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Blue Acara Suddenly Losing Weight        7/24/16
Dear WetWebMedia Crew,
<Lynne>
I first arrived back in town for my summer break ~3-4 weeks ago. When I did, one of my giant Danios looked emaciated, and died while I was at the beach for the weekend.
<Mmm; only one?>
Because I had been gone for many months, I sort of assumed maybe it did not get enough to eat when my parents fed the fish, and that is why it died. When I was removing its body, one of my blue Acara thought I was feeding it the dead fish, and he bit off a huge chunk and swallowed it.
<Happens>
Now this morning I noticed he too is starting to lose weight. He wasn't like that last week. I am concerned that the giant Danio might have had some sort of parasite that he contracted after eating its body.
<Could be... even TB/Mycobacteriosis:  http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/MycobactFW.htm >
When I first acquired the blue Acara, I did feed them food with Metronidazole and Praziquantel, but I did not do this for the giant Danios as they gave no signs of anything wrong with them. If I have to treat this blue Acara, I am thinking of using a medication added to the water instead of medicated food, as I fear other fish in the tank may be infected.
<Ok; as per dosage recommendations>
I previously stated the blue Acara had prolapsed anuses, but I saw one of them defecate and it was not the anus, but their genital papilla I was looking at. However, now this particular Acara has two things protruding from his actual vent, and I cannot tell if they are worms or not. They are short, white, thin, and flat. I don't know if he also has a patch on his abdomen that looks somewhat red.
<If worms, the Prazi should take care of them. Bob Fenner>
Thank you,
Lynnie

Re: Hello all!        7/24/16
Thanks, Neale...yes, it makes perfect sense. I do apologize as you may find a somewhat duplicate question from me because I felt I wasn't clear in my first question. Turns out I was because you answered without any befuddlement, :)
As always, many thanks!
Kim
<Glad to help and good luck! Neale.>

Turtle question, young; soft shell        7/24/16
>Okay my turtle is a hatchling he is very small and I recently got him about
>1 month ago. I have UVB light a heat lamp and a basking area I also have
>the water at 80 degrees. I recently noticed near his tail the edge of his
>shell seems soft well it bends sorta. That is the only place effected. The
>turtle is active and eating he has no other problems and I recently got him
>a cuttlebone for calcium.
<I've had success with my hatchlings by feeding them black worms a couple of times a week.
You can get them at tropical fish stores either live or frozen. You didn't say what species your hatchling is but the common red eared slider is omnivorous and will eat dark green leafy vegetables as well. Small pieces of romaine lettuce or green leaves from any other leafy vegetable except kale. I've never used a cuttlebone for calcium so I'm not sure whether they can get their calcium from it or not. A varied diet is much better. I also feed a good quality kibbled dog food that has a salmon or chicken base that has been soaked until soft. Concerning his soft shell, I don't think you need to get too concerned unless the sides of his shell start getting soft as well. Good luck. Al

Re: Tips on stocking, tank size and feeding        7/24/16
Hey there Crew! I'm back very early, much earlier than I thought I'd be... with good news!
<Yay!>
I just got the new tank... 165x40x65cm, 430 litres (66x16x26" 110g), this weekend I'll plan the stand, buy some wood and pipes at Monday, and make it (stand and plumbing) with a friend Tuesday, and at Wednesday I should have the new tank running and the fish in their new house... I know the thin and tall isn't really the best for them, but for the price I got it, I won't regret it... If anything I'll just need to get creative with driftwood so they'll use the vertical space well.
<Quite so. We often ignore the "up" aspect of the aquarium, and instead focus on the "along" when it comes to decorating, distributing rocks and plants along the bottom. But yes, building upwards is important, whether it's tall plants, or flat stones laid end upwards, or even little "tables" made from stable rocks so there are extra flat surfaces halfway up the water column. Take your Bichirs for example. Get a slate or three, plus a variety of flat stones, and you can build "shelves" and "tables" at different levels. Not only will these create caves for hiding, the flat surfaces will be used and explored, and Bichirs especially welcome resting stops closer to the surface than the rest of the tank. They'll use these for lurking and when they're too lazy to swim all the way up for air.>
So now I am looking onto a stocking a lot more... the ropes didn't come now... maybe they'll be available next week, maybe next month or next year.. they're hard to come by here...
<In all honesty, if you don't have the Ropefish yet, I'd skip them. They're A LOT harder to keep than Bichirs. Less easy to feed, more prone to escaping.>
Wanted to hear some ideas for this list:
3-4x E. calabaricus (whenever they might come..)
2x P. delhezi (have them)
2x P. senegalus (have them)
1x P. senegalus var. Albino (have him)
1x P. palmas palmas (getting him soon)
2x Xenomystus nigri (might be a real bad idea... what do you think about it ? I'm really hesitant about doing this... quoting animal world:"Get along when young, and adults can co-habitat if that are given about 55 Gallons per knife.")
<Broadly yes, do agree with this. By Knifefish standards they are extremely peaceful. But they're still territorial. Nice fish though.>
5-6 pairs of Phenacogrammus interruptus (don't really know how many)
<Lovely fish. One of the most underrated in the hobby. Adults are stunning, both sexes, though the males of course do have the longer fins.>
1-3x Ctenopoma acutirostre (don't really know how many)
1x Synodontis eupterus (as I was convinced by Neale they should be fine in my setup)
<Should be. Gentle giant. I've seen more than one adult in aquarium shops that needed to be rehomed because they were being bullied by the jumbo fish they were kept with, the owner assuming they're as bullish as other large
Synodontis. Of course they'll eat bite-size prey, and they are mildly territorial (like your Bichirs, so make sure everyone has a cave they can call home).>
And here comes trouble... I am thinking of trading the Hujeta Gar into a Spiny eel, thing is, I don't really know which it is it is around 15cm(6") as of now, the Tiretrack or the Half-banded Spiny eel... I quite believe a Half banded would be fine, whilst a Tiretrack might get tight...
<I would not keep a Spiny Eel in this set-up. Spiny Eels are very difficult to keep, long-term. They're difficult to feed, and unlike Bichirs, are pretty much live or frozen food only. So getting enough calories into them as well as a good balance of vitamins is hard. For sure they'll eat prawns and mussels, but those are thiaminase-rich, so you need to be getting other foods into them like lancefish and earthworms, and that's where things get difficult. Bichirs are likely to take any of these foods before the Spiny Eels. Much better to keep Spiny Eels with non-competitors. Large characins,
L-numbers, etc. I kept my Tyre-Track Eel with Rainbowfish and various brackish water mid water fish.>
I saw the fish a few weeks ago and the owner doesn't really know what it is... I am thinking of getting it and if it turns out to be a Tiretrack, sell it to someone when it get big enough for me... Would appreciate hints with identification.
<Almost all Tyre-Tracks in the US trade are actually Mastacembelus favus rather than Mastacembelus armatus, but in reality we're probably dealing with a species complex. They're all big fish (expect well over 60 cm/2 ft) and opportunistically predatory, differing merely in the arrangement of the brown bands on their flanks.>
Also, please do convince me that getting a P. ornatipinnis IS a real bad idea.... there are a few people around where I live which have them, in tanks around the size of mine and they have been tempting me a real lot with the Ornate bichir (as in, talking me to having one, not selling) I used to convince myself to not try by thinking my tank would not support it, but with the new tank my resolve is slowly crumbling eh...
<Ornates are lovely fish. Hardy and attractive. But they are grumpy and quite big (60 cm/2ft), so I wouldn't recommend combining with smaller Bichir species. They do okay with L-numbers of the same size though, and I've seen them in numerous tank buster communities with large pimelodids, Clown Loaches, etc.>
Also, I'll be building the tank Fluidized sand bed reactor soon, how much sand and which flow rate would you recommend? I am thinking of 1kg(2.2lbs) with 2.000lph (530gph) with a T and a valve in the pump if it might be too
much flow... So far I have yet to make one that big...
<Not an expert on these, so will direct to some reading, here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fluidbedfaqs.htm
Somewhat overkill for freshwater systems. If going the sump route, I'd simply stick with plenty of wet-dry biological media that can be easily removed and cleaned. None of the fish you're keeping is especially nitrate-sensitive, so standard fishkeeping protocols should be adequate.>
With the best regards, Gustavo.
<Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Tips on stocking, tank size and feeding        7/24/16

