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Amazon Puffer      7/20/17
I've been thinking very hard of adding a trio of Amazon Puffer to what will be a species tank of Clown Loach (5 to 6 total) which will include 1 Pleco (thinking of a golden nugget for algae issues and general clean up --are gold nuggets decent algae eaters? I'm finding conflicting information.)
<Assuming the Gold Nugget Plec you have in mind is Baryancistrus xanthellus, this is a typical Baryancistrus; in other words, it's not a specialist algae eater but actually a substrate sifter, a bit like Corydoras catfish. In the wild at least, they not only scrape rocks for aufwuchs but also consume mouthfuls of silt that they can sift for organic material and tiny invertebrates. Under aquarium conditions they are very omnivorous, happily consuming algae wafers and small frozen foods, as well as soft vegetables like courgette. But rely on Baryancistrus to clean the glass is optimistic. If very hungry they may well suck onto the glass, but they aren't anything like as good as true Hypostomus species or even Ancistrus spp. Bristlenose Cats.>
From my research I've found they share the same soft water requirements, heat requirements, Ick or white spot vulnerability (hence UV filtration), and reduction of medicine if needed sharing the small scales dilemma, similar food requirements. I've found a vet who makes house calls and would be willing to trim teeth (my largest concern.) I'm also planning on adding a steady diet of nuisance snails (not Malaysian though.)
<Baryancistrus xanthellus are Rio Xingu fish, and yes, do need soft, slightly acidic, slightly warmer than normal water to do well. As well as high temperature, the challenge is high oxygen level, which tends to mean under-stocking the tank because, of course, the warmer the water, the less oxygen it holds. They are challenging catfish ill-suited to community tanks, but not hard to keep in the right sort of tank.>
I already feed a steady diet of live black worms, brine shrimp, and ghost shrimp, occasionally frozen bloodworm, and some shrimp pellets (I do not feed flake food because apparently my clown loach are spoiled on live meaty foods and will not take the flake food unless apparently half starved and desperate which doesn't occur).
I also know the puffers are not good with slow moving fish such as Cory or Gourami since they can be fin nippers even though a fairly peaceable fish. I assume, when not at rest, they tend to occupy more of the top half of the aquarium and the clown loach tend towards the bottom half.
<Indeed, though they do sleep among the roots of plants.>
I have a 55 gallon aquarium now to get them started with plans of increasing tank size within a couple of years (I'll upgrade to 100 plus gallon custom corner tank due to space limitations) and I water change / clean usually weekly.
<Sounds nice, but Baryancistrus xanthellus do reach a fair size, so while 55 gallons might be okay for a singleton, the fact you've got Clown Loaches *as well* does put space at a premium.>
My questions is will the clown loach, Amazon puffers and Pleco coexist well in a tank together provided lots of plants, driftwood, and hiding spots.
<Amazon Puffers are, like all puffers, impossible to predict with total certainty. What I will say is that I've kept them with Panaque nigrolineatus without any trouble at all, Panaque having a tendency to get their retaliation in first, so most fish learn to leave them alone. I would expect Baryancistrus to be rather similar. So given suitable hiding places, they'd reach an understanding where the Puffers left them alone. The Clowns are a bit less of a certainty. While much bigger and very fast, they're also more highly strung. Again, I've kept Cherry Fin Loaches with Amazon Puffers, and they were fine. But I'm less ready to "sign off" on the Clown/Puffer combo compared with the Baryancistrus/Puffer combo. If you do try, keep a close eye on the Clowns for signs of damaged fins especially.>
I dislike when my aquarium is not peaceful excepting the occasional minor squabble. Is there anything more that I need to be aware of regarding the puffers? Any information you may provide would be helpful in making an educated and informed decision. I dislike and find it distressing when I fail to properly provide a proper environment for 'pets.'
<Amazon Puffers are lovely fish. I'm glad you're getting a group because they are nervous when kept singly, and groups tend to be a bit less neurotic. While your water conditions should suit them fine, they do need a lot of oxygen and are extremely active swimmers, so tweaking the tank to have robust (rather than turbulent) water flow and plenty of air/water mixing will be a plus. They like exploring things, floating plants and leaves being particularly favoured. They aren't at all shy once settled, and my specimens quickly became tame enough to hand-feed. Of all the common freshwater puffers, they're the least aggressive, with practically zero territoriality (I believe they're migratory in the wild). But they do nip, probably more out of hunger than anything else, and that needs to be borne in mind.>
<Welcome. Neale.>

URGENT: MACNA 2017 Presentation Topic Needed      7/20/17
Hey Bob!
The Program Book is in it's final content stages and I'm in need of your topic for the MACNA talk that you are giving in New Orleans. If you've already provided that to the New Orleans team, they've misplaced the
<D'oh! Tis: "Anemones for Aquariums". Oh! The entire title: Anemones for Aquariums, use, husbandry>
I need your information this week, today would be great! If I don't get your info this week, the topic of your talk will not be in the program book, which will greatly effect turnout at your presentation. Oh wait..
who am I kidding... they'll show up for you anyway... but we really do need your topic!!
Appreciate your quick response......
<Cheers mate. BobF>
Rob Mougey
Vice President of the Marine Aquarium Societies of North America (MASNA
MASNA Speaks helps provide Speakers for your club
<http://masna.org/club-resources/masna-speaks-2/ >
Join us at MACNA 2017, August 25-27 in New Orleans, LA.

Slime coat      7/20/17
I have a 180g fish only no live rock sw aquarium, 40g wet dry, protein skimmer and 57w uv filtration. 10 inch orangespot Rabbitfish, smaller Foxface, 8 yellow tail damsels, a small purchase clownfish and 6 cardinals. When I clean the tank or even in between there is slime coat floating around.
<Mmm; well Siganids are quite slimy... and stress does make them produce more body slime>
I don't see fish scraping. I do see little bugs crawling around the tank at times. It got bad once and I added copper and the amount I saw scaled back. Circulation is at the moment a Mag 12 but I will be adding a Mag 9.5 next week. Cleanings are bi weekly with 35 percent water changes. Here are some photos of what I see. Some of the little bugs are actually on the slime also. This is during a cleaning. A queen angel was in this tank for a year and a half or so from a small 4 inches to 7 inches , one week got an infection on head that spread to one side of its body along the lateral line. Few weeks ago saw labored breathing and blood coming out of the gills as it was breathing in and out.
<?! Something wrong here.
I'd skip using copper... What is your procedure for water changes, supplement, media use here?>
Tanks has been up for 6 years. Ph is at 8, nitrates are high I can't give you a number ATM, no detectable nitrites or ammonia. I think its irritation from the bugs but I haven't found what would get rid of them.
<See WWM re arthrocides used for crustacean diseases. Bob Fenner>

Macro ID       7/19/17
Asking for a friend. Need ID on invasive macro, it is over running and killing corals. No idea origin of live rock. Thanks
<... what is this?! Green something w/... blue dots!? Two organisms? Do you have a means of sampling, making some microscope pix and sending them along? Bizarre.
Bob Fenner>

update, and question (RMF, any thoughts on this?)<<I agree w/ your stmt.s. RMF>>
Fresh-water... trtmt.     7/18/17

Greetings Neale,
<Hello again, Byron,>
It has been over a year since our last correspondence on the problem of flashing/cloudy water. It was two separate issues as we had worked out, and the heat/salt cleared up the flashing (none since then).
<Cool. It's an old treatment, but safe, and as you report, often (if not always!) works.>
The cloudy water was an organics issue as you surmised, though I never did find out why (we had gone through the possible causes at the time), but more frequent filter cleanings has kept it at largely bay for most of this year. Anyway, that’s all solved, with my sincere appreciation to you.
<Welcome. Sometimes tanks go through phases, and sometimes it's actually seasonal -- the tank in my classroom receives hours of direct sunlight this time of year, and turns pea soup colour within two days of a complete water change! Nothing I can do about it, and since the Guppies and Limia are fine, I've stopped worrying. By September it'll settle back down to normal.>
I have a question about water conditioners, and specifically the amount to use. I am a very firm believer in not adding any substance to an aquarium with fish unless it is essential, and then keeping these minimal.
I believe that everything added to the water does end up inside the fish via osmosis through the cells or gills, and while these may not kill the fish, they don’t benefit except for the purpose needed, like dechlorination of the water.
<Makes sense.>
I have always used sufficient conditioner for the volume of the replacement water. So in a 90g tank, holding an actual 70 gallons of water, if I replace 60% of the water, I add conditioner for roughly 35-40 gallons, the replacement volume.
<Sounds about right, but I'd err on the side of over-dosing water conditioner than under-dosing. So if you think 42 gallons is being replaced (42 being 60% of 70 gallons) I'd round that up to, say, 50 gallons.>
I should mention that the replacement water is going directly into the tank from the faucet via a Python, not being pre-treated.
<Quite so. Did exactly this process this morning, changing 90% of the water in the aforementioned Guppy and Limia tank.>
Manufacturers like Seachem recommend adding the amount of conditioner for the entire tank volume, and even exceeding this by two or three times “will cause no harm.” Over on TFF, it has been suggested that the organics in the tank will somehow nullify much of the dechlorinator when water is added directly to the tank, so the conditioner should be for the full tank volume or more. I’ve never had identifiable problems in more than 25 years of doing it minimally, so I question this reasoning.
<I think their rationale is this: When you add dechlorinator to a bucket, you stir in the dechlorinator, neutralising all the chlorine before adding the water to your aquarium. When doing the Python approach, you're adding new water (including its dissolved chlorine) straight to the tank, which is a far bigger volume than a bucket, and much less evenly mixed, especially if you turn the filter off during water changes. If you add the "right" amount of dechlorinator, it might take, say, 30 minutes to completely mix with all the chlorine particles and neutralise them. Add two or three times as much, and you increase the chances the dechlorinator particles collide with chlorine particles. Very roughly, if you add two times as much, you half the time the chlorine is "free" and able to hurt your fish; add three times as much, and that chlorine is able to hurt your fish only one-third the time. Make sense? What the water conditioner manufacturer is suggesting -- quite plausibly -- is that the potential harm a triple dose of dechlorinator might do is less than the harm free chlorine will do in the X minutes it's un-neutralised in the aquarium. I honestly have no idea how long chlorine would take to neutralise in the aquarium, but for some fish, even a few minutes exposure could cause damage, particularly if this happens week after week after week.>
I’d be interested in your views on this. Particularly, am I correct in thinking that substances dissolved in the water will get inside fish (whatever the consequences)? And is conditioner for the replacement volume adequate?
<I dose extremely approximately using pond-grade dechlorinator. For all practical purposes this stuff is extremely low toxicity, so I'd have no reservations about using a double or triple dose. Conversely, if the plain vanilla dosage has always worked for you, I'd see no harm in sticking with it.>
With thanks,
<Cheers, Neale.>

