. On the Henis - I zeroed in on this particular schooling Bannerfish as my reading indicated they are peaceful and also reef safe where other Bannerfish are not. Would it be better to get just one?
<Yes; in terms of them not bickering, fighting amongst themselves>
Or would you stick with the pyramid butterfly fish pair and no Bannerfish?
<Hemitaurichthys would be a better choice in terms of getting along together>
3. Would a pair of Pyramid BF and a pair of Bellus Angelfish do OK together?
<Yes>
4. Is it best to have Pyramid BF and Bellus Angelfish in male/female pairs or do they do OK singly?
<Can't sex BFs, the Genicanthus, yes, better in pairs or one male harems>
4. What do you think would be a good variety of schooling Cardinal Fish that would do well with our others? We have the 4 PJ and the 1 Banggai (I just got one as I understand once they grow up they are not schoolers and don't get along great)
<See WWM re Cardinals; I'd stick with what you have w/ the species mentioned>
5. Of the two Anthias I listed do you prefer one or the other as being more peaceful, difficult, attractive, interesting etc?
<Fatheads are very individualistic (not a schooling species); hide under rocks, in caves... The ignitus? I'd choose another species; Pseudanthias squamipinnis is about the hardiest, mid-size available>
6 . I would love to hear 1 or 2 other variety of fish you feel would be great if I can't get what is on my list that meet our goals.
<Take your time here... I'd go w/ what you have planned for now>
Thanks again for your time. It is much appreciated.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Nitrates gone wild!       3/6/17
Hello, and thank you for what you do.
<Hi; welcome Karen>
You've been a great resource to me over the years - but shamefully, not in the last few. which is why I am
writing today. I will try to give a bit of history without writing a novel.
I have a 225 gallon tank with probably a 30 gallon refugium and an additional 40 gallon sump. I say probably, because I upgraded from a 90 gallon in 2009 and I truly don't remember all the details. Tank has
approximately 300 - 400 lbs of live rock and maybe 200 lbs of sand (all was purchased from a company called Tampa Bay Saltwater). There's between 2 - 3 inches of Miracle Mud in the refugium along with some of the above mentioned live rock. I was very involved in the hobby until probably 2013 or so when a number of things happened (including the earlier death of my husband) to draw my attention away.
<Reasonable>
At some point, all of my corals died and I was left with a fish only tank - some of the fish having been in the earlier tank.
We (the fish and I) kind of limped along until last September 2016 when my lighting system failed. I had one of the first LED systems - you may remember the Solaris? - and it finally bit the dust. At that point I had these 8 and 9 year old fish (Regal Tang, Saltwater Tang, GSM clown, 2 Ocellaris clowns, One Spot Foxface, and a foot long Engineer Goby) and I had to make the decision as to whether to rehome them and dismantle everything or sink some money into the tank. I chose the latter and replaced the lighting system and had my local LFS who has helped me throughout the years, come and do a thorough cleaning and reboot (so to speak) of the system.
The LFS is also using my tank for some of their larger soft corals in hopes of later fragging them - or maybe they're just being nice because I've been with them forever.
<Neat>
Of course, within two weeks of replacing the lights, both my skimmer pump and main pump also died and had to be replaced.
After all that happened, and after several water changes within a couple of months, my Regal Tang got a mild case of ich. Acting on the advice of the LFS, I treated the tank with Kick Ich
<Ughh! A placebo at best. See WWM re this sham/scam>
and upped the feeding, varied the diet, added Selcon and VitaChem to keep the tang's immune system up.
<These will help>
I realize that's not the treatment of choice but I've been out of the hobby for a long time and, well, insert whatever excuse you can think of. At the time, the water was tested and everything was within normal limits but the
nitrates were very high (around 100) but that was attributed to all the stirring up and the feeding.
