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Arothron caeruleopunctatus (Matsuura 1994). Indo-west Pacific. To thirty two inches in length in the wild. Here is a two footer in Fiji.

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by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Bubble Tip Anemone Question        11/20/19
Hello again, Sorry to bother you again, but I have a question. (this is not the anemone that got sent to me by mistake and then died. I had this one first and it was doing very well. ) I have a tank Raised BTA,.... it was doing very well for a while,....then it started looking uninflated more and more often. Now I have seen it poop, so I believe it's eating enough of the Frozen thawed mysis shrimp I feed the tank with daily. It has never taken food from me dropping it onto the tentacles,...it never holds on to it so it just floats away.
I guess I'd say it is not sticky? Which seems strange to me. They are supposed to be sticky, right? So they can grab food?
<Yes. Non-sticky tentacles are a bad sign>
I had a pair of tank raised clowns that loved on it,...I got them a month after the anemone so it would be in good shape before I got them.
<Good move>
They did well together for a while,....But recently it just doesn't seem happy at all It has started moving around,....I could watch it go.
<A moving anemone is an unhappy anemone>
And when I asked the breeder he said maybe the clowns were too rough on it so I gave my female
clown to a friend and only kept the little male. He loves it too. Nuzzles it and protects it all day and night. That said, removing the female didn't help. It is still smaller and very brown and not very inflated ever.
So, in the last few days it has climbed up the glass to the top of the tank, ...I think to get more light. So I have put a light above it's spot, an extra LED light.
<Good... are you able to borrow a PAR or PUR light meter? These animals need quite bright illumination>
It seemed to like that and opened up and faced it. I was happy! But during the next water change it was hanging in the air!
<Mmm; not a good idea>
I only did half as much water as usual and hurried fast to cover it back up,....and it did sort of slide down a little bit, but not enough so that I could do the whole 30% water change....so I waited hoping it would move lower. It never did.
So, I had to remove it from the top of the glass in order to do the next water change,....So I used a silicone very slender and smooth spatula to slide under it, let it drop in to a cup and then put it back on the bottom again near where it had started.
<Neat application>
It looked ok that night,....but then the next day it turned over up side down,....then righted itself again but crawled into the back corner of the tank. MY question is, did I need to remove it from the top of the glass when I did the water change?
<Yes, I would not expose anemones to the air any more than necessary>
Or could I have left it there, it would have been in the air though, not in the water. I thought that would kill it! But now I read on your sight that moving it would kill it!
<Better not to move them if you don't have to.>
He is not fading in color at all, he's a deep brown color,....he used to have beautiful green coloring, but now just dark brown.
<Ahh, not enough intensity, wave length, duration... of light>
All of him. His base is lighter when he's expanded. But in general all his beautiful coloring he had when he got here is gone. I read somewhere that phosphates in the water can increase the number of zooxanthellae in the corals and that makes them look brown instead of showing their pretty natural pigments. I did test for Phosphates and it was 0.50,...hopefully the big water change, I did about 40% and also cleaned both filters,....(not cleaned with fresh water, just with tank water,.....they were dirty!) should help the phosphates. I also ordered SeaChem's Phosphate remover. In case that might be the problem.
<You do want/need some HPO4>
I also added some Charcoal pads to each filter, to help with the water quality,...don't usually use charcoal in my reef tank. I guess I am worried he isn't expanding his tentacles out like he did when I first got him. And that is a sign he is dying.
<May be>
It's funny, back when I first got him, he was in a 13.5 gallon tiny reef tank! I moved everyone a 55 gallon and he has never been the same. I guess he like the little tank, he was closer to the light then. I don't have any large rocks that pile up high....I like my tank to look like the top of a reef, not a whole reef. So I spread out my rocks in a single layer,....I guess that's not so good for him maybe.
<I would make a bommie, stack of rock that goes about half way up for this animal>
I have ordered one large piece of man made reef rock that is very tall....I will put it near him when it
comes It's just dry rock.
<Ahh! Fine>
I'm going to attach a link to a short video of him that I posted to Facebook
Maybe if you see him you can tell me what to do to help him. Does he look miserable to you too? He sure does to me. Here is the link.
https://www.facebook.com/Ingrid.Mandy.Wilson/videos/10219844361516180/ 
Thank you,
Mandy in NJ (again).
<Might be that the profuse pulsing corals are outcompeting the anemone (allelopathy). I would try some other food items... placing them near the mouth (with tongs)... Perhaps silversides or fish fillet, a bit of large shrimp (uncooked). All else looks very good/healthy! Bob Fenner>
Re: Bubble Tip Anemone Question        11/20/19

