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Chromis amboinensis (Bleeker 1873), the
Ambon Chromis. West-central Pacific; Cocos-Keeling Islands to Samoa
and the Marshall Islands. To three inches in length. Fiji 2011|
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Ptereleotris zebra curious behavior
One of my Ptereleotris zebra is showing a curious behavior, wondering what do
First, some historical context is in order. Back in 2013 I contacted you
regarding the behavior of a group of Ptereleotris zebra I had. One year later I
have lost two due to jumping out of the water,
<Oh so common>
with just one remaining. Lesson learned, my tank is covered now.
The lonely one has been mostly fine, although it became more shy than before.
<I hope I've mentioned that this is a social species... Not all Microdesmids
are, but this one and a few others NEED to be kept in a group... a few to
Anyway when I fed the tank it came out immediately.
Suddenly, about two months ago, I witnessed three panic attacks while eating.
The fish jumped out of the tank, barely squeezing through a corner. Fortunately
I was there, so I could put the fish back into water immediately.
It happened three times. And that brought the social question, I was wondering
whether it was a result of being alone with other fishes
(a group of seven Chromis viridis, a Centropyge bicolor, a Nemateleotris decora,
4 Sphaeramia nematoptera and one Zebrasoma flavescens).
I have been avoiding to add fishes because I had some metal contamination
problem long ago, wiping all my corals, but, well, it was time with the issue
apparently solved (even Xenia died, now I have thriving Anthelia, some Zoanthus,
and some other "softs") and some time for the tank with several days off.
So, I ordered three fishes from my LFS. The three turned out to be four, because
the LFS guy wanted an extra one just in case one was DOA. I took the four of
them home because leaving one at the LFS would have been a bad idea (nobody
around my area keeps P. zebra as far as I know) and one more wouldn't make a
After acclimation, when releasing them, I noticed that one of the fishes was
severely battered. But I didn't worry too much because it behaved normally and I
saw it eating frozen mysis like crazy. Several days later it showed no sign of
damage and it's doing fine. In fact I can't tell which one of the five fishes it
I haven't had many problems, apart from some social displays, a couple of
chasing incidents or so, and some barbel exhibitions without any consequences.
Rather than one burrow now there are several of them (the substrate is a DSB
made with "oolitic" aragonite)
<I'd mix in some rubble... more stable for burrows>
and the five fishes
just distribute themselves into two burrows. I can't know if they just choose a
burrow at random or I have two gangs :)
What I have noticed is a marked difference in daring character, something I have
often observed in Dartfishes.
The surprising thing is, one of the fishes behaves in a strange way. It likes to
lie down on a cleaning magnet, which is (for me) a surprising behavior for a
Dartfish. Other than that it doesn't do anything odd. It eats perfectly (I
should say gorges) and I haven't seen it being bullied by the others. Anyway it
sleeps with one of the gangs.
Several years ago I had a Nemateleotris decora that went apparently went senile
after two or three years with me. It just sat in a corner on the sand bottom,
swimming up to feed when I added food, and being rather unresponsive to my
presence. It spent maybe two or three months in that state before dying.
But this zebra doesn't look senile at all, and it indeed reacts when I move in
the same room. Also, it turns to be the most daring of them, usually the first
one to come out of a burrow even when there's no food.
Whatever, adding more companions has solved the "panic" problem. No more
incidents since I added them, which is great. :)
Any ideas? I have no idea of which of the fishes it is. I mean, might be the
veteran or one of the newcomers.
<Enjoy! Bob Fenner>
Re: Ptereleotris zebra curious behavior
> I haven't had many problems, apart from some social displays, a couple
> of chasing incidents or so, and some barbel exhibitions without any
> consequences. Rather than one burrow now there are several of them (the
> substrate is a DSB made with "oolitic" aragonite)
> <I'd mix in some rubble... more stable for burrows>
This is interesting. Can these fishes use rubble to improve their burrows? I
still have a bottle of medium-coarse calcium reactor substrate and I no longer
use a reactor. Would be a good way to make it useful.
I have noticed that they burrow with a rather brute force approach, just pushing
and twisting their bodies to displace sand (and making the water very turbid for
several hours :) ). Another fish I've seen burrowing, the A. rainfordi, does it
with much more finesse, taking small mouthfuls of sand and disposing of them
outside of the burrow.
<Thank you. B>
Res turtle; hlth., sys.
<Hiya - Darrel here>
I have a female red eared slider turtle that's almost a year old now. I just
bought it from an aquarium store about a week and a half ago. I have a 20 gallon
take along w a light, filter bridge so she can bask and go under.
<Read this article from start to finish - it tells you everything you need to
know about keeping a Slider happy & healthy. Make sure you understand every
part. http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/RESCareBarton.htm >
I bought 10 little fish at the aquarium to put in there so she can hunt and eat
them whenever she wants.
<Nice idea, but in the wild, fish are not part of a turtle's diet and probably
not all that good for them.>
I feed her romaine lettuce and those turtle pellets.
<Leafy greens are good - but a PROPER Turtle pellet or, as I use, Koi food, is a
complete and balanced diet for them>
Recently (about two days ago and still continuing), I've seen bubbles coming out
of her nose and she rarely comes out from under the bridge only to eat when I
feed her. She was eating the fish but there only five left and she hasn't ate
one in about three days.
<Remember, she has little to do and lots to eat - she may be just 'full'>
Ever since I've gotten her she has NEVER basked over even tried to go on top of
the bridge. I'm not sure if something is wrong with her that's why I am emailing
you guys. I don't really have the money to take her to the vet or anything
unless it's something really serious. I've also noticed that her stool (I've
only seen once) was very big with like a fuzz at the end of the stool that idk
if it was there before or after it came out of her. I am she her stool is normal
but I'm mostly concerned about the bubbles and not moving a lot.