<Likely so>
Added Chaeto to the refugium and a carbon/GFO reactor and UV sterilizer. Ultimately the tang cleared up and presumably all was well for the next 3 months. I added a little ORA Orchid Dottyback and she's doing great - except that she was so small I continued to overfeed to ensure that she was getting food. Please note that during all this there wasn't any further water testing going on, but all the fish (even the Regal eventually) were fat and happy, the mostly soft corals thriving, and the water looked great. I'm running a skimmer, the UV sterilizer, and the carbon/GFO reactor. I have a moderate CUC consisting of a couple serpent stars, 50 -100 various snails, and a few Peppermint and Skunk Cleaner shrimp. So that's the history, and here's the problem.
I purchased a Mandarin and placed him in the tank, thinking that an 8 year old tank with lots of live rock, etc. would surely support him. He's a big guy, approximately 3+ inches. But I started thinking that he was looking
thin. So I bought some pods and put some Chaeto in the refugium. Then I bought some more pods. Then I bought an additional 50k pods and some phytoplankton and he still looks thin to my mind.
<I'd place the Mandarin in your refugium for now; likely interstitial fauna there... AND I want to make sure and mention that I'd increase the depth of the DSB there, AND run the lights/lighting there alternating with the main/displays (RDP)>
So I had an epiphany (I know, I know) and tested the water and the nitrates were very high (100 ppm). and I'm now freaking out because there's no way to know how long they've been that high - could have been for a long time or since I started paying more attention to the tank and began way overfeeding to bolster the tang. I also don't know if the Kick Ich treatment killed a lot of the beneficial bacteria or the existing pods or ..
<Perhaps... but... I would NOT obsess re the high NO3. It by and of itself is not a major concern; how to put this: OFTEN what such readings "co-interpret" is an abundance of other ills; high dissolved organics period, low DO, high BOD, low RedOx...>
Thus far I've cut back on feeding, am upping my water changes (but am somewhat at the mercy of the LFS who does my water changes)
<Mmm; I'd take all this back. Do the maintenance myself>
and I started the Prodibio Bioclean S on Friday. I've also added more flow and I took some of the live rock out of the display and put it in the refugium. And now the Regal Tang has started flashing on the glass and acting
differently - but only when the lights are on. Appetite is still good and there are no spots, but she's banging up her head a bit. I don't know if that's oncoming disease or just a stress reaction to the change or both.
<Can't say>
The guy with the LFS that's doing the water changes is concerned about the tank because the rock is sitting on egg crate and he believes that that is contributing to the nitrate issue by allowing detritus to accumulate, especially under the rock.
<Possibly.... I might well remove it in sections; even half during one maintenance interval, the other next>
So now I'm at a place where I don't know if I should dismantle the tank and try to remove the egg crate - and likely stress my elderly fish beyond the limit; add more sand on top of the existing sand; add a sulfur denitrator, or ..?
<Or all three...>
I know I need not take a scattergun approach and randomly try a bunch of different things (I already feel like I'm starting to go down that rabbit hole). Parameters today (water change about 48 hours ago) are: Ammonia and nitrites 0, pH 8.2, Alkalinity 11.2, Salinity 1.25, Calcium 480, Magnesium 1280, Phosphate .25 and Nitrates 160. Attaching a few pictures of the tank so you can see the amount of rock, sand, etc.
<Actually; looks fine macroscopically>
Any guidance you can provide would be very much appreciated. I'm sorry for the long email, but I was trying to cram in 8 years. And again, thanks so much for all the valuable help you provide.
Regards,
Karen
<Thank you for writing, sharing. I would proceed as mentioned and hinted at. PLEASE do communicate if this message is not clear, complete and/or you have other concerns, developments. Bob Fenner>