Echidna polyzona: Banded Moray Here's Marco     7/18/17
Hello There,
<Hi Doyle.>
I'm writing to you all in concern over my moray. I've had "her" for six years and in that time she's grown from the size of a pencil to a 26 inch beautiful specimen. She has recently become "bloated" to the end of her anal which leads me to believe she is having a problem passing food waste,
<Probably this or an infection with parasites or bacteria.>
or the weirder option she is full of unfertilized eggs?
<Would be swollen in front of the cloaca, not so around it.>
She lives in a 46 gallon bow-front with some cleaner crabs, a clown goby and a decent population of snails and feather dusters. I'm very concerned that it's a nutrient deficiency or bacterial infection.
Any light you could shed on this situation would be sooo appreciated. I was really looking forward to grow old with this eel as she is a member of the family. Is it too early for me to be completely distraught?
<It's too early. Maybe Epsom Salt can offer some relief (see WWM re). Also, if the eel still eats it's not too late to start a varied diet and add vitamins. In addition, check the temperature. Constipation of tropical eels seems to occur more often in colder water.>
Thanks Much, Doyle.
<Good luck. Marco.>

Ailing Pearlscale Butterflyfish     7/18/17
Thank you in advance for "listening" to my sick fish problem.
<What we're here for!>
Back in May (`24th) I picked up a group of Butterflyfish for my FOWLR tank (2 Pakistani, a Longnose, a Saddleback and a Pearlscale).
<Ohhhh, all faves of mine>
I have been using a three 50gal tank QT system with hyposalinity (1.01 SG) (I have since read your recommendation of skipping the QT and just doing a FW dip). They stayed at that level for 3 weeks. Everyone did well except the Pearlscale - he would not eat. Since the QT tanks were all one system I took 3-4 days to
raise the salinity to 1.021 which is where my display tank is at and moved everyone but the Pearlscale into the display tank. I was tempted to move him to but then I noticed he had a patch of darker scales on his side (pic
1). After a few days I noticed there were a few dark dots near the base of his tale - I thought - black spot disease?
<Mmm; no; not this. Likely simple trauma; damage from collection, handling, shipping>

I didn't see how that could have
survived the hyposalinity but nonetheless I tried a treatment of PraziPro.
After 5 days I remembered I had some Chloroquine Phosphate in the house.
So I did a 20% water change and treated him with that. I spoke to the manufacturer and they suggested giving 2 treatments 3 days apart. If that had no effect to try erythromycin. There was no change - in fact the dark
area on his side was getting larger. I added carbon and a 20% water change.
Then I went to the LFS and he didn't have erythromycin so he have me two treatments worth of CLOUT tablets to try. I tried two treatments.
<Mmm; I wish you would have written sooner. None of these treatments is of use; will help. I'd move this fish into the main/display and not worry re biological disease here>
No improvement (Pic 2). By the way it had now been 6 weeks and I still haven't seen him eat. I added carbon again and did another 20% water change and figured I would let him live out the few days he had left in peace. A few days went by and I found some OLD (probably ineffective) erythromycin (it still has a 'Mail Order Petshop' label -so real old). I figured the worst it could do is hasten the death of a lost fish so I treated him with that.
Still no change. I put carbon back in. Now I am out of options (I probably poisoned him with too many drugs). Unless you have any other suggestions I will just let things lie. But from the pics, do you have any idea what this might be? I would appreciate any insight you can give.
Mike S.
<Move this fish. Bob Fenner>

Re: re: health resource for wetwebmedia.com     7/18/17
No problem. Please not asbestos contamination is still harmful to animals, including marine life.
At the same time, you may want to check out maritimeinjurycenter.com . There are a few pages on topics like salvage and the effects of sunken ships on marine life.
Thanks for your time, and I hope all is well,
<Thank you Virgil; yes. BobF>

Ulcer on 2 inch koi    7/17/17
I have a baby koi in a fairly new pond who has an ulcer on him. I noticed the ulcer about 4 days ok. The only thing I was able to find locally was Melafix,
<Mmm; search WWM re this plant extract. Of no real use; may be detrimental to water quality>

so I immediately started treating with that while I waited on some Aqua Prazi to arrive.
<... Praziquantel? Do you suspect this is a worm involvement?>

I now have the Aqua Prazi after using the Melafix for 3 days. Can I use the Aqua Prazi now, or do I need to wait since I treated with Melafix?
<I wouldn't use either>

The ulcer is not getting better, and the baby koi is not as active as he was a couple days ago. I tested my water levels and they checked out fine.
<... need values, not opinions>
I will try and get a picture for you. I really appreciate your help. I have had koi for a couple years, but never have had any problems, so I am kind of lost. Thank you very much.
<Can you send along a well-resolved pic of the sore? Is it emarginated?
Your small Koi may have (had) a simple mechanical injury; the sore resultant from the trauma. Perhaps there is/are bacteria here as cause or result. Am asking you to read here:
and the Related FAQs file linked above. Does your fish's sore look like this?
Bob Fenner>

health resource for wetwebmedia.com    7/17/17
Good Evening
I was looking through your site and saw some information about smoking along with a link to quitday.org at
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/WWMadminSubWebIndex/general_links_pg.htm . I was wondering if you might have room for additional materials related to quitting smoking. Please see
mesothelioma.net/mesothelioma-asbestos-dangers-smoking/ for some more information.
<No Virgil; not related to our subject coverage. B>

Echidna polyzona: Banded Moray    7/17/17
Hello There,
I'm writing to you all in concern over my moray. I've had "her" for six years and in that time she's grown from the size of a pencil to a 26 inch beautiful specimen.
<Full size!>
She has recently become "bloated" to the end of her anal which leads me to believe she is having a problem passing food waste, or the weirder option she is full of unfertilized eggs?
<Not at the end of the anal, no>
She lives in a 46 gallon bow-front with some cleaner crabs, a clown goby and a decent population of snails and feather dusters.
I'm very concerned that it's a nutrient deficiency or bacterial infection.
Any light you could shed on this situation would be sooo appreciated. I was really looking forward to grow old with this eel as she is a member of the family. Is it too early for me to be completely distraught?
Thanks Much,
<Am going to refer you to friend, WWM Crewmember and Moray specialist Marco Lichtenberger here. Bob Fenner>

3 Polypterus species and sizes and tankmates    7/16/17
I have a 75 gallon tank with
1 Senegal Bichir 7”
1 Polypterus teugelsi 5”
along with
1 African Feather fin Catfish 7”
<Lovely, peaceful catfish.>
2 Turquoise Rainbows 3” each
<I'd add a few more of these.>
1 Pictus Catfish 4” and
<No threat to all but the newly hatched Bichirs.>
1 Angel fish 4.5” tall.
The tank is well decorated with many hinding spaces and a 2” sand bottom. I have recently found a 3’ Polypterus delhezi 3”. My question is, how long should I allow my to get before I can add him to the 75 gallon tank., and will any of the other occupants cause a threat to him? Thank You
<I would not combine such a small Polypterus specimen with substantially larger specimens. Once the little Polypterus delhezi grows to within a couple of inches of the existing specimens, you should be fine combining them. But very small juveniles, especially those with their external gills present, are extremely vulnerable. Bichirs are snappy, and even the smaller, more tolerant species like Senegal Bichirs can't be completely trusted to leave smaller or weaker specimens alone. Use your common sense here, even though the three species you mention should be compatible, given space. Cheers, Neale.>