<Behavior is one of the ways we gauge the health of our pets, so it's a good
thing that you're noticing and questioning what you see. It may be nothing or it
may be something, so it's worth talking about.>
<The first mistake most people make is putting a heater in the water. A slider
is best when the water is 68-73 degrees (more or less room temperature) and the
basking area is 88-93 degrees. This way she has a choice of warm or cool. Some
people heat the water to 80 degrees and then wonder why the little guy doesn't
<The other thing is that a week and a half is not a long time. It may be that
the turtle simply hasn't adjusted to the new surroundings yet … she mat still be
scared. The bubbles and poop don't concern me yet.>
<As I said, the first thing is to check all your care against the article above
and correct anything that's wrong. Something people often overlook is outside
distractions. If the tank is in the same room with a jumping, barking puppy, a
little brother and sitting next to a loud stereo, the turtle may simply never
have a chance to calm down.>
<Next thing you can do, say, once a week or so, when you have the time … take
her outside for a while. When you have the time to be with her and watch her AND
NOT TAKE YOUR EYES OFF OF HER -- put her outside, somewhere safe, in the sun,
and observe her. After a few minutes, does she come out from her shell, look
around, blink her eyes, move her head and then move around? Or does she stay
retracted for the entire time? What we're looking for is an active, alert turtle
(plus the sunshine is good for her). If she spend the entire 15 minutes
retracted in her shell, then she may be ill and we have further investigations
Thank you for taking your time I really appreciate it.
Rainfordi update 7/2/15
I forgot to report about my "Amblygobius rainfordi with ex-sunken belly
11/9/12". Unfortunately it died around December 2014.
It looked fine, but it begun to look fatter than usual and slower. After around
of decay it died.
<Ahh; very common source of mortality... slow wasting... need a vigorous
refugium, a good deal of other endogenous source of live foods to do well in
I'm not sure about the usual lifespan for them and, of course, I can't know how
old it was when it arrived in Summer 2012.
help with converted pool; algae
Dear Bob Fenner and Crew,
>Howsit Lou Anne?<
I converted my 20,000 gallon swimming pool into a pond for my 8 red-eared Slider
turtles (all medium to large) and a bunch of goldfish. A pond company put in a
new pump and sand filter, as well as an island for the turtles. I run it 24
hours a day, and have been adding bacteria every two weeks. The pond is in full
sun in Pasadena, California.
I didn't put anything (gravel, rocks, etc.) on the bottom to bring the depth up
to 4 feet, according to Bob Fenner's advice, but as a result the pool is 8.5 ft.
deep in the deep end.
<Some depth now!>
The turtles are doing fine and seem to love the large swimming area, but I have
a big problem with water clarity. I bought ultra violet? light for the
filter system but it made no difference.
<Mmm; well; depends on the size of the unit... and to a degree the "efficiency"
of its design and arrangement there>
I don't know if I need an aerator, a bog filter, a waterfall, etc.
<Well; we could start a dialogue re daily or even electronic measures of pH,
alkalinity... There are a bunch of avenues to explore in the way of aiding water
Before I spend any more dinero, I'd like to know if it is even possible to get
pond water clear down to 8.5 feet.
<Yes it is....>
I am worried about visibility for safety reasons, but also be cause it's pretty
boring looking. The turtles eat every plant I've put it so there is no
vegetation except what I feed them. The turtles and fish are only visible when
they come for feeding or are basking.
I'm considering buying a 8 ft. diameter galvanized stock tank for the turtles
and converting the pond back to a pool, but am concerned that 2 feet deep is not
enough depth to keep them healthy in the winter.
<Should be... in Pasadena... Am going to ask our resident Emydid expert Darrel
to chime in here re... >
I know I have too many goldfish (they were a mistake! They keep on breeding) and
cause part of the algae problem, but I'm unable to find a home for them and
can't kill them. Would a few catfish help reduce the problem?
<No to the catfish... most types are more carnivore than cleaner upper>
Any advice or ideas you have would be appreciated. And thanks for being the best
advisors on the internet.
<A few things to cogitate furiously re for right now, the present pool...
Possibly shading a good part of it; the use of a really fab product (for ponds),
called Nualgi (really); and the measuring again of pH/Alk.... need to know how
much this is vacillating diurnally... to help in devising a mgmt. strategy. Be
chatting, Bob Fenner>
Re: help with converted pool
Thank you for the quick response and good ideas. I went online and ordered the
<I think you'll be pleased... the product acts by boosting diatom growth...
their use excluding nutrient availability to other noisome algal types....>
I'll test the water every day for a week and let you know the results.
<Ah, thank you>
I will get a sun shade for the pond's deep end this week.
<The shallow/er end would be better to shade>
I look forward to chatting with you. Do you still live in California?
<Most of the time; yes. In San Diego>
LED System for Salt Water Tanks
A friend of mine highly recommended your page for information and I can see why.
So much awesome information. I have enjoyed reading your FAQ sections quite a
bit however I am on a bit of a time crunch unfortunately. I work at a college
with a Nature Lab and I have to order a light fixture in time before our grant
SO! We have two 165 gallon saltwater tanks. We would
like to get lighting fixtures for both. LED seems to be the way to go in terms
of cost, heat, future benefits. We change out what wild caught fish we keep in
there from time to time. The tanks are by some large windows. Not sure how much
supplemental lighting is needed if any.
<Depends on the type of life; your wanting to boost its physiology, and capacity
for providing for this additionally (use of foods, supplements)>
We sometimes keep Kreisels above the tanks for smaller fish set ups. Attached is
an image of our tanks with only one Kreisel over one tank.
My big question is what models or specifications would you recommend for these
tanks? The tanks are 80x30x14 and we were hoping to suspend the lights.
<Good; I would... for function, flexibility and safety's sake>
Our goal is to try and have some macro algae or maybe some soft corals. Someone
recommended the AI Hydra 52 LED system? But it seems that that may only light
half of the tank?
<Mmm; wouldn't be my choice, no>
I'm new to salt water systems and am trying to do the best that I can. I feel
really bad emailing this question rather than doing the research myself but
again I'm on a time crunch and am really hoping for a hail Mary touchdown pass.
Thank you so much,
<T'were they mine... on the lower cost side I'd just get/use four four foot
ZooMed units; if more funds are available, I'd look to the Orphek line... same
number and length of fixtures. Bob Fenner>
ich; SW 7/2/15
I am pretty sure my main reef display tank has developed ich.
I will be removing all of my fish to a hospital tank for treatment but I have
one question. After removing all of my fish for the six to ten week duration
from my main display tank do I need to feed the tank with a source of ammonia
some how to keep the tank cycled? or can I just leave it alone?