My reef base rock from Seachem came tonight! I can't believe Amazon,... they are so fast!
<Ah yes; an excellent company>
Tomorrow I will put it in as a stack....It's a rough kind of base rock,...
I hope it won't be uncomfortable for him to sit on.
<Should be fine>
But we'll make it high enough that he won't have to cling to the glass To get close enough to the light, that must me hard for him, glass is slippery.
Thanks for the advice again!
Mandy in NJ
<Cheers, BobF in Ca. tomorrow HI>

Damselfish Identification - Neopomacentrus; & BR use         11/20/19
Good evening,
<Hi Joel>
I was at a local fish store today and came across these two lovely looking Damselfish in the store's batch of "Assorted Damsels". I've only been keeping saltwater fish for a short period of time, but have sufficient experience in brackish fishkeeping to tentatively identify them as Freshwater Demoiselles (Neopomacentrus taeniurus). I've never seen them before in person and pictures online of the related N. cyanomos sometimes appear similar, so I was hoping you might be able to verify for me.
<These appear to be Neopomacentrus taeniurus>
Sadly, I don't think they are appropriate for either of my tanks. My 125 gallon brackish tank at 1.006 may be too "fresh" and may squabble with the 8 Orange Chromides in it. On the other hand, I'd worry that it would fight with my Talbot's Damsel in my 55 gallon saltwater.
In either case, just seeing this rare (to me) Damsel was enough of a treat.
Thank you for your time.
Joel
<Am going to ask Neale Monks here to respond re Pomacentrids for brackish systems. His background w/ such systems is extensive. Bob Fenner>
Re: Damselfish Identification - Neopomacentrus /Neale        11/20/19

Hello Bob, Joel,
<Neale>
Yep, agree with the identification of your damselfish as Neopomacentrus taeniurus, but with the cautious that there are other species, such as Stegastes otophorus, that do look quite similar (especially the yellow tail). That said, Neopomacentrus taeniurus does have a more deeply-forked tail, suggesting your initial identification may well be correct.
I’ve seen Neopomacentrus taeniurus kept in freshwater tanks where they had been in situ for at least six months, seemingly without harm. Companions including Corydoras catfish and Angelfish of all things, and while the water was certainly hard, it wasn’t salted. I suspect 1.006 will probably be tolerated perfectly well, as these are truly euryhaline fish rather than marine fish that happen to handle brackish water for longer or shorter periods (as would be the case with, for example, Sergeant Majors). In some places (including various oceanic Pacific islands) they inhabit completely freshwater habitats alongside classic peripheral freshwater fish types like Gobies that, in common with Neopomacentrus, have a marine reproductive stage but as adults inhabit freshwater environments. I believe Neopomacentrus taeniurus breed in the sea, however, rather than spawning in freshwater and leaving their eggs to drift into the sea. Hence finding Neopomacentrus taeniurus in freshwater, brackish, and fully marine habitats.
<Ahh>
My understanding is that they’re often found in harbours, estuaries, and tidally-influenced rivers and streams, often quite murky ones (hence their drab colouration). Water depth is rarely very great (less than 3m by one source). Allen refers to them as dwellers of ‘inshore reefs’ so I guess your classic coastal rocky reefs with oysters and mangroves rather than offshore coral reefs seem to be their preferred habitat. My guess would be that they’re much like various Apogon and Gobiidae species that are found in such places: perfectly well adapted to varying salinity, able to handle low salinity, even freshwater, for extended periods, but probably happiest (in the sense of being able to spawn successfully) when kept in mid to high end brackish conditions or fully marine salinities.
They are planktivores by nature, but consume all the usual foods that you’d give small Damselfish.
I agree, Orange Chromides would likely be viewed as a competitor. There’s no particular reason you couldn’t accommodate both given sufficient hiding places, but you’d certainly want to plan ahead. I don’t know enough about Neopomacentrus generally to comment on their social behaviour towards other Damsels in a marine aquarium, but would imagine Neopomacentrus taeniurus are par for the genus. Possibly Bob can add more here.
<The genus is more toward the easygoing spectrum of damsel territoriality; not quite Chromis. I do consider, as you've stated re habitat, that they should co-exist w/ Chromides.>
That pretty much covers what I know! The problem is they’re hardly ever imported, and almost never kept in freshwater or brackish systems. I’m not aware of any long term records beyond what I’ve reported above!
I’d be tempted to try them out with the Orange Chromides, and as/when they mature, if they start looking seedy, or else behave abominably, then move them into a more rough and tumble FOWLR system.
Cheers, Neale
<Thank you, BobF>