New Ranchu Questions; pond fdg. gf        3/6/17
My latest addition is Leia. She is a green Ranchu. She is very small right now. I am feeding her goldfish granules right now. She lives in a 765 gallon pond with 15 other adult goldfish. Is there anything else I should be feeding her.
<? Not if the goldfish food is complete nutritionally; no>
I tried green seaweed the other day, but she didn't like it. She seems to be getting enough algae. But I worry about her. She hides under the filter since I added her to the main pond three weeks ago. I have been making sure
she gets fed every other day by temporarily turning off the filter and lifting the filter up carefully to feed her. Then I wait until she gets some food. And then wait until she swims away. Then replace the filter and turn it back on. I always feed the adults first so they don't get in the way of me feeding Leia. Am I doing the right thing in making sure Leia gets her share of food?
<Yes>
She is the slowest fish I have when it comes to feeding. I also have pond comets in my pond. Leia has met the comets and the comets never hurt her.
They are used to small fry being in the pond. Is Leia hiding because of the comets?
Or is it normal for a goldfish to hide for this long?
<Possibly both. Bob Fenner>
Re: New Ranchu Questions       3/6/17

Thank you so much Bob!
<Welcome Cam>

Algae Blooms in Naturally Hard Water and No UV       3/5/17
I have a 40 gallon oval pond. It's made of Ldpe Plastic. I checked to be sure it was safe to use. It measures 27" W x 40" L x 13" Height. I got a Tetra submersible flat box filter good for 200 to 2,000 gallons for it. I got a Superflow 1300 pump for it. It has a gph rate of 306 gph. How do I get rid of green algae blooms in naturally hard water without a uv sterilizer? Thank you.
<Please learn to/use the search tool on WWM; on every page... for such general questions. READ here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/pondsubwebindex/pdalgcontrol.htm
BobF>
It's Me Again (Algae Bloom Prevention and Treatment)      3/5/17

Hello. It’s me again. I have a new question regarding algae blooms.
Here is a repeat on the specifications on my pond and its system. I have a 40 gallon oval pond. It's made of Ldpe Plastic. It measures 27" W x 40" L x 13" Height. I got a Tetra submersible flat box filter good for 200 to 2,000 gallons for it. I got a Superflow 1300 pump for it. It has a gph rate of 306 gph.
I cannot afford an aerator or a UV at this time.
My question is, does water flow and circulation help with green algae blooms?
<Some; yes. Though if there are other predisposing factors... light, nutrient, water quality.... favoring the algae bloom, they won't solve it much>

And Do you have any other sugestions on what I can do about algae blooms without an aerator or a UV?
<All gone over where you've been referred. Sigh... BobF>
Thank you.
Re: It's Me Again (Algae Bloom Prevention and Treatment)      3/5/17

Thank you so much Bob! You are awesome.
<Just m'self Cam. B>

Old Refugium New Tank      3/5/17
Hi Everyone,
<Mike>
I would like to get your advice on a question: what is the best way to introduce an established refugium to my new tank?
<Once the new tank is initially set up to the point of new water being stable (a few days usually); just beginning the interchange of water between the two
>
The refugium is 200 Gal.
I have kept alive for the last two years while I rebuilt my FOWLR tank.
The refugium has been kept alive by "feeding" it with the water change output from my reef tank. It has about 200 punds of live rock, a deep sandbed, macro algae, worms, copepods, crabs, mangroves and even an oyster that hitchhiked on the live rock.
<Neat!>
It also has a crop of Aptstasia that would make a reefer freak.
<Meh; some folks around the world use Aiptasia in RDP operated refugiums as media. I take it you don't intend to try to eradicate the anemones before joining the systems>
I just completed the fish tank. It is 1600ga.
It has a fine sand bottom, and I used 600 pounds of dry rock to build the rockwork, decorated with Living Color faux corals. The tank has been running empty with lights out for the last month (waiting for my first set of damsels to finish their stay in quarantine). The tank has also been isolated from the refugium up till now. I originally thought I could
slowly acclimate the refugium with the tank over a period of several days to speed up the development of the biological filter. When I mentioned this to my LFS owner he suggested I wait at least 3 months for the new tank to age a bit.
<Mmmm; not what I would do>
His exact words were "that much new water will kill everything in your refugium".
<Nah>
What he says seems to make sense, I would dilute the nutrient level to much to support the existing life in the refugium. So I was wondering what your suggestion is as to how to introduce my refugium to my tank.
Thanks,
Mike S.
<Up to you, but having "done" this for decades, I doubt there will be any issue with existing (refugium) life and this transition; now or later. Bob Fenner>

Gill tumor response      3/5/17
Hi Bob
<Susan>
I emailed you back in December about my 3 yr old placket betta who has a tumor. Tried the iodide treatment and continuing with the supplement you recommended but as you can see in the photo there has been no response.
<Unfortunately, there is very low incidence of improvement in these matters>

Raji is still eating and actively swimming about but when at rest he leans to one side. There is no sign of secondary bacterial infection nor breakdown of tissue. Scales are normal. The right ventral fin has completely disappeared into the tumor.
Do you recommend repeating the iodide treatment?
<Yes; I would>
I treated for 2 gallons but the tank is closer to 3 (gravel substrate and driftwood with live plants take up some of volume in the fluval tank). I'm attached to the feisty little guy and want to keep him as healthy and comfortable as long as possible. The tank is cycled, heated, filtered and all water parameters are excellent.
Thanks again for your wise advice.
Susan
<I feel like a very olde timey oncologist here... I wish you and your Betta well. Bob Fenner>