<Likely nothing to add>
keep in mind that the existing live rock, sand and corals will remain in
the display tank.
<Oh; with the exception of what you place for the "corals food".>
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Long tentacle anemone 7/1/15
There was nothing in your reply?
<Strange... second time in two days that this has happened. Please see WWM's
Restarting a dormant tank 7/1/15
I had a 125 FOWLR for years, lost all livestock after hurricane and
weeklong blackout 4 years ago. I never restocked the tank, but am looking to do
<Ah; welcome back "to the fold">
Tank still has all the live rock (though not sure how live it is),
<Just rinse the dust off the rock, vacuum the substrate thoroughly... >
pumps and skimmer have been running all along (no lights) even though no
livestock. I have continued freshwater top-offs. What steps should I take
<I'd take this opportune time to change out all the water... via vacuuming the
Will I need to go through cycle again?
<Perhaps. Bob Fenner>
Re: Restarting a dormant tank 7/1/15
Thanks. How would I know if I will need to go through cycle?
<Testing! I'd be placing a bit of dried food daily (just a pinch) and see
(via...) to see if nitrate is accumulating.... BobF>
Tang issue; dis. and ID 7/1/15
If you would be so kind to point me in the right direction, I would be thankful.
I had this tang for about 3 weeks in quarantine and after I checked it for the
all clear I put it into my system. About a week later it developed these
blotches all over its body and the next day 2 of my other fish got them too.
<Mmm; best guess these are simply "stress markings" (though could be Flukes; see
WWM re).... will go of their own accord; and likely in just a few days; once all
become familiar w/ each other>
I have since put the three fish back into quarantine.
<I would put all (back) in the main-display. More stable, optimized conditions>
Could you help identify what this is?
<Appears to be a juvenile Acanthurus nigroris. Bob Fenner>
Re: Growth on tang barb 7/1/15
Hello! I am happy to report that the algae has been dislodged from the tang
barb..probably due to the clowns chasing it away from their nest area
(female clown laid eggs..again) Thanks again for answering all of my questions.
<Thank you for this follow-up Kel. Bob Fenner>
Re: Unexpected Demise of a Silver Dollar
Dear Wet Web Media Crew,
So yesterday evening ammonia in the silver dollar's quarantine tank was 0.25
ppm, so I changed the zeolite and 20% of the aquarium water and added Seachem
Prime. Ammonia tonight is zero again.
I must confess I didn't test for ammonia or do water changes this weekend
because of the severe weather (kind of reluctant to stick my hand in
electrically powered aquariums when lightning is striking nearby...) so I don't
know for sure how long the new zeolite batch will last when I do daily water
changes. I'll continue testing daily to make sure. I couldn't find any
information on your website about the specific concentration of saltwater for
soaking zeolite into in order to recharge it. I am using about 1/4-1/3 of a cup
of the stuff per batch, and was planning to soak it for a day in a 2 gallon
bucket. Is there a way to tell if it is done recharging? (i.e. testing for
ammonia that has been released back in the bucket of water I'm soaking it in?)
<None that I'm aware of; read the instructions on the packaging/consult
with the manufacturer.>
I have still a lot of zeolite left but I'm kind of reluctant to toss it just
after a single use, y'know?
(I definitely am grateful that people discovered how to grow nitrifying
bacteria...can you imagine how much harder fishkeeping would be if we didn't
have biofilters????...I can't imagine having to do this zeolite stuff for the
<Quite so. I don't use it.>
Also I tried feeding him again (sinking algae pellets this time) but he still
won't eat. Should I try frozen food?
<Possibly, but remove if not eaten within a few minutes, otherwise uneaten
frozen food will negatively affect water quality. Cheers, Neale.>
Weird fish deaths after feeding
I need some help...
<Troy; name of a tenant currently and an olde fish store here in town "Troy's
I have lost two fish over the last 6 weeks under very weird circumstances.
It happens right after feeding. I was feeding my fish a combination of
frozen mysis (Hikari brand in the cubes)
<That was defrosted and freshwater rinsed I hope/trust>
and rod's food.
<Both good foods I'd warrant>
My habit was to feed from a cup, thawing the food in tank water and then
squirting into tank with a turkey baster.
<Better processed as I've mentioned above. You want to keep the juices out in
most all cases... pollution>
Two of my fish, a blue-green Chromis and a Banggai cardinal both began
darting around the tank quickly and then went belly up and sank to the bottom.
The cardinal recovered shortly but the Chromis was on the sand for about 20
minutes before recovering. I chalked it up to overzealous eating
thinking they got a piece of food that was too big. All my other fish
No re-occurrence for a few weeks until it happened again, this time only my
Chromis which died. I began to suspect the food, the turkey baster, or the
feeding cup, so the next feeding, I used flake food soaked in tank water in a
new cup and poured the food into the tank (no turkey baster). This time, my
royal gramma did the same thing as the cardinal and Chromis before but lived. No
other fish were impacted.
There didn't seem to be anything in common at this point but outside of feeding
there were no anomalies so I figured I would ditch the turkey baster, throw out
all my food, and sterilize everything I use for feeding every time I feed.
<Mmm; don't think it's either the food per se nor the feeding device; but as you
state, too much food being greedily ingested, too quickly>
Today I lost my Banggai cardinal despite this diligence to the same
circumstances. I don't have a clue what could be causing this any ideas?
<I'd take more care in spreading the food items out time and space wise...
perhaps a sweeping squirt along the top; or positioning power head, pumps along
a top area to broadcast the food better. Bob Fenner>
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<Thank you for this notice. Will save. Bob Fenner>
Oscar; hlth... env.
I have a Red Oscar in a 125 gallon tank that has been running
for several months. There are other cichlids in the tank and a Pleco. Total of 6
fish. I have a Filstar XL filter that I think can handle up to
a 300 gallon tank. My pH is about 7.2 and I do regular 15-25 gallon changes with
a gravel vac.
<Every week? I would>
The Oscar looks and acts normal. <ly> He’s(she’s) very active and always wants
food. I have to fake him out when feeding live food, mostly worms, so he doesn’t
eat all of it. Here’s what I’ve noticed. When he moves very fast, spooked or
getting food, brown chunks almost like big wet mushed cichlid pellets come off
At first I had no idea where these were coming from but then I became more
convinced that they came from the Oscar. It doesn’t seem to always happen so
maybe it’s a normal thing?