Hey there Neale!
Firstly I have to say, you understood perfectly what I meant with getting creative to use the vertical space, I'll look into lots of flat stones, some Vallisneria and some tall driftwood, I hope to do something nice with "shelves" and some big plants...
<Cool.>
Then about the Ropefish... I too am starting to think they might not be worth the trouble... I do quite believe I'll end up forgetting of them to put something entirely else...
<Understood.>
The African Knives... I feel it might be worth the try, in any case I'll have the 30g tank running, the sump will have a grow out space and I'll also put up a quarantine tank in the stand of the tank, so, if it shit hits the fan I'll be able to at least put a stop to the fight.
<Agreed.>
Yeah, I feel like that about the Congo tetras too.. had some in a previous setup with only an albino Senegal bichir, they're real beauties... what do you think about getting 12 of them, 6 pairs, I feel like it would work up nicely in this tall and long tank maybe more, who knows...
<Sounds like a good plan.>
I've seen that (Eupterus stressed with other big fish) once myself... felt real weird to see such a big fish so stressed in a nearly thousand litres tank with some other big fish... I hadn't really read much about them but I sure guess I'll end up with a Eupterus in here...
<Hemisynodontis membranaceus is another gentle giant worth looking out for.>
Yeah, had some trouble with Spiny eels myself, though I feel like this one might be worth a try, as apparently it is eating pellets, I have also read up in MFK that most of the commonly found ones may tolerate some salt but
were FW fish... going to read up again on both, WWM and MFK to check it...
<Never seen a Spiny Eel take pellets. First time for everything, and definitely the Hikari brand pellets such as Cichlid Gold and Massivore are well worth a shot... at different times I've fed Lepisosteus gar and my trio of Hujeta Cichlid Gold and they seemed to take them with considerable enthusiasm. But I'd never assume a carnivore will take such foods, even though they're ideal staples if your fish will eat them. Do plan around fresh and frozen foods, and figure out how you'll make sure the predators will all get enough of whatever foods on offer.>
As much as I might like them, it is starting to seem troublesome to keep spiny eels.. If the owner accept to trade the Hujeta in the Eel I'll get it, if it end up not eating or getting too big, I'll just sell to a friend with a bigger tank...
<Wise.>
And about the Ornates, that's really just what I needed to hear to fortify my resolve against getting one... they really like a sweet fish but not enough to risk my other bichirs when he grow...
<Sweet fish for sure, but the larger Bichirs are best kept alone or with dissimilar tankmates. L-numbers are ideal.>
Didn't knew WWM has an FAQ even o Fluidized sand filters... going to read it up thanks, I might also end up just not doing it, might be a lot more reliable to just go along with ceramic media and a big sump..
<Agreed! High-grade Siporax and similar media is ideal, but in big tanks you might find pond filter media more economical.>
I should be here again up to next Sunday, with the new tank running up (no need for cycle really, as I'll use my old media plus some more I'll get).
Also I have been looking up on true parrot cichlids (Hoplarchus psittacus), really fancy them, though I might rather keep myself away from cichlids...
<Nice fish. I kept the very similar Hypselecara temporalis at university.
Big, somewhat herbivorous fish. Not really suitable for life with Bichirs, though I suspect the very peaceful Polypterus palmas would work nicely.
Otherwise L-numbers are the best companions.>
What would you think about having one of them in the old 250 litres tank?
<A bit of a squeeze to be honest. These cichlids do get to more than 25 cm/10 inches in length, so I'd have thought 350 litres would be closer to what they'd demand. Even in a tank that size you'd want to have a good plan for managing nitrate otherwise Hole-in-the-head can be a real problem with all these South American cichlids because nitrate levels above 20 mg/l do seem to stress them. I'd probably go for minimal substrate (so removing organic muck is easy) while installing floating plants for shade and to remove nitrate (plus offering some fresh greens the cichlids can nibble on). A few largish tetras, such as Bleeding Hearts, as dither fish, and maybe some Brochis catfish at the bottom. Lovely!>
I am thinking about them, Uarus or just a lotta of tetras with a pair or trio of Laetacara curviceps... there really are so much cool fish, sometimes its real hard to choose...
<Oh, I do think Hypselecara are much nicer than Uaru. Much less shy, and more intense colours. Also considerably easier to keep.>
With the best regards, Gustavo.
<In 250 litres I think I'd be looking at cichlids in the 15-20 cm/6-8 inches size bracket. Rotkeil Severums, for example. Or got totally left field and keep a large group of dwarf cichlids, so you could have several territories. Apistogramma for example are harem fish, and in a tank this size you could easily keep 3-4 males alongside twice that number of
females. Lots of caves at the bottom, then some dither fish at the surface, like Hatchetfish, and watch what happens! Could be really fun. Low maintenance "pretty" talk to contrast with your jumbo predator tank.
Cheers, Neale.>

