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Antennellopsis sp. Very narrow single strand colonies. N. Sulawesi image. 

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Updated 12/11/19
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Coral Beauty Angelfish      12/11/19
Hello
<Hello>
We recently had a coral beauty angelfish become sick and die. We removed the fish just as he died. Are you able to identify what the disease is from these photos? It appeared to be white fuzz and fin rot since the side
fin deteriorated away.
<Does look like Lymphocystis, a virulent disease especially common in tanks where fish are already stressed due to poor water quality, unfortunately it has no cure, the only option is to improve the fish health through good nutrition and vitamin supplements, in addition to maintaining pristine water conditions in a stress-free tank.>
Thank you for any help!
<Most welcome. Wil.>


911 Betta Help      12/11/19
Hello WWM Crew,
Background:
20 gallon tall tank
<Mmm; Betta's are better kept in shallower/less deep systems... it's a haul to make it to the surface to grab gulps of air>
Filtered and heated
CO2 day —airstone at night
<Ahh!>
Planted
Stock: albino bristle nosed pleco, 2 adfs, 1 mystery snail, 1 amano shrimp, half moon dragon scale betta, sword tail
My betta has always had fin rot ever since I got him almost a year ago.
<? Unusual... are you sure this appearance is not some type of coloration of the fins?>

I have been able to keep it under control and keep it from progressing and had it come and go. Never had regrowth I think but never done any treatments. Only water changes every week and prime.
<This sounds like (it should be) a fine set up, maintenance program>
Last week I got my tank back in order after letting it go for two weeks where I didn’t do water changes and run my CO2. I had my parameters fail and an algae outbreak. Now that is cleaned up and my parameters are stable
again. I fed everything but did not really pay attention to how everything looked. After I realized my bettas fins were destroyed and he had a white spot on his fins.
<"A" as in a single spot I take it>
I quarantined him in a one gallon and did daily 50% water changes for a week with bettafix.
<Not a fan of this API product, nor Melaleuca for medicine period>

Things are not looking better and the white spot has grown. It’s not fuzzy just white. His right eye is bulging and when taking pics I noticed his scales are a golden shiny color. It’s not dusted but solid except for on his lower fin below his body where it is dusted looking. His fins are shredded and crumpled down.
<... could this fish, system be infested w/ Velvet, Amyloodinium?>
After noticing this I couldn’t tell if it was velvet so I looked at the swordtail which I added two months ago. He didn’t look like this when I got him but is now covered in a dusting of gold shiny metallic. It was really hard to get a picture of as he is constantly moving and the flash light has to reflect on it just right. He is black with a blue hue in the right light and a metallic silver eye normally. But now there is gold all over him in the right light you see it.
<I would treat for Velvet>
First I want to address the betta. I think he has multiple problems, I’m not sure what, I don’t know what to use to treat them, or in what order. It could be bacterial, fungal, Velvet. He has the white spot, bulging right eye, and shredded fins. He wants to live I can tell and is trying to hang in there. He is eating again but wasn’t for the first few days of quarantine. He needs to be medicated at this point and I think I need to make it the right moves or it will progress to far before I can get to it.
<I would return this fish to the 20 (more stable) and treat all for (just) Velvet for now... there are a few approaches; from depriving light to less-than discriminate dyes and metal solutions. You may well have to remove the snails, frogs to elsewhere, perhaps your plants (and run them through a dip/bath to remove the dinoflagellates on returning)>
Please give me your insight with what you think all he has and what medicine as well as brand names to use.
<I'd have you search, read re "Velvet" (for freshwater) of WWM, esp. reviewing this list of medications by Neale Monks: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/fwfishmeds.htm
AND carefully pre- and re-reading the manufacturers information on use>
Pics below include:
Both tanks
<Both? You mention one, and a bowl for treatment. You provide an image of the tank... am not a fan of round/smooth pebbles as substrate... Is the filter here keeping ammonia, nitrite at 0.0 ppm? Nitrate under 20 ppm?>
Betta a month ago at his maintained fin rot state
<I see this>
Betta now with gold coloring on scales and dusting in lower fin
<Can't make out the gold dusting>