I haven’t seen anything online reporting any similar issues which is why I’m a
bit concerned. Thanks for any information on this.
<Something strange going on here... I do think you need much more filtration and
circulation than the Filstar provides. I'd look into a large hang-on power
filter, and possibly a couple of in-tank pumps or powerheads. Bob Fenner>
Oscar /Neale 6/30/15
I have a Red Oscar in a 125 gallon tank that has been running for several
months. There are other cichlids in the tank and a Pleco. Total of 6 fish. I
have a Filstar XL filter that I think can handle up to a 300 gallon tank. My pH
is about 7.2 and I do regular 15-25 gallon changes with a gravel vac. The Oscar
looks and acts normal. He’s(she’s) very active and always wants food. I have to
fake him out when feeding live food, mostly worms, so he doesn’t eat all of it.
Here’s what I’ve noticed. When he moves very fast, spooked or getting food,
brown chunks almost like big wet mushed cichlid pellets come off him. At first I
had no idea where these were coming from but then I became more convinced that
they came from the Oscar. It doesn’t seem to always happen so maybe it’s a
normal thing? I haven’t seen anything online reporting any similar issues which
is why I’m a bit concerned. Thanks for any information on this.
<Probably faeces; as with humans, to some degree physical
activity helps to move things along the colon. It's also true that rapid
swimming creates currents that can cause faeces on the substrate to lift back up
into the water. Observe your fish, and provided there aren't obvious chunks of
Oscar missing, he's probably fine. One last thing: the Filstar XP-XL has a water
turnover rate of 450 US gal/hour. For Oscars, you want a water turnover rate of
at least 6 and preferably 8 times the volume of the tank per hour. Since your
tank measures 125 US gallons, 6 x 125 = 750, so your present filter is not
providing optimal water quality. Remember that water quality isn't just removing
ammonia and nitrite, but also removing physical solid wastes (such as faeces)
and ensuring adequate water turnover (and thereby oxygenating all levels of the
tank). Review, and act accordingly. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Unexpected Demise of a Silver Dollar
So over the weekend severe weather struck Houston (where my parents' house is.)
There was nonstop lightning, and one bolt struck close to home. The resulting
flash and boom startled my injured silver dollar, causing him to bolt...straight
into the wall of the tank. There was a loud thump...
Needless to say his condition has deteriorated markedly. I think that accident
set me back a lot.
<Sounds like it. Try putting a heavy blanket over the tank to deaden the
noise/keep out flashing light.>
The silver dollars in the main tank were okay because they are in a school, but
this guy is alone, making him very upset. I know it is a stretch to call a fish
"depressed" but that is what he looks like. He reminds me of this Mbu puffer who
is the mascot of the fish store that helps service the tank, that was very
playful until they had to move him to a smaller, emptier tank for renovation
purposes, at which point he just sat on the bottom and sulked, even though he
had room to swim.
<Quite so. Depression is a clinical thing that fish probably don't experience.
But they can certainly be unsettled in their environment, listless through lack
of stimulation, disinterested in food because something is stressing them... any
of which can manifest itself as an unhappy fish.>
As for the silver dollar, I waved his favorite foods (peas and seaweed) in front
of his mouth with tongs, and he refuses to eat. He can swim, but he refuses to
do that either. As I type this more lightning is striking. I fear he will snap
his neck to pieces if that happens again. I guess I am just wondering whether I
need to euthanize him because he is miserable and
I don't know if he will ever recover...
<As/when required, do read elsewhere on WWM; in brief, 20-30 drops of clove oil
in/per 1 litre of aquarium water does the job painlessly and quickly.
Fish unconscious within a couple of minutes, and clinical death is 10 minutes
after last gill movement (half an hour from start to finish usually does the
Sorry to say,
I totally relate to what Neale Monks said about Pacu. I used to have a red
bellied one named Samke (Arabic for fish). She was very sweet and adorable, but
she had a very strong bite and would use it even on things she couldn't eat. I
had to give her to someone else when she crushed a loach's skull in.
<Yikes! But your point is well made. Despite being described as herbivores by
many, they're omnivores, and while less overtly predatory than piranhas,
perfectly capable of killing smaller fish should the opportunity arise.
Re: Unexpected Demise of a Silver Dollar
Yeah... I am a big fan of the less predatory Serrassalmids as fish for large
tanks because of their comical antics, large eyes, relative docility to fish of
a similar size and willingness to eat anything...but there is definitely an
emphasis on the anything. They also will try to eat inedible things (plastic,
wood, etc) but they generally learn after a few bites it isn't food. They also
will catch themselves in nets if there is food inside, which makes it easy to
I guess they're kind of adorably stupid that way.
<Quite so. Someone once called Pacu "aquatic sheep" because they're large,
constantly grazing herbivores; but I think "aquatic goats" is probably closer to
Just wanted to share this...not sure where I was going with it. Are there any
forums on Wet Web Media where we can share little experiences like this?
<Not as such. There are numerous forums out there. Many magazines have one (for
example Practical Fishkeeping has quite a good one) as well as independent
forums (the last one I was active on was aquaticquotient.com, but I used to like
Maybe that most animals people think are herbivores or carnivores often don't
fit into neat categories? (This isn't just a fish thing. You should see all the
people trying to tell me am making my dog sick by not feeding her a raw meat and
bone diet...silly humans)
<Given humans in the Western World cause more health problems for themselves via
inappropriate diet than any other cause, you're quite right, our species
probably shouldn't be preaching too strongly what other species should be
eating! Cheers, Neale.>
kissing gourami head growth
Hello, I have had a Kissing Gourami for 10 years now, and a few months ago i saw
a spot on his scales, it was green but he wasn't bothered by it.
Now it's popping out like a blackhead, or someone wedged a stone into his head!
I have some pictures, so if you could, tell me what is happening to my fish.
<Looks to me like a physical injury... with melanin replacing the previous color
cells. Nothing to do and usually is permanent. Bob Fenner>
re: kissing gourami head growth
So everything is ok?