Re: Sick giant gourami        11/20/19
Hi Neale,
I hope all is well,
<All good, thanks!>
I used the ESHA 2000 last night (first dose) and I can see already an improvement this morning (thanks for the tip!).
<No problem.>
I wanted your advice,
<Sure.>
It basically works out per the instructions that I would do a 20ml dose on day 1 and then 10ml day 2 and 10 ml day 3. So 20:10:10
It says on the instructions that if needed one can double the dose.
<Indeed. Have never done so. But would not expect them to lie about this!>
I used 20 mil last night (so a single dose), however I am debating, given the issue has been ongoing for a while, to use 20 mil tonight too? It says you can also extend beyond days 2 and 3 too, so I am thinking instead of 20:10:10, to maybe do 20:20:10:10?
<I would prefer to try the regular dose for the first 'course' of the medications. If the fish doesn't get better, repeat for another dose, rather than increase the dosages. The risk is that too much could stress
the filter bacteria, resulting in an ammonia or nitrite spike, which would undo all your progress.>
There is a catfish in there too which I know are sometimes more sensitive as they are scaleless but it says on the packet it should be fine and he doesn't seem bothered so far.
<Indeed; I have never had problems using eSHa 2000 with catfish.>
Please let me know your thoughts.
Thanks!
<Repeating courses, rather than increasing dosages, is my gut reaction if the fish is showing signs of recovery and still otherwise in good condition (swimming, eating, etc.). But if you felt a higher dose was warranted, I would not feel afraid to try, but would remove some filter media to a safe place just in case something goes wrong. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Coral beauty hole in the head        11/20/19
Hi Mr. Fenner/ Crew, thank you so much for your response! (Something weird happened with my email, which I actually wrote somewhere in September 25th, but I see that it went out on 11/15...) Unfortunately, that CB died the next day, I am attaching some pictures (sorry for the poor quality), for diagnosis purposes. I am also attaching pictures of my tangs that I believe were struggling with Turbellaria, from few months ago... Ever since, my tank has been haunted! I lost 1 CB, 1 Potters angel and a rusty angel (pictures attached), 3-4 days after being released in the DT they got covered with the fine white dots, from nose to tail. Normal behavior, no flashing, eating fine (except the CB that died), even the CB that I’ve had for 3 weeks started the same, actually I didn’t think it would make it, but I treated the tank with PraziPro and he cleared up; I have 2 purple Midas blennies, a bicolor blenny and a Tailspot blenny, they all scratch on the glass and sometimes bite their tails; 1 eibli angel, 1 purple and 1 scopas tang, 1 yellow watchman goby, 1 maroon clown and 1 6line wrasse. They all eat, no scratching (except the blennies ), but they stop by the cleaner shrimps (which are fire shrimps so they don’t really care) and every now and again I see them yawning. So it’s not ich, pretty sure not velvet, probably not flukes (I treated with PraziPro 6 times in the past 3 months, which is probably the reason they are still alive ), is this (still) black ich?? What should I do??
<Read, on WWM re parasitic diseases of marine fishes>
The problem with PraziPro is that it brings my ph sometimes below 7.8, and I already poured 1 box of baking soda in the tank to bring it back to normal ...
<See SeaChem's line of buffers for marine systems>
Help, please !! Any input is much appreciated! Thank you for your time ! (More pictures are coming )
<DO NOT SEND such large files. They and your messages will be deleted. B>

Re: swim bladder disease?        11/20/19
Hi Mister Bob,
Is Whirling disease not a more fresh water parasitic disease?
<Yes>
What I can find online about it is it seems to effect salmon and trout?
how did that get into a saltwater trigger?
<Not likely the same causative mechanism; no. Just making/made comment re symptomology>
You exclude swim bladder looking at the clips?
<... There IS NO SUCH thing as swim bladder disease, but the mal-function of such either results in the fish sunk to the bottom (most frequent) or floating (upside down often) at the surface... not spinning about. B>
Dirk