Blue Acara Suddenly Losing Weight        7/24/16
Dear WetWebMedia Crew,
<Lynne>
I first arrived back in town for my summer break ~3-4 weeks ago. When I did, one of my giant Danios looked emaciated, and died while I was at the beach for the weekend.
<Mmm; only one?>
Because I had been gone for many months, I sort of assumed maybe it did not get enough to eat when my parents fed the fish, and that is why it died. When I was removing its body, one of my blue Acara thought I was feeding it the dead fish, and he bit off a huge chunk and swallowed it.
<Happens>
Now this morning I noticed he too is starting to lose weight. He wasn't like that last week. I am concerned that the giant Danio might have had some sort of parasite that he contracted after eating its body.
<Could be... even TB/Mycobacteriosis:  http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/MycobactFW.htm >
When I first acquired the blue Acara, I did feed them food with Metronidazole and Praziquantel, but I did not do this for the giant Danios as they gave no signs of anything wrong with them. If I have to treat this blue Acara, I am thinking of using a medication added to the water instead of medicated food, as I fear other fish in the tank may be infected.
<Ok; as per dosage recommendations>
I previously stated the blue Acara had prolapsed anuses, but I saw one of them defecate and it was not the anus, but their genital papilla I was looking at. However, now this particular Acara has two things protruding from his actual vent, and I cannot tell if they are worms or not. They are short, white, thin, and flat. I don't know if he also has a patch on his abdomen that looks somewhat red.
<If worms, the Prazi should take care of them. Bob Fenner>
Thank you,
Lynnie

<FW to BR>; cycling       7/22/16
Hello all!
I wrote a few months back re: switching my freshwater tank to brackish due to an unexpected arrival, a green spotted puffer.
<Nice fish. Very intelligent.>
I intend to make the tank full saltwater, I even have a few Mollies in with him (4 or so in a 30 gallon).
<Mollies are hit-and-miss with GSPs; do keep the Puffer well fed with a good variety crunchy, filling foods (such as unshelled shrimp, used sparingly because of their thiaminase content, and more frequently things like snails and whole lancefish). Hungry GSPs are more "bitey" than well-fed ones.>
Intend to move them to a 56 gallon.
<Good size.>
My question is this: at what point can I stop worrying about ruining my cycle.
<Good question!>
I did crash it the first time I added salt, then decided to go more slowly.
At what point (I'm at 1.008 sg) are the saltwater bacteria the dominant (or only) beneficial bacteria vs freshwater bacteria?
<It's very difficult to pin down, but around 1.005 at 25 C I'd leave the tank to settle for a few months. Absolutely no reason to move GSPs above that salinity unless you want/need to. Once at SG 1.005, there'll be a balance of salt-adapted and freshwater-adapted bacteria, and you can make gradual changes upwards from that without major issues. Alternatively, as/when the GSPs are ready for full marine conditions, empty and break-down the tank, refill with full seawater, and rebuild using ample live rock, and live rock should "instantly" cycle a full marine aquarium without problems.
Make sense? Cheers, Neale.>

Tilly the turtle; traveling about      7/21/16
Dear Crew,
<Hiya – Darrel here>
I don't actually know whether Tilly is female but she's about 11+ inches long and she has come to live in my acre+ pond in Grass Valley Ca.
<I’d guess so – 11 inches would be HUGE for a male, who average 6 -7 inches>
I 'm actually also not completely sure that the two turtle sightings have been the same red eared slider. My concern is that both sightings with subsequent retrievals to a small seasonal stream that feeds the pond have been on open pasture, now quite dry, and rather distant for a turtle. She/he traveled some 400yards from the pond and I don't know why.
<Turtles may incredible journeys over land to move from one body of water to another, often two bodies that look just alike to us.>
The usual residents of this pasture are small goats and two small dogs who are very interested in this visitor and were the ones to alert me to her presence. The earlier sighting (presuming this is the same turtle) was in Spring but the pasture had been grazed by cows and mowed so the grass was not tall. If this is a egg laying expedition, it would seem to bode ill for the progeny.
<That’s why they lots of eggs. Sheer numbers are on their side>
It was interesting that, when I picked her up, she fairly spewed water. I first thought that she had peed on me but I rather think that she was carrying her own supply of water. Is that right?
<If it came from her tail area, it was pee>
My pond is an ecosystem that I steward and all the denizens therein are of interest to me. I would appreciate any information about my new resident.
<Turtles in the wild are an interesting challenge. Raccoons and other predators are the largest problem, but there is little you could do that the dogs don’t do. Lawn mowers and cattle are a danger, of course, but no practical solution there either.>
<My suggestion is that you see if you can install a sort of basking rock or log in the water away from the edge, although floating water levels are a challenge. Beyond that a sprinkle of high quality Koi pellets once a week to make sure that the pond contains at least some nutrition for the turtle.>
<Another thought… as the dry season approaches I’d be inclined to collect the turtle(s) and give them a temporary home in an artificial pond of some sort, closer to the house, complete with a perimeter fence and basking area, etc. … but then knowing me, I’d make it a big one, keep them there full time and then add to their numbers with others I’d deliberately obtain. The problem with THAT of course, is that you not only have another “herd” to maintain but you’d be 1/3 of the way to becoming what the neighbors would probably call “the crazy turtle lady”>
Thank You, Jacquelyn

Re: Betta eating tail fin?     7/21/16
Hi Bob, thanks for responding so quickly. Finn is in the tank by himself with some silk plants.
<Ahh: I see>
Is it possible he already had the Finrot when I bought him?
<Yes; this is the most likely...>

This is a still image of what he looked like when I brought him home:
<Very nice>
Thank you, Heather
<Welcome! BobF>