Help! (Another) chipped tank! <RMF is in total agreement>      3/5/17
Hello! I have been reading your site on chips, and I'm still not 100% sure about my situation. I bought this 15 gallon tank off Craigslist, it fits on my 10 gal stand but is just a few inches taller. When I got it home, I noticed two chips. One is about 6.5" from the top, one perhaps 4" from the bottom. They are on opposite long panels. The lower one I can dig my nail into and jiggle the glass piece around. I talked myself into thinking it would be fine (I got a very good deal on the tank) but now that I'm actually filling it I'm starting to worry a bit and was hoping for your opinion. Would you use this tank? (Sorry about the blurry picture, the tank was too close to the wall for a good picture, it's supposed to show that it doesn't go all the way to the seal on that side)
Thanks for your time and help,
Annie
<First off Annie, thanks for writing. Second, please don't send 18 MB of photos to us! Blocks up the email, making it very difficult for people to check their WWM on mobile phones and tablets, or anywhere 'off' broadband.
Plus, if our email inbox fills up, other folks will find their questions bouncing back, and it only takes a couple messages like yours to block the email allowance completely. If this sounds a bit hectoring, trust me when I say Bob F would be a lot less polite if he hadn't had his first cup of coffee or three! Anyway, getting to your tank: if the glass wobbles against
its seal, then a repair is in order. Very minor chips are rarely an issue if the tank is otherwise robust, but even then for sure test the tank somewhere waterproof (like the garden) before using it indoors. But once the seal becomes loose, as yours sounds to be, I'd personally not trust even a 10 gallon tank in that state, let alone anything bigger. Given 10-15
gallon tanks cost very little, unless the repair is minor and you have the necessary silicone kicking about, it's rarely worth the effort -- just but a new glass box that fits the cabinet and hood you have. In any event, have a read here, and follow the MANY links therein; all this has been gone through on WWM many, many times:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/GlasCracks11.htm
Hope this helps, Neale.>

 

Help needed on Angelfish disease.      3/5/17
Dear WWM crew member,
I have been immensely benefited in the past with your helpful tips and suggestions. Thank you again for that. So I'm again seeking your help for my Angelfish which became I'll suddenly.
My tank is 40gallon with these two angels and 4 loaches.
I live in eastern part of India. Today morning I noticed both the angels seriously I'll but the loaches are fine however. I have moved them to a bucket with air supply.
Please help me diagnosis of the problem. Only abnormal things I notice is red spots on both sides of both the fishes. Kindly see the photos attached herewith.
A expert advice is most earnestly solicited.
Thanking you
Deeptam Dutta
<Any relation of Reg Dutta I wonder? Prolific tropical fish writer 1960s and 70s. Top man. Anyway, sadly I fear your Angels have something known as septicaemia, which is difficult to treat without using a strong antibiotic.
The red patches on the flanks and the bases of the fins are typical of this. KanaPlex is often recommended and probably your best bet, unless a local vet can help you with something generic. Angelfish Septicaemia is quite common, probably caused by environmental or dietary shortcomings. It isn't so much the species is prone to this problem, but rather they are
often kept in smaller tanks or with poorer filtration than people would try with other cichlids. They are cichlids though, and just as sensitive to non-zero nitrite and ammonia, as well as high nitrate levels (anything above 40 mg/l). Your fish look quite fat and healthy otherwise, so if you can medicate promptly, I'd be reasonably optimistic. Good luck, Neale.>

New products      3/5/17
Hello WWM Crew,
<Brian>
I'm wondering if anybody at WWM has heard of or has any experience with a new product line called Aquaforest.
<Oh yes; and not all that new; started back in 1995 in Poland:
http://www.advancedaquarist.com/blog/aquaforest-chemicals-now-available-in-the-usa-through-deepwater-aquatics >
My two lfs are pushing these products and I'd like to get some non bias information before I try any of these products. Keep up the great work.
<These are REAL products; and though a bit pricey for some facets, do the jobs they state they do>
Thanks in advance
Brian
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

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