<Other than the owee; likely so. BobF>
Re: kissing gourami head growth
you sent a blank message
<... see below>
Wet Web Media Site Compliment/Resource Suggestion
I just came across your awesome website and found it to be a great
resource! I love keeping fish (though I am not very good at it) and found some
helpful tips on your site - thanks a lot!
While I was browsing your site, I noticed you have already kindly linked to our
sister sites, Can Stock Photo, Foto Search, and Go Graph in the "Photography"
section of your page at
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/fwlinks.htm and would like to
suggest an additional resource for you and your users, Barewalls.com.
<Ahh; will add this AM. Bob Fenner; common progenitor>
Created in 1996, Barewalls was the first company to capitalize on the tremendous
potential of selling posters and prints online. Our vast collection contains
artwork from thousands of famous photographers and painters from Ansel Adams to
Vincent Van Gogh. Popular styles include Abstract art, Cubism, Impressionism,
Pop Art, Renaissance, and more. Our
extensive list of artists can be found here:
I created an HTML link for your use if you find us to be a useful addition to
Megan A. Kos
Long tentacle anemone 6/30/15
Good morning, super fast question, I bought a 10 inch emerald green long
tentacle anemone on Sunday, he found is spot within an hour and dug in with his
foot, he is completely opened up and beautiful, he took some jumbo mysis this
morning no problem, my question is his mouth is slightly open say 3/8 of an inch
with his large center tentacles crossed over his mouth,
is this normal?
<Not unusual; normal>
He is not deflated, bleached, closed up or anything. He actually looks better in
my tank than he did at my LFS... Just wondering this is my first long tentacle.
<And can be difficult animals to keep. Often damaged in collection>
Every site I read on people are talking about gaping and inversion but his mouth
is not even close to looking like any of the pics I've found online.
Ps I attached 2 pics
<Thank you for sharing. I encourage you to read (all) we have archived on WWM re
Can water temperature determine the sex of baby guppies ?
<While frequently mooted among hobbyists, a quick dip into Google Scholar
suggests there's little/no evidence for this, no. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Unexpected Demise of a Silver Dollar
Thanks for the compliments! I have had other people comment on how my silver
dollars look more like Pacu or piranha than other silver dollars
<I wonder what they are?>
That's honestly why I like them because they put on the appearance of being
fierce while actually being mostly docile and cute.
<To stress to other readers: Silver Dollars, Pacu and Piranhas belong to the
same family, and all eat the same things -- just in different proportions!
Silver Dollars can and do eat bite-sized fish, Pacu can take down an Oscar, and
Piranhas eat fruits and seeds infinitely more often than they skeletonise cows,
despite what Hollywood tells you!>
(This is also why I like the eel-like weather loaches, the Geophagus...and my
black Chihuahua, who resembles a hyena but is very sweet)
Should I send you a picture with a more detailed look of his tail fin?
<By all means.>
I still am wondering whether I should treat him for fin rot. It's injured, but I
cannot really tell if the black fin edging is infection or normal.
<Normal. Many of the Serrasalmidae have this feature. Look at photos of Metynnis
lippincottianus for example.>
Also, even though I can keep ammonia low with zeolite, I need to remove other
metabolites with water changes, but I can't test for those (in the main tank I
can track nitrate, but that isn't an option here). How often should I do the
<I'd be taking 10-20% out daily. Quick and easy to do, and should pre-empt any
problems. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Growth on tang barb 6/28/15
Thank you for getting back to me. I will attempt to catch the tang, however, I
will probably wind up having to rearrange the rocks as there are many caves and
arches I have made ( the flame angel loves to zip in and out) What would the
consequences be if I am unsuccessful in removing this algae?
It doesn't appear to bother the tang as I have not observed it flashing or
rubbing on the rocks. Could this be the result of a piece of algae getting
caught in the barb when I cleaned the tank?
There was quite a bit of it due to no cleaning for almost a month. As always, I
greatly appreciate your help.
<Ahh, either way, not likely the algae is doing the fish any harm. Cheers, BobF>
Re: Seeking advice for sick fish
We had the water tested at the store today. They got the same readings as I did.
The three nitrogenous waste compounds are showing to be zero or very close to
<Like Bob, I don't believe in zero nitrate levels. They're like winning lottery
tickets. Probably out there, but a billion-to-one chance of finding one. To
explain: biological filters make nitrate. It's the end product. So between water
changes, nitrate goes up. On top of that, most municipal water supplies have
non-zero nitrate levels. If you live on a mountain top and collect your water
from a babbling brook you might have nitrate-free water, but otherwise, you're
likely dealing with levels between 20-50 mg/l depending on how intensively
re-used your local water supply is. Just like biological filters, sewage farms
turn waste water from homes, industries and agriculture into (relatively)
non-toxic nitrate, which below 50 mg/l is harmless to humans. So, assuming you
have relatively good water out of the tap/faucet, you probably have 20 mg/l
nitrate right from the start. Add that to the fish tank and do weekly water
changes, and you would expect to see anywhere between 25-40 mg/l depending on
how much food you put in the tank and how many fish you are keeping. Zero
nitrate levels are virtually never seen in fish tanks because you'd need
pristine, nitrate-free water to begin with and on top of that a massive amount
of nitrate removal by fast-growing plants. Even if you're cropping handfuls of
plants out of the tank every week, that's still not going to reduce nitrate to
zero. In short: if you have zero nitrate, then either the test kit is wrong or
you're not using it properly. And if this is true for the nitrate test, then
it's hard to take your nitrite and ammonia readings at face value either. Let's
be clear, zero ammonia and nitrite are safe, nearly zero levels of either are
not. Even tiny amounts of these can cause real problems for sensitive fish,
typically things like Mollies, Guppies, dwarf cichlids, Angelfish and other over
bred/inherently sensitive species.>
We removed all the wood. We purchased another plant and some duck weed.
<Duckweed is a good nitrate remover, but a pest in many fish tanks. Certainly
buying it is a first! You can usually find out own in pretty much any pond on
the planet. But in any event, you need a floating plant that grows rapidly.
Other plants have little impact on nitrate because their growth rate isn't
sufficient. Furthermore, floating plants have long roots that hold plenty of
filter bacteria, so they also help improve biological filtration as well as
directly removing ammonia from the water as well!