Betta eating tail fin? Neale's alternative      7/21/16
Hi,
I have a Betta, Finn, in a 10 gallon heated, filtered, partially planted tank, by himself.
<Nice! Can I congratulate you on keeping this chap so well.>
I have had Finn since Saturday. I think he is a Crowntail. I noticed today that the top part of his tail fin looked shorter than when I got him, but the rest of his fins look great, he explores his tank constantly.
<Cool. Given space these fish are very interesting (and interested) animals.>
I haven't him eat yet, but he showed a little interest in Betta pellets I put in the tank.
<If he's new to the tank, it may take a few days to settle in. Don't bother feeding him if that's the case, and remove uneaten food. But if he's been in the tank a couple days, then there may be an issue. Am I correct in suggesting the tail fin has become raggedy? That can mean two things. First option, he's getting trapped on an over-strong filter. As he pulls away from the filter inlet his fins get torn. Turning the filter power right down can help. Air-powered filters are best for Bettas and generally work fine without fuss. But if this is a small internal canister filter or hang-on-the-back filter, then turning down the suction will be required because these suck rather too hard for Bettas. If you can't tweak the flow rate, it might be possible to jury-rig some sort of plastic mesh an inch or so away the filter inlet to keep the Betta from getting too close. Second option is Finrot, usually associated with water quality. If ammonia or nitrite aren't zero, there's a high risk of Finrot. Finrot typically results in white or pink patches on the raggedy fins as evidence of dead tissue and inflamed blood vessels. Medicate as per Finrot using commercial medications, but also do daily water changes (before adding that day's medicine) of around 25%. Don't feed while ammonia or nitrite aren't zero.
It takes about 6 weeks to cycle a brand new filter. In 10 gallons your Betta should sail through the cycling process, but you will need to do regular water changes. I'd suggest 25% water changes every day for the first couple weeks, then every couple days thereafter.>
Should I step up water changes to every week instead of every two and that will take care of it, or is this possibly the beginning of something and I should get medicine?
<See above; if Finrot, medicate; if not Finrot, then frequent water changes should fix things, and the fins will heal naturally.>
Thank you! Heather
<Welcome, Neale.>

Lethargic decorator crab      7/20/16
Hello! I am a beginner saltwater enthusiast. My son gave me a 30 gallon saltwater tank for my birthday and we are building the tank together.
<A great project>
Currently we have live rock, 2 clown fish, orchid dotty, flame angel,
<Yikes; this needs more room>
lawnmower blenny,
<And this fish in time>
2 emerald crabs
<Keep your eyes on these; fish-eaters>
and recently added a decorator crab.
<This too>
He doesn't move around the tank but stays huddled up under a rock all the time.
<Pretty much what they do in the wild during the day-light hours>
After 2 days of no movement I thought he was dead and tried to remove him from the tank but he started moving lol. Well it's been another 2 days and he still hasn't left that spot. I read that decorator crabs are nocturnal and started turning the light off at night, but still he doesn't move! My water test is ok, the other fish and crabs are doing well and are active. Am I doing something wrong or should I be looking for some kind of illness or parasite on this little guy?
<Do you dose iodide-ate? You need to w/ these decapods. See WWM re>
Please let me know what I can do to get this little guy up and moving around the tank. Thank you��
<The I2 may do it on its own, otherwise... time going by; practice feeding by day. Bob Fenner>
Re: Lethargic decorator crab      7/20/16

So I need to provide iodine supplements for the crabs and then provide a food source high in iodine for them?
<One or the other. Likely best to use a commercial prep: http://www.seachem.com/reef-iodide.php
BobF>

Betta eating tail fin?       7/20/16
Hi,
I have a Betta, Finn, in a 10 gallon heated, filtered, partially planted tank, by himself. I have had Finn since Saturday. I think he is a Crowntail. I noticed today that the top part of his tail fin looked shorter than when I got him, but the rest of his fins look great, he explores his tank constantly.
<The tail is damaged... from what? What other livestock is in this system?>
I haven't him eat yet, but he showed a little interest in Betta pellets I put in the tank. Should I step up water changes to every week instead of every two and that will take care of it, or is this possibly the beginning of something and I should get medicine?
<I would treat as per Finrot. Please read here re:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/FWFinRot.htm
Thank you! Heather
Here he is:
<Well; Betta's will chase their own tails, and some can/do rot off if physically damaged... but, this occurred so quickly... am thinking some other organism is involved. Bob Fenner>

Old red Severum wont eat! :( Bob's try       7/19/16
Hi,
<Em; in future and for browsers, please post large file videos (13 plus megs) on YouTube, and send along the link/URL. We have limited email space>
I have a big problem with my 7 1/2 years old Severum. I don't know if it is his old age or a disease but he has something in its mouth and I never see that before. It looks like a part of his anatomy..its very weird.. i showed a video to the pet shop's owner and he doest even know what it is.
<I see nothing in the video that is unusual to Cichlid buccal anatomy>
He seems interested by the food but he doesn't eat. When he tried, he spit it out right away. The problem started 5 days ago. The water quality is fine, other fish are fine as well, the temperature is at 24℃ and the PH is at 7.0. He lives in a 55gallons with a green Severum, angelfish and a ghost knife.
There is a video (sorry, its really short, but longer than that the file is too big) of my Severum attach to this email.
I hope you could help me because i love my Severum so much :( ! (Sorry for my English, it is not my first language)
Emilie
<I would not give up on this fish... They do at times go on feeding strikes; and can go without food at this size for a few weeks. Do try a large water change or two (25% of volume of the system), lowering the temp. a C, and a variety of foods. Bob Fenner>
Old red Severum wont eat! :( Neale's go       7/19/16

Hi,
I have a big problem with my 7 1/2 years old Severum. I don't know if it is his old age or a disease but he has something in its mouth and I never see that before. It looks like a part of his anatomy..its very weird.. i showed a video to the pet shop's owner and he doest even know what it is.
<Doesn't look particularly odd, perhaps a bit of loose skin.>
He seems interested by the food but he doesn't eat. When he tried, he spit it out right away. The problem started 5 days ago. The water quality is fine, other fish are fine as well, the temperature is at 24℃ and the PH is at 7.0. He lives in a 55gallons with a green Severum, angelfish and a ghost knife.
<I would starve this fish for a few days, then offer something very tempting, like an earthworm. I'd also treat as per constipation; see here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/gldfshmalnut.htm
Epsom salt at 1-3 teaspoons per 5 gallons/20 litres usually helps. Severums are largely herbivores in the wild, and if only fed flake, pellets and meaty foods they are prone to digestive tract problems.>
There is a video (sorry, its really short, but longer than that the file is too big) of my Severum attach to this email. I hope you could help me because i love my Severum so much :( ! (Sorry for my English, it is not my first language)
Emilie
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