White spot on tail fin 7 days ago when moved into quarantine And it now Bulging eye
<Okay; seen>
Sword tail gold dusting
<Again, not discernible (by me). Am going to ask Neale here to review all, present his own response. Bob Fenner>



911 Betta Help     /Neale
<<It is not obvious to me that the the Swordtail is sick at all. Velvet is usually quite obvious (think: icing sugar) and infected fish almost always 'flash' (move rapidly) against rocks as if trying to scratch themselves.
Heavy ventilation of the gill covers is usually obvious too, because Velvet infects the gills almost before anything else. Swordtails are moderately demanding by community tank standards: they are active swimmers, so a tank
at least 2.5 ft, and ideally 3+ feet in length is surely essential. They despise high temperatures, so best kept around 22-25 C (72-77 F) but no higher. Hard, alkaline water is essential. Like other livebearers, they're sensitive to 'old' water and prone to mysterious ailments, such as wasting away, in stuffy or overstocked tanks. Your Betta just looks like a specimen with indifferent genetics. Colouration is normal enough, just not uniform, and the raggedy edges seem to be genetic, rather than the result of Finrot (which would tend to expose fin rays that look like fine bones, as well as patches of white dead tissue and pinkish, inflamed areas). I don't see obvious eye bulging, but if it's just the one eye, that's most likely caused by an injury, and should go down by itself. The use of Epsom Salt
can help to reduce swelling. A dose of 1-3 teaspoons per 5 gallons/20 litres will do the trick. Note that Epsom Salt isn't the same thing as tonic, table, sea or cooking salt. It can be purchased inexpensively online or via drugstores. As for treating Velvet, commercial medications such as eSHa EXIT will do the trick, but with livebearers, if they're all you're keeping, adding salt at a dose of 2-5 gram/litre will do the job with less risk of stress. Indeed, marine salt mix added to livebearer tanks has a mild tonic effect on these fish, even the true freshwater ones like Swordtails, and can be used for some weeks without risk. Cheers, Neale.>>

Ongoing Palythoa problems       12/10/19
Good morning crew,
<Good morning Nicole>
I have been scouring your site and I am sure my answer is there somewhere but I just can't seem to find it.
To keep a long story short every few weeks for many years I will lose a small patch (20-25 heads of thousands) of Palys to this brown jelly type stuff.
<These appear to be some type of sponge >
It will go away for a bit and then rear it's ugly head up again.
I am wondering if there is any one specific thing that causes this condition, or could it be any number of factors and this is simply how Palys react to something they don't like.
Of course I am hoping you can tell me that only one thing could be causing this but I feel like most things in this hobby it won't be that simple.
Thank you in advance.
<Sponges live in almost all marine ecosystems, from the shallowest coral reefs to the deepest, coldest parts of the ocean so, it is very easy that they have adapted to your marine tank; they are filter feeders, not coral eaters, but looks that they are suffocating your Zoas. I suggest to manually remove them; if the rock (s) they are attached to, is (are) easy to take out of the tank, you can remove them with a pair of tweezers or applying hydrogen peroxide directly to the sponges.>
PS while I have your attention, any advice for getting a dart fish out of a deep narrow overflow chamber? ��
<This happens at times and the best solution is to drain the overflow section and try to introduce a narrow net attached to a pvc pipe or some other long object in order to reach and catch the fish in only a few centimeters of water, if access to the overflow is limited, you can try the same but with the net attached to a flexible pipe or hose. Hope this helps. Cheers. Wil.>

Re: Ongoing Palythoa problems       12/10/19
Thank you for the reply.
<Welcome>
Yes I do know about the sponges, they don't really concern me.
I am referring to my Palys turning brown and gooey and disintegrating.
<Ahh, ok... I thought you said this happens when sponges are present.>
Maybe the photo isn't very clear. This has been going on long before the sponges were present and often in colonies where there are no/very little sponges.
Any idea what is causing my Palys to turn brown and gooey?
<May have to do with water chemistry / quality>
It will only happen to a small patch at a time, go away, only to return again on a different patch of Palys.
I have attached 2 more photos that will hopefully show what is going on more clearly.
<Thanks, I can see what you mean more clearly on your excellent pix. Can you please tell me about your water levels (numbers)?>
Thanks again and wish me luck catching the dart fish! ��
<Good luck!... hopefully you take him out soon. Wil.>

Re: Ongoing Palythoa problems       12/10/19
Thanks again. The dart fish actually ended up being super easy to catch; for lack of anywhere to hide he swam straight into my net. Him and his 3 buddies were just added to the display tank yesterday.
<Ahh... good, perhaps you can block or limit the overflow slits a bit so that this won’t happen again, slender fish like your dart fish can easily pass through them.>
So back to the Paly problem, I have only recently started testing/dosing after 6 years in the hobby and have attached photos of my logs.
<Okay, let’s see>
My salinity is always at 1.026. I really don't see it being parameters though as this has been going on forever and only seems to affect a very small portion of Palys at a time.
<I don’t see readings re HPO4 and Nitrate... do you dose iodine?>
I know I have some allelopathy issues in the tank due to an unusual mix of corals I introduced before I knew what allelopathy was, so this is my suspicion.
<You may be right here>
I still find it odd that it only affects tiny patches of Palys at a time though.
<Is there any other Cnidarian life in the tank? Maybe nearby the Palythoa colony?>
I was just hoping maybe there was only one possible cause for Palys turning brown and gooey but I guess that is not the case.
Thanks again for your help
<Welcome. Wil.>
Re: Ongoing Palythoa problems       12/10/19

He jumped over the overflow, no way he would fit through the slits. Luckily the tank itself is pretty well covered.
<Good>
I don't have a phosphate test kit yet, I started testing nitrates in the last few days, you will notice nitrite/nitrate readings on the last few logs on the far right.
<You're right, I missed this.>
Nitrites are always 0, nitrates have been hovering around 5-10ppm although I am not a big fan of my seachem test kit (hard to read)
and plan to get a new brand soon. All other tests are Salifert.
<I use Salifert mostly... a very reliable, easy to read test kit brand.>
I do not dose iodine, I will look into this.
<Iodine is required by most corals but should be dose with caution.>
As I said I am very new to the whole testing/dosing thing, I have always relied on visual observation and frequent water changes in the past, have had a lot of luck both good and bad haha so have decided recently to step up my game and force myself to understand the chemistry behind my aquarium.
<Good decision>
There are lots of corals in the tank, many of which I know don't mix well.
Ricordea, green hairy mushrooms, a few leathers including Colts/devils hand/ pink cabbage, a hammer coral, many Rock flower anemones etc.
But honestly Palys are the most prevalent thing in the tank, mostly due to a very invasive pale bluish green type that is sometimes the kind melting, sometimes not. I have added some activated carbon recently and plan to add more soon,
<Don't forget to suspend activated carbon use when dosing>
but I also know I need to rethink some of my coral selection but I'm not totally sure which to keep and which to move yet!
By the way I don't think I mentioned, this is a heavily stocked 150 gallon tank with a 30 or 40 gallon sump. It started as a 75 gallon 6 years ago and I upgraded to 150 about a year ago.
<Do bear in mind that corals need enough space to open freely without touching the other corals. Cheers. Wil.>



Nano tank chilling issues       12/10/19
Dear Team
<Srinivas>
Am facing issues with cooling my Nano tank
I reside in India and am in a city which is hot and humid throughout the year. The room temperature is about 34 and the water temperature normally is about 31-32 degrees Celsius.
<Yikes; warm>
My setup details are as under:
I have two separate sumps with two chambers each.
The display overflows 40% of water to first sump holds macroalgae and DSB.
It overflows to the second sump which hosts the chiller in the first chamber. 60% of the overflow from the display falls in the first chamber.
The return pump is placed in the second chamber of the second pump which received water post skimming. The return pump is a Sicce silent 1.0 model which pushes about 900 lph to the Nano display Tank which is a 16 inch cube
<No graphic came through>
Return
DISPLAY
Drain 2
drain 1
Chiller Out
O
I
U
Chaetomorpha
N
T
DSB
Skimmer
Chiller
1 HP
Chiller Pump
Return Pump
The volume of water is as under:
Sump 1 chamber 1: 6 gallons net
Sump 1 chamber 2: 5 gallons net (sand level excluded)
Sump 2 chamber 1: 7 gallons net
Sump 2 chamber 2: 3 gallons net
Display volume (net): 15 gallons net water volume
I has a six footer aquarium previously (discontinued post relocation to another city) and a chiller for that size. Have a Hailea 1000B model suited for big aquariums. Am using the same chiller for this Nano set up
<Wow!>
The chiller is oversized for this tank beyond doubt and chills the water within few minutes.
The chiller kicks on and cuts off way too frequently.
<Mmm; you might contact the manufacturer re changing out, replacing the controller for one with a wider on/off temperature range setting>
I am also facing challenges in maintaining the water temperature stable.
The display, Sump 1 and the sump 2 all have different temperatures even post running the chiller for long time.
<? Likely due to not much water flow through all; can you increase this?>
The chamber where the chiller outlet is situated has the lest temperature (chamber 1 sump2)
The display had the maximum temperature with a variation of 0.7-1 degree Celsius.
<This is about the most I would allow>
Please advise how I can have a uniform temperature across.
<More circulation in the main tank, more flow through the sumps>
Is it the issue of an oversized chiller cutting off and kicking on frequently?
<Might not be... and for what it's worth (esp. electrical energy cost wise), I'd get/use a much smaller (like 1/8HP) chiller here... and not use the current 1HP>
Or is the matter of flow rate from chiller ?
<Not just/only the chiller, but the rest of the system. Putting (foam) insulation around much, all the sides of the sumps might well help, but I'd just look into increasing flow in all>
I am using a pump rated for 3000 litres per hour.
<?! Well, this "should do it" here, but obviously not>
Will a smaller chilling unit provide uniformity and more stability?
<Yes it should>
Warm Regards,
Srinivas Manian
India
<Bob Fenner>

Bizarre Clownfish question       12/10/19
Hi, this has not happened to my clownfish but another reefer. However, I'm totally curious as to how this could have occurred and what you think about it.
I will paste his comments here with the pics. Such a strange occurrence!
What do you think? Thanks!
<See below>
"Help! Female Clown with burst belly!     

9:39 am
Well, I’ve had her for years. She lays eggs all the time and it seems like it’s catching up to her. I have no clue what to do. She is acting fine and eating, rubbing against her anemone. She has a belly full of eggs. I know there’s probably zero I can do and I’m hoping Mother Nature just does what she needs to do and she will be ok. She’s absolutely beautiful.
1:15 pm
I won’t get her out now. She needs to start laying those eggs ASAP so then I can better check the cut. Getting her our will stress her more since she will have nowhere to lay her eggs. Don’t want to do that. As far as a sharp object goes no. She’s on her anemone with her partner all day long. As far i can tell they’ll she will start laying them today. They’re already obsessively cleaning the base of the rock where they lay all the time.
4:04 pm
Update: she’s laying eggs right now. They have a pretty big clutch so far..
4:28 pm
She’s amazing. To be quite honest I’ve seen her day in and out for the past 5 years every single Day. She’s acting as normal as ever like it ain’t a thang. I don’t know what to make or her lol. I knew getting her out of her home would have been a mistake. She was going to start laying any minute.
I’ll keep y’all posted.
5:06 pm
She's a champ...laying her eggs like she has many times before.
Next day 8:15 am
Morning update:
she laid all of her eggs and her belly is back to normal size. The opening isn't stretching out anymore which Im hoping will heal soon. She's eating like a shark and acting 100% normal.
Something tells me this is a common occurrence with clownfish that lay eggs all the time. Ill keep a close eye on her.
Thank you all that chimed in. She's a little beast!"
<No images came through... I take it this was a report of a tear in the gut wall... likely due to external trauma. It reads like it will heal. Bob Fenner>
Re: Bizarre Clownfish question       12/10/19

Oh, my thought is an Isopod or similar but wanted a professional opinion.
Thanks
<An isopod? Does this show in an image? The ones that are parasitic on Clownfishes don't cut tears in their hosts. Bob Fenner>

Re: giant gourami diet      12/9/19
Thanks as always!
<De nada, Neale.>

Eel tank      12/9/19
Greetings Mr. Fenner & Crew
<Hi Kirk.>
Long story shortened, added a Gymnothorax fimbriatus about 6 months ago, he ate a couple young Maroon Clowns I added, I realize I won’t be able to add any small fish to this tank, removing him I have deemed VERY difficult as the tank is 5’x5’x2.5’. I have a large reef tank as well, I have always wanted an Eel tank. I would probably make an Enchelycore pardalis the next addition and feature fish. I’ve read the WWM article, which says there is no way to tell the sex.
<Still none to my knowledge.>
One online site sells them as “Male” (for more money) and “Female” a few hundred less. My guess is they are just hiking up the price on the ones with more orange coloration, sound right?
<Probably. Am not aware of any evidence or even scientific study about color differences between sexes (sexual dichromatism) in this species.>
Other question is would Gymnothorax favagineus be ill advised as the final addition?
<Gymnothorax favagineus gets much bigger than the other two species. Have little doubt my old G. favagineus would have eaten an adult G. fimbriatus. Better choose species with approx. the same adult size and temper.>
Too much Eel for the other two? If so, what would you recommend, at roughly 460 gallons was hoping 3 good sized would be ok? I like Muraena lentiginosa as well, though it is not very large.
<The size of the tank should not be a problem for 3 medium sized eels (such as G. fimbriatus), but housing Gymnothorax and Enchelycore eels together is always a risk. G. fimbriatus and E. pardalis can both be quite aggressive to new additions. Your chances are best when all the eels have about the same size and when you provide a sufficient number of caves to reduce stress and aggression. Beware, they still might not get along fine depending on their individual temper. Also, I agree with M. lentiginosa being a little small compared to your other choices, Muraena pavonia is similar and gets larger. To name a few more species: Gymnothorax rueppelliae is about the same size as G. fimbriatus. Gymnothorax kidako is only slightly larger.>
Thank you for your fantastic site, Happy Holidays
Kirk R
<Thanks. Wishing you happy holidays, too. Marco.>

re: Skinny guppy not eating     12/8/19
Thanks so much Neal,
<Welcome.>
Also the guppies have been medicated 2x previously with Levamisole and Praziquantel so unless the fish has been somehow reinfected with worms I think worms is probably unlikely.
<Indeed.>
I'll look into that disease.
Though I mean Id rather try and treat the guppy alone or something rather than do nothing? Unsure.
<Understood, but sometimes with small fish, it simply isn't cost effective to treat them. By the time symptoms appear, the time scale available to actually turn things around is very limited, and the medications may cost several times more than the fish itself. Furthermore, excessive medications
are in themselves stressful for fish, and your aquarium filter, so may create problems beyond the ones you're dealing with. This isn't to say we shouldn't be humane and leave small fish to suffer, but rather to observe that the chances of fixing things may be very slight, and the easiest approach may be to euthanise the fish if it isn't getting better, if only to prevent further suffering and to minimise the risk of infecting healthy fish kept alongside it. Cheers, Neale.>
re: Skinny guppy not eating     12/8/19

Hi again Neale, Thanks for your reply
I just saw the guppy scratch himself on the gravel 4x in a row. Does that point more strongly toward a particular disease?
<Such behaviour, called 'Flashing', can indicate external parasites like Whitespot, but might equally mean the fish is simply itchy, just as humans can be itchy without implying they have fleas!>
Also a rummy nose has 3 white dots but the white dots look a lot smaller than ich. (Tank was at 29 degrees incase of ich but it dropped to 28 unsure why) How do I treat that? And what is it? Is it guppy disease?
<More likely Velvet, which resembles powdered / icing sugar, whereas Ick is more like the size of salt grains.>
Thanks so much.
<Velvet is quite common, but easily treated using standard commercial medications. It infects the gills first, which can cause laboured breathing in fish, so that's another sign to look for. The old 'salt and heat' method can work well, but if you're able, a reliable anti-Velvet medication such as eSHa EXIT or Waterlife Protozin is the best approach. Do remember to remove carbon, if used, while medicating. Cheers, Neale.>
re: Skinny guppy not eating     12/8/19

Hi again Neale,
Thanks for your reply.
<Welcome.>
Looking through my tank records I now realise this guppy was a new guppy (one of the survivors from the ones I got in late October) has not been treated with Levamisole so it is possible and even probable it has worms.
Thinking of QT it in tank water in a tub and medicating it tomorrow.
<Fair enough.>
If it doesn't improve then it may have an internal infection or something more vague.
<Indeed.>
Though the dots on the rummy nose are concerning. Should I put my temperature slowly back down to 26 or leave it around 29?
<Up high will be fine for both Guppies and Rummynoses, which can thrive at 28-30 C, assuming good oxygenation of the water. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Hello Question about acrylic crazing or seam failure.     12/8/19
Yes the stand is very sturdy and the tank has a built in cushion at ye bottom. It’s for my WC Frontosa Mpembew colony so wanted your expert opinion.
<Ahh, I too raise frontosa, but not from this locality>
Thanks and I will use this tank until any issue. Thanks
<Certainly welcome, BobF>

Orandas with raw reddish patches and white bumps       12/7/19
I’ve spent hours looking through your site, (THANK YOU for it’s existence!), but couldn’t find any images with descriptions that I could be sure matched mine. So, I’ll give writing in a try!
<Sure thing, and thanks for the kind words.>
Several weeks ago I thought I noticed the beginnings of an inch infection and treated the entire tank with salt. I added a tablespoon for every 5 gallons, then repeated two days later. The white spots seemed to have gotten better, but there’s been a raw “meaty” outbreak on the tail of one for a while now that has gotten worse, and another has a white round eruption and is hanging out at the bottom of the tank more than usual. The third seems fine.
I have a 65 gallon tank with a 406 Fluval and have under gravel filters with 2 power heads. The air pump is for a 100 gallon tank and the tank has plenty of aeration. I used to feed them Tetra Goldfish Flakes and sometimes frozen brine shrimp, but I thought I might be introducing disease with the shrimp and stopped that. Now I feed them North Fin Premium Goldfish pellets that sink. (I haven’t noticed any difference in the fish with the change of food and it’s been almost a year.) I measured the ammonia levels and they are zero. There are 3 goldfish, two of which I need help with.
I have sharpened the images so their scales appear more pronounced in some images more than they actually are, but I wanted the outbreaks to be well defined.
Fish one has had a reddish outbreak for months now and it’s getting worse. Changing the tank water and using Melafix alone, then later Melafix with Pimafix, hasn’t cured it.
<Indeed; both are fairly useless, or at least, unreliable.>
About a year or so ago I had another fish that was also having eruptions and treated the tank with Amoxicillin. I used 1 Capsule (500mg.) per 20 gallons every day for 7 days. Overall, there seemed to be improvement, however one fish may have had some kind of scale damage that could not be repaired and had a large, cottony “growth” on it’s side. It behaved normally and seemed unaffected by it. Fish one behaves normally, but the red and raw looking patches are getting worse. Did the salt make it worse?
<Nope. Low salt concentrations are completely harmless to Carassius auratus.>
Fish two was fine, except that now it appears that a white growth is appearing on it’s side. There appears to be some white on it’s head too. Is that ich? However, this is the one that’s bothering me because it suddenly is spending lots of time on the bottom of the tank and none of them have ever done that before without dire consequences. (The end is near.) Tomorrow I’ll change the tank water. I was thinking of leaving the charcoal out of the fluvial and treating with the Amoxicillin again.
<Which won't help if the problem is viral, which is what I suspect.>
All of their fins appear pretty normal. No pronounced red streaks or tears. I am desperate to get my fish healthy and happy again. I’ve kept fancy goldfish for about 40 years and I’ve never had struggles like this before. I do believe there might be something in the tap water, but I don’t know for sure. I always use AmQuel Plus and NovAqua when I change the water and add 5 tablespoons of aquarium salt for every 5 gallons of new water.
My fish and I thank you in advance for any expert advice we can get! Thank you SO much!
<Do look at photos of Carp Pox on Goldfish. This is moderately common, but alas, there's no treatment. A vet may be able to remove some lesions, but beyond that, it's a case of waiting for the immune system to deal with it. Under good conditions, that can happen, but it will take months, even years, of good care. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Orandas with raw reddish patches and white bumps       12/7/19

Hi Neale. Thank you SO much for your kind and generous response. Does this reply mean that you were able to open the jpegs?
<Yes, no problem opening and examining the images. The thing is, bloody sores and white growths are actually characteristic of a range of diseases. Bacterial infections including plain old Finrot on the one hand, and the much more sinister Septicaemia on the other. Viral infections, notably Carp Pox, can produce pinkish-white growths on the body too, though usually without obvious evidence of bleeding. So to some extent I can point you in the right direction, but you need to look at those possibilities, compare them with images online, and study things like the behaviour of your fish, and whether the tissue looks actively flaking and bleeding (bacteria infection more likely) or simply wart- or tumour-like (in which case a viral cause might be suspected). It's really difficult to diagnose viral infections in fish, with only one or two having obvious symptoms (Lymphocystis springs to mind).>
If not, I wonder where I would post the images? Would it be helpful to resend them at a smaller size? I’m a photographer and spent some time getting the best images I could. I will search for Carp pox on goldfish. And, yes, I have wondered if some of the issues were viral. I suspect for sure that was true on one fish I had that never got better no matter what I did. I hate to admit it, and still feel horrible about it to this day, but he was so unsightly with a large growth on his side that I euthanized him, even though he wasn’t bothered by it and in face seemed kind of happy. Oh Lord… I’m a murderer!
<Yikes!>
So - if you have time to let me know if you were able to see the images and if not, if it would help to resend them smaller, please let me know. Otherwise, I’ll just work on keeping the water as clean as possible and monitor carefully.
Thank you again! Edward
<Glad to help, and feel free to keep us posted with any further changes or symptoms you come across. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Orandas with raw reddish patches and white bumps       12/7/19

Hi again. I looked at images of Carp pox, and that is what I concluded the fish I euthanized had.
<Understood.>
However, the sores the two fish have now don’t have the same look as he did, but I know that that virus could be contagious.
<Tricky this one. Yes, viruses should be contagious. But in reality, with most if not all of the fish virus infections we encounter, they are unlikely to transfer to otherwise healthy fish. For some reason there needs to be a stress factor at work, such as inappropriate water chemistry or acute physical trauma (such as fish tattooing) before the virus 'jumps across' to other fish.>
That could explain why two have sores and one doesn’t. Perhaps that one is immune to it?
<Exactly so.>
And maybe there is a secondary infection on top of it in the one fish with the red sores?
<Certainly possible, and treating as per a systemic bacteria infection is worth a shot. There is a form of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia occasionally seen in fish that does seem to be a combination of virus and bacterial agents, so the use of antibiotics can help. Symptoms include reddish patches on the body, bloating, disinterest in food, and eventually death. There isn't a known cure as such, but thankfully it's pretty rare. Caught early on, as I say, antibiotics may help, and the fish's own immune system kick in strongly enough to remove the virus. But with most of these viral infections that's about all we can do, because there are no commercially available antiviral medicines useful on fish. Fortunately, they are rarely contagious, so we don't encounter them very often.>
Doing all that I can. Thanks again! Edward
<The best you can do is all you can do. Good luck, Neale.>

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