Gill curl in Arowana fish and curing methods       11/18/19
Hi, I have a silver arowana fish of size about 55cm.
<How big is its aquarium? A half-grown specimen like yours should be in a tank around 1000 litres (220 Imperial gallons) in size, and even bigger specimens will need even more space. I mention this because Gill Curl is almost always caused by being kept in a tank that is too small. One problem with small tanks is that the Arowana can't turn around easily, and that seems to be one factor. But more probably, it's to do with insufficient oxygen dissolved in small tanks, as well as poor water quality (i.e., nitrate levels too high between water changes). Hard to say exactly, but really, aquarium size is the key.>
Now it has got gill curl. Its gill covers has been curled and it’s gills are exposed in the water.
<Indeed.>
Its hard cover gill plates has also been curled. Could you please suggest me a method to cure this.
<There really isn't one.
In the early stages (where just the soft part of the very edges of the gill flaps are curled) moving the Arowana to better conditions may cause the gills to get better by themselves. Some vets will remove this damaged tissue, and healthy soft tissue will grow back. But the operation is very difficult to do, as Arowanas do not handle this sort of treatment well. However, once the gill flaps are firmly curled over, with the bony parts of the gill covers deformed, there is no treatment. It's done. Too late to fix it.>
I’m waiting for your response eagerly....I’m quite tensed about this condition
<I would imagine. Do read about the needs of Arowanas, especially the Silver Arowana, which will get to at least twice the size your specimen is now. These are very expensive fish to keep properly, and sadly, most are not kept well at all. Cheers, Neale.>

Arowana with gill curl      11/18/19
The bony portion has also been affected by this girl curling problem.
<So, that's that then.>
Is it curable with surgery.
<Not really. Bone doesn't grow back. Once damaged or deformed, the bone is that way for life.>
Could you please suggest me
<Next time, use a bigger tank.>

Anything about this.
<Nope.>
Waiting for your reply....I consumes regular food daily.
<Good stuff. Arowanas with Gill Curl aren't seriously harmed, but they will find it more difficult to pump water through their gills. So ensuring the oxygenation of the water is top notch becomes even more critical. This is because the gill covers normally form a pressurised seal that allows the fish to inhale each fresh gulp of water. With the gill covers damaged, that pressurised seal is lost, and the ability to suck in fresh water becomes compromised.>
I feed him live foods and chicken liver.
<Not sure about chicken liver to be honest, because of the risk of Salmonella and other bacterial infections. Beef heart or lamb heart would be much safer. These fish are primarily insect and small fish eaters. So the best foods are small insects of various kinds, and as they get bigger, safe (i.e., not live) fish, ideally saltwater fish. Tilapia fillet is safe too. As always, never use live feeder fish, and minimise the use of foods with thiaminase (cyprinids, shrimps, mussels).>
He is kept in a 5 feet length aquarium.
<Ah, much too small! Problem solved.>
One 30 Watts internal filter and air filter with sponge are provided.
<Likely under-filtered, too. You need something like 8-10 times the volume of the tank in turnover per hour. So if you have 1000 litres, the filter needs a turnover rate of 4000 litres per hour. Most likely this will be a number of filters added together, but you get the idea, hopefully!>
Before buying this aquarium, it was in 2.8 feet aquarium. I think this limited space may be the problem for this current condition...
<Yes.>
please suggest me anything..please..
<This is one of those situations where the ONLY cure is prevention. Once it's happened, it's happened. You can't fix this. Sure, people will try and sell you products or tricks, but they either don't work or are too unsafe. Anything involving surgical intervention is unlikely to work, and will be very stressful to your fish. Cheers, Neale.>
Arowana with gill curl      11/18/19

If this condition is not curable,
<Indeed not.>
how long will it live and survive.
<As long as a healthy Arowana, but do see previous message.>
It takes regular food every day. One 30 watts internal filter and air filter with sponge are provided in the tank.. Can it survive for a long duration...
<Yes, with care. Cheers, Neale.>
Arowana with gill curl      11/18/19

