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Bodianus mesothorax (Bloch & Schneider
1801), the Coral or Splitlevel Hogfish is much like the Axil Spot in size,
temperament, and appearance as an adult (1). To about ten inches overall
length. Indo-west Pacific.
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Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Carole Stueben, Earl Clay III, Darrel Barton,
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner
| PLEASE: Write reviews of my works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF
Re: In a panic... 4/29/16
I don't understand. You said in your first response that the cryptosporidium
could be causing my loaches constipation and swim bladder problems?
<Ah no; sorry for the confusion. I meant it could cause
gastro-intestinal issues in you/humans. This genus is found, has been cultured
from several species of fishes.... more likely akin to Escherichia in humans.
Re: In a panic...
Ok, thank you.
Porcupine Puffer Is In Bad Shape... nutr., plus poss. env.
Thank you for taking the time to read this, I'll start with the tank and
55G tank with 0's on all levels
<Mmm; not likely zip NO3>
78 Degrees50lbs of live rock1 damsel2 clowns2 small choc chip stars
<Not aquarium hardy>
1 coral beauty1 pseudo chromisand finally our 4inch porcupine puffer (I
know the tank is small, we have had him since he was 2inches, he will be
getting an upgrade to a 120 in about 6-8 months, he has had no problems
this tank so far)
About 6 months into owning this dude, we realized he shouldn't
be eating only krill.
We got him on mysis, scallops, squid, pellets, and then the occasional
krill. Recently, his appetite got a lot weaker, and now he isn't eating
at all. He has developed a hump on his back, and it doesn't feel hard,
but I don't think it's air either. He has a hard time swimming,
occasionally flipping or thrashing slightly. Today is the first day in
1.5 weeks he has even eaten a single bite. I held him gently in my hand,
and literally placed mysis in his mouth. He sucked it in, but spit
almost all of it back out. He only nibbled on the krill I tried. I don't
know if it's a parasite or what, a LFS says it's possibly an internal
injury and we might just have to let him work it out. What can I do, we
really love this guy and can't bear to lose him.
<I'd be supplementing (soaking) foods and adding directly to water... a
vitamin/HUFA mix... MicroVit, Selcon... these also acts as appetite
stimulants. Search the terms and READ on WWM re. Bob Fenner>
Re: can you identify this disease please? Not reading...
Hi Bob, Thank you for the quick reply
so your thinking that one of the leather poisoned my tank?
<That and/or the Shroom>
Rather than the fish introducing some parasite?
<Not a fish parasite... the etiology is all wrong>
The fish introduced was a Centropyge heraldi. Both leather come from a
system I have at home and have been in that tank there for over a year and
have been doing well.
<Not with new... DO THE READING>
By the way both leathers look still ok. Should I take them out? Can 2 small
(each about 5-6" in diameter) colonies poison an entire system this large?
<Don't write: READ!>
Re: can you identify this disease please? Still not reading....
Hi Bob, also to my previous reply we made a picture of one of the
butterflies who showed the behavior most fishes show just before they die
just sitting on a rock with lack of movement the red spots on the picture we
were not able to see on any of the other fish previous (though they were
colored and much smaller) maybe this picture helps diagnosing?
<Can't tell anything definitively... Same answer. B>
Re: can you identify this disease please? Not able to read?
Hi Rob, some more pictures this time from a suffering Butterfly we have in
<... mate; IF you won't read I/we can't help you. Your fishes are
almost certainly suffering from Cnidarian allelopathy; secondarily from?
This latter cannot be ascertained w/o sampling and microscopic examination.
STOP WRITING AND READ>
seem to not swim around though when trying to catch him he is still very
lively but will be a goner for sure tomorrow. He seem to come as close to
the glass as possible as he was saying take picture and get this diagnosed
hope they are more clear and can help you better to help me. Wonder what all
the red spots are all around his skin. Again here skin looks dry and
Stocking? BGA.... Using WWM
I have a 55gallon saltwater tank. Protein skimmer Canister
filter (no sump)
38.5 lbs live rock2" sand bed
2 ocellaris clowns1 Anemone (bubble rose tip)still waiting on clowns to
move in. Been 3 months1 Banggai cardinal 1 fire fish (orange goby)3
peppermint shrimp100 or so snails(Cerith,Nerite,Nass) 1 TurboI added 1
scarlet not sure if it is still alive tiny when I added have not seen it
I was wanting to add a lawnmower blenny, a royal gramma and a
<Too small for this Centropyge. See WWM re other Pomacanthid choices>
I am fighting red slime.