Water Chemistry Question    7/15/17
Just the prelims; this is Renee from Idaho (human remains place), uses RO water, Equilibrium, and baking soda to keep my kH where it needs to be to keep my pH stable which is working beautifully). As the weather heats up, I am losing more and more water to evaporation. According to the instructions on my bottle of Equilibrium, I am NOT to add Equilibrium to water I am replacing due to evaporation - so I don't.
But what about baking soda? It's a chemical compound composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions (I'm doing my homework :)), but do those ions compose a mineral or not AND as such, will it evaporate with the water or not?
<The Sodium stays, the bicarbonate can be (is) used up by reductive events>
Things are going along so well, everyone (fishy) is doing terrific and I don't want to screw things up.
<I would get/use a combination carbonate and bicarbonate product... and utilize this via the new/water change water (pre-mixed). Am partial to the SeaChem line here. Bob Fenner>
*Renee *
Re: Water Chemistry Question    7/15/17

Do you have a suggestion (or are you allowed to suggest) which Seachem product?
<Oh, sure: http://www.seachem.com/marine-buffer.php
Re: Water Chemistry Question    7/16/17
Ok, thanks.
<Renee... this is a saltwater system? If not do experiment with the amount of product used (in the change out water). Bob Fenner>
Re: Water Chemistry Question    7/16/17

No, it's freshwater with only scaleless species.
<Ah, we're back to sodium bicarbonate then. Added to the change water. B>
Re: Water Chemistry Question    7/16/17

But what about the water I replace from evaporation? The directions from Seachem say not to add Equiibrium, should I still add baking soda?
<Place/mix all additives in the new/change-out water. B>

Blood Parrot -ongoing paleness   7/14/17
Dear Crew-Neale

I'm so sorry to be taking up so much of your time, as this is now my forth correspondence to you. To recap- I have a 47 gallon wedge tank inhabited by 2 (4year old) blood parrots and a Pleco(11 years old)on 5/25/17 became aware of over fed polluted tank- broke filter while cleaning, waited week for new filter (Eheim 2215).
<An effective and reliable if old-school unit.>
In the beginning male BP showed more stress than female until around 6/19 and then female became pale , hanging by heater and poor appetite. Male now fine, with no further issue. Pleco fine.
<Good and good.>
I have been keeping the water with Nitrate at or below 20%, pH 6.5-7.5
<Sounds fine, but would make the observation that pH 6.5-7.5 is an odd range, slipping between acid and alkaline. Parrot Cichlids, being Central American in origin, are best kept in medium hard, slightly alkaline water.>
6/29/17(per your advise) added 16 tsp Epsom salt and I treated tank with" API- General Cure"(Metronidazole 250mg and Praziquantel 75mg) which is a 2 dose product -treat wait 48 hr, 2nd treat wait 48 hrs, do 25% water change. I replaced nearly 50% of water and I replaced 8 tsp of Epsom salts at that time.
7/3/17- my female BP appeared much better dark orange color returned and was hungry!-
until 7/5 when she went pale again. Now no appetite (she will catch a skinless par boiled pea, chew for a few then spit out. I have been removing uneaten food immediately)
<Indeed, remove food, then wait and see. Is the female isolated from the male? If not, if they're together, what are their interactions like? Cichlids aren't 'nice' animals, and will sometimes bully weakened specimens.>
7/9/17- I began second round of API General Cure (waited a week between last treatment per your advise)
7/13/17-today- I did an almost 50% water change. My water, before change, was; nitrate <20% and pH 6.5 water temp 82. My water following change- nitrate between 5-10% and pH 7.0 .
<Do feel the water is a bit too warm, and a bit too acidic. I would aim to optimise -- use sodium bicarbonate to raise the pH and hardness (around 7.5 is an ideal pH) using a dosage of maybe 0.5 teaspoons per 5 US gallons. Experiment with buckets of water, and once you get something useful, do this for all new water changes. And yes, Epsom salt and sodium bicarbonate can be used together -- the first affects general hardness, the second affects carbonate hardness.>
What now? As you can see from photo- she is still pale, still hovers by heater, still with no appetite, but will swim to greet me at front of tank(occasionally)and will still harass the Pleco occasionally( she is not completely with out energy). Since I changed nearly half of water, how much Epsom salt should I replace(if any)?
<Replace added minerals pro rata -- per 5 gallons/20 litres, up to 1 teaspoon baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and up to 1 tablespoon Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate). So if your bucket contains 2.5 US gallons, then add up to 0.5 tsp sodium bicarb., and up to 0.5 tbsp Epsom salt, to that bucket of water. These minerals aren't 'used up' in any meaningful way, so you don't re-dose for the whole tank. Just the bucket or buckets of new water being added!>
What I see when I look at her is a pale fish with a slightly rounded abdomen(compared to male). Abdomen appears firm. Scales appear smooth. I do not see any visible fin, scale, or gill issues. I do not see white stringy poop- I do not see poop of any sort-and I have been watching. Well, I did see her pooping following the original application of Epsom salts(6/29/17) but none since.
Should I now treat with" API Furan 2"(Nitrofurazone 85mg)- If I do, will this product negatively impact my filter bacteria?
<It shouldn't do, but keep an eye on ammonia or nitrite levels, whichever test kit you have.>
Additional, not sure if this has any relevance but these BPs are a pair and up until this began routinely, about monthly, laid egg clutches( cleaned up nicely by Pleco).
<I bet!>
I know how difficult it must be to diagnosis and treat a fish by the information presented in writing . Please let me know if I can provide any more data or photos to assist you.
I am ,as always , so very grateful of your efforts. Thank you. ❤
Lisa W.
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>

Fish Identification    7/13/17
Hello WWM crew,
I’m considering purchasing the largest fish shown in the attached photo from my LFS but have searched for specific id on this fish to no avail. I’ve looked through your site in an effort to identify him but did not see him. He appears to be a damsel of some sort but because there are a ton of them with varying personalities I want to be certain of his behavior before I buy him for my reef system.
<Is for sure a Damsel; Pomacentrid>
In the shop he’s peaceful and appears to get along well with tankmates but we’ve all been down that road. Thanks for your help. I appreciate it. Please pardon the appearance of their tank. They typically do a pretty good job of maintenance even though they unfortunately don’t know much about any of the marine fish or reef animals they carry. I’ve rescued a few from them but overall they do pretty well at keeping their parameters consistent and keeping their fish healthy. Corals, well, that’s another story.
Thanks so much. I appreciate any information you can provide on this beautiful fish.
<I think this fish may be a Dischistodus prosopotaenia (Bleeker 1852), the Honey-Head Damsel. A hardy genus, but can be tough on tankmates; needs room, regular feeding. Bob Fenner>

full size pic

Re: Fish Identification    7/13/17
Hi Bob,
Wow! Lightning speed on your response! Greatly appreciated. Based on the photos I’m seeing of the Honey Head, I don’t see the resemblance? Is there a chance the one in my photo from the LFS is an immature version or?
<I think this is an adult... see WWM: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/dischistodus.htm
Any other ideas? Thanks so much!
<Another Damsel species....! BobF>
Re: Fish Identification    7/13/17

Thanks Bob. I checked out the link and see what you mean! Hope I didn’t offend you with my second inquiry.
<Oh no; not to worry. All my IDs are tentative... am always glad to receive corrections, input>
Surely not my intention. I’ve been pondering this fish and its purchase for a couple weeks now and appreciate your help and will therefore be leaving this fish right where he is! Many thanks again. Peggy
<As many welcomes. B>

Ernest Anemone; really... a story in earnest    7/12/17
Hi there,
Any chance you can name your satirical anemone character at http://sebaeanemone.weebly.com/ something other than Ernest?
Ernest Anemone <--- my actual family name Haha
<Not my work mate. Bob Fenner>
Re: Ernest Anemone    7/12/17

Haha ok. Best wishes!
<And you. I did check... whoever made this webpage linked WWM for reference. I'd contact Weebly re. B>
Re: Ernest Anemone    7/12/17

No worries. I think it's funny -- I'm sure they'd be shocked to know that a person with that name actually exists!
<Heeee! B>