Re: feeding Dojo loach       7/19/16
thank you for answering my question.
<Welcome.>
I have provided a pan of fine gravel with a large tunnel for dessert creatures on top of the gravel, and am placing sinking food in there for the loach or loaches, if there is more than one.
<Sounds worth a shot!>
Hopefully he, they will find the treat just for loaches. C
<Quite so. Otherwise commercial catfish or trout pellets will work well as staples for these fish, alongside the algae and snails that will grow in the pond naturally. Cheers, Neale.>

Tips on stocking, tank size and feeding       Neale's input       7/19/16
Hello there crew, just thought I could get some nice tips regarding, as said in the email subject, stocking, tank size and feeding.
<Understood.>
I got kinda a tad bit overexcited with bichirs and oddballs and ended up overstocking, I'm working to correct it though, I currently have a 250 liters, 100x50x50cm tank (in imperial units, 66 gallons, 40x20x20in), at 27ºC(80ºF), a 70 liters (20g) sump, and have the following fish:
1 x Xenomystus nigri 15cm(6")
3 x Erpetoichthys calabaricus (Will still get them at the LFS so no accurate size, around 20cm(8") I believe)
2 x Polypterus delhezi 17cm(7") and 15cm(6")
1 x Polypterus palmas palmas 20cm(8") (With a friend, still not home)
2 x Polypterus senegalus 18cm(+7") and 13cm(5")
1 x Polypterus senegalus var. Albino 9cm(+3")
1 x Parrot x Texas sb hybrid 15cm(6")
1 x Heros Severum var. Gold 9cm(+3")
1 x Ctenolucius hujeta 13cm(+4")
Yeah, I kinda screwed up in a mindless stocking...
<Well, if not mindless then certainly ambitious! There's a lot of livestock here. I wouldn't have problems keeping 4-5 smaller Bichirs in a tank this size (things like P. palmas and P. senegalus that get to about 30-35 cm). But Polypterus delhezi gets a fair bit bigger and stockier, and on top of that you have a whole bunch of cichlids which will produce a lot of mess and become very prone to high nitrate levels as they age. Severums for example get massive, easily 20 cm/8 inches, and hybrid cichlids could get any size between the two parents. Finally, while Ctenolucius hujeta is a lovely fish, and perfectly suitable for a tank this size, it's a gregarious species and easily spooked by boisterous fish. When alarmed it's prone to damaging itself on the hood or against the glass.>
I am trading the Hybrid for the Palmas, and will relocate the Hujeta (will talk about him later on). So, as one might think, I will need a bigger tank as I am most definitely not willing to get rid of either the Polypterids or the Xenomystus, as for the Severum, I am thinking of keeping him in till he creates trouble with the other fish. So I'd like suggestions on a new tank size for my little oddballs. That was the tank size part of it.
<Understood. In all honest you're going to want something upwards of 400 litres, and the more the better. You could moderate that demand by using, say, a 350 litre tank and adding a 50 litre sump to increase water volume. This would provide good water quality, but the territorial aspect is hard to predict. The smaller Bichirs are usually very well behaved given space, ditto the Xenomystus and the Ctenolucius hujeta. The cichlids are the jokers in this particular pack though...>
Now, onto feeding, it is only related for the ropes, I'll have them properly quarantined in a 120 liters (30g) tank with filter sponge, heater and the tank will be a bare bottom (of course, with tight fitting lids), initially I plan on trying to get them eat thawed shrimp, if they do not have interest, I can get mealworms and peanut beetle larvae, and will try those, if not them, shrimps, then guppy/convict fry... wanted some hints on what to feed them and how to try at least to wean them to eat pellets or flakes, maybe gel kind of food, I can make some with high-ish protein contents with fish, shrimp, Spirulina and soy protein(in less than 20% of its composition) with a garlic for immunological system, peas for digestive system and spinach for vitamins, also currently I feed everyone of the tank with thawed shrimp and Cobalt Discus Hans flake food (as I have at least a pound leftover from the time I had discus). That settle feeding tips.
<Erpetoichthys are difficult to keep adequately fed in mixed species set-ups alongside other bottom feeders. They're shy, nocturnal, and in the wild forage in waterlogged grass and other habitats where they can slither about hunting insect larvae and worms. This is very difficult to mimic! Frozen foods are pretty much the only staples on the cards, bloodworms and krill to start with, as well as tiny bits of white fish fillet and cockles. Prawns and mussels are good treats but poor staples because of their thiaminase content. The other Bichirs eat similar foods, but are more pushy and able to take bigger pieces, so combining them can be a challenge.>
Now, remember the Hujeta ? I plan to relocate him to a 120 liters tank (30g), thought of getting some denisoni barbs or glass catfish with him, and some Corys, would appreciate some thoughts unto this. Also, when the bigger tank comes in, they might very likely go for the 250 liters (66g) tank, whilst the 120 liters (30g) might become a planted tank with some ember tetras, neon, tetra serpae and maybe rummy nose tetra, also Corys I guess.
<I've kept Ctenolucius hujeta in 180 litres successfully, but I'd recommend more. Do not combine with Serpae Tetras or other fin nippers! Ctenolucius hujeta are much too easily nipped and stressed. But they're excellent alongside non-aggressive schooling fish that are too big to be seen as prey, Giant Danios for example.>
Also, as the Hujeta, Hybrid and in the future, the Severum all go away, I plan to make the principal tank (when the principal is the new, bigger tank) a all African tank, getting some African plants and maybe some more African fish, very possibly, Congo tetras or African butterfly fish, I'd like some thoughts into that. And that settle stocking.
<Do think some reading required here...
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/fwlvstksel.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/africanset-upfaqs.htm
Much written about this on WWM.>
Also, no needs to worry for the fish in the principal tank, so far there have been no noticeable fights (with the exception of some chasing around by the hybrid to the knife) and I handle its maintenance quite well with a tad bit over 50% water changes weekly.
<Understood. Xenomystus becomes grumpier (more territorial) with age and yours is still a tiddler. Personally, I don't think many/any oddballs mix well with cichlids generally. Cichlids are too disruptive and territorial to bring the best out of Bichirs, Knifefish, etc.>
You all should have seen that I kinda dislike imperial units, so some number are rounded up, and when talking about fish size, some had a + before the imperial size, like the bigger common senegalus, 18cm(+7"), that would mean he is bigger than 7" whilst smaller than 8", also my keyboard has been quite buggy, I will proofread, but I apologise any typo, be it a grammatical error of mine or a faulty keyboard. Also don't really know why, but I kinda feel I should tell you all that the small albino senegalus is in a floating fish hatchery thing, but bigger than most industrial ones, I damn will not trust him with the bigger delhezi, bugger ate a 10cm(4") senegalus and a 9cm(+3") pictus catfish, I don't even know how the hell he ate the pictus without puncturing his stomach...
<I wonder if you actually have a P. senegalus and not something else, mis-sold? Does its lower jaw protrude beyond the upper jaw? Good sign it's a fish-eating Bichir. Of course all Bichirs can, do consume any prey they can swallow. So while P. senegalus is peaceful, it's still a predator, just not a very territorial one.>
Well that's all, I hope I may receive polite answers and will likely keep you all updated.
<Hope this will do! Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Tips on stocking, tank size and feeding       7/19/16