<READ on WWM re Cyanobacteria or the book I have in print on Amazon>
I do water changes, cut lights down, cut food in half (I feed half a
cube once a day)kinda aggressive at feeding. And moved flow. Still red
slime. I was told with a new tank this is a phase and will get better.
My tank is 7 months old.
Sent from Yahoo Mail on Android
<Read. Bob Fenner>
Do algae wafers promote good algae growth?
<? They're low-protein food. Bob Fenner>
Re: weather loach problem
Thanks for your response, I also have one that has the same except it
has attacked the face destroying the feelers on one side and half the
<Glad to offer what help I can... if the folks at Loaches.com come up
with a better diagnosis, let me know! Cheers, Neale.>
nem? I.D. 4/28/16
I was wondering if someone could help me identify this animal. It appears to
be some sort of rock flower nem, but is missing some of the normal features
of a rock flower nem.
<Mmm; not this. Almost look like Zoanthids, but more than two rows of
They are about 1" across, do not appear to sting the corals around them, do
not seem to "walk" around, and do actively feed on mysis shrimp and other
If you could help me identify them, then I can be sure that I'm giving them
proper care. Thank you very much for your time!
<These appear to be some sort of Anemonia sp. to me. Bob Fenner>
Re: Two mated pairs of clownfish
Hello, Bob. I want to thank you for your input and good advice regarding
my clownfish. I did bring home the pair from the office in December 2015
and for the first several weeks the two females had a pretty good
competition going on with a lot of splashing and glaring while the
little husbands stayed home (The pair from the office moved into a large
coral near the opposite end of the tank from the resident pair). Nobody
was injured and they are all doing well now. The office clown female
still approaches the home female's territory but they just posture at
each other and then go back home. I am very glad I decided to give it a
<Thank you for your report Kath. BobF>
can you identify this disease please? ... Large reef,
poisoned via Cnidarian allelopathy 4/28/16
ok the situation is this.
The tank is a 1700 gallon system with loads of fish in it a few
All parameters are good with NItrates just showing a bit high at 40
<This is more than a bit high... by about twice. See/READ on WWM re NO3
but should be no issue looking at whats in the tank I believe.
The tank has been doing very well for about a year now (for detailed
fish list you can check out the build thread of this tank here in RC)
<Don't do bb's. Worse than a waste of time almost always>
So all fish doing really well and eat like crazy look fat and all.
Friday I have a batch of dwarf angels for another tank and see I have
one in overtall
for that tank so add 1 yellow angel
<What species is this... a Centropyge? flavissimus?>
to the large tank. on Saturday we add 1 leather finger coral and
one leather mushroom to the tank
<.... how were these acclimated? Have you read my SOP re on WWM? Need to
be introduced over weeks time...>
and all is still good. Now Monday morning with feeding we see
fish are not feeding as normal and we see one of our powder blues stuck
on the overflow ready to die so at further inspection we see
many more fish struggle.
<Allelopathy... a cascade reaction... likely drop in ORP, DO...
change water, add GAC, Chemipure, PolyFilter... IF necessary move all
the fishes elsewhere>
Tuesday we remove 2 death butterflies, 2 death Anthias Wednesday we see
most tangs start to feed again though still reluctant and much more
skittish as they used to be hiding in the rock all the time only 1 death
clownfish seen. No today Thursday we film the clip of a clownfish
struggling and have 1 more Anthias lying on the floor as death though
when caught it was still alive though we removed it anyway as it is
On non of the fish any sign of Ick or any other skin lesions I think.
The clown in the clip as maybe not really view able the skin looks like
dry and rimpled and seem to have melted skin on his back fin?? in the
clip which is filmed on the side (so top of tank is actually left side
of the view) the clown goes up to the surface to let himself sink back
down over and over again. All other fish seem to be behaving the same as
last few days feeding reluctant and still hiding all the time??
and the linked files above, NOW>
what could be wrong
and what disease did I clearly introduce into this system though the
Yellow Angel (can a disease from 1 dwarf angel small size even spread
or through the rocks of the coral though they came from my own system
and have been doing in an ok tank for over 3 years now.
anyone can help so we know what to treat tank with if treatable? large
size of the tank does not help the situation here for sure I think
<Keep reading... and act accordingly. Bob Fenner>
Re: Juvenile Uarus hex? 4/27/16
Hello Bob, I will try to find somebody to do the test with microscope.