Re: Betta distress     7/12/17
Hi Bob,
thank you for taking the time to read my mini novel. I had dedicated well over two months to planning and setting up the hardscape for my koi Betta sorority, with a few disasters in between, so I suppose this is just one more lesson for me to tuck into my book of learning.
<Good attitude>
I really appreciate the amount of time that you have dedicated to creating such a vast resource on the internet for like minded folks. I have been keeping a blog/journal so to speak, for other newbies (I only started serious fishkeeping in February) and documenting all of my resources. So thank you again!
<Thank you for your efforts>
I have attached a couple of pictures of Vivian in her 4 gallon quarantine tank and the 29 gallon tank during the bacterial bloom.
<Nada attached; oh, I see below linked>
Her injury first happened on June 3, so it took a little over a month for her symptoms to get worse. I also believe that the worsening was directly related to the small bloom that has been happening in my tank, which I finally have under control. It has taken about 3 weeks with 2-3 water changes a week of about 10-30% for the bloom to completely subside from one weekend of accidental overfeeding. In the picture there is white sand, and you can see the slight fuzz over the sand. Her little bit of claimed territory is the top left corner of the tank (incidentally why she got sucked into the intake in the first place).
I gave her a short Epsom salt bath last night and one of her eyes has reduced in size, and her pineconing (which was slight) has also reduced. So now she just has one swollen eye, and she floats tail up intermittently, but she is swimming and eating. When I get home tonight I will check in again. I too am not too worried about the Cory. He doesn't seem to be inhibited at all, and is just as skittish as ever.
<Good behaviors>
I tend to scour the internet before I ask for help because I know that I am not the first person who has run into problems, but the reassurance that you are offering just by taking the time to read this is very helpful.
Thank you :)
I hope you're having an awesome Tuesday.
<And you. BobF>

Fine porcelain "crackling" Turtle Eggs     7/11/17
Dear Crew,
<Hiya, Darrel here>
My 26 year old Eastern Box Turtles eggs look like a fine porcelain vase, with small crackling on the eggs. All pictures of eggs online show them looking like eggs from the fridge.
<The look of your eggs is more in line with my experience. They look white, shiny and perfect when they are first laid but usually was they dry they get a matte finish with blemishes>
The four eggs sit in Sphagnum Moss, half of the eggs covered, with moist paper towel over them, and a lid sitting on top. They are kept at a temperature of 78-82. The container has small hole in the lid and in the base. The eggs are about 58 days old.
<Sounds perfect>
Anyway, do some eggs have the appearance I've described, and still hatch?
<If they are fertile, yes. They may take anywhere from 75 to 120 days to hatch based on the temperature swings as well as the average temperature. The rule is to never give up hope until/unless the eggs collapse and begin to grow mold or fungus>
Thank you for your expertise, and time.
<no charge! -- good luck.>
<Oh ... when you get hatchlings there may be issues with initial feeding. They tend to be carnivorous when they are young, so what I do each day is soak them in 1/8 inch of lukewarm water for a few minutes and then offer them a teeny-tiny bit of moist cat food on the end of a toothpick. Sometimes it took two weeks after the yolk sac adsorbed before they showed the slightest interest>
Lori ��

Help ID what is growing on our rocks.     7/11/17
Resize and re-send... your pix are two orders of mag. too big (39 megs...)
Help ID what is growing on our rocks. Without Video

I’m in need of some help identifying what is on our rock. I’m attaching pix to help.
Sg 1.025
KH 8.3
Ca 412
Nitrate/Ammonia 0.00
Age 5months.
Temp 77.5 to 78.5
Neptune Apex controller used to control and monitor various things.
We were using Kent Marine Salt. BRS 2 part dosing ~1ml/gal day (Seems a bit high for a tank with not much in it).
Reef Octopus skimmer,
Reef Octopus vario-s 6 return pump.
2 MP40’s
1 of the original Gyre 150s
We have been working to get our levels to stabilize, we are there.
This stuff seems to have been there a while, didn’t start to take off until recently. The pix/vid are before pix. We vacuumed as much as we could 2 weeks ago, last week our A/C went out. Lights out on the tank, we put a portable A/C in the fish room and kept the temp about where it normally is. I climbed briefly to 81, but stabilized at 78.7. Right before the A/C went out we switch salts to the AquaVitro Salinity salt, about a 100g change.
After the A/C outage most of it went away. I think it is coming back, looks like a light film on the rock that is starting to bubble.
I was already thinking of changing salts, when our LFS told us he had never seen what we have before and did not think it was organic that is what pushed me over the edge.
William & Pegine
<Mmm; I'd sample a small bit and look under a microscope... You can read re on WWM including cheap 'scopes. This looks like a pest Dinoflagellate to me... Sometimes REALLY hard to get rid of; AND not palatable (to fishes, most invertebrates that eat macroalgae growths); SOME are VERY toxic. Friend Sanjay Joshi is having such an issue, and we're currently chatting up on Facebook... Jules (Sprung) gave this useful link: "A Quick reference Guide? Check out this interesting new site online: http://www.algaeid.com/about/ ". Denying nutrient, improving ORP... are the steps to go toward here. Bob Fenner>

Sea of Cortez Livestock.     7/11/17
Good Morning Crew,
<Hiya Myk>
I am looking for a good supplier of Sea of Cortez livestock that dives their own stock and was wondering if you would have a suggestions.
<Mmm; not familiar with anyone who is currently doing actually collecting in Baja; but do know where I would check. Call, contact Robert Macias at Quality Marine in Los Angeles and ask him if he knows. If not do the same with Carl Coloian at Sea Dwelling Creatures. You can look up these businesses email, phone numbers on the Net>
Thank you in advance for your time.
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Re: Sea of Cortez Livestock.     7/11/17

Good Morning Bob,
Thank you very much for the contacts.
Have a great day!
<Ah, you as well. BobF>

Betta distress; trauma      7/11/17
Hello there!
My name is Saffron and I have an established community sorority tank. It's 29 gallons with 6 girls, 9 diamond tetra, 2 Otos and 5 bronze cories.
*Here is my issue*:
A few weeks ago now, one of my girls got sucked into the canister filter through my surface skimmer on my lily intake pipe which had fallen below the water line. I happened to be in the right place at the right time.
I quickly unplugged the filter, released the quick release and out she plopped. I immediately put her in a plastic container with an inch or so of water so she didn't have to support herself by swimming. She was obviously dazed and pale. I diluted some aquarium salt, added another inch of water and added some Seachem stress coat and left her floating in the tank over night.
When I released her into the tank she had coloured up a bit, but was not her full vivid red (she is a koi). Lately she has been keeping to her corner and swimming alright, and while she still never coloured up she has been doing better.
Now when I got home yesterday from a weekend trip, I noticed she was pineconing slightly and keeping to herself more than usual. So I immediately took her out and gave her an aquarium salt bath and added some
stress coat. I kept her there for about 5 minutes and added her back into the tank. This morning she was resting in the bottom of the tank, and when I get home tonight I will be quarantining her in a 4 gallon tank. She is not as pale as she was when she first got sucked in, but more pale and slightly bloated, although she did come up for food.
I also noticed one of my cory's had a white spot on his fin, and preemptively dosed the tank with API fungus cure, as I do have Nerites and a mystery snail that I would like to keep around.
I will try and get pictures later, but the Cory is quite shy and runs every time I move near the tank, but my biggest concern is my little girl.
<I would not be concerned w/ "one spot" on a Corydoras... likely this is nothing... perhaps a minor wound site>
Is there anything you can recommend for me to try for Vivian? I'm just trying to be a good fish parent, and I'm at somewhat of a loss for what to do besides start dosing with medication, which isn't always the answer because it will suppress the rest of my fish as well.
<Understood; and at this point, given what you state, I would NOT treat the tank, life there... but just endeavor to keep good, stable conditions. Likely this fish will heal on its own>
*Here is the background:*
It's a heavily planted tank and I have just started experiencing some black beard algae which I have been addressing by minimizing the light exposure and dosing directly with excel. I have a co2 system ready to go, but given my last couple of weeks I have been holding off on setting it up because I don't want to imbalance the tank too much, or risk a crash.
I have been battling a bacterial bloom in the tank from my auto-feeder dumping too much food while I was away (which is my fault but I had little choice as I go away weekly during the summer). Which has led to a Ramshorn
explosion. I have since changed vacation food types when I'm away to small slow sinking pellets and will be getting a feeding circle. When I am home during the week, I have been doing 30% water changes every other day or so to manually manage the system in the tank.
Sorry for the novel and thank you for taking the time to read.
<Steady on here; and please do send us a follow up with your further observations. Bob Fenner>

Engineer Goby     7/10/17
Hello everyone...
<Hey Mich>
Have been searching around- but there are no answers to my curiosity that I can find: Engineer Goby [ convict blenny ] :
What determines the difference in color - between having one that is black/golden yellow- and one that is black/white - as it matures into adulthood?
<Mmm; don't know. Have seen both in the wild... ALL are the same in a group as individuals or adults>
Is there a way to pick a color? Is the color indicative of the sex of the goby?
<I don't think so; no. Perhaps a matter of nutrition>
Or does it actually change from the black/yellow markings to the black with white markings AS it matures further?
<Doesn't change as far as I'm aware in the wild. Ones in captivity usually do lose golden highlights with time, growth though>
I have had a baby in the past- that grew older and the markings were the beautiful black/yellow-gold - however - I would really love to have one that is black and white- and going crazy trying to find SOMETHING on how this color change happens- there has to be something in the books somewhere in the world, Haha - because when searching online/ and on YouTube- there are both color versions out there.. just no explanation as to how to
choose one that will transform into the black/white...
<Mmm; I worked on a question of color (in a local damsel, the Garibaldi) and role of some of the algae this fish cultures in its territory... in the seventies. Am very sure there are pertinent scientific papers on this topic, though not necessarily with Engineer Gobies>
Nothing on Google, YouTube, fish books- and nothing that I can locate here on WWM - can you offer any type of info on this please - thank you :)
unless.. it's just a roll of the dice, lol and nature likes to surprise you after you place them in your tank Haha
<Let me refer you here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/litsrchart.htm
Time to expand your horizons... with the help of a college library, reference aid. Bob Fenner>