Thanks for the answers Bob and Neale, they were just about what I needed;
First and foremost I am getting rid of the cichlids, a friend will come to get the hybrid either Wednesday or Thursday, the Severum will wait a bit though, but so far he has been a role model denizen so I am fine with him for a bit longer, I have been thinking of something along the lines of a 160x60x40cm(64x24x16in) being a 385 litres tank (roughly 100g), with a
100x35x35(40x14x14) 120 litres (30g) sump, also I tend to make DIY fluidized sand bend filters and reactors, along with a nice amount of common ceramic media, so they will be fine there, as far as water chemistry is to be considered, and as so far I have been getting no fights they should settle well in the new tank, when I get it.
<Let's hope!>
As for the ropes, I'll just try between thawed shrimp pieces,
<Keep these a minority part of the diet, less than 25%; shrimp and mussel are really bad foods if fed too frequently, unless of course you combine them with a (marine) aquarium vitamin supplement.>
homemade gel food, mealworms and frozen brine shrimp, I might end up hand feeding him, but as the hybrid has been a real arse, I already have to hand feed the bichirs when I get them shrimp (or else the fat bastard will eat it nearly all himself...) so I should be fine with keeping them well fed, my concern with the ropes is mostly to have them eating something I can provide as staple.
<Understood.>
For the Hujeta housing, I believe there was a misunderstanding, I am thinking of moving him to the 120 litres (30g) tank I own, temporarily, when I get the new tank for the bichirs, he and his company (very likely a school of slender Hemiodus (Hemiodus gracilis) and some Corys) will be in the 250 litres,
<Hemiodus can be good companions for Ctenolucius, assuming they're big enough not to be eaten. Would always recommend deep-bodied characins as "safer" companions.>
whilst the tetras I talked about (ember, serpae, neon and rummy nose) would be in the 30g all by themselves, I just need to take out one or two species from the mix to make nice schools in the tank, I am thinking of keeping the ember with either the serpae or rummy nose, very likely some of both species...
<Fine.>
And finally for the African fish I think of getting for the future new tank (as in, I'll get them ONLY when I get the new tank) I am thinking of:
1 x Pantodon buchholzi, African butterfly fish
1 or 2 x Ctenopoma acutirostre, Leopard gourami
3-4 pairs x Phenacogrammus interruptus, Congo tetra
<These three should work well, but do review the care and feeding of Pantodon, especially. It easily starves to death and it doesn't like strong currents.>
That's all for my plans, when something happens (very likely when I get the ropes) I'll contact you all again;
With the best regards, and a proofread email, Gustavo.
<Most welcome, Neale.>
Re: Tips on stocking, tank size and feeding       7/19/16

Hi there, again, I kinda forgot talking about two subjects;
I was also thinking about getting myself some sort of Synodontis, but as much as I'd like to, I think I won't be able to, due to the fact that locally I find only two species, S. lucipinnis (far too small, as proven by the old pictus) and S. eupterus, which has a good enough size, but I believe might be too much or that he would end up stealing hiding spots from the Bichirs...
<Synodontis work well with Bichirs; Synodontis nigriventris works fine with Polypterus palmas and other species in that size bracket. The bigger Bichirs, sure, go with slightly bigger Synodontis. S. eupterus is a "gentle giant", and good with most non-aggressive fish.>
Also, Neale asked if I my Senegal wasn't misidentified, I am pretty sure he isn't, mostly because the bugger that ate a pictus was the delhezi, and yes, all my bichirs are upper jaw species, though I am very curious as to which lower jaw Polypterid might look just like a Senegal...
<Usually the bigger, broader head and protruding lower jaw make these more piscivorous Bichirs obvious. Hybrids are common nowadays, sadly, and such fish may be unpredictable. Don't discount scavenging, either. Bichirs can take an ailing catfish that might otherwise be safe. They can also be motivated by hunger -- reflect on the range and quality of food being offered, and make changes as necessary.>
With all the best regards, again, Gustavo.
<Cheers, Neale.>

I have a 500 gallon salt water tank with bio balls and live rock.       7/19/16
The live rock is inside the tank and some of it is in the sump. I have constant nitrate problems so I am wanting to change over to all live rock in my tank and sump.
<Mmmm; I wouldn't do this. Instead am a fan of increasing denitrification... via a DSB... best in a plumbed-in sump/refugium...
Macro-algal culture, RDP... READ here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/nitratennr.htm
and the linked files at top>
I had to raise the water level in the sump a couple of weeks ago to cover the live rock which I added to the sump. Now the water level in the sump covers the bio balls where it previously dripped on the bio balls. Does the effectiveness of the bio balls change when the bio balls are submerged instead of being dripped on. I'm trying to find out why I have a spike in ammonia.
<Can; yes.... "drowns" nitrifiers initially>
Thank you
<The reading. Bob Fenner>