Should I continue with Metro for now??
<See our first email: No; kills fish kidneys w/ too much exposure>
Do you think the salt in small amount would help?
<Perhaps Epsom; as gone over on WWM.>
higher temperature ( 85F now)??
<IF you can keep up dissolved oxygen. B>
weather loach problem 4/27/16
My weather loach has a problem. I've lost 2 and a 3rd has started to develop
this on his mouth. It appears to be a flesh eating nasty starting in white
crystals then leaving a hole in the skin. It devoured the face of one. All
fish were harmlessly euthanized. The local fish stores had no idea what is
causing this. This has only happened over the last 2 weeks in a well
established tank. Do you have any idea what could cause this , have you seen
it before . Tank parameters are ok. 1000 ltr tank. Temp. 24.3C.
<Hard to pin this down precisely, and it may well be viral in origin. It
doesn't look entirely bacterial to me, and more reminiscent of Fish Pox and
Carp Pox, for example. I'm also worried about the substrate though, which is
far too coarse for Weather Loaches, though whether it's the reason the skin
was damaged is hard to say. Water temperature is also a bit high for a
subtropical fish, but again, unlikely to be the immediate cause of the
problem, though conceivably a stress factor that made a viral problems more
likely. I wouldn't rule out heater burns, either, because these fish do have
a tendency to wrap themselves around solid objects at the bottom of the
tank. To be honest, I'd suggest visiting Loaches.com and posting the photos
on their Forum. There might be someone there who has seen this.
Re: dimmer, Toby puffer sleeping habit question
Thanks, this is more that I was hoping for. .blown away by the Crew as always :)
Final quick note: Near its bedtime, the puffer becomes quite defensive and does
the rounds to check if predators(including me) are in the area. And, regardless
whether or not the light is fully dimmed, by 8:30pm is anchored to its rock,
ready to doze off.
All the best to everyone, Stef
I am restocking a previously established 100 Gallon
marine aquarium (6 feet long).
<Unusual... a stock... 125?>
I would like to get a pair of either Clarkii or Sebae clownfish.
<About the same temperament wise... Real Sebaes are rare>
Other plans for the tank include a Coral Beauty and Emperor
<No to this; the system's too small>
Hippo, Yellow and Kole Tang.
<Maybe two of these three>
Currently there is a Banggai Cardinal,
and a Bubbletip anemone that I have cultured from my smaller reef tank.
Having only had occellaris <sp> clowns before I am a little concerned
about the aggression with these larger clowns and whether they would be
a good fit for this tank. In stocking, I was going to add the clowns
angels and finally tangs. Your input is greatly appreciated.
<Either one would go as a pair, perhaps a trio. Don't know what you're
looking for from WWM here. Bob Fenner>
Uaru Hexamita 4/26/16
Hello. I am Svetlana. I have 3 Uaru 3”. I got them in January from local
pet store. They was in the store for 2 month and was eating everything
they would give them. I place them in my 55 gl with 2 butterflies and 3
clown loaches ( I will buy a big tank later). I take water to pet store
to check, they told me everything is good, pH 6.5,
<What is the water hardness here?>
temperature 82F. They stop eating and got white stringy pop after 2
weeks I had them. I treat whole tank with Seachem Metroplex.
They got better and was eating after dosing for 5 times every 2nd day.
<I'd stop... Metronidazole is too nephrotoxic...>
2-3 weeks later same problem ( not eating, white pop). I treat them in
hospital tank 10 gl with 7 doses of metro aging. they did get better and
were eating, but 2 weeks later same problem. Please l have a couple
1.I think it is Hex and only treatment is metro??
<Is the best>
2. I am dosing them in 10 gl tank for a 5 days now without any
improvement yet… they have not being eating for around 10 days now.
<Stop; the problem is something else>
They are in the 10 gal tank and I dose them with Seachem Metroplex 3
times now accordingly instructions. please let me know if I should
increase the dose? or any other meds i should be using?