Re: Advertisement inquiry     7/10/17
Hello Bob,
I can offer you 200 USD for 3 months banner/text link placement in your footer section or anywhere you would like in your website.
Just want to make sure that it should have direct link and not on rotation basis. What do you say?
<No thanks. B>

Strange ADF lady lump      7/9/17
Hey there! Looking to see if I can get some help Identifying what my female African Dwarf Frog has; I've tried some different forums, but no one has seen this type of bump before!
I've had her and her boyfriend alone together in a 5 gallon tank *(heated @75, gentle filtered)* for about just under 2 years; woke up to her with a strange pointy bump on her back!
<I can see this from your photo.>
Now, I know when they Amplexus she'll sometimes get 'ridges' on her back from him squeezing her so much, but those are symmetrical, and they go away shortly * (in the pics you'll see one in front of the bump)*
But, this lump is asymmetrical, only on one side of her. It's particularly pointed, and not something she's had before. It doesn't seem to be hard.
She never shies away from my hands, so I took a chance and gave her a gentle patting-down when feeding them, to see if I could feel the lump.
Sure enough, I can, but it just feels like a little squishy nub, like the rest of her body. Nothing hard or pointed. She also didn't show any negative reaction to me touching her (albeit disappointment that fingers are not edible), so it looks like it's not anything that causes her any pain.
<So far as you can tell, anyway.>
Her behavior hasn't changed at all, she's still as feisty as ever. She doesn't shy away from me at all, and she's still eating *(bloodworms, brine shrimp, vitamin supplement added) *as usual. She's not trying to rub up against anything, nor is she acting like she's in any pain. Her tankmate is just fine, no growths or any other physical changes, so it's not contagious.
Does this look like something to be worried about, like a tumor or abscess, or something similar? The only thing vertical in my tank is the filter intake; maybe she fell asleep next to the it and it kind of pulled her skin there like a little hernia?
<It's a possibility, as is some type of post-coital damage, starvation, or for that matter an avitaminosis of some kind, which often leads to rickets-type things where fish or frogs develop odd deformities. Initially, observe rather than treat if the frog is feeding and otherwise active; certainly review diet, perhaps adding a vitamin supplement if possible. Only if the frog fails to improve after a week or two, or shows signs of stress or starvation, would I think about medicating. Cheers, Neale.>

Can you tell me what this is please???      7/9/17
<Hi Kelly>
I am hoping you might be able to help me. I have indoor/outdoor cats and of course leave a water bowl out for them. Recently though I have been finding strange worm-like organisms stuck to the inside of the bowl. I've included a picture of one to show you. I would just like to know what it is and if it is harmful to animals. I appreciate you taking the time to read my email and thank you.
Kelly Michel
<Mmm; this looks like some sort of flatworm/Platyhelminth to me... Likely not an issue, but I would share this pic or better, specimen with your veterinarian just to make sure. Bob Fenner>

Re: Can you tell me what this is please???      7/9/17
Wow a flatworm?
<Yes; look in your reference works, the Net.>
Thank you very much for your help, and advice. I will be showing it to my veterinarian.
<Ah, good. BobF>

Porcupine fish in trouble      7/9/17
I've had a porcupine fish for about 1 year now with no real problems. I woke up this morning and he looked fine. I left to pay some bills and came back and noticed the spikes by his face are sticking up. I checked on him a
few minutes later, and one of the spikes is broken and dangling on his face. My very active fish is now laying on the sand breathing heavy. Do those spikes grow back?
<They can; yes>

What can do to save him?? He's my favorite fish! I want to put him in my QT tank, but am scared, because of his heavy breathing. PLEASE HELP... thank you
<... What do you consider the cause here? Has this fish encountered a pump intake or such? Another fish attack it? Did it traumatize itself by swimming into something? I would do what water test/checks you can, and the
usual default of changing out a quarter of the system water; renew the chemical filter media. Bob Fenner>


Salt Water Identification Assistance      7/9/17
Hoping you guys can help ID a new found presence in my aquarium.
Thanks! Chad H.
<The whitish bit? Have cropped, spiffed about as well as I can... appears to be a bit of octocoral... likely a soft coral of some sort. You could excise. Bob Fenner>

re: Cant Recognize what's wrong with my Flowerhorn     7/8/17
Thank you so much for quick response. I will make sure to get a test kit ASAP.
Will further let you if any updates happen
<Oh! Akshay! For now, do change out about a half of the water for new, and STOP feeding period. I suspect you have VERY high Nitrates, likely some ammonia et al. Be of good life. Bob Fenner>
re: Cant Recognize what's wrong with my Flowerhorn

Okay sir,
I made 80% of water change 5 days ago.
I will change half of it again in 7 hours from now as it is night here in India.
Will not feed him and thanks heaps for help.
One more thing which I forgot to mention that he is fading away his colour from top, his skin is white over there ( completely faded patch ), is it okay? Or there is something really going wrong?
<This fish needs to be kept in a much larger, cleaner world, period. B>
re: Cant Recognize what's wrong with my Flowerhorn

Yes He needs a larger home, have sold him to a guy, he lives 10 miles away from my home, He is having a 40 gallon tank, he will get a new and safer home, and yes, have made 50% water change and he is all good now and moving freely again.
<Good moves Akshay>

Will pack him in few hours, just thought should inform you.
<Thank you . I appreciate your efforts>
Your advice helped a lot.
Big Thanks to you!
Will refer to you always.
God bless fishes! Lol
<Life to you my friend. BobF>

Cloudy pop eye tang     7/8/17
Hi, thanks as always for the wonderful service you provide everyone! Your advice, articles, and information are all super!
<Ah, good>
I have an orange shoulder tang I just got and apparently the sellers other fish picked on it and damaged its eye.
<This beautiful species is on the end of the scale w/ a few others (Powder Blue, Brown...) in terms of being hard to keep in captivity. REALLY needs a BUNCH of room (hundreds of gallons)... VERY clean water...>
I attached a picture of the eye. It is in a 100 gallon stock tub QT now.
Should I treat the fish with something or just rely on good water quality and food to help it get better?
<A tough question... as the bulging eye is unilateral/one side; this is highly likely a case of trauma (rather than bacteria, parasitic...) issue>
If I should treat it what should I use? Does it look like it will be okay eventually? Thank you!
<Let's have you read here re:
and the linked files above as much as you'd like; to gain perspective.
Unfortunately the prognosis for this species, kind of injury is poor. Bob Fenner>

Re: Cloudy pop eye tang     7/8/17
Hi Bob, thanks for the incredibly timely response. I read the FAQ's before emailing, but didn't see a definitive answer, but after evaluating it more I think what I'll do it wait and see.
<Ahh, yes. This is what I would do. This IS a fave species of Tang, esp. when out diving in Hawaii, am always looking for its broad flanks scooting about the bottom, feeding>
The fish came from someone's established tank and went to another reef keeper whose fish picked on it, and then I got it so it is not brand new to a tank. This evening I think the orange shoulder tang is looking a bit better. He is eating Spectrum pellet food like a pig and picking on nori.
<Good food choices>
His eye looks close to the same. I'll just keep him in the 100 gallon QT tub for a while and keep the water clean, it has a decent skimmer too. After that if he is okay in 3-4 weeks he can go in my 300 gallon tank which has 500 gallons of total volume going through it. Hopefully that'll be big enough. By the way, you spoke at our reef meeting in San Diego and I saw you speak at the last MACNA on butterfly fish, which I was contemplating getting but decided not to after learning more about them. ��
<Ahh! Am hoping that Mark Lawson will help resurrect the San Diego Club. Have offered to help in what ways I can/may... Giving programs, lining up others, manufacturers, distributors for donations et al. Hope to see you at the upcoming (August) MACNA in LA. Bob Fenner>

fiberglass on top of rubber liner for a pond?     7/8/17
Hello and HELP! We recently had a “pond” built in our back yard. I put pond in quotes because it is more of a reflecting pool than a pond (see photos).
<A very nice job>
It is 2 feet deep, no fish or plants, and has a rubber pond liner with 3 jets and 4 lights in the pond walls.
<Is it not to be biological? Id est, not have life in it?>
We are not happy with the rubber liner for a few reasons:
While not leaking or causing any problems, the rubber liner has wrinkles along the walls and in the corners and doesn’t have the sleek contemporary look we were told by the contractor that it would have once finished
<Mmm; this appearance is really difficult to achieve with liners, particularly the thicker butyl rubber>