Win/win. Also bear in mind if the plants are slow growing -- things like Amazon
Swords for example -- their impact on water quality is nil. If you aren't
actively removing excess growth on a weekly basis, then your plants aren't
growing fast enough to improve environmental conditions. As it happens, I just
spent an hour on a podcast last night talking about Guppies, floating plants,
and how these help keep Guppies happy and healthy:
Possibly worth a listen?>
They did not have water sprite. In your opinion should we wait and see if there
are any changes or should we add some kind medication?
<Improve the environment: add an extra filter perhaps; remove junk media (carbon
for example) and replace with more biological media; reduce feeding to every
other day; get/use a nitrite test kit every day or two. All these before adding
medications. Guppy sicknesses are primarily caused by environmental stress and
inbreeding; the addition of salt (1 teaspoon/gallon) helps perk them up,
especially in soft water, and can reduce the toxicity of nitrite and nitrate.
Adding medications is your last action, and only if you can positively identify
a disease (Finrot for example) not just random deaths.>
Reeves turtle over fertile? 6/28/15
Thank you for answering my question last time regarding my gravid turtle!
She laid 2 clutches of eggs since we spoke last, 3 eggs and 6 eggs respectively
which is normal.
A few days ago (her third time) she has been laying eggs very comfortably but to
a total of 9 eggs so far. I'm concerned that its too many and i wonder if there
is something i have been doing wrong?
<No, it's not too many. A single clutch is usually determined by physical space
-- the size of the eggs and how many will fit in the reproductive tract. In her
case, there were probably 6 in the left-hand duct and 3 in the right - although
there could have been as many as 6+6. What I'm saying is that her first clutch
was 9 eggs, laid 6 - then a pause - then 3 more. What you're seeing now is a
true second gestation of eggs. Unusual to be sure, but not rare or dangerous.
<As far as the number of
red tail shark 6/28/15
I have a red tail shark. I have no troubles but I am curious. My tank just
finished cycling and I had a small oil slick problem at the top of the tank. To
my amazement the shark seems to have eaten it. I knew they ate algae. Also he
still goes to the top and swims upside down. He seems to inhale air then as he
comes down he releases bubbles. I was wondering if
this species can breath air? I can find no mention of it online. Thank you for
<Short answer is no, they aren't air breathers, though many fish will inhale the
uppermost layer of water if oxygen levels below the surface aren't great. Couple
this with the oily slick, and these two bits of data suggest a combination of
overfeeding and under-filtering. Specifically, turbulence at the surface will
break down the oily film, dispersing it throughout the water column so the
biological filter can break it down.
Review water turnover rates. A Red-Tail Shark needs a minimum of, say, 55 US
gallons. So with a recommended turnover rate of 6-8 times per hour, that's
330-440 gallons/hour. Check your filter provides that, and if not, add a second
filter. Cheers, Neale.>
Can water temperature determine the sex of baby guppies ?
<There is some evidence to suggest so. Bob Fenner>
Worm? ID? 6/27/15
Cant find anything close to this. Not sure if it is eggs, worm or poop
<My guess is on the last... What do you feed this system? Some sort of gelatin
Re: Worm? ID? 6/27/15
I feed frozen mysis.
<A vote further in the direction of feces/faeces for the English! BobF>
RE: Golden loach Finrot... not a reader 6/27/15
Its gotten worse his whole body is getting it the Betta died, I can't give you
numbers but the test strips I used said all water parameters were safe, the
loach is a goner, couldn't find any medicine on your page or any quick enough,
thank you for your help
<..... Read here:
Coral Identification 6/27/15
Good Afternoon Robert,
I recently purchased a coral from a hobbyist. At the time, he did not know the
name of the coral. I have looked around the web, posted on forums, and received
very different responses. As a leader in the field, I was wondering if you could
help me identify this coral (attached). It is bright orange, and quite a
beautiful piece. Its size is roughly 2" to 2-1/2" in diameter. It looks like
some type of mushroom, but I am not sure. Any help would be tremendously
appreciated as I am trying to identify it so that I can give it proper care..
Thank you for taking the time to read this email.
<Mmm; almost certainly this is a Corallimorpharian... See here:
Re: Coral Identification
Thank you very much for your help, time, and quick response! The information
is very helpful.
<A pleasure to serve. BobF>
Re: Unexpected Demise of a Silver Dollar 6/27/15
Whoops. Was getting so emotional I forgot the picture. (I call him Short gill
because he is missing part of his opercula from when the service gave me him
with cichlids ten years ago, and they ripped part of his opercula off. Those
guys were vicious---they managed to tear a Pleco into
<Hmm... is a wonder they're still in business/licensed to work with
animals. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Unexpected Demise of a Silver Dollar 6/27/15
Dear Wet Web Media Crew,
So the silver dollar in the 12 gallon tank is still about the same as yesterday.
The water current is as how Neale Monks described it should be, so I think it is
high enough. Ammonia is zero. Temperature is the same. I was wondering how I
should determine how often to change the zeolite. The instructions on the box
claim every 2 weeks, but I feel it might be more
frequent than that.
<Agreed. Depends entirely on how much zeolite you use. A large quantity will
take longer to be "used up" than a small handful.>
I could just wait to see how long it takes ammonia to reach non-zero levels, but
I hate that idea because I am basically letting the fish get damaged.
<Quite so. Test daily, and once ammonia is detected, that's a good time to
change; if it took 7 days to get there, then change/recharge the zeolite every 6
Do you have any recommendations? I plan to recharge it with salt water, but I
still want to know how often to switch batches out.
I attached a picture (adjusted for the dimness of the tank---it is nowhere near
that bright inside), because he has a dark ragged edge to his tail fin that may
be fin rot infecting where the loaches nibbled on his fins at night. I'm not
sure if I should medicate him though given the severity of his other problems.
(This picture is from when he saw me and tried to swim to meet me...he breaks my
So...I promise that once I go off to grad school you can be free of all my crazy
debacles. Allow me to explain: as Neale Monks described, my 105 gallon was a
tank set up and serviced by a group of these "professionals" that set up tanks
in hospitals and malls. My family and I thought this was a great idea, because I
liked fish, but we had trouble caring for them
ourselves, and the company (Aquarium Environments Inc) claimed that they would
do all the necessary maintenance for us.