<I'd try an Anthelminthic... Praziquantel... see WWM re>
Please help, Svetlana
<Trying. Bob Fenner>
Juvenile Uarus hex? 4/26/16
On the pictures one fish has long white-clear long string (pop?).
<Appears to be... Need to sample and look under a microscope... for
encapsulated eggs, or? BobF>
The other two do not pass any poo last 2 days...
I soaked mini blood worms in metro and garlic and refroze it. I know
they should eat veggies but it is only one of them would have interest
in. But spit it out and nothing is eaten....I even bought and put plants
for them (they was destroying them before), no interest .... Thanks,
sorry for long emails.
Feller Stone 4/26/16
Just purchased Feller Stone for my Betta tank.
<Ahh! I bought their products for PetCo in the early 90's>
Soaked it in water with Prime water conditioner because of the earth
kind of like new aquarium gravel before being rinsed. Still maintains
the odor after an overnight soak. Any potential harm with this, i.e.
changing the water's pH?
<Not likely; but; you could simply boil the rock in some freshwater and
check the pH. This and a bleach, rinse, air-dry SOP are archived on WWM
for such decor>
Thanks for your assistance. Hope you get to laugh a lot today.
Stacy in Tampa
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>
In a panic... Cryptosporidium in source water 4/25/16
I live in a very rural area and get my water from a well. My neighbor's house is
up for sale, but they just lost a buyer because the well wouldn't pass
inspection. They shocked the well and tested it again, but it still didn't pass
inspection. Apparently their well is contaminated with cryptosporidium and we
are on the same aquifer. I have had repeated problems with constipation and swim
bladder disorder in my loaches - could this be caused by cryptosporidium?
If it could be, is there anything I can do?
<Yes.... filter the water ahead of all uses; esp. potable. I'd have professional
services come out and bid for setting you up a system. Bob Fenner>
Re: In a panic... 4/25/16
Have a system set up, but apparently it is being overwhelmed - will try to
upgrade. They're talking about condemning the neighbor's well. They've been
digging over there since last Thursday. They found what they believe
are human remains.
Are there any medications that will help my fish that are currently being
<I would not be concerned re the fishes. BobF>
Re: In a panic... 4/25/16
So, to make sure I'm understand you right - when I get rid of the
cryptosporidium, the fish will straighten out on their own?
<I doubt that this pathogen is malaffecting your fishes. B>
re: dimmer, Toby puffer sleeping habit question
Hi again Earl, I don't have a timer nor dimmer yet. Since I found the
fish to be quite timid and sensitive, for now am using basics, just
three sheets of blue tinted acetate and regularly starting at around
5:30 pm start to slowly layering them up under the led bulb until it
creates a moonlight effect. Very relaxing process. Will try saving up
for a dimmer!
<Heya. It doesn't matter as long as it's consistent i.e. the lights are
on and off at the same time every day, plus it's simply worlds of
convenience for the caretaker. Your plan seems ok although you do need
to get it up to full light around midday etc.. You mentioned that the
fist is new to your tank so he will likely get less timid regarding the
light although as per WWM/CMA leaving the lights off for a day or two is
always a good idea. It's the opinion of myself and also those worlds
beyond my own expertise that aquarium reef fish are not well off in
total darkness so a moonlight style lamp all night (VERY dim) rather
than complete blackness is preferable.
I would suggest a simple controller if you plan to get into that level
of specificity as far as ramping up intensity, etc.. There are
comparatively cheap ones on the market now compared to a few years ago
(I use a Reefkeeper Lite on my fish-only tank). You can get them on the
secondary market as they are solid but simple entry-level controllers
and aquarists tend to want the "latest and greatest" and sell older gear
as they upgrade to (IMO often needlessly complex) gadgetry with
computer-linked wireless control, apps, and so on. This model has 4
outlets, I used one for the heater, 1 for a halide that came on first
and turned off last, and another outlet that turned on 2 more lamps a
few hours later for a "noon day" period and those turned off after a few
hours. I went a decade without a controller and now I wonder how I lived
without it! I have gone way off track here but the extra security is
invaluable imo besides the obvious other uses.
The $15 hardware store version in the meantime is: just use regular old
plug-in timers and use one per lamp. Say you have 2 separate fixtures.