We have black rocks in the bottom of the pond (to help hide the ugly rubber liner) but cleaning the pond is impossible with the many acorns, heavy tree/plant pollen, etc. sitting between and underneath the rocks.
<Ah yes... have to drain, remove the rock really to clean. Been there, did this for several years commercially>
Even when the pond is drained you have to hand pick out the acorns and small debris from between/under the rocks, which is no small/easy feat.
We’ve been told that fiberglass can be sprayed over the existing liner to give a smooth surface, but I haven’t found any information about that process online (much less identified anyone locally that could do it).
<Mmm; I wouldn't do this... the fiberglass will not last, and is toxic in the short term and a real mess to remove,
fix... IF you must have a smooth surface, DO look into having a "cement plaster coat" (much the same as swimming pools) applied, likely with some reinforcing mesh (chicken or stucco wire is what we used to use)... Dark color/oxide can be added to the "plaster", and it can be smooth troweled... >
We’ve considered just taking the rocks out of the bottom of the pond to make cleaning easier, but have been told that the rocks might be needed to help weigh the liner down or it could end up looking even messier/less formed without the rocks.
1. Can you “spray” fiberglass over the existing rubber liner of a pond and, if so, how likely is it that you will end up with a pond that has smooth surfaces and not look like a mess?
<There are free-standing (pre-fab) fiberglass ponds, and folks who have done "chop" and layered fiberglass (and resin) basins, and leak repair tries. Our company's had a good deal of experience with removing these>
2. Any other ideas on how to manage or change the liner to make it easier to keep clean and look smooth without completely rebuilding the pond?
<As stated above. See WWM (the Pond SubWeb) and/or my books on water features (avail. on Amazon) for much more>
3. Any other ideas for what to do about the bottom of the rubber liner other than rocks to make it easy to keep clean yet look good?
<You may not like this... but adding a dye to the water is about all the alternative I'd consider>
Thanks! Tony Meyer
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

weird episode with 3-toed box turtle /Darrel      7/7/17
Dear crew
<Hiya, Darrel here>
Last night I got up and noticed my box turtle (of 30+ years) seemed to be stricken in some way. She was acting like a victim of bad-movie stop action animatronics producer, moving incessantly in quick jerks, and upset with her front and rear ends. At the back, she would either scrub her butt with her heels over and over and over, like she had ants in her pants. Alternately, she would back up against her low feeding dish and keep pushing back, jerky step after jerky step, with her front legs. I took her out, her butt was fine, I rubbed it with TP in case it itched, but that didn't help her-- she continued doing it.
<I’ve seen this, too>
At her front end, she repeatedly, jerkily (every sort of move was fast and jerky and she NEVER stopped), rubbed with the backs of her front feet at her sides of her face, not particularly her eyes, but them, too, sometimes. And she also whipped her head about, one side to the other, like an angry person trying to make their eyes see small print or focus on something.
<I’ve assumed in was a nerve disorder, but they seem to get past it>

I put her in her water dish (water comes about 1/2 way up her shell) and she ducked down and put her head underwater for a bit, came back up (jerkily), climbed halfway out, whipped her head back toward the water, dropped back down into it, repeated the above about 4 times before finally climbing back out and continuing to do all the things I first described. She kept this up for over 4 hours. She was worn out in the morning, just crashed flat out, chin on her floor, sleeping.
<It’s possible that the phase {or whatever it is} simply passed on its own>
As to food, she has been eating mostly only strawberries and ball bugs for several weeks (she keeps getting fixated on one or 2 foods each warm season).
<I had a box turtle fixate on strawberries to the exclusion of all else for 11 YEARS. It’s not healthy for them, so I have learned to feed fruit sparingly. I normally feed snails from a garden that I know has no snail bait and earthworms from the bait store. Apples and carrots weekly but brightly colored fruits and berries no more than monthly>
<That said, that’s what I do. If he fixates only “in season” and he’s other wise healthy keep doing what you’re doing>
She has a couple small spots where the skin (scutes?) over the shell bone has died and disappeared, but they are not growing. The bone underneath is white and dry and solid.
I just noticed she has a light yellow spot under one eye. It does not wipe off.
<The scute died, leaving the bone underneath. This is almost always just mechanical damage, where the scute was rubbed, banged or broken. You have to pay a tiny bit of attention to the bone underneath … make sure it doesn’t grow algae or mold. Perhaps swabbing it with hydrogen peroxide once every couple of months>
Since the heavy sleep this morning, she has eaten half a strawberry and no longer looks like some bad movie producer is running her every move. Any idea what this might be?
<As I said, I’ve witnessed it in my own animals but it’s never been diagnosed as a specific disease and they seem to get it, get over it and get past it, so I wouldn’t worry>
<That said this is a good opportunity to get a general purpose vitamin supplement like Reptivite from our friends at Zoo Med and dust his food every day for a few weeks. The reasoning is that certain combinations of malnutrition or vitamin/mineral deficiencies do cause tremors… so even though I don’t think it’s his problem … it can’t hurt>
Thanks for any help you can give.

Mass on Head     7/7/17
<Hiya, Darrel here>
I've been browsing your site looking for answers on what in the heck this is and how I should treat it.
<From way over here that looks like a cyst with or without an accompanying infection>
I saw a similar picture but there wasn't any commentary to go with the image. I have 2 box turtles and this one was wild and my husband saved it from a busy highway not knowing where he came from to return him.
<1- thank you for rescuing him. 2- thank you for not releasing him. It’s never EVER a good idea to release an animal into the wild … even if it’s just a short transport. There are just too many variables to consider>
Please help!
<I can help – but only a little. This is a classic case of the need for an up close and personal examination from a trained professional. It’s likely that the cyst can be burst and excised without anesthesia, but the problem is that no one will know anything until someone does an actual exam. This leaves you with three choices. First is a veterinarian in your area that does reptiles (technically called ‘exotics’ in the trade). Second is a young veterinarian just starting his practice. At first that may seem incongruous, but here’s the reasoning: If a vet makes exotics part of his practice, that’s best. If not, all vets do a rotation in exotics during their med school, so a younger veterinarian may not have the most dedicated skills, but at least he’s done it in recent memory.>
<Third – look for a Turtle and Tortoise Club in your area. People with larger collections usually have to, if only for financial reasons, learn to treat common maladies at home and can help you directly – if not they can point you to the most qualified vet.>

Feeding Ancistrus ranunculus   /Neale      7/7/17
<Hi Judy,>
I have a black Medusa Pleco or Ancistrus ranunculus.
<A very nice catfish! Good choice.>
It turns out they are partially into meat eating besides the algae, does anyone know the best way to feed him/her so that the Pleco can get both?
Thank you
<Good quality algae wafers, such as those from Hikari, will be 100% fine as staple foods. If you check the ingredients, you'll see these contain fish and/or shrimp meal, alongside Spirulina and vegetable foods. By all means
add occasional offerings of standard catfish pellets (like you'd feed Corydoras) at night, perhaps 1-2 times per week. Between the two, these will be a good all-around diet, alongside treats of frozen bloodworms, slivers of white fish fillet, crushed shrimps, etc. Cheers, Neale.>

ongoing Blood Parrot issue     7/7/17
Hello Crew-Neale,
Thank you for your previous information regarding my constipated and/or Hexamita 4 year old Blood Parrot. I have done what was advised. I've added Epsom salts(16 tsp for 47 gallons), have been feeding only par boiled peas,
Nori seaweed, and kelp pellets.(she has had a poor appetite) I also completed 2 dose tank treatment with API "General Cure" ( Metronidazole and Praziquantel- add treatment wait 48hrs add second treatment wait 48hrs
do water change25%) on Sunday 7/2(day of second treatment). My fish appeared much better by 7/3 - she regained all color, was active, and came for food. On Wednesday 7/5, she has started to pale again in spots and is
hiding. She will eat a pea if it is dropped directly in front of her, but otherwise very uninterested.
<Some fish will go for them quickly; others take a while. Starvation will help a bit here -- feel free to not feed for 1-2 weeks. No harm will be done. Remove uneaten food promptly, and fish generally get the hint that what's offered is dinner, and they can't be picky! Failing that, live brine shrimp and daphnia both have a laxative effect. Not the freeze-dried versions though! Maybe not so useful as peas, but both are more readily taken by fish that refuse peas.>
What do I do now? Her water is: pH 7.5, 80 degrees, nitrate around 20%. 47 gallons with another BP and an 11 year old Plec.
I have ordered more API general cure as well as Furan2 (which contains Nitrofurazone) from Amazon and should have in 2 days. Should I retreat???
<I would wait 7 days to see if the medicine you've used has had any effect, plus the Epsom salt/laxatives. If there's no sign of recovery after a week or so, then by all means re-medicate.>
Your help has been invaluable. Had she been a dog she would have been back to the vet's three times by now, but being a fish, I just sit and watch- not knowing what to do. I am in deepest appreciation of your continued assistance.
<You are most welcome. Treating fish can be difficult, and being smaller
animals, it's often "too late" by the time you see something amiss.>
Gratefully yours,
Lisa W
<Good luck! Neale.>