So will my Arrowana live as long as a healthy one..?
<All else being good, yes. It will need a good environment (including swimming space) and plenty of oxygen, but apart from that, it isn't at risk of premature death.>
Will it grow up bigger than this..
<Silver Arowanas, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, get to about 90 cm in length.
Occasional specimens may well be even bigger. But they do need an aquarium (or pond) suitable for very large fish. 1000s of litres, really.>
Now it is in 5 feet aquarium and it is taking regular food daily..... Can I hope for the best..
<Yes.>
Is this condition a serious problem to its health...
<Yes and no. Read my previous replies: Gill Curl affects their ability to pump water across the gills, so additional aeration of the water may be needed. But beyond that, Gill Curl doesn't cause any major health issues.
Cheers, Neale.>

swim bladder disease?      11/18/19
Hi Guys and good evening from Thailand. Another mastery (mystery?) to me. One of our clients called me and mentioned that his Picasso Trigger was doing weird about a week ago. When we went for a look we thought he was doing ok as when come around we mostly feed the fish frozen seafood mix and all looked fine him eating and all but we decided to put a Wifi cam on his aquarium
<Neat!>
so we could monitor the fish while we were not there. Now in 2 days time we saw the fish go real bad with what we seem to think is Swim Bladder disease with the fish not being able to swim upright anymore and seem to have lost all control of his swimming....we attached a clip of the fish in the actual
aquarium with him being flung around due to the flow in the aquarium made by the owner yesterday.
The aquarium is 1m x 1m and 1.6m high with water parameters all optimal only Nitrate being slightly elevated at 40 but this has always been an issue in that aquarium.
Now today we took the fish out and put him in our QT system at our place for us to be able to monitor and treat him.....We also added a clip of the fish in our system just added scooting on his side over the bottom...Now the question is ....1st is it swim bladder disease you guys think looking at the clips and 2nd how can swim bladder just show up in a healthy fish (being in that aquarium for 4+ years? so quickly?
<No "clips" attached. Please do send just links to these, after you upload them elsewhere (maybe YouTube)>
Nothing was added in that aquarium for at least 3+ years now so nothing external could have effected the fish.
3rd if it is swim bladder how best to treat....I hear only time might or might not heal but are their any tricks or things we can do to try and fix this fish....Thanks Dirk
<Well, a brief review. Like the "human cold", "swim bladder" is really not a disease per se (i.e., not caused by specific pathogens, nutrient issues, environment...) but a condition, a symptom... In this case what sort of causes might be responsible? As you state, the fish has been here and the system going for years. You don't mention other livestock, but/so I'll assume there's nothing awry with them. My best guess is that there is something either long term nutritionally deficient, a neuronal genetic expression coming to fore, or a biological agent in the brain of this fish.
I don't know of any direct treatment that would definitely cure the trigger, but administering Epsom (see WWM re) and Selcon to the water might ease this fish's symptoms.
Please see Mark Evans piece on swim bladders of fishes:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_3/cav3i3/swim_bladders/swim_bladders.htm
Bob Fenner>

Re: swim bladder disease?      11/18/19
Mister Bob,
sorry for that something must have gone wrong uploading them. Please see
LINK to posted on YouTube...Dirk
https://youtu.be/0knN-RxY4J4 https://youtu.be/7hmiIlsBtqA
<Mmm; this disoriented swimming... reminds me of Myxosoma... "Whirling
disease"... again (unfortunately) I don't know what the root cause might be
here; nor what might effect a change. BobF>

Re: Naso tang size?      11/16/19
Thanks for the fast reply.
<Welcome>
One more question. If my Naso is about 9” and 6 years old does that mean it’s still going to double in size or could I just have a small fish?
<It won’t reach the maximum adult size for the species because of several factors; in captivity happens something called stunted grow, caused by lack of ideal conditions: proper nutrition, space requirements, stress, etc... (not that you are failing on its care, but it will never be the same as in the wild) so fish stay somehow small due to the mentioned reasons.>
Also you said 180 gallon is to small. Some of the resource I have seen recommend the 180 as minimum. Where does your recommendation fall?
<Well, 180 is a bare minimum, that is, where the fish can survive and somehow thrive, but it’s certainly not the ideal water volume/space for a Lituratus...although your tang probably won’t grow more, I would recommend upgrading at least to a 300 gallons if you want it to be healthy psychologically and physiologically for years to come. Hope this helps. Wil.>