Just time one to come on earlier, go off later, as per above, you get
Easy peasy! -Earl>
Re: My Betta.... I'm worried 4/25/16
<Ok. Firstly, how is he this morning now that several hours have passed?>
Ok, I first took our dipper (we always put him in it when we change his
water) and cleaned it out with only cool water. I then filled it up halfway.
My dad said to put in 1 drop of the water cure liquid. I did that.
Next I found our fish net, washed it out with hot water for about 15 sec.
Next I stirred the treated water with the net I then carefully got flash out
of his tank. He is my only fish in my house. I took his dipper and put him
by the sink (in the water, of course) next I took his tank into the bathtub,
poured the water out, along with his gravels in the bottom of the tank.
<A word about water treatment stuff in a bottle/dechlorinator...it takes
some time to work and is better left as a backup or emergency solution. What
you really need to do is get a container that you know is absolutely clean
(you can get a 2 or 5 gallon bucket at Lowes or whichever hardware store,
use a bottled water jug, whatever, as long as it's NEVER been used for any
other purpose other than storing drinkable water. Preferably with a lid.
Keep it filled at all times then stash it someplace where it will not be
contaminated but can age. Tapwater has chlorine, chloramine, stuff that will
"gas out" within a day but is harmful to the fish. Do your water changes
using this aged tapwater and fill it back up as needed to keep it filled for
next time. Change about 1/4 or 1/3 of the water in the aquarium using this
once a week rather than one huge change. You don't want to dump the whole
thing out if you can avoid it. "Partial" water changes!
If you are going to do a major cleaning of the entire tank including gravel,
etc. do it only rarely and simply put enough water in a clean bowl (like say
a mixing bowl or like I did as a kid, a Kool-Aid plastic pitcher) in other
words, leave the fish in water it's been living in, no need to switch it
into entirely new water.
But here is the problem and why the details are important! :) You are using
a filter with one filter pad, and you have gravel. Both of these things are
your biological filters and are how the tank is "cycled" and habitable. When
you clean or remove them, you are essentially putting a fish into totally
new, fresh tapwater, which is dangerous. Usually you want to just partially
change smaller amounts of water more often. But never change (or kill off
the helpful bacteria in) both the gravel AND the filtration pad at the same
time. Do one or the other but never both. So to sum up, use aged water
stored for the purpose, change it often but in smaller amounts, and don't
destroy the bio-filtration in the tank. I would just swap out the filter pad
as needed independently of water changes. Just change small amounts, and if
you must do a total-tank cleaning, just toss a bunch of the water in the
tank into a separate holding area with the aged filter pad, clean the tank,
put the old water (with the fish) back in, fill up with the new water from
your stash, and put the old pad into the filter.
PLEASE read about cycling tanks, water changes, and also freshwater Bettas
on Wet Web Media, all this is covered extensively on the site. There are
also many books about Betta care, probably even in the local library.
Knowledge is power. I went over this just now to help walk you through the
specific process and time urgency but read up next time first...it's a must.
Also as a suggestion, if you have had Bettas for 3 years, it might be time
to upgrade to planted tanks, since you clearly have a long-term interest and
well...planted is the next step into a larger world esp. for fish like a
Betta. :) Search the WWM site, it's got a built-on Google section to boot.
Good luck. -Earl>
I put the gravels under the faucet, turned the water on. With the water on,
I made my hand into a claw shape and started running my fingers through the
gravels. I saw discolored water and fish poo coming out of the gravels.
Once I saw that no more discolored water rinsing away, I put all the gravels
back in the tank. (The gravels are for fish tanks, not for driveways.) I
took his submarine toy and took a clean washcloth, got it wet and washed the
yellow-Orange gunk off. I did the same to his whisperer filterer. I took out
those old filter and threw it away I took a new filter and put it in cool
tap water. Then I rinsed it. I filled up the usual tank with 77 degree water
then put 3 drops of treatment in. I carried the tank back to my room and put
it on its shelf. Then I took the dipper containing
the fish and set it by the tank. Flash swam into the net. I plopped him in
the water as quick as I could. That was the water changing process. I
changed all the water in the tank. He isn't doing it as much now. I gave him
food and he swam up to it, but he wouldn't eat it. I know I did the process
right because I saw my dad do it a lot of times. The tank is about 3 years
old. This is my second Betta. I will show you a pic of him in his tank
today, and my old one in the same tank. The new fish is pink, the old one is
blue. Thanks for listening to me
Re: My Betta.... I'm worried 4/25/16
He is a pretty fish, isn't he? My family is used to having fish. When I was
5, we had a whole aquarium of different tropical fish, so we aren't new to
<Yep, take good care of him and he will be a cool little pet for years.>
Trying new dwarf cichlids.... half dead already.