Broken Links on WWM     7/7/17
Dear Webmaster,
<Hey Cassidy>
I just came across your informative page for an array of fish! I found it to be helpful because I have some Cichlids in my tank at home. While I was looking through you *Marine Links* page at (http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marlinks.htm ). Here are some of the dead links I found-
<Yikes; yes... have neglected checking (for years). Will clean up. Thank you, Bob Fenner>
-Under "Business": Aquarium Frontiers, Fish Flips (UW Content), The Modern Coral Reef Aquarium, Cquarium, Mini-Waters, Waltsmith, and Waterlife
-Under "Science-Public Aquariums": Aksarben Aquarium Outdoor Edu Center, Gulf of Maine Aquarium, Maine Aquarium, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium, Steinhart, Toba, and Waikiki Aquarium links are all broken
-Under "Hobbyists Sites": Aquaria Now, Aquarium Info Source, Aquarium Store Finder, ayrshire Reef Keepers, Beginners Guide to Aquariums, Cowfish Puffers and More, Mexican Link, Rob Huss's Reef Tank, Simplified
Reefkeeping, and The Fish Encyclopedia are all broken links.
I just wanted to notify you of this and wanted to suggest a resource
that could replace one of the broken links, Can Stock Photo.
CanStockPhoto.com gives you plenty of options to choose from for aquatic photos. For example, I searched *"Fish and reef" and came up with over 41,000 image results out of the 25 million royalty-free photos in our
database*. High quality images are not the only thing we provide. Vector illustrations, clip art, digital artwork, stock footage, and video animation clips are all included as well.
I just threw together a *personalized *HTML link for you in case you end up listing us on your site; <a
href="http://www.canstockphoto.com/images-photos/fish-and-reef.html">CanStock Photo</a>
<Ah, will do. Cheers. B>
Feel free to contact me via email at cassidy.reckers@canstockphoto.com 
if you have any questions.
Thanks, and have a great day!
Cassidy Reckers
Can Stock Photo

Cant Recognize what's wrong with my Flowerhorn. Env.      7/7/17
Hello Sir/Ma'am.
I have a 8 months old Flowerhorn ( gender unknown) from recent 1 month his behaviour have been changed drastically.
1) He flickers his all fins at a very high rate ( more or less it looks like shivering)
2) he sits in corner of the tank and
3) He rubs his mouth against glass and then jumps out of water 3-4 times a day
4)is losing appetite slowly.
5)A jumps out of water as if he is scared as hell of something.

I don't see any signs of ich there are no salt like granules on his body but sometimes I see air bubble stuck on his belly.
He is in a 20 gallon tank(which I know is very short).
<.... the symptoms you mention could be due to nervous damage, genetic problems; but are almost assuredly environmental. This fish is being subjected to poor water quality. Do you have measures (from tests) for alkalinity, pH, nitrogenous compounds (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate)? THIS is what you need to investigate.>
He used to eat 4 times a day, I have never ever feed him with live food or frozen food. All I feed him is Pellets (okiko platinum huncher) and he seems to be happy with it.
I'm attaching pictures with it.
I don't have any ph tester or any water parameter testing kit nor any heater
.<You NEED to get, use all of these. NOW>
I use a sobo Internal power filter rated at 880L/H.
Heater isn't required in my area since normal temperature always ranges between 20-26 degree Celsius and water temperature is same as well.
Not having a testing kit is bad thing, but I'm planning to purchase one.
Just let me know why Is he shivering or flicking his fins and jumping as if he has seen a ghost.
Thanks in advance, hoping for a favourable and quick response.
<Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FHEnvDisF.htm
and the linked files above, AND fix this animal's world. YOU determine what quality of life it has.
Bob Fenner>


Re: Advertisement inquiry     7/7/17
Hello Bob,
Thanks for sending along the details. I can see that you've added a banner on the top section but the link is coming out from your tracking URL.
Actually, We're looking for direct link to our website not any connecting bridge to track the clicks.
<Mmm; thought all these banners were direct links>
And also, We're not after rotation basis ads so basically Bottom tower ads on all pages will be the best bet for us which is not rotating.
Are you able to agree on our terms?
<I/we can add just bottom (or other placement) banner ads; rotating and not. What are you offering?

Feeding Ancistrus ranunculus      7/6/17
<Hey Judy>
I have a black Medusa Pleco or Ancistrus ranunculus. It turns out they are partially into meat eating besides the algae, does anyone know the best way to feed him/her so that the Pleco can get both? Thank you
<Mmm; will ask Neale to respond separately (he's likely working/teaching in the UK (I'm in California) at this time. Not being a fan of live bloodworms, I am a promoter of pellets made of same, as well as earthworms.
Some folks report that brine shrimp are readily taken, and even Ghost Shrimp (live) are attacked by such animals. Whatever format you use, it needs to get down to the bottom where the cats are. Bob Fenner>

Advertisement inquiry      7/6/17
Hi Editor,
I hope you doing great. My name is Lyuthar Jacobs, working as a PR manager for a marketing Agency. Right now we are looking for Sponsored guest posts and banner ads for Clients marketing campaign.
Please let me know if you're accepting sponsored post or banner ads in your website WetWebMedia. I will look for your response.
<Indeed we are. Info. here: http://wetwebmedia.com/WWMAdminSubWebIndex/wwmsponsors.htm
Bob Fenner>
Thanks & Regards,
Lyuthar Jacob
*Editor & Publisher*

Re: Acrylic seam repair   7/5/17
I’ve started repairing the damaged seam on my acrylic aquarium. I was able to inject solvent into the damaged area fairly successfully using a 31 gauge insulin needle (see attached picture). The white hazy area where the seam was coming apart has now been reduced by 80-90%.
<Looks MUCH better, yes>
I had also ordered some triangular acrylic rod for doweling the interior corner. When the material arrived, I believe due to it being extruded, the sides were not perfectly flat and it did not fit tightly into the corner.
<Do turn it... two sides SHOULD be flat; square doweling is>
I tried machining the sides flat using a router table. I used some of it on one of the back corners of the tank (that won’t be very visible) as a test. I was able to get decent adhesion, but not perfect and certainly not a totally clear weld. Would this likely have come from an imperfect fit?
<Yes; easily. Sometimes using a thicker solvent will/can fill in these non-flush areas better>
You recommended using square rod for the reinforcement. Can you recommend a good supplier with rod that is good and flat on the sides?
<Mmm; I cannot... outside of where I live (San Diego, S. Ca.) I don't know... the brand names for such. You might call ePlastics re: (858) 560-1551>
Also, I was wondering if painter’s tape can be used to protect the nearby areas from solvent drips?
<Sorry; I don't know this either; but worth trying... perhaps laying some other sticky plastic tape on top of the painter's tape in turn?>
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

weird episode with 3-toed box turtle     7/3/17
Last night I got up and noticed my box turtle (of 30+ years) seemed to be stricken in some way. She was acting like a victim of bad-movie stop action animatronics producer, moving incessantly in quick jerks, and upset with her front and rear ends. At the back, she would either scrub her butt with her heels over and over and over, like she had ants in her pants. Alternately, she would back up against her low feeding dish and keep pushing back, jerky step after jerky step, with her front legs. I took her out, her butt was fine, I rubbed it with TP in case it itched,
but that didn't help her-- she continued doing it.
At her front end, she repeatedly, jerkily (every sort of move was fast and jerky and she NEVER stopped), rubbed with the backs of her front feet at her sides of her face, not particularly her eyes, but them, too, sometimes. And she also whipped her head about, one side to the other,
like an angry person trying to make their eyes see small print or focus on something.
I put her in her water dish (water comes about 1/2 way up her shell) and she ducked down and put her head underwater for a bit, came back up (jerkily), climbed halfway out, whipped her head back toward the water,
dropped back down into it, repeated the above about 4 times before finally climbing back out and continuing to do all the things I first described.
She kept this up for over 4 hours. She was worn out in the morning, just crashed flat out, chin on her floor, sleeping.
As to food, she has been eating mostly only strawberries and ball bugs for several weeks (she keeps getting fixated on one or 2 foods each warm season).
She has a couple small spots where the skin (scutes?) over the shell bone has died and disappeared, but they are not growing. The bone underneath is white and dry and solid.
I just noticed she has a light yellow spot under one eye. It does not wipe off.
Since the heavy sleep this morning, she has eaten half a strawberry and no longer looks like some bad movie producer is running her every move.
Any idea what this might be?
Thanks for any help you can give.
<Hello Beth,
I must apologize for the delay on responding to your question, the situation that you described in your letter and of the symptoms your turtle showed made me automatically think your sweet pet was having seizures so I did some research and sure enough, it does look and sound exactly what is going on.
It could be a one time only happening. Please Google "Turtle Seizure" and watch the video. There are many other writings and videos. Please let me know if this helps in any ways. I am not done investigating this situation and you will here from me again soon.
Again, I am very sorry for the delay in responding.
Here's to good health to you and your 3-toed box turtle!
Donna >

Post cycle water change percentage?    7/3/17
Just a quick cycling question today. I am planning to cycle a saltwater tank using the "phantom feeding method" (ohh, ahh) as I plan t use dry reef saver rock and dry sand. When my cycle has completed, what percent water
change should I do? I have read 100% which seems absurd for larger systems.
The net has conflicting Info and I could not find this anywhere on cycling marine systems pages 1-9. Thanks.
<I agree with your apparent caution here. I would change about a quarter/25% of the water out, wait a week, and then another quarter.
Post-cycle times can be a bit tricky, and one does not want to cause a metabolic check, or nitrifier die-off via too much change too soon. Bob Fenner>