Naso Tang hole like symptoms on head.       7/19/16
Hello,
<Hola!>
I have being in the hobby for more than 20 years, and now I have run into this problem which I have never seen before. I wonder if you can help me diagnose what is going on here. I have search the internet where I found a discussion but nothing much said as the folks didn't seem to know either.
The owner of that fish reported that the fish was swimming and eating well but it died a few weeks later. The information was from 2003.
<I see>
I have this Naso tang in my QT tank I purchase the fish about 5 weeks ago.
The last 3 weeks I have notice these holds <holes> showing up. They seem to calcify
turn white in appearance and then they return, first red and then how you see them in the picture. The fish is eating well Pellets (Spectrum Thera A+), Rods Original Blend, Romaine Lettuce.
<I'd skip this last... no nutritional value and way too often a load of nitrate and... please do read re Naso lituratus foods, feeding on WWM>
The tank is 55 gal. The parameters are all fine. I have a flame angel and a purple tang along with her and they all get along. The flame and the purple are doing fine no symptoms.
Thanks for looking into this
Pedro
<All on one side.... Am going with this being a mechanical injury... healing from a trauma. I would not allow this to dissuade my placing this fish in the main/display. Should heal in time. Bob Fenner>

Re: Naso Tang hole like symptoms on head.       7/19/16
Thank you for the quick reply. So you do not think is some kind of bacteria or parasite. She also shows some signs on her other side but not as pronounce. Also see forehead. check this picture.
Thanks again.
<Read through here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/nasodisfaqs.htm
and ll the FAQs files above. B>

Illegal in Hawaii or not?     BTAs       7/19/16
Hello guys! Greetings from Honolulu Hawaii. I've had a burning question in my mind for a few months now. I have a wonderful FOWLR tank at the moment, with two lovely feather dusters and a Hawaiian sand anemone. I also have
two mated clowns. However, what i really desire in this tank is to have some Bubbletip anemones.
<Let's stop right here. As far as I'm aware no Cnidarians (the phylum of stinging-celled animals that include corals... and anemones) are allowed to be imported into Hawai'i'. There are some native species, but this does not include Entacmaea>
The Hawaiian Sand anemone isn't something the clowns want to host with,
<There are no symbiotic Actinarians, nor Clownfishes... in HI>

and my friend is planning to take it. However, I've heard that Yes, bubble tip anemones ARE illegal in Honolulu...But
then, some are saying its possible to get them, and some people have them.
So would you guys mind clarifying for me as i keep getting mixed results?
Is it possible to have any bubble tip anemones in Honolulu? If so, what is the best way to obtain them?
<Not legally>
Another thing :) I've heard that its possible to collect some nice Zoas here, however, I've no idea where to go, nor how to frag them... I've searched it up quite a bit, but haven't been very successful at finding anything. Any suggestions?
<The Division of Aquatic Resources. There are some native species... can be scraped from rock... tied down to new settings>
Thanks so much! :)
Tom
<Welcome Bob Fenner>

Clown Tang; stkg.        7/19/16
Greetings, I have a 9 month old 450 gallon mixed reef. 3 still fairly small Yellow Tangs, and just added from QT a Desjardini Sailfin Tang with no compatibility issues. There is a 3 inch Clown Tang available and wanted opinions on weather this could work.
<Acanthurus... wait I see below. I would NOT place a A. lineatus w/ the Sohal>
I have a 9 year old monster A. Sohal in my other tank (FOWLR) and I've never chanced adding another Surgeon, as we all know the reputation.
However, it is my favorite fish and would love to try its equally beautiful close relative in my reef. This would certainly be the last Tang I would add. Thanks for your time, I love the site.
Kirk
<In a separate system I give you good odds here. DO NOT place the two together however. Bob Fenner>

Dosing Ca and KH       7/19/16
Thank you for taking this email.
<Sure>
I have a 110g reef tank of 3 months. Which is about my level of expertise, sorry. The tank has done well with many frags of coral, some fairly large.
A good number of inverts and a few fish. I use the Apex Dos system to do five 1g water changes per week. 2 days to get the replenishment tank filled and dialed in with salinity and temp. I currently dose Ca and KH manually every other day.
<Good. Am a fan of SeaChem's Fusion products, but Bob Starks, Sprung's copies C-Bal will do>
I maintain at the bottom of the spectrum...9/360. I am trying to work it up slowly,
<Also bueno>
I got behind do to ignorance. All other levels Ammonia,Nitrate,Nitrite, PH are 0. I average ph 8.3, temp 76, salinity 1.022-1.024.
<Mmm; I'd raise this to 1.025-6>
I may eventually buy another Dos, but in the meantime....could I dose up the levels of my replenishment tank(currently using Instant Ocean Reef Crystals which keep levels at 11/390) to the upper edges of the spectrum, say 12/420?
<Okay>
Given that depletion rate in the tank might bring it back to mid levels.
Sorry if this is a dumb question.
Thanks,
Ken Birgfeld
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

all fish died       7/18/16
Good evening gents,
I have the weirdest thing happen to a tank of one of my clients. Saturday we service this mans tank and feed the fish as he is away on a holiday and his wife is home alone but does not like to feed the fish for some reason. Anyway we service the tank and test Nitrates and salt levels as we most of the time do with our service (twice a week in this case) and all norms seem ok (Nitrates seem to have always been hanging around 20) but only a few elegances in his tank and they all seem to be doing very well.
<Catalaphyllia/s... very stinging... >

The tank is L1m x W1m x H1.6m temperature set at 25.5C He houses 1 small blue face 7 yellow tangs 4 scopa tangs 1 yellow angel 1 key hole angel and 1 coral beauty. quite some Nassarius snails in his shallow sand bed and 3 urchins and some turbo snails. Sunday evening around 6pm I get a massage from him that his wife called him and all fish are death???
<Yeeikes!>
So we rush over and his tank looked like a battle field fish all over the floor of the tank non of them hide or nothing it seemed like they just fell out of the air? We had a timer installed on top of his tank and saw the amount of fish food of the tank that assembled about 2 feeding s they had missed so tells me they must have died around 9-11am as first feed of the day is set at 8am and is a bit larger in volume. When asked the wife when they died she said she didn't know as she left the house there at about 11pm (fish were still ok according to her at that time) and only came home just before I got there. So all fish must have died between 11pm and 9 am all snails and all corals are doing A ok full extended and snails had a feast on all death fish around them. we tested the water right away on Ammonia, Nitrates, Salt, temp, Ph and all norms were ok only Nitrates now elevated to 60 (should not be that deadly is it???)
<No; this is/was an after affect... the cause different, the NO3 the result of death>