<That would seem to be the idea of these companies. On the other hand, if you
know a trustworthy teenager or college student who has kept fish themselves,
often such people appreciate the job more, and do a better job for less money.
Certainly while I was at university servicing fish tanks was a useful extra
source of cash.>
However, it turned out to be completely misleading---they set it up with
incompatible fish that killed each other, and then when I replaced them less
aggressive fish, they kept getting sick and dying. It wasn't until I had had
enough!-and visited your site-that I realized the services they provided were
simply not enough, and I had to take a stand and maintain the tank when they
I was starting to get down to the bottom of these issues this year, and my fish
were now very healthy. The Geophagus had an incident for a while, but I've been
able to clear that up as well---his lateral line erosion is being recovered with
iridescent blue scales! So I was very disappointed when this silver dollar all
of a sudden developed CNS issues.
<May simply be old age, in part or in toto.>
I definitely agree with Neale that silver dollars are more skittish than other
fish. One of my other older dollars actually has a crooked tail from when he was
startled by something and slammed hard into the glass---I heard the bones snap.
He healed and is otherwise healthy, but his tail is offset a little.
I must confess that perhaps the service people are inexperienced with skittish
fish as what Neale said about their usual fish choices is correct.
I have been repeatedly told by them that my fish tank is weird--most people they
service have Malawi cichlid tanks, and a few have small fish communities, but
nothing like the weird collection of semi-aggressive things I have. And the
store that they manage focuses primarily on cichlids, tangs, and damselfish. I
have had a hard time getting less aggressive species from them, but the only
other stores in my area are big chain stores that typically have terribly
unhealthy fish. These guys take
good care of their fish for the most part...they just botch it when it comes to
mine, it seems.
<A not uncommon scenario. There's a similar retailer in London that combines
tropical fish sales with servicing fish tanks in hotels and suchlike. It's a
good store, with decent prices and good quality livestock.
But the expertise of some of their staff is a bit biased in the sort of
direction you mention. At the end of the day you pays your money and you takes
your choice. If maintaining a tank is difficult for you, and you need it
serviced, the choosing livestock they can work around quickly and without risk
is probably the way forward. Angels, suitable tetras and
Corydoras/Brochis would work out fine for an Amazonian theme tank.>
I had been hoping to ask for advice from you as to what to finalize as far as
this community setup is concerned before I leave, but unfortunately this
happened. Maybe I will start one final thread about this subject.
Thank you for everything despite my problems. You have been a real eye-opener
for me, and I have the utmost respect for what you guys do. It disgusts me to
see how awful fish are treated, more so than any other pet, and yet I feel up
until recently I was part of the problem, and didn't realize it.
<If you think there are problems in the fishkeeping side of pet ownership, check
out reptiles, especially turtles. Even less information out there, and the
demands they place on their owners make fishkeeping look easy!>
Re: Unexpected Demise of a Silver Dollar 6/27/15
You didn't quite answer my question about the silver dollar's fin condition.
Does it look like I should give him some antibiotics?
<Hmm... didn't download the picture. Distracted by the comment about your
service company. Have now done so. Looks more like a young Pacu to be honest!
Really big eyes for a Silver Dollar. Anyway: handsome fish.>
He was apparently swimming around normally this morning,(a good sign?) but he
isn't able to keep doing it for long.
<Time, proper diet, quiet/calm environment will help.>
Should I give him anything to eat? He hasn't eaten in several days. I could give
him low nitrogen foods like vegetables. He loves all kinds.
<Cool. Would go for it. A small amount of peas or whatever will be worthwhile.>
I am kind of reluctant to get rid of the other silver dollars and replace them
with small tetras as they are also a decade old and otherwise healthy.
<Quite so. Merely commenting on ideas for the future.>
The thing is it is one guy at the service who is constantly trapping the silver
dollars. The other people currently working there aren't this bad but this
particular employee keeps getting sent to me. I know the manager personally;
perhaps I could bring this up with him.
<Uh, yes. "Look Mr. Manager guy, send anyone but Bob - he's damaged/killed a
number of fish through his approach to handling my livestock. The other guys are
great. Send one of them". Job done! Neale.>
Help please. Perc hlth. in a new sys.
I bought a tank raised percula 4 days ago it will eat very little but does eat
and has been breathing rapidly since acclimation. It is the only fish in a newly
cycled 30 gal tank I have 5 Ceriths 4 mass and 5 hermits. The tank has been
cycled for 2 weeks with a pH8.2 amm 0 nitrite 0 nitrate
<You should be registering accumulated Nitrate>
1.025 and temp 80
<Lower this to the mid 70's F>
I have 20 lbs of live rock and a refugium with Chaeto.
What could be causing the rapid breathing. I've also got a pH aimed at the
surface for added surface irritation.
<Agitation... Likely there are some chemical issues; yes, even though this
system is cycled... I would add some activated carbon of quality to your
circulation, lower the temp. and naught else here. Bob Fenner>
Emergency! FW trauma 6/27/15
Hey guys, so I really need some help. I have a 10gal freshwater quarantine tank
and a 60 gal freshwater display tank. Today while doing water changes I got
distracted and accidentally drained all the water from the tank. :'(
I instantly filled it back up and managed to save them before any had
suffocated, but so far one guppy has died, and now my 2 year old angelfish is
laying on her side on the bottom of the tank. I didn't know what else to do so I
put her in a net and, fearing an ammonia spike in the display, stuck her in my
cycled 10 gal. Did I do the right thing or should I have left her?
<The latter. To be clear: draining the tank for a few minutes won't harm the
filter bacteria. So long as they're damp, they're happy. As for the fish, once
put back in water, they'll either recover or not, as the case may be. Moving
them to another tank can be just another stress on them.>
Is there anything else I can do? Right now she's laying in a tank net (I have it
held up by the tank lid) near the top of the water for better oxygen. Any help
as soon as you can would be great! I'll let you know if anything changes.
<Time, turning the lights off, keeping her close to the outflow/most oxygenated
water will all help. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Seeking advice for sick fish 6/27/15
Thank you so much. We are going to take your advice and try the things you
mentioned. (removing the wood, getting the water tested tomorrow, getting those
plants and lowering temperature.)I'll let you know what the fish store
says about the water when they test it. Thanks again! I'll be in touch.