Aba Aba knifefish; injured. Neale's go      7/2/17
Good morning, I had a accident with 2 fish that I had separated. In preparation of transitioning my 20" aba aba knife to its own tank, it was in a divided tank opposite a single caribe piranha.
Aba somehow ventured over the wall last night and was bitten pretty badly on the back end.
His entire tail, and an additional several inches of body/flesh is gone.
The aba actually seems fine, and I have made other arrangement for housing.
How much should I expect to grow back?
<Assuming excellent water conditions, frequent water changes (ideally daily) until the flesh heals over, and immediate use of a good quality antibiotic medication against Finrot, there's a good chance your fish will survive. Whether it'll actually regrow its tail completely is harder to say. Most likely it'll end up with a skin-covered stump of some sort.
Cheers, Neale.>
re: Aba Aba knifefish     7/2/17

Thank you!!
<Welcome. BobF>

Green Spotted Puffer - Clownfish Compatibility     7/2/17
Good afternoon,
<Hey Joel>
About two years ago, I purchased a Green Spotted Pufferfish and have been keeping him in a 29 gallon brackish aquarium (currently about 1.010). I do weekly 25% water changes and provide a variety of foods: tilapia is about
50% of it due to lack of Thiaminase, but supplemented with shrimp, clam, and calamari pieces, with offerings of dried algae on some of the "off feeding" days. He hasn't grown as much as expected, though, and currently is about 2.75 inches.
Over the past 6 or 8 months he's also exhibited symptoms of being bored/restless. Combined with the smaller size (one < 3 inch fish in a 29 gallon tank isn't much to look at), I've been thinking about upgrading to a larger tank, perhaps 40-55 gallons, converting to full marine, and adding in a damselfish or small, odd numbered group depending on species.
<Mmm; well, first off; didn't realize the scientific name had changed for this species: Dichotomyctere nigroviridis (Marion de Procé, 1822), Spotted green pufferfish... Am hoping Neale (Monks) will chime in; but as far as I'm aware, this fish is not totally marine, but brackish. And Clownfishes are full concentration marines>
Most of the advice I've seen in the GSP Compatibility page suggests some have success with Humbugs and Dominoes. However, my GSP is on the smaller side and is fairly timid for a GSP, so I'd be concerned with them as tankmates. My understanding is some of the clownfish species may be more moderate in terms of aggression, particularly if a system contains only one specimen. Granted, I have read Pufferpunk's notes that Tomato Clowns have roughed up her GSPs in the past.
Are there any clownfish you would suggest investigating here?
I have been looking at Ocellaris Clowns but would like a second opinion.
Thank you for your time,
<I'd go with either Ocellaris or Percula Clowns if trying any; and tank-bred specimens at that. These are hardier for aquarium use, and more easy going. Bob Fenner>
/Neale     7/2/17
<<BobF's right in that the species formerly known as Tetraodon nigroviridis, according to some authorities now properly called Dichotomyctere nigroviridis, is a brackish rather than marine puffer. Indeed, wild-caught specimens seem to be invariably collected in rivers rather than the sea. That said, aquarium specimens don't usually do well kept in freshwater indefinitely, while their maintenance in marine systems (as adults, at least) does no harm and may actually be easier thanks to the use of protein skimmers and live rock to keep nitrate levels low. Regardless, I'd not be keeping small specimens in fully marine conditions, or even high-end brackish systems, simply because there's no pressing need to do so, and if they are having to osmoregulate 'harder' than they would do in the wild, that's a stress factor that's easily avoided. Once the fish is upwards of 3-4 inches, then sure, I might think about transitioning it to marine conditions. As always with puffers, companions are hit-and-miss, and will depend very much on the specimens you've got. Some cohabit nicely with robust marines -- damsels, tangs, snappers, and so on -- while others are as nippy in marine tanks as they in any other sort of aquarium. I'd love to be able to deliver a promise here that species X will do fine, but that's not the way puffers work. So while the larger, more robust Premnas clownfish might be about right given space enough to feel secure themselves, but I'd be leery of combining them with the smaller and more easy-going Amphiprion species. Certainly, combining a pufferfish with smaller tankmates is always risky, and you need tankmates that have not only size on their size but also the speed and the personality to handle occasional problems. General purpose damsels fit the bill nicely, Stegastes-type things, while Sergeant Majors in particular striking me as the sort of very shallow water damsels that I've seen living alongside marine puffers around jetties, harbour walls, rocky reefs and so on. Indeed, Sergeant Majors aren't fussy about salinity and can thrive perfectly well down to SG 1.018, all else being equal, which would suit your GSPs rather nicely too. Cheers, Neale.>>
Re: Green Spotted Puffer - Clownfish Compatibility     7/2/17

Thank you for your quick reply! I will do some additional research on the subject prior to moving forward with any plan. Hope you both have a nice day.
<Thank you Joel; you as well. BobF>

Re constipated/bloated Blood Parrot       7/1/17
Neale, thank you for such a quick response!
My Blood Parrot remains unchanged. Continues to be pale, hangs out at the surface by the heater, eats (peas and nori seaweed) but much less appetite than norm, continues to interact with other BP but only in bursts.
<Oh dear.>
Regarding poops- I would be able to discount seeing longer white strings floating about.
<That's good.>
I see from the link you shared that I can safely add Epsom salt 1-3 tsp /5 gallons depending on severity.
I added 8 tsp for my 47 , not filled to the top, gallons. In the event that I am actually dealing with this "Hexamita" what course of action do you recommend?
<Oh, do read on WWM re: Hexamita and cichlids; you'll find many instances of this particular problem. Let me start you, here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/hexoctfwfs.htm
Follow the links for more.>
My local shop talked me into an API product "General Cure" which is combo Metronidazole 250mg and Praziquantel 75mg.
<This should do the trick! Praziquantel is a de-wormer. This particular product is not one I've used; the folks at WWM tend to recommend a Metronidazole plus antibiotic (Nitrofurans in particular) for best results.
But if the API product is handy, then I'd be happy using it.>
I have not administered ( was waiting for your response!)
Thank you Thank you Thank you ~warmest regards, Lisa-
<Good luck! Neale.>

Xport NO3 Product; Sulfur        7/1/17
I was in my LFS yesterday and was told about Brightwell aquatics Xport NO3 product which comes in a few shapes and sizes. It is a porous media containing sulphur which sits in a low flow area of a sump and denitrifies they tell me.
<Well-stated; and yes to there being such sulfur products. Best used in reactors... where they receive more circulation>
I can see no references to it in the wetweb pages and though there are threads on it elsewhere the question of does it actual make a significant impact on NO3 remains largely unanswered. I do not want to waste my money as this hobby is full of 'miracle' products.
<I think what little we/WWM have is likely archived here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/SulfurDenitratrF.htm
I have a 180 gal FOWLR which despite water changes always has high NO3. I want to eventually keep some soft corals which requires me to sort out my water parameters.
<There are a few approaches. Am a bigger fan of natural methods... deep DSBs of fine material, RDP refugiums with macro-algal culture....>
I have tried vodka dosing and biopellets in the past, Cyano loved them, no other change. I have a good skimmer too, Bubble Magus curve 9. I have reduced my tank PO4 to 0.5 ppm with ferric oxide which greatly reduced the
nuisance algae but though the PO4 is not rising the algae seems to have found a new lease of life. I have read this can be due to PO4 leaching out of my live rock but I'm not seeing PO4 increases when testing?
<Likely being "scarfed"/scavenged readily by the algae/Cyanobacteria... a dynamic process>
With denitrifying media low flow is desirable but no flow is pointless.
<Ahh; again; well-stated>
As sump space is limited I was wondering if putting such media in the bottom of the overflow chamber is an option?
<Yes; tis one... though do read the citation above, consider a chamber with directed flow>
I have no idea what the water turnover is there though as the weir pipe draws from the surface of the overflow chamber about 1.5 ft higher up. Thanks for your time and help,

Aba Aba knifefish; Trauma       7/1/17
Good morning, I had a accident with 2 fish that I had separated. In preparation of transitioning my 20" Aba Aba knife to its own tank, it was in a divided tank opposite a single Caribe piranha.
Aba somehow ventured over the wall last night and was bitten pretty badly on the back end. His entire tail, and an additional several inches of body/flesh is gone. The Aba actually seems fine, and I have made other arrangement for housing. How much should I expect to grow back?
<Hard to state (as I only have limited first and other hand... reading, experience with this species). I will state that like many related species, this one does have "remarkable powers of regeneration". And that depending on how far forward the actual vertebrae, distal nerves are gone, may mark the limit of regrowth. To summarize, one can only keep up good conditions (water quality, nutrition) and hope for the best here.
Am sharing w/ Neale Monks here for his independent input. Bob Fenner>
<Thank you for sharing. Please send me/us follow-ups with your thought processes, experiences. Bob Fenner>

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