Greetings, crew. Im sorry to bother you so much lately. This particular
time i just want an opinion on my course of action.
So the lfs brought in a shipment of dwarf cichlids of which i had none
of those species: Dicrossus sp (filamentosus likely), Apistogramma
borelli, viejita and what they have labeled as diplotaenia.
<Mmm; I do hope they quarantined them for a good two weeks... many "just
imported" South Americans die easily. I worked for importers... we had
these come in as contaminants... >
I should have known better or rather, waited out longer before buying. I
noticed they were all very small... probably ranging from 1 to 2.5 cm.
without any apparent colors except for a few... that coupled with
shipping stress and possible starvation these fish were in bad
condition, i figure now.
But at the moment i only thought of bringing the guys home, and so did i
and put them in a 10 gallon bare bottom tank, a few Anubias and rocks
for them to hide and so, cycled media and such. Parameters have been
around 0,0,0.5 (0.5 nitrates is what the tap comes out like, also). i
figured i could grow these guys since i have bred and raised dwarves
before with high success (rams and macmasteri), but i didn't take in
account possible sickness and shipment.
<The ones you had before... were likely tank-bred for several
generations. An "entirely different kettle of fish" hardiness-wise.>
So fast forward the long period of 2 days, i come home and find half of
them dead (8 originally, two of each). Only ones left are the two
Dicrossus which are hanging near the surface (they did so from the
beginning), 1 borelli and 1 viejita. The viejita looks like its about to
die too and the Dicrossus aren't moving much (they still react to my
Ph is 6.7, tap mixed with ro/di. temp is 81 F.
<pH likely needed to be much lower, temp. higher; almost no hardness...
look up these species natural environments. On FishBase.org>
Did these guys die from stress and weakening due to shipment or could
there be an error in my part?
i figured i could wait a week more and go get the remnants at the lfs (a
lot of people went crazy over the dwarves... pretty rare over here) and
hope those are healthier? i also was considering parasites or any
sickness they could bring along, but i cant notice anything out of the
normal... do you think it would be good to use preemptive medicine for
parasites and such or are they too young to get through that?
Thanks, crew, hopefully the rest survive, im at a loss on what to do.
<Read, study... be more patient; provide a more suitable habitat. Bob
Toby puffer sleeping habit question 4/24/16
Hi Bob et al.
< Earl here.>
Apologies, it's been such a long time since I made contact. I just couldn't
remember where to post my question regarding: puffer sleeping habit.
<This is the place.>
Here it goes: I have just acquired a cute under two inch long Canthigaster
Solandri puffer. I have observed it closely. A couple of minutes after dimming
the lights, the puffer regularly heads for its favorite sleeping space and
anchors itself vertically onto the live rock. I would like to know how the
puffer performs this feat and is it for camouflage purpose?
<Protection, hiding, general shelter from the current, all you'd expect.
These fish are expert maneuvers and can position themselves any way they darn
well please and it seems like this guy have decided this is the way to go! I
think if you look at where it puts itself up for the night and the fins on its
underside all we become clear :) At any rate, business as usual and you seems to
have a nice, regular schedule it is used to and has settled in fine. I bet he
pops out pretty quickly once the lights come back on. You're using a timer on
the lights, right? You can see how they like a regular schedule (like children,
cats, and myself). Best, Earl>
Thank you so much for all the vital information that's continually generously
been poured into the site.
Re: Toby puffer sleeping habit question 4/24/16
Ah brilliant! Thanks from Toby & I.
Keep it regular!
<No problemo, he looks like a healthy specimen in an appropriate environment.
Keep it up.>
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands,
Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
- Set-Up 2: Filtration of All
Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps,
Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
- About Livestock: Regional Accounts:,
Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths,
Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
- Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae,
Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges:
Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ
Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms,
Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
- Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes,
Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers,
Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine
Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving,
Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals,
Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control,
- Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms,
Treatments & Pests:
Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention,
Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health,
Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... &
- Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:,
References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography,
Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public
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