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Haemulon album Cuvier 1830,
the White Margate. Tropical West Atlantic. A food and game as well as occasional pet-fish... Grows to about two feet maximum length. Key Largo 2014

 Desktop size download & Link to Archived Marine Daily Pix

Updated 4/17/2014
Other Specialized Daily FAQs Blogs: Freshwater,
Brackish, Last Few Days Accrued FAQs,
Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Nate Guerette, Rick Novy, Bobby Rudro, Jordan Stari, Sue Garrett, Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Sabrina Sharp, James Gasta, Eric Russell, Chris Perivolidis, Lynn Zurik, Chuck Rambo, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized daily
Current Crew Bios., Not so current Crew Bios
Small Marine Aquariums
Book 1: Invertebrates, Algae
New Print and eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums
ook 2: Fishes
New Print and eBook on Amazon: by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums Book 3: Systems
New Print and eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
PLEASE: Write reviews of these works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF

Basic Questions: Measures of water quality, value     4/16/14
How's it, Bob?
<Fine, thanks>
I was at my local LFS the other day, and inquired about ORP and PH. He has some pretty darn nice displays, and probably has the best looking coral selection in the state. He seems to know his stuff, however I became
confused during our convo.
When I asked about measuring ORP and PH, he stated to me those were useless.

He said to me the PH in seawater is set to stay at a given PH, and measuring it will only lead people to chase the perfect ph by adding buffers that will throw off other elements. He told me in a reef tank, the two things to measure are Alkalinity and Calcium, and if those are good, your PH will be in line as well.
<Interesting point of view... I myself am much more a bigger fan of measuring alkalinity than pH... but both can be useful windows; provide views into water quality, changes>
He then showed me his reef set ups, and stated there were no PH monitors nor ORP.
Could this be remotely correct? I have always read you had to monitor them, however hearing this from him, has me puzzled. Says the only time he measures PH is during freshwater dips.
<You can easily search, read my opinions on these... even just on WWM.
RedOx is a supremely important and useful measure... ALL public aquariums utilize O3... Most all marine wholesalers, the collecting stations I've had a hand in devising. B>

Worried about my Red Devil.     4/17/14
Good afternoon, I am once again writing to you for some much needed advice.
Thanks again in advance for your help. Since the last time I wrote to you, the blister like lesion heeled and he gained back his appetite and was doing really well since then. But now, there is a bigger problem that appeared: There is a huge bump but this time it's right between his eyes and I would say looks more like an air bubble full of something dark giving it a purple-ish color. It has been there for about 3-4 days now and it's size is increasing with time. Also, he tries to eat the pellets giving to
him but all he does is spits it back out.. What should I do at this point?
<As the shampoo commercials say, "rinse, repeat". This may or may not be a reoccurrence of the same problem as before. Hard to say. With mysterious cichlid problems the combination of Metronidazole alongside a good antibiotic (Nitrofurans for example, or the Maracyn 1 and 2 combo) often fixes things without a complete diagnosis being necessary. That said, review the aquarium carefully. Consider tankmates; water chemistry; water quality; ornaments (that might be sharp and cause damage or chemically reactive so change the pH up or down); water turnover rate; oxygenation.
Review the needs of Amphilophus spp in terms of diet, water chemistry and aquarium size, and act accordingly. Good luck, Neale.>

R3: 75 Gallon Sump Setup – 04/17/14
<<Hey Dave>>
I was hoping you could review my attached design with the following notes to see if my fuzzy math works out, or if I might be missing something.
The overflow box is rated by Glass-Holes at 750gph, I need to drill a 1 1/2" hole.
<<Actually I believe the ‘bulkhead’ has in inside diameter of 1.5-inches…meaning you will need to drill a larger hole. Bulkheads can vary a bit, check with Glass-Holes for the correct size hole-saw for the bulkhead supplied>>
The overflow will feed the skimmer section of the sump below with a ball valve controlling 25% of the water into the refugium section at the opposite end of the sump.
The sump is a 30 gallon tank 36"x12"x16" high. Both ends of the sump will flow into the pump section in the center. For some reason my center brace on my stand is off center so I will come straight up with the supply. Additional water movement in the tank will be provided by two Hydor Koralia Evolution circulation pumps 1150 gph.
Skimmer Section of the Sump:
The skimmer section is 12"x9"x12"H for 1296 cubic inches or 5 gallons. My current skimmer is a hang-on Aqua-C Remora, from your FAQ's found that it could be placed directly in the sump. (Because of height clearances I can't be a hang-on.)
<<Should be fine>>
The 9"x12" dimension will allow for a future skimmer, the 12" high dimension works with the outflow of the skimmer.
The Refugium:
The refugium section is 12"x12"x13" high for 1872 cubic inches or 8 gallons, (a little over 10% of the tank volume). The 13" high dimension will allow for a 2" high volume of empty tank above. It will have a 3" DSB, lighting and macro algae. I will need egg crate at the top of the glass panel to prevent macro from entering the pump section during power loss.
The pump section:
The pump section is 12"x12"x 9" high, same 5 gallons as the sump. The 9" water depth will allow for the water flowing into the tank during power losses. The pump is a Mag 7.5. Directly above the pump I will have a quick disconnect and a gate valve.
<<Very Good>>
The fuzzy math:
I guesstimate that I have about 14 feet of PVC, (1 1/2"). The table in the link below tells me for each foot of 1 1/2" PVC I have .103 gallons of water. With 14' of pipe I have to account for 1.5 gallons of water.
Using a 1" deep of back flow from the main tank during a power loss, I need to account for 8.64 gallons of water, which is the same as my empty zone in the 30 gallon sump, noted in the Fuge section above. The pump section of the sump is approx. 12"x12"x12" high, 1728 cubic inches, about 7 gallons, by filling it only up to 9" instead of 12" will account for the water in the PVC piping.
<<Looks fine ‘on paper’…but do simply play around with the overflow and return heights on the display to determine what best will contain all transient water volume>>
From the two schools of thought I decided to go with the overflow water feeding the refugium.
By having the "T" on the horizontal, slightly sloped to the fuge will give me a steady water flow to the fuge which will be controlled by the ball valve. If I decided to go with the pump feeding the fuge it would have to be on the vertical and would rely on restricting the flow to the tank to get water to feed the fuge.
<<“Gravity” feeding water from the display to the refugium is best IMO>>
Hope it makes since, again thank you for your time.
<<It does…but no need to rush…take your time and test your plumbing as you go and you’ll be fine>> Dave
<<Eric Russell>>