Sick Flowerhorn      11/16/19
Hello,
<Hello Sue,>
I am really hoping that you can help me we’re all out of ideas.
<Will try.>
Approx six weeks ago I noticed a small swelling on the side of my Flowerhorns abdomen. The swelling has since got larger and the other side of her abdomen is now swelling (the swelling appears to be internal and she is not displaying any external signs of illness.)
<Let's just be clear on this. The fish has a swelling, but apparently internal, meaning you can see that the skin and scales look normal, just stretched out because of the swelling? The swelling was more obvious on one side first, but now seems to be on both sides?>
With the help and advice of my local aquatic shop, I treated her with aquarium salts for 2 weeks which I removed with water changes and then I tried ParaGuard for 2 weeks, which I removed with water changes and carbon. (neither of which have worked.) I have removed the carbon from my filter and I am currently dosing the tank with API general cure (today is the last day of treatment) but I can see no improvement.
<Understood. API General Cure was a good call, containing metronidazole, and therefore a good treatment against Hexamita infection, which the stringy white faeces would be consistent with. On the other hand, the fact we're dealing with abdominal swelling points more towards Dropsy, which though it is a symptom rather than a disease, tends to be related to opportunistic bacterial infections and general environmental stress.>
She has white stringy feces (indicating an internal parasite?) but none of the treatments are working. I am going to make a medicated food using the last sachet of API general cure, garlic juice, her fish pellets and Epsom salts.
<Epsom Salt is a good choice for Dropsy, and can reduce the swelling, but by itself isn't a cure.>
Thing is, she’s stopped eating so I’m not sure how successful this will be. The aquatic shop staff and I are now out of ideas on how to help her.
<Indeed.>
I have noticed lots of very tiny snails in her tank. I’m assuming they came in with some water lettuce plants that I added to the tank approx 2 months ago (I’ve since removed the water lettuce.) I suspect that I hadn’t noticed the snails before as maybe she had been eating them. She had also eaten all of the roots of the water lettuce plants (could these have caused a blockage?)
<On the contrary: fresh green foods provide fibre, which (just as in humans) prevents all sorts of problems with the digestive tract. Small snails, while unsightly, are unlikely to cause problems, and some cichlids enjoy eating them, using the pharyngeal mill to grind up the shells. So again, no risk.>
My main thinking is that although I rinsed the water lettuces prior to adding them to the tank, if I inadvertently missed a snail on them then maybe I didn’t rinse them well enough and introduced parasites too.
<Yes to how the snails got in, but no, unlikely to have been a source of parasites. Yes, snails can carry parasites, but most of the bad ones have complex life cycles involving water birds and mammals, so don't persist in aquaria. So while snails are unsightly, they're almost never a danger. Fish are MUCH more likely to pass parasites between themselves, which is why "feeder fish" are so dangerous.>
She is in a 55g tank, I have tested the water and the readings are all fine.
<Need some data here, rather than "fine". 55 gallons isn't particularly big, especially for a cichlid that should be at least 30 cm long when fully grown. Let me have you do some reading, here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/FHParrotCichArtNeale.htm
My concern here is that cichlids of all types are subject to health issues when 'cramped'. Whether it's the lack of oxygen, or excessive nitrate, I don't really know. But I've seen it many times, and learned the hard way when breeding various kinds at home. Again, the link above will provide some water chemistry range values to aim for (but in brief, hard, alkaline water is what you want) and besides 0 ammonia and 0 nitrite, you want to aim to keep nitrate below 20 mg/l, and certainly not above 40 mg/l for any length of time. Skipped water changes cause cichlids real problems because they are so much more sensitive to nitrate than most other freshwater fish.>
As we live in the U.K, I am limited on what medication can be used (I had to order the API general cure from the U.S.) Please have you any idea on the next step for me to take? Blossom means a lot to me and my husband and we’d hate to lose her.
<Treating Dropsy is hard, and best done with antibiotics from a vet, but my favourite medication available in over-the-counter from UK stores is eSHa 2000. It's relatively inexpensive (around £5 a bottle) and tolerated very well by virtually all fish, even sensitive species like Pufferfish.>
I’d really appreciate any help that you can give.
Many thanks,
Sue.
<Welcome. Neale.>

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  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
  • Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:, References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography, Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public Aquariums,

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