<Thank you; BobF>
Growth on tang barb 6/27/15
Hi Bob..here are updated pictures of the (?) on the tang barb.
Again I apologize for the poor quality (the little bugger is quick!) Your answer
to my prior emails was a possible damaged barb.
<Will change my mind. This appears to definitely be filamentous algae growing on
What ever is on there is definitely growing, is green in color and is attached
by 2 thin strands. When the fish turns, it almost appears to not be attached. I
added pictures from when it was smaller for growth comparison.
I have done water changes and made sure parameters are within specifications.
The diet includes San Francisco Bay Salt Water Multipack (mysis/brine shrimp,
veggies and squid) Ocean Nutrition 2 pellets, live mysis shrimp, Nori sheets and
live ghost shrimp for special treats (they love the thrill of the chase).
Thank you again for your help. Your site is a wealth of information.
<Well; can; you could... catch this fish in a net, pull off the algae. Do take
care as it's really easy and painful to get slashed. I have collected thousands
of Yellows (in Hawaii) and some folks do make a practice of clipping (with small
finger nail clippers) Acanthurid tangs... to prevent slashing of crowded
specimens enroute and holding... Can be done safely; and the white tang will
regenerate. Bob Fenner>
Re: re: Mis-stkg. /Neale
Thank you so much! The people at the fish store do not give any type of that
advice, I actually had someone tell me to get multiple sharks so they won't
attack my other fish and so wouldn't be lonely...
<In the wild at least some "sharks" (mostly Labeo species and their relatives)
may well be social animals, living in groups of dozens, hundreds. But in
captivity virtually all the "sharks" are solitary, with the only obvious
exceptions being Colombian Shark Catfish and Bala/Tricolor Sharks; both these
are gregarious. Do let me direct you to some reading:
Without exception, "sharks" are poor choices for community tanks kept by casual
I bought the Mollie and dwarf gouramis at the same time and nobody told me that
it wouldn't be wise to put them in the same tank
<And some more reading:
Both these types of fish are known "canaries" likely to die first when
conditions aren't good. But sticking with Angels and assorted hardy, peaceful
tetras (specifically: X-Rays, Emperors and Penguins) is a good move, even in
tanks as small as 20 gallons. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Unidentified hitchhiker; WWM resp.
I understand. If they happen to contact you would you please pass my contact
<.... not probable.>
I would just like to get a frag for my 11 year old sons birthday (and I would
enjoy it too). Thank you and thanks for the great service you provide.
Sincerely. Ray Wyatt
<Wish I could be of more help... but for fear of betraying someone's personal
Re: Unexpected Demise of a Silver Dollar 6/26/15
So I put the silver dollar in the 12 gallon tank. Because it had been sitting in
the garage for a while, even though I cleaned out the dust inside I still felt
it would be a good idea to use carbon in the filter for now to help remove any
chemicals. I am using zeolite. I set the temperature to 79 degrees Fahrenheit
I was wrong about him being unable to move: he can swim but he twitches
uncontrollably and cannot maintain an orientation. His fins are somewhat ragged
from the other fish nibbling them but I cannot tell if it is infected. I could
send you a picture but I shaded the aquarium with a dark background to calm him
down...the main aquarium has a dark background and
substrate so I wanted the quarantine tank to not be too much of a change.
I am not sure what to do at this point. Anything I could treat won't fix the
I guess I am just really sad because he went through a lot a decade ago and it
seems like an ignominious end for him. He looks straight at me...it's
<I am not hopeful. 10 years is a reasonable age for a Silver Dollar, and
while they can live longer, that does depend on ideal conditions. If this fish
has been stressed or damaged, it might lack the energy to recover. That
said, a quiet, dark aquarium with lots of oxygen but moderate water current
could work out for him. 12 gallons isn't ideal though for a large specimen, even
for a few days. Do keep tight control on water quality -- no fish will improve
if nitrite and ammonia aren't zero. Do check temperature is correct using a
thermometer (don't trust the dial on the heater -- these
are hopelessly inaccurate). Silver Dollars don't appreciate low temperatures,
they're hothouse flowers really, so 25 C/77 F is about right, possibly a degree
or two higher but do recall warmer water holds less oxygen, and low oxygen
levels are lethal to Silver Dollars. Good luck,
Re: Unexpected Demise of a Silver Dollar 6/26/15
I am using a thermometer. The temperature is between 78-82 degrees, centered on
80. Should I make it a tad lower?
<Unlikely this is an issue; your temperature range sounds fine.>
Should I add air stones to the tank?
<Yes, I would do so.>
Their power sources make a lot of noise so I am reluctant to do it (they tend to
drive my parents nuts).
<Understood. Then at least make sure filtration is brisk with some ruffling of
the surface of the water. Whether done with filtration or a column of air
bubbles, the key aim is to keep the bottom level of water being pulled up to the
top where it can absorb oxygen better.>
Already the water current is quite high. If anything he seems to prefer
sheltering from it behind the plastic plant I put inside. He can't really swim,
so I think a higher current is a bad idea.
I know 12 gallons is not ideal but I am hoping to be able to keep ammonia zero
using zeolite and water changes.
Pretty much the sole space in my parents house for an aquarium is taken up by
the main tank...so I don't think I can go much larger than 12 gallons.
<Good luck, Neale.>
Re: Unexpected Demise of a Silver Dollar; trauma
Edit: The silver dollar rose up and swam haphazardly for a bit, and I realized
his head has been bent to the right side (as in it is misaligned with
his body!). I think my suspicion that it was a concussion is
correct...he must have sustained spinal damage. I am very mad now. I definitely
will have to complain to the service.
<Sounds like a plan. Do stress to them that your tank has some skittish fish
that won't appreciate a "wham, bam, thank you ma'am" approach to tank care. If
you look at the sorts of tanks professionals set up in hotels, shops and so on,
these are usually phlegmatic species (damsels, tangs, Mbuna, goldfish) that
don't need molly-coddling provided filtration and water changes are sufficient.
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands,
Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
- Set-Up 2: Filtration of All
Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps,
Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
- About Livestock: Regional Accounts:,
Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths,
Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
- Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae,
Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges:
Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ
Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms,
Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
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