I was playing gold <?> when I saw this bird eating something, and I chased it away and I found a crawfish with its tail eaten (gills still on body). I first put it back in water, but the bird came back for it so I ran home with the crawfish. It twitches from time to time, but you can't really tell if it's alive. It is in a bowl with room temperature, non filtered water. I called animal control. And they said Let nature take its natural course. I disagree. Can it survive, and if so, what should it et and what water temperature should it have? Please give me advice as Google has nothing and i have no idea how to raise one.
<Not likely to survive such trauma... To keep Crays alive... Read here:
and the linked WWM files below. Bob Fenner>

Corydoras/Brochis Feeding    /RMF     4/17/14
Greeting WetWebMedia Crew, I tried to feed my Corydoras and Brochis splendens
<Oh! Just reading re this genus in the current Amazonas mag.>
school a small piece of banana. They immediately started feeding. I was a little surprised to see that. I have noticed them feeding on decomposing plants (Hydrocotyle umbellata) in the past but was unsure about banana. Its seems like a healthy snack but was very messy.(I did a water change after feeding) Thought somebody may want to know. Thanks for the great site.
Aloha Brandon
<Thanks for sharing. Bob Fenner>
Corydoras/Brochis Feeding
    /Neale      4/17/14
Greeting WetWebMedia Crew, I tried to feed my Corydoras and Brochis splendens school a small piece of banana. They immediately started feeding. I was a little surprised to see that. I have noticed them feeding on decomposing plants (Hydrocotyle umbellata) in the past but was unsure about banana. Its seems like a healthy snack but was very messy. (I did a water change after feeding) Thought somebody may want to know. Thanks for the great site. Aloha Brandon
<Catfish will try all sorts of foods. I've been to a public aquarium where they pretty much throw a fruit bowl into the big catfish tank and let them graze over the week -- grapes, oranges, all sorts of fruit! Do remember that South American catfish, like South American cichlids and piranhas, will adapt their diet as the River Amazon water level goes up and down across the year. In the dry season catfish and other Amazonian fish will have to eat what they can find, sometimes small fish trapped in pools, sometimes carrion, sometimes aquatic invertebrates. In the rainy season they swim into the flooded forest and eat all sorts of fruits and seeds as well as the abundant insects and insect larvae. In other words, these fish are programmed to try all sorts of foods, and the more variety, the better for them! Cheers, Neale.>

Klein's Butterfly Heavy breathing no appetite; and no data      4/17/14
Hi I have a Klein's Butterfly been in my tank about 2 months. He is usually a ravenous eater of nearly everything but in the last 24 hours he has stopped eating and his breathing is heavy and very fast.
<Mmm... time for a quick partial water change, wicking off any surface film... Possibly just low DO or high CO2 here>
All parameters in tank perfect.
55 gallon, 6 year old tank? Anything I can do to help it?
Thanks for any help offered. John
John McGuire
<... need more info... e.g. what else is in the tank, gear, maintenance...
Bob Fenner>

new fish addition/s; large SW      4/17/14
Hello Mr. F.
<Hey Andrei>
How are you?
<Fine; thank you>
My tank is progressing especially due to your direct advice and the huge resources found on your website. For that I thank you.
One new question: I attached a photo of the tank so you can see the aquascape and it`s dimensions because I want to ask, considering the fishes I already have, including a Acanthurus Japonicus ( in the tank for more than a year ) , could I add a Acanthurus Achilles?
<Mmm; well the tank is large enough... and am sure you're aware of how "touchy" the species is; and its reputation for being a "Crypt magnet">
The well-being of my fishes is a priority, I don`t want to stress them.
Besides what you see in the pictures I have in there a Pomacanthus Imperator ( juv) and some wrasses, a pair of percula clowns living in the huge Catalaphyllia in the back, and a pair of mandarins ( 1,5 years in there ). All the fishes are eating well, 6 times a day are fed with different foods and the last one was introduced 9 months ago. Despite the fact that I have the Zanclus Cornutus and the Imperator none of them are touching the corals,
I even have a large xenia colony that I thought it was doomed but it is unharmed. I also plan to introduce a Pygoplites Diacanthus , a Zebrasoma Flavescens or two and some more wrasses and Anthias. But slowly, after quarantine and over a long period of time.
The DT measures 2.1 meters /0.7/0.7
Thank you,
Andrei from Romania
<With care to avoid introducing parasites; starting with smaller new specimens; you should be able to fit all this in here.
Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Link to: Last Few Days Accrued FAQs

Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
  • Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:, References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography, Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public Aquariums,

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