and might just have been caused to all the death in the tank I presume. For some reason I think the wife had something to do with it as from past we know she is not into those fish and would rather have them out of the house......The death fish did not display any kind of parasite or anything in the past and even when death no marking on them at all. see pictures attached. What did strike me was though is that Saturday we cleaned out all skimmer cups and when we got there Sunday they looked like Picture 1 shows you. We cleaned them out again and today same thing skimmer had been
serious overworking/ see picture 2Could fish have been poisoned by something not affecting the snails and corals or what else could have caused this.
<Mmm; yes>
I experienced Velvet and Ich outbreaks previous but does not kill this instant in my idea
<No; agreed. This is/was either a sudden poisoning effect or a dire environmental one. My bet is on the former>
(velvet sure fast but not this fast and is still a bit visible after death) and in my experience sick fish die in the rocks most of the time as they get lethargic before the pass away? Anything you can add? I am baffled and would like to solve this mystery or at ;east know what I have on this guys wife if ..... but I can not imagine anyone would??Dirk
<This reads like a classical cascade event... the maintenance of the
skimmers et al., triggering an overt reaction by the Elegance Corals; they chemically (allelopathically) reacting, causing other corals to do so in return.... Please read here re:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/toxictkendof.htm
and here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/elegcorcompfaqs.htm
and here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/CnidComp6.htm
and the linked files above. A few things that can be done now and going forward... as you'll see in your reading.
Bob Fenner>
Fw: all fish died       7/18/16

sorry guys forgot the picture
<Mmm; my analysis of possibilities, likelihood is reinforced. BobF>



Sunday                                                                                   Monday

Tips on stocking, tank size and feeding; FW        7/18/16
Hello there crew, just tough I could get some nice tips regarding, as said in the email subject, stocking, tank size and feeding.
I got kinda a tad bit overexcited with bichirs and oddballs and ended up overstocking,
<Ah, very common>
I'm working to correct it though, I currently have a 250 liters, 100x50x50cm tank (in imperial units, 66 gallons, 40x20x20in), at 27ºC(80ºF), a 70 liters (20g) sump, and have the following fish:
1 x Xenomystus nigri 15cm(6")
3 x Erpetoichthys calabaricus (Will still get them at the LFS so no accurate size, around 20cm(8") I believe)
2 x Polypterus delhezi 17cm(7") and 15cm(6")
1 x Polypterus palmas palmas 20cm(8") (With a friend, still not home)
2 x Polypterus senegalus 18cm(+7") and 13cm(5")
1 x Polypterus senegalus var. Albino 9cm(+3")
1 x Parrot x Texas sb hybrid 15cm(6")
1 x Heros Severum var. Gold 9cm(+3")
1 x Ctenolucius hujeta 13cm(+4")
<Eeyikes! Need to thin the herd here; will become much more evident w/ time, growth... and TROUBLE should there be filter gear or electrical failure>

Yeah, I kinda screwed up in a mindless stocking... I am trading the Hybrid for the Palmas, and will relocate the Hujeta (will talk about him later on). So, as one might think, I will need a bigger tank as I am most definitely not willing to get rid of either the Polypterids or the Xenomystus, as for the Severum, I am thinking of keeping him in till he creates trouble with the other fish. So I'd like suggestions on a new tank size for my little oddballs. That was the tank size part of it.
<The usual here: The bigger the better. At least a volume of what you currently have>
Now, onto feeding, it is only related for the ropes, I'll have them properly quarantined in a 120 liters (30g) tank with filter sponge, heater and the tank will be a bare bottom (of course, with tight fitting lids), initially I plan on trying to get them eat thawed shrimp, if they do not have interest, I can get mealworms and peanut beetle larvae, and will try those, if not them, shrimps, then guppy/convict fry... wanted some hints on what to feed them and how to try at least to wean them to eat pellets or flakes, maybe gel kind of food,
<Not likely dried food will be taken. DO READ here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/RopefishFdgF.htm
I can make some with high-ish protein contents with fish, shrimp, Spirulina and soy protein(in less than 20% of its composition) with a garlic for immunological system, peas for digestive system and spinach for vitamins, also currently I feed everyone of the tank with thawed shrimp and Cobalt Discus Hans flake food (as I have at least a pound leftover from the time I had discus). That settle feeding tips.
Now, remember the Hujeta ? I plan to relocate him to a 120 liters tank (30g), thought of getting some denisoni barbs or glass catfish with him, and some Corys, would appreciate some thoughts unto this.
<?! Needs MUCH more room. READ here: http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/characins/FreshwaterBarracuda.php
Also, when the bigger tank comes in, they might very likely go for the 250 liters (66g) tank, whilst the 120 liters (30g) might become a planted tank with some ember tetras, neon, tetra serpae and maybe rummy nose tetra, also Corys I guess.
<More room than this...>
Also, as the Hujeta, Hybrid and in the future, the Severum all go away, I plan to make the principal tank (when the principal is the new, bigger tank) a all African tank, getting some African plants and maybe some more African fish, very possibly, Congo tetras or African butterfly fish, I'd like some thoughts into that. And that settle stocking.
<See WWM re African biotopes>

Also, no needs to worry for the fish in the principal tank, so far there have been no noticeable fights (with the exception of some chasing around by the hybrid to the knife) and I handle its maintenance quite well with a tad bit over 50% water changes weekly.
You all should have seen that I kinda dislike imperial units, so some number are rounded up, and when talking about fish size, some had a + before the imperial size, like the bigger common senegalus, 18cm(+7"), that would mean he is bigger than 7" whilst smaller than 8", also my keyboard has been quite buggy, I will proofread, but I apologise any typo, be it a grammatical error of mine or a faulty keyboard.
<I appreciate this consideration; thank you>
Also don't really know why, but I kinda feel I should tell you all that the small albino senegalus is in a floating fish hatchery thing, but bigger than most industrial ones, I damn will not trust him with the bigger delhezi, bugger ate a 10cm(4") senegalus and a 9cm(+3") pictus catfish, I don't even know how the hell he ate the pictus without puncturing his stomach.....
Well that's all, I hope I may receive polite answers and will likely keep you all updated.
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>


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Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
  • Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:, References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography, Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public Aquariums,

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