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Apogon cyanosoma Bleeker 1853, the Yellow-Striped Cardinalfish. Indo-Pacific including the Red Sea. To three inches in length. S. Leyte 2013

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Updated 5/29/2016
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner
PLEASE: Write reviews of my works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF

New Wrasse additions   5/29/16
Hello WWM Crew,
I have a 12' 460 gallon aquarium, stocked with a 5.5" Harlequin Tusk (can be very aggressive to new additions- he was particularly so with my Birdmouth Wrasse who he chased repeatedly), a 6" Birdmouth Wrasse, 5" Majestic Angel, big Snowflake and Zebra Moray and a 9-10" Golden Puffer amongst a number of Domino Damsels. I was thinking about adding at the same time a large Sling-Jaw Wrasse (Epibulus insidiator), a Moon Wrasse (Thalassoma lunare) and a Yellow Moon Wrasse (Thalassoma lutescens) to the mix. I have plenty of live rock split into two islands with a large open water swimming space in the centre of the tank. Do you think these Wrasse<s> would be suitable with my current stock and with each other, particularly adding the two Thalassoma wrasse?
<Yes; I think these additions will work; I'd add all at the same time. The combination of adding all at once should diffuse aggression by the Choerodon, others>
Lastly, slightly off topic I have had both the Harlequin Tusk and Majestic Angel for 3.5 years now and have noticed minimal growth in both, particularly with the Majestic. Do you know of any reason for why this may be the case?
<Either something/s missing or too much... you have sufficient feeding?>
Perhaps as I see them every day I don't notice the growth as much.
Thank you for your time and advice, I appreciate it a lot!
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

8+ week cycle   5/29/16
Sorry to impose again, but I am confused. Eight plus weeks into cycling my tank. Everything was looking good - but it was taking a long time to get a safe Nitrate reading.
<Do you really mean this? Anything between 0 and 20 mg/l nitrate is ideal for a freshwater aquarium. Up to 40 mg/l is okay for standard community fish (tetras, barbs, catfish, etc.) though cichlids (such as Angels and Rams) tend to be disease-prone when nitrates get into this range, especially if water changes are infrequent.>
I did partial water changes, fed the bacteria occasionally, etc. Just now I tested Nitrates (>20ppm) but Ammonia is back up to 0.25 ppm (?).
<Right. Now, two things to do here. Check water tap water first. If your tap water has this trace level of ammonia AFTER being treated with water conditioner, your ammonia test kit is detecting "safe" neutralised chloramine. So nothing to worry about. Only a problem if the aquarium has HIGHER ammonia than the treated tap water, because that means biological filtration isn't happening properly/quickly enough. Immature filter, too much food, too many fish, not enough filter media or flow rate, etc. The nitrate level in your water should be relatively low, depending a bit on where you live (agricultural and urban areas can have quite high nitrate levels). But whatever, the nitrate should be lower than in the aquarium because the biological filter ADDS to the amount of nitrate when it does biological filtration. Make sense?>
I do use Prime daily - and the Seachem Ammonia Alert is <0.02. What am I doing wrong?
<Possibly nothing. Assuming you treat your water and your filter is properly set up, the filter should mature within 6 weeks. Of course that assumes you were providing a source of ammonia, like pinches of fish food or drops of household ammonia.>
My tap water is treated with Chloramine.......will I never be able to have a safe tank? R/O and bottled water are out of the question. It's a 10 gallon tank
<Stocking 10 gallon tanks is difficult. Most of the stuff sold is too big.
Do choose carefully. Have a read: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_5/volume_5_3/stocking.htm
Some ideas there, but fish of similar size/habits could work too. Feel free to ask.>
with 6 plants (thriving), heater, filter, sponge filter, airstone and UV sterilizer.
<This latter is probably overkill.>
Any advice would be appreciated. Thanks again, Eve
<Personally, I favour the nitrite (not nitrate) test kit as the one less likely to give "false positive" readings. If nitrite is zero, and you have been supplying an ammonia source to jump-start the filter, I'd assume the filter is ready, and start stocking. A few small, hardy types would be ideal. One of the smaller Corydoras species for example, or a robust little cyprinid like Tanichthys spp. (these are best in cool tanks though, even room temperature). Cheers, Neale.>

Worms in my tank!   5/29/16
Hi, I have found a heap of tiny thread like worms in my freshwater tanks.
They seem to be float/swimming around in the water but haven't seen any on the glass. In the water they look white but when I get them out of the water they turn pink/red. I'm worried they are detrimental to my fish and/or tanks.
<They are not.>
I've searched your other worm related articles but ant seem to find a description that fits. I have attached some photos below. If you are able to help me understand what they are and the dangers of them in my tank I would be very appreciative!
<No danger at all. But do indicate surplus organic matter for them to feed on, whether directly or via the microbes acting as decomposers.>
The tanks they are found in house Bristlenose catfish, and various other L number catfish so the tanks can get quite messy between cleans (each weekend). Thanks in advance for any and all advice!
<Answered your question right there. I'd ignore them, but I'd also keep a better grip on tank cleanliness, so that over time the populations of worms declined. Too much organic matter in the tank means your filter is having to work harder than it should, and nitrate levels are going to end up a bit higher than they would otherwise. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Worms in my tank!   5/29/16
Thank you VERY much Neal! I was starting to panic.
The tanks that house the catfish are my two bottom racks so gravel vaccing is always difficult using traditional gravity fed vacs but I do use the Eheim quick vac pro that is battery operated
<Never found these much use, to be honest.>
and 50% water change each Saturday.
<Much more useful.>
I may need to look at how my tanks are set up and remove the messier cats to a higher tank to make gravel cleaning more effective. As long as I know they are not something harmful I can deal with this. Thank you very much!
<Welcome. Neale.>


Trachyphyllia geoffroyi   5/29/16
For many years I had a Trachyphyllia geoffroyi living in my salt water take, about 14 years. Overtime, this coral became very large and seemed to split, now the smaller split portion drifted off on its own.
For now, we have this split portion living in a glass jar as he will float out and drift amongst the rocks. I don’t want him to tear himself.
My question is, he doesn’t seem to have a anchor or coral base.
Will this just develop in time vs. attaching himself to a rock?
<Once floating... I'd anchor this specimen. There are a few techniques here: >
Any suggestions are welcome. My tank is a 75 gallon 2-3 inch sand bed 100+ pounds of live rock with most LPS, one type of SPS given to me by a friend and 2 mated tank born/raised (so I was told) clowns that I have had for ever also. One Banggai Cardinal, one very large old yellow watchman goby (who isn’t really yellow anymore), a pencil sea urchin and a serpent star fish nothing else. LED lights. I have had my tank for the past 15 years.
I would love to hear back from you as to your ideas, recommendations on the Trachyphyllia geoffroy “baby?”
I love your website and have used this sight multiple times over the past 15 years. My tank would not be what it is today without your website!
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

auriga with ick
I have a 180 FOWLR with inverts that has been set up for three years. I only have seven fish: a 7 inch Hawaiian Naso, a 4 inch Melanarus Wrasse, a 4 inch Solar Fairy Wrasse, a 4 inch Magnificent Foxface, a 4 inch Auriga Butterfly and two 3 inch Zebra Barred Dartfish.
I have had the Auriga since the beginning. Tonight I noticed it is plastered with ick.
<Yikes. Wonder what triggered this infestation (from latent, in-tank population)>
There have been no changes to the tank for months. None of the other fish are showing signs yet. I have a 30 gallon that I can quickly set up as a quarantine with water from the main tank Can an Auriga be treated with copper?.
<Yes... are "mid" hardy to Cu++ exposure; but this, along w/ reduced spg is the route I would go here for now. IF the entire pop. of fishes show similar effects, I would switch to CP... Chloroquine; as gone over on WWM>
If not what would be best? The fish is still eating but I do not know for how long. thanks for your help.
<Need to move NOW... run through a pH adjusted freshwater bath enroute. Bob Fenner>

Corydoras bilineatus 'San Juan'; obs. to share.       5/28/16
Hello guys,
<Hello Joanne,>
I recently got a group of 6 Corydoras bilineatus 'San Juan' and thought I'd share a few observations.
<Please do.>
These were recent imports but they all look healthy and are settling in well. They eat anything that comes their way and don't seem to be very fussy in regards to temperature or water hardness/softness.
<True for the genus Corydoras generally, provided extremes are avoided.>
What little information I could find about them suggests that they are somewhat more delicate than the majority of Corys and are sensitive to water parameters (at least as regards to breeding).
<I think that's probably true for most of the wild-caught Corydoras. Hardy, but not quite so hardy as the farmed fish that most aquarists are familiar with.>
Most information I found suggests that these are not easy to breed. I wonder if this is due to any innate sensitivity or if it is just that these Corys have not been bred in captivity for lots of generations.
<Oh, yes, I do agree with this; long-term farmed fish generally spawn without the same need for triggers that wild-caught fish require. Those fish one or two generations down from the wild fish probably require these triggers too.>
Look at angels and discus, the wild caught fish are much more sensitive and more difficult to acclimate or breed than the strains that have been in captivity for a long time.
<Precisely. Farmed Discus are immeasurably easier to keep than the wild fish.>
The other thing I have seen is that these fish are definitely mid-water swimmers. That was a surprise!
<Indeed! But in fairness, Corydoras bilineatus is one of the "Corydoras elegans" group that are more midwater-y than some of the other tribes of Corydoras. There's a whole range really. From almost tetra-like midwater swimmers at the Corydoras habrosus end of things right the way through to the long-nose Corydoras such as Corydoras septentrionalis that spend a huge amount of time snout-deep in the sand. The body shape is a good clue, the robust, deep bellied shape of Corydoras elegans-group catfish contrasting with the long-snouted, flat bellied shape of Corydoras septentrionalis.>
There are other mid-water Corys of course but they are definitely a minority. When I feed the tank they will go down to the bottom to get food, but the rest of the time they like to swim in the middle of the tank.
They like to "vacuum" the plants and will even swim near the surface to nibble on the roots of the floating plants.
<This sounds all very normal to me. Corydoras generally will do precisely the sorts of things you describe given the opportunity.>
I haven't found any written references to this behavior but did find some videos on YouTube where they behave exactly the same way. Other than this they have typical Cory behavior.
If you know of any special requirements for these Corys I'd love to know!
<Corydoras bilineatus isn't widely kept, but anything said about Corydoras elegans applies to them. Overhead shade, coolish water (22-24 C is ideal), lots of oxygen, and not too much depth (they need to be able to gulp air from the surface easily) are the main things. Avoiding very hard water is helpful, but Corydoras generally seem much less fussed by water chemistry than water quality and oxygenation. Obviously the bigger the group, the better. Sandy substrate is, in my opinion, a must.>
<Thanks for your very informative observations. Will certainly share!
Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Corydoras bilineatus 'San Juan'      5/28/16

Thank you! I had not realized these were in the C. elegans group, that is very helpful.
<Ah yes; there are various reviews of the genus, some accessible via Google Scholar.>
They are in QT right now, was planning on putting them in my community tank but now think it would be nice to set up a tank just for them. Sand bottom, lots of plants. It would be nice if I can get them to breed!
<Presumably much like C. elegans, though that certainly isn't as easy to breed as some of the others; I've bred Corydoras paleatus of course, but then again, who hasn't?!
As suggested in the above article, a diverse diet and the use of cool water are probably important spawning triggers you could try.>
Thanks again!
<Most welcome. Neale.>

Sling-Jaw Wrasse. Discerning Epibulus spp.       5/28/16
Hi Guys
I have been trying to find a definitive answer to identifying the differences between the two Sling-Jaw Wrasse species, Epibulus insidiator and Epibulus brevis but keep finding contradictory information. I have gathered that there are differences in colours as they mature within each species and between the species but am not completely sure what these are. The reason I ask is that there is a 3.5" Sling-Jaw at my local fish shop but I don't know which species it is.
<Almost all specimens sold in the trade are E. insidiator. Oh, this lifted from FishBase re E. brevis: This species is distinguished from its only congener Epibulus insidiator by the relatively drab coloration of the male; a prominent black pigment on the pectoral fins of most females (vs. absent); smaller size with slightly longer pectoral fins">
It changes colour frequently from a grey-brown to much lighter version of this (I assume depending on its mood) and as it is the only one of its genus present I am unable to compare it with any others of similar size for differences.
<Look for the dark pectoral fin base....>
I am looking to add a Epibulus insidiator to my aquarium so would like to make sure I buy the correct species. I hope you can help me with this and I appreciate your time!
Many thanks,
<See the pix on FB... The two species are rather distinctive. Bob Fenner>

Growth on an angelfish fin. Diag. w/ no data, blurry pic.       5/28/16
This is a slightly blurry picture of my black and grey striped angelfish.
<And uncropped....>
it has like a white trail floating on the head fin. I can't tell if there air bubbles tiny eggs but it's just floating on the fin. Is this a problem ?is this normal ?I've never had angelfish before.
<... it may well that the Pleco is riding it. READ here:
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>

Re: Please help     5/27/16
Ok, so this is the plan. Move the hammers to the 60. How much of new water to old water ratio be?
<About half>
If the old water is not good (chemical warfare, no nutrients) then may be start with 100% fresh water?
<Not I>
You talk about triple dose 2 tanks but I am not familiar with the medication. You mean every three days, I dose the tank 3 times a day and for how long? Is this the iodine coral dip?
<See WWM re. B>
Thanks! Dai

Royal Gramma Scales     5/27/16
<5 megs of uncropped pix? See our requirements in writing us please>
Hi Crew,
So I have a new issue with an old resident (possibly oldest, since tank started so maybe 4-5 years now!). My royal gramma has recently been developing scales that are somewhat more opaque than his other scales.
<.Mmm; wish the pix were better resolved... Do I see you have more than one specimen...? The mal-affected one is likely just getting physically beat>
This seems to have been spreading/growing which leads me to believe it may be an infection of some kind. This has not been noticed in any other fish in the DT thus far, and it has spanned several months (I thought maybe it had been a run in with somebody and just needed time).
His appetite doesn't seem too off, and he spends some of his time swimming and some hunkered down in his giant conch shell. I snapped a few pics to give you an idea of the issue. Water parameters 1.026, 0 ammonia, 0 nitrite, .10 nitrate, Ca 428ppm, Alk 176 ppm, I dose vinegar 3mL an hour, protein skimmer, filter sock, remote DSB, and grow hair algae in the sump to export. Overall pretty stable but have had twice in the past year times where salinity has fallen and recovered within an hour thanks to my filter sock overflowing. Made me wonder if I absolutely need it, but when I tried
going without a sock the coral didn't like it much. In fact my Duncan and Torch still seem a bit unhappy from it. Other inhabitants include: Powder Brown Tang, Hippo Tang, Coris Wrasse,
<Likeliest beater>

Fairy Wrasse, Blue Throat Trigger, pair of Ocellaris Clowns, Starry Blenny,

Firefish, Orange Spotted Goby w/ Randall's Pistol Shrimp.
I'm hoping you will know what this is and how to treat.
<Move the fish elsewhere>
I have not done anything yet, catching him is a bit of a trick but I think removing the whole shell at night is the way to go. Once separated from the shell I can treat.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Help with Betta       5/26/16
Okay, perfect! Hearing that makes me feel much better! Thanks again for all of your help, it's very appreciated! Have a nice day!
<And you, B>

Please help. Cnid. allelopathy in a new, large sys.       5/26/16
Hello Mr. Fenner,
<Hey Dai>
I hope you can point me in the right direction. I have a 265 gallon reef tank that I set up 4 months ago. I have sump/refugium, 4" carbon reactor, 6" media reactor with media pellets, 8" skimmer. Lights are 4 Hydra 26 HDs.
Nitrate /phosphate is zero

<Mmm; stop here: You know that all bio-mineralizing life requires "some" NO3 and HPO4? W/o these basic chemical nutrients all your "corals" will be very stressed/starved>
and the water is within reef parameters. The tank has 3 sections. Left is Zoas, center is 100 plus heads of hammers/frogspawn, and the right is 18" green leather and 4" green toadstool.

Everything was fine with Zoas multiplying, hammers sprouts tiny babies but within the past 5 days, some of the hammer heads just died leaving stalk white skeletons.
<The "losers"... to either the Alcyoniids or Zoanthids>

I bought a 60 gallon so this weekend I can put the finger/toadstool in it.
I hook up the FX6 filter (400 GPH) with carbon to address chemical warfare since Monday. I think the reasons on the demise of the hammers are :
1. Chemical release from leather/toadstool.
2. Media reactor strips all nitrate/phosphate which hammers do need to grow.
<Definitely a/some factor>
So my plan is:
1. Move the toadstool/green finger to the 60 gallon.
2. Discontinue the FX6.
3. Discontinue the carbon and media reactor (all in one pellets).
<Sounds good>
The Zoas are thriving with new heads forming every week. I love to have a garden of hammers and while some people grow these like weeds, I can't keep them alive. Before dying, they thrive then die next day. Is my diagnosis and plan of action correct? Thank you Mr. Fenner. Dai
<I do agree with your plan; is what I would do, try at this point. IF no improvement, I would move the Euphyllias elsewhere. DO PLEASE READ AND HEED my acclimation protocol for introducing any/all NEW Cnidarians... by mixing water to/fro twixt the main-display and isolation/quarantine system. HERE:
Bob Fenner>
<<Note: next time mention triple-dosing iodide-ate>>
Re: Please help

Thank you Mr. Fenner. So you are saying maybe it is the Zoas that are affecting the hammers as well ?
<Might/could well be; yes>
In that case should I move the hammers to the 60 and leave the toadstool/finger in the main tank?
<Yes; a better plan... Plus I'd triple dose all (both systems) with iodide-ate... every three days, three times>
Or just leave them in the main tank for now? I bought the 60 for the leathers specifically. Is it OK to run the 4" carbon reactor?
<Can't say from here. I would NOT use such on a newish system period>
On another topic. I think the" all in one pellets" give people the false sense of security.
<Oh yeah; the/a "western ethic"... trained to be good consumers... "Buying" something... but sans understanding, often false notion/s>
The dealer touts as " zero nitrate and zero phosphate" so people go crazy thinking they don't have to do water for a year. But while this is true, it is hurting corals because it is stripping of the essential nutrients that corals need.
<Yes... even other media/sources tout that the world's reefs are "nutrient free" when in good shape. NOT the case. They are nutrient concentrated; with the life there scavenging most all available. NEVER zero nutrients in the water>
If you have to rely on these 'miracles" to get nitrate/PO4 to be zero then that person needs to evaluate his technique of husbandry.
<Very well stated>
Thank you and I look forward to your guidance. Dai
<And I to your further sharing. BobF>

Flowerhorn... lumenal parasite?      5/25/16
Ok im at my wits end.
<Oh no!>
I know what white poop in Flowerhorns is i honestly have tried everything under the sun, I've used CLEAR, Prazi Pro, Bacta, Aci, epsomsalt, i haven't been able to get this fish better or get him to eat in over a month im noticing his white waste coming out is thick and airy looking,
<None of the medications used are the right one. You MUST use Metronidazole, ideally alongside a broad spectrum antibiotic such as one of the Nitrofuran drugs. While medicating be sure to do several things. First, remove carbon (and for that matter, any other chemical medium that might remove or react with the medicine). Secondly, optimise environmental conditions, especially by providing lots of oxygen and by minimising dissolved metabolites, including nitrate.>
i placed him back in his bigger tank with his girl friend, his color has come back he acts like he's happier, he had completely lost what was going to be a nice Kok, skinny been force feeding him spectra, with some garlic Epsom salt spirulium, same way i administered his CLEAR he has no interest in food, not even bloodworms, cant get my hands on metro as it is by
prescription only?
<Correct. In the UK at least, you'd talk to a vet. There are some non-prescription medications here, such as eSHa HEXAMITA, that may be worth trying in non-critical situations. But Metronidazole is absolutely the drug of choice.>
What do i do? My water in my tanks are always on point, perfect!
<Do review diet as well; Flowerhorns are omnivores, and one common mistake with these (and indeed most other cichlids) is the absence of fresh green foods from their diet. Hexamita and HITH/HLLE-type infections do seem to have a strong link with lack of green foods as well as high (20+ mg/l) nitrate levels.>
He's in a 75 gal with his girl. Help im out of ideas???? Put him back in his tank from hospital tank, put carbon back in as i did preventative for her, but im frustrated? Jamie
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

Green spotted puffer, comp. stkg. f's     5/25/16
I bought two from a local pet store when u hold it up to light it has a pink circle towards the back on one side in the dark or up to light u can't see it...what is and does it need to be fixed and how?
<A photo would help. But almost certainly a bite mark, or at least the remains of one. If it's the size of their jaws, then that's a good clue!
GSPs (and puffers generally) don't coexist well in small tanks, so at the retailer they often bite one another. Their skins are leathery and tough, so these scars usually heal up just fine. Provided the water is brackish -- not freshwater -- your GSP should heal up quite quickly. No real need to add medication beyond the marine aquarium salt (SG 1.003 or 5-6 gram/litre at minimum). Do bear in mind that two adult specimens might work in a tank from 55 gallons upwards, but these fish aren't "social" in any meaningful sense, and once they become sexually mature males (presumably) can be very
territorial, if not downright hostile towards one another, so do keep an eye on them.>
Thank you
New puffer owner
<Welcome. Neale.>

container size for crayfish     5/25/16
Hi, what is the minimum size container to house a crayfish? I currently have it in a 10-gallon tank but a friend will baby-sit it at her house while we are out of town, so we would like to put it in a smaller container (easier to carry). Thanks.
<Ah, let's have you do some reading, Justine. Maybe start off here...
But if you follow the links at these articles, you'll find a tonne more stuff. For a couple weeks, a 5-gallon tank would be fine, maybe even a little smaller, but water quality is always the danger when aquarium pets are being "baby sat", and a bigger tank means less likelihood of anything going wrong. Not that a crayfish needs feeding for a couple weeks, and not
feeding them will minimise any risks even further. Seem reasonable to you?
Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Help with Betta     5/25/16
Sorry to bother you again!
<Not a bother>
Unfortunately I've had no luck with any of the fish stores within 50 miles of me being able to help identify my Berta's issue. I am become more and more convinced that this is somehow a parasite.
<I am not... in these further pix this appears to be a wound site. Perhaps this fish dashed itself against something sharp?>
I have no idea how it would have got into his tank unless they have been inside him the whole time & are just now starting to cause a problem.
<Highly unlikely; as alluded to before>
I have some new pictures that really look like some sort of worm with antennae. Since it's much more visible now,
<Can't make this out in your pix>
I figured I would ask one more time if you've ever seen anything like this or if you could possibly identify this mysterious thing growing out of his body. Thanks again! I'll attach the photos below.
<I would not treat this system, fish... with medications, but continue to provide good care/environment and nutrition alone. Bob Fenner>

Re: ADA tank seams     5/25/16
That's good to hear, thanks Bob!
<Welcome Kar. B>

Adding additional Banggai     5/25/16
I have had my current Banggai for about 4 years. I had two but the female died 6 months ago. I know that they are a sociable fish,
<Actually; no; not really... DO tolerate sympatrics given space... but an argumentative species with its own kind>
but I am hesitant on adding more. I have a 120 gallon system, 48"x 26"x 22" deep.
Would it be safe to add more Banggai or will the one I have attack them or be attacked.
<I would add two or four more individuals... of much smaller size OR about the same size... and keep your eye on the present one. It may serve to isolate it; float it in a plastic colander for a few days, to allow the new fish to rest, become established>
He is a very good fish, not aggressive and eats very well. My wife wants to get more Banggai as they are her favorite fish.
When I had the other one, they had babies a couple of times, but other than that they didn't really hang together much. Do you think it would be safe to add more. Also, do Banggai and PJ Cardinalfish get along.
<Better to have just one or the other; unless the system is HUGE>
Thank you.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Gold Comet w/ fungal infection? .... abuse     5/24/16
When I put my Gold Comet back in my 55 gallon tank about a week ago, it was attacked over and over by my Kissing Gourami until much of its back's scales came off leaving white meat exposed along w/ some redness. So I removed the Gold Comet and put it back in the 5 gallon bucket. Now its back is getting redder. Should I put in any kind of medicine or antibiotic to assist it or should I just let the Comet's own immune system heal these
<You've repeatedly written in w/o taking our advice. YOU are responsible for the troubles your fishes are suffering. Re-read our prev. corr. and/or go elsewhere. Robert Fenner>

Re: Trouble with my xxl freshwater predator tank     5/24/16
Well, I just came home from picking up some KanaPlex and Methylene blue from the LFS and the temensis bass was dead in the 40 breeder quarantine.
I did add 5 cups of aquarium salt to the 380 gallon display tank and treated a half dose of PimaFix
<Worse than worthless. See WWM re these API scams>

(I figured it couldn't hurt and I really want my Arowana to make a full recovery). I also added two extra wave makers to the tank to provide extra water flow since I have bumped the temp up on the display and added the PimaFix.
The Arowana is still eating pellets, and none of the other fish are
any symptoms.
Thanks again,
Ashton Nietzke.
<.... is there more to this msg.? Bob Fenner>

ADA tank seams     5/24/16
Dear WWM crew,
I just bought a new ADA fish tank 90cm x 45cm x 45cm a month ago.
This week I started to notice something about the seams, especially around the corners of the tank, that I am not sure how to explain. Due to light reflections, some areas of the seam does not look as nice as others, and some parts of the seam appear dirty. They appear a lot worse in the pictures attached than to the eye.
I am very worried about these "defective" parts of the seams and the safety of the fish tank. Can you pls take a look at the pictures and let me know.
I sort of expected ADA tanks to be more perfect looking, but it is mainly the safety I am concerned about.
<Mmm; well; though there are some apparent less than perfect sealant areas, this tank is fine; not likely to fail>
Hope to hear from you soon.
Best regards,
<And you, Bob Fenner>

Re: Red eared Singaporean turtle is sick. ..need help      5/23/16
Thank you Darrel
You are right my female turtle only hurt him . I have taken him to veterinary doc he suggested the same to keep him in dry place .along with this he found him suffering from congestion in chest and he suggested two medicine one for wound which is PENDISTRIN SH and for congestion one liquid which is BETNESOL 15ML (BETAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE ORAL DROPS).
I keep him in dry whole day . Just 10 to 15 min.s for food in water. Pls suggest if i am doing right.
<You are on the right path, but he should be warm and dry for a few WEEKS not days. Reptiles heal much more slowly than humans. As he stays warm and dry his breathing will also improve. Just be sure to give him that time.>

Re: yellow belly slider with a few red looking spot      5/23/16
I gave her the vitamin A eye drops that i found at the pet store she was opening her eyes right after i put the eye drops like 2 days ago but now it seems to take longer for her to open eyes and also I put iodine solution on her red looking spots which looks like fungus or bacterial infection to me. I also noticed the little bubbles from her nose when i put her in the water, usually i put iodine on her at night and keep her dry for the most past, only one or two baths a day for 5 min.s. And a lot of natural sunlight without any glass.
I don't have the money to go to a vet but I am willing to do whatever it takes, even if its releasing her back into the swamp, which i think isn't that great because she cant even see properly yet please help me im trying to help this poor little baby turtle, and also i recently looked up I don't think this is a yellow belly slider but instead a baby peninsula Cooter turtle.
Thank you so much
<The treatment for all these conditions includes keeping her warm and dry - for a few weeks at the very least. Vitamin A drops are useful, but the best thing you can do, if she's eating at all, is to offer her very small pieces of chicken or beef liver. It's very high in vitamins and minerals and beneficial in every way. Do NOT release her into the wild!! In the
best case she would fall prey to some other animal and at worst she could survive and spread the infection she has to others. This condition is not hard to treat - it's all in the article I linked to you - if the treatment comes in time>

Yellow eared turtle      5/23/16
Hello Team,
<Hiya - Darrel here>
I am Angel from India, I have a yellow eared slider turtle, which is with me for the last 10 months. I call him Jai, now he is sleeping continuously for the last 1 week, we do not have vets who check Turtles. He drinks water, but doesn't open eyes. If shown in open space for a longer time he just opens eyes for just 5 secs. He is not having food. He was having cold, and I have seen him having trouble in breathing. he is also not pooping. I have given him parsley water, out him in luke warm water. When he is in warm water he has sneezed. Please help me I want him to be active and grow up healthy, he is just not a pet for me he is like my son, Please suggest me healthy food or medicines- I am not sure we will get medicines here, but I will try. Please respond me ASAP. I know you may feel awkward in this email. I love my Jai a lot, I want him to be active and healthy, please help me please.... please. Thank you.
<Angel, the first thing Jai needs is be warm and dry. I am sending you a link to an article about how to treat common problems with sliders and the single most important thing is to keep him dry and WARMER than you he would in his normal conditions. The warmth increases his metabolism and that helps him heal. It also perks him up and makes him a bit more awake. It sometimes improves the appetite, which allows us to treat him by giving him nutritious foods that help him heal. This link is an article on how to treat common illnesses: EVERYTHING you need to know is in this article if
you take the time to read all of it, understand all of it and apply the instructions exactly as described. If we haven't caught his condition too late, you can bring him back to health with these instructions:
Thanks & regards
GOD bless U

my outdoor above ground turtle tank      5/23/16
-Dear WWM,
<Hiya – Darrel here>
I have 8 RES of various sizes and 1 pond turtle in a 700 gallon polyethylene tank (8ft. diameter, 2 ft. deep). I live in Pasadena, California.
<One of my sons lives in Pasadena, CA. Do the turtles seem snooty to you? Acting like they’re better than turtles that live in Highland Park or Covina?>
The turtles have been outside in a much larger and deeper pond but I had to move them. Does the tank need to be insulated or should I get a heater for the winter. I've read your information but couldn't find an example that fit my circumstances.
<no … and .. no>
<Our winters are more than mild enough for 2 feet of water. Assuming the pond gets sunlight during the day the water will pick up enough heat that the bottom is toasty (by turtle standards) all night long. I live approximately 30 miles due south of you and MY turtles spend the winter in an 8 foot wide pond 12 inches deep. The only caveat would be if the pond spent all winter in perpetual shade, but even then I’d rig a couple of basking lamps for daytime use, not a pond heater>
Also, you have a "turtle corral" picture on the first page of the turtle section. Can you give me any information about how it was made? It looks perfect for a better basking platform/nesting area for my girls. A male turtle came out of nowhere and has been busy, so I would like to better meet their needs.
<I’m not sure what picture you’re referencing but in my experience – every time I’ve ever tried to construct a nesting box the turtles have rejected it in favor of something they find on their own – and these are ordinary Torrance turtles, not fancy, shmancy Pasadena turtles. Perhaps get them a suite at the Sheraton?>
<Ahem. The best thing to do is expand the area around the pond to include some grass area and allow them to wander around? In the wild they’ll climb the banks of their swimming area, find a spot about the high water line and dig test holes, looking for some indescribable situation.>
<That said, Sliders are flexible little guys. When the female is gravid she’ll start acting fussy and hyperactive, never satisfied and always wanting more even when she’s not sure what she wants … in that way not at all unlike my ex-wife. This phase will last for a week or so (not my ex – THAT phase lasted 22 years) and toward the end of that she will either absorb the eggs and she will expel them wherever she happens to be. People who can recognize the behavior have been known to put the turtle in a big cardboard box for two days and one day come look and see the turtle with 6 small eggs just laying on the bottom of the box. Those eggs can be incubated just as if they’d been laid and buried>
Thanks for your generosity in helping the rest of us care for our turtles.
*-- Lou Anne*
Re: re my outdoor above ground turtle tank      5/23/16

Dear Darrel,
My turtles and I thank you for the quick response. They aren't snooty because they're all rescued turtles and are grateful they're not homeless.
How many turtles do you have?
The tank is sitting on concrete and they have no way to get out. They have a basking area in the pond. I was going to make a cover for the tank so raccoons, herons, and my dogs can't get them. That's why I was interested in the corral (see attached).
Would it be better to move them to a grass area where they can have an
enclosed fence with a top? Then how they get out of the tank onto the
ground to walk around or lay their eggs. Do your Torrance turtles have a
little stairway up and over, similar to the picture of the corral? Any
design suggestions would be appreciated. I've been pouring over the
internet for ideas but everything I've see is either too fancy or too
down-market for Pasadena turtles, not to mention the discussion of egg-bound
turtles who will die if I don't provide a proper nesting ground.
What do you suggest? What do you do with your turtles? Does Torrance have the same predators to worry about? I would appreciate hearing your thoughts.
Lou Anne

Discussion with a long time hobbyist?      5/23/16
Hi Mr. Fenner,
<Hey Jas>
I was reminded of you through a Reddit post that I created. I’ll keep this brief, I promise.
<Take your time>
I’m a 41 year old guy recently unemployed for the first time in 25 years. I’m also in the process of finally finishing my college degree (B.S. Business Management.) I am working on my final capstone project where part of the project is to research a particular industry – or in this case, hobby. I’m looking for someone to chat with (a few emails back and forth at most) regarding the technological and scientific advancements in the hobby in the past 20-30 years or so. I have a lot of information so far, but I’d like to get information from someone who has seen it firsthand. I’m afraid I have little to offer in return, other than to say that I always enjoy reading your website – the way you answer inquiries keeps me amused and informed all at the same time.
Let me know if you would be interested in sharing some of your experiences – I appreciate your time.
<Glad to be of assistance. Bob Fenner>
Jason Hickey
Re: Discussion with a long time hobbyist?      5/23/16

Thank you Mr. Fenner,
<Happy to help>
I am attempting to enlist the experiences of the more notable experts in the hobby. I have prepared a short list of questions – any information that you would like to share will be very much appreciated. The information provided will be used only to provide a synopsis of trends in the industry – no identifying information will be presented unless you would like to be a cited source for the history part of my presentation. Again, this is only for my capstone project – the only thing I will gain from this is a passing grade :)
1. How long have you been involved in the aquaria hobby?
<49 years about>
2. What “flavor” of the hobby have you mostly focused on (freshwater tropical, freshwater planted, specific species (cichlids, etc.) marine, etc.?)
<The last twenty five or so, marine, before; freshwater, plants, ponds, cichlids, oddballs>
3. Are you a known expert/contributor to the hobby? If so, what online “haunt” are you most known for being associated with?
<Mmm; likely the website WetWebMedia.com, but have a bunch of titles, several hundred articles in print>
4. Are you a known expert on a specific subject within the hobby (natural planted tanks, specific species, special landscape styles, etc.?)
<Don't think anything specifically. Have helped popularize ideas, practices... the use of refugiums, dipping/bath procedures in the trade...>
5. Regarding when you first seriously became involved in the hobby until present, what would you say the biggest change has been in the hobby?
<The biggest... filtration, lighting, circulation.... May be the Net, as a vehicle for dissemination of inspiration, input...>
Have you been instrumental in any big changes?
<Perhaps a small part>
6. Same as above, except what would you say has remained constant general knowledge?
<The basics... of biology, applied technology... the human interface at all levels>
7. What do you consider to be the biggest misconception regarding the aquaria hobby?
<By lay people, that it is an important source of human-caused aquatic life mortality, that it contributes to degradation of the environment. The fact of the matter is the opposite: that encouraging folks to carefully use their natural resources, they are compelled to preserve them>
8. Any further comments regarding the evolution of the hobby?
<A joyous place, activity. Oh for a world where most people can have a brush with the natural world. The future is more captive production, but I fear that human population growth, apathy and avarice will be all's undoing.>
Once again, thank you for your time – I greatly appreciate it.
Jason Hickey
<Thank you, Bob Fenner>
Re: Discussion with a long time hobbyist?      5/23/16

Thank you! This was perfect, and right along the lines of what I was expecting.
<Ahh! Do make it known if you'd like "elaboration" (I swear not pontification... well, not much). Cheers, BobF>
Jason Hickey

Possible Xanthid Crab?     5/22/16
Good evening Bob and Company!
<Hey Suse!>
Thank you so much for your fabulous website; you are an amazing resource.
<Glad to share>
I keep a 60 gallon seahorse and soft coral reef (primarily sun corals and assorted sea fans) and always acquire all of my livestock (aside from the seahorses, which come directly from the breeder) from a single local shop that I trust.
Tonight I brought home a piece of live rock with mixed colonies of clove and daisy polyps (it’s lovely) - but about an hour after introducing it to the tank, I noticed it “breathing” - which, of course, neither of these species do. A brief investigation with a flashlight and a pair of long tweezers revealed this little guy hiding beneath the polyps. (Photos attached.)
<I see this Decapod>
His legs are much hairier than they appear in the photos - like the legs of a Mithrax crab (but his pincers are clearly wrong for Mithrax).
I pulled the rock from the tank at once, nudged the crab into a bowl, and shot these photos. After spending about an hour on your site, I suspect he’s a Xanthid - and that it’s a good thing I removed him before he could cause any havoc. Can you confirm his species, or at least let me know if I should keep him away from the seahorse reef?
<It is a member of this family; and I would keep it out of your seahorse system>
(My husband thinks he’s cute, but I don’t think my softies and seahorses will appreciate this particular variety of cuteness.)
<Mmm; if you have a live sump; I might place this crab there; where it can do no harm>
Thank you for all you do!
<Certainly welcome. Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Stocking a tank      5/21/16
I am starting a new tank 10 gal L 22,w12,h14. I plan to stock it with one Betta , three African dwarf frog, a dozen or so Rasbora and some plant life. This being my first tank I would like to know if this is a suitable population for this tank size. I would appreciate any suggestions stocking this tank. Thank you
<Does sound like a very nice arrangement. I take it the Rasboras are a small/er species. Bob Fenner>

Re: Help with Betta      5/21/16
It seems to be protruding out more and more. Could this be some type of parasite breaking out from inside him?
<... your files are too large.... And you should just read.... Start here:
and the linked files above. My guess is on this being a tumorous growth of some sort. BobF>

Re: Help with Betta      5/21/16
No live plants. He eats a variety of tetra Betta pellets, flakes & freeze dried brine shrimp. Although the today the growth turned white?
<Perhaps a bit of healing tissue>
It resembles Columnaris slightly, but the white looks like more of a hard white matter clumped together rather than a fuzzy cotton like texture. I'll attack another photo.
<Please re-size to a few hundred Kbytes max. B>
Re: Help with Betta      5/21/16

Sorry about that, hopefully these pictures will be smaller.
<Thank you. B>

Re: Help with Betta       5/21/16
Now the white piece fell off once again.. I've been reading the link you sent me. I haven't found anything that resembles his issue quite yet. I've actually been researching this non stop for days now & haven't seen one case quite like his. Thank you for all your help, I sure do appreciate it!
<Strange.... do you have a fish store nearby... that has, uses a microscope? A liaison w/ a school or institution that might render you assistance in sampling and looking at tissue from this are at 400 plus power? B>
Re: Help with Betta      5/21/16

I do have a fish store about 30 minutes away from me. I'll definitely give them a call in the morning to see if they could help out! I actually have a microscope that goes up to 400.
<Good to both>
I don't think I would know what to look for or at, but I'll be sure to ask the associates at my LFS if they would know what to do if I bring it in for them. Again, thank you so much!
<Welcome. BobF>

My Moto Stingrays; sys.      5/20/16
<Hey Ben>
1st off I love this website. So much info.
I wanted to know if the PH level I keep my rays at is hazardous to their health.
<Mmm; as given below; no; you're within range>
There are so many opinions out there. I use my Rays appetite and activity as my first insight into their health level.
As far as water quality:
Nitrite/Nitrate are 0
<... really? Zip NO3? I'd check your water w/ another kit. Having NO nitrate is exceedingly rare in established captive aquatic systems
PH = 6.2
0 ammonia
Temp kept 79-81 degrees Fahrenheit
As far as water changes: I use a 4 stage RO filter and constantly directly drip about 12 gallons a day into the tank, putting about 70-80gallons of new water in a week (obviously have an overflow).
<Mmm; do you (re) add "mineral" content? I would, or at least mix in some
(a few tens of percent likely) tap/mains water. Fishes, invertebrates, plants, algae won't live long or well in straight RO
I have a male and female and they eat voraciously. Earthworms, Prawn and Silversides for the most part.
The male has been showing signs of breeding, he has been nipping at the female.
Am I doing anything wrong?
<As stated... a bit more solids content in the water is highly recommended.
There are some commercial prep.s... and some you can make.... SeaChem's "Replenish" is a fave. Bob Fenner>
Benjamin Foster
Re: My Moto Stingrays

Wow! That was fast! Thank you so much for the quick response. So from what you wrote I should be more concerned about my mineral replacement due to only RO water going in more than my PH?
<Mmm; actually, both... the min. replacement product won't bump up pH much>
Again, I have heard many opinions about minerals in water, mostly being that fish get more mineral internally from diet than any other way...
<Yes; tis so... but... nitrification... and a few other bio-geo-chem rxn series are greatly dependent on mineral substrate...>
I have no way to store water, that is why I just direct drip from RO into the tank. I could however create another drip straight from tap and drip about 15 gallons a week from straight tap.
<This would be superior>
Should I be concerned about chlorine or does it get off gassed and since it is dripping in so slowly is should not be a problem?
<IF very slow.... I'd add no more than a gallon per day... the sanitizer addition should not be problematical>
I did retest with my own set, sorry LFS did my 1st test.
My actual results:
NO2 = 0
NO3 = <10ppm
<Ahh; yes; much more realistic>
Ammonia <.25
<You NEED for this to be 0.0 ppm>
PH 6.2
From these results I would ask myself if I should up the water drip to more gallons per week.
<.... Too much going back and forth here.... Again, you NEED to address the ammonia... likely insufficient biofiltration, circulation... perhaps over-feeding here at play>
Again, thank you so much for the advise.
<Certainly welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Polyclads; control      5/20/16
Thanks for the reply. I've read over your FAQ and the thread attached and haven't found exactly what I'm looking for. Here's what I gathered.
1) There's no failsafe in tank treatment for polyclads.
<Correct... some baiting, trapping is about the best approach (other than outright exclusion)>
2) Traps or active hunting is the only way to somewhat purge a system of polyclads.
<Oh! Yes>
3) Polyclads are on many clams that come from the wild and don't seem to become an issue until they're in a closed aquarium
4) Once you have them breeding in your system it's pretty much impossible to get them all out.
<Thank you for this synopsis>
Is there a medication or dip that could be used as a bath before putting in quarantine to assure no pests are being introduced?
<Mmm; no... not w/o killing off all life practically... I am a big fan of isolating/curing added LR (and not adding LS per se) to established systems... about a month for observation is about right before introduction into your main/display>
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

re: Anemone... eaten by Protoreastor     5/20/16
Unfortunately my anemone didn't make it....
<Thank you for this report. Bob Fenner>

Behaviour of Dalmatian Mollies before dropping Fry.     5/20/16
Good afternoon,
<Hello Shannon,>
I happened to stumble across your website and thought I would ask a few questions. I should explain about our tank first. Last July we set up a tank at work, brought 2 female Dalmatian mollies and a female Mickey mouse platy back to the office, floated them, and went home for the evening. The next morning we walked in my co worker goes "Oh, look at all the poop on the plant!! ... wait.. the poop has eyes." We got 21 babies out of that fry.
Because we were not prepared, we had to do some quick thinking. We raised what we could however lost most of that fry to ick.
<Do review the use of salt; very good for dealing with Whitespot/Ick, and Mollies are a hundred times healthier in slightly brackish water.>
Fast forward to after Labour Day weekend. We walk back into the office on Tuesday only to find that our two females are stuck between the breeding net and the glass, ( we now use a plastic floating fry catcher rather than the net that hangs on the side) she had tried to have another fry over the weekend and got stuck splitting open. :( Her sister also died we assume trying to eat the fry. All of that second batch of fry died.
<Sad. May have been premature. Top tip: get floating plants. Never mind the trap. They're bad medicine! Instead, just get floating plants (Indian Fern is ideal) and let the fry shelter there. While some might still be eaten by other fish, enough will survive to keep your community tank busy.>
We had to do a 100% Water change to get all the dead babies out. We were left with 4 fry and the Mickey mouse platy and a corey cat.
<Corydoras aren't fans of brackish water, unlike the Platies, which are fine in it. If you do use salt to treat Whitespot/Ick, keep it down to 2 gram per litre. Will eliminate the parasite within a couple of weeks, by which time you can revert to plain freshwater. This won't harm Corydoras.
Brackish water, 5-6 gram/litre, is ideal for Mollies, but bad for Corydoras.>
We let the fry out of the hatchery when they were big enough to not get eaten by the platy. One of them decided to turn into a boy. I took him home to my big 35 gallon bow front so he wouldn't knock up his sisters. I was a little late. About 3 weeks ago we found 3 fry floating around and we put them in the breeder trap. Then this week on Tuesday I spent half an hour fishing out 10 more fry and rescuing them. We haven't seen anymore recently but I expect I'll be fishing again soon, sometime this weekend or even next week. We aren't sure if our 4 remaining girls are just fat or ready to drop, at least three of them seem ready. My question is what is their behaviour like? Throughout the day 2 of them wander off from their sisters and sit over by the heater just sitting there, tails pointed down to the gravel, but more in the middle of the tank? Is this common for the females to seclude themselves before they drop? I assume they like the heater because it's warmer over there and we have some plants in the back corner as well?
Any thoughts or information you may have would be greatly appreciated!
Thank you so much for your time.
<Let me direct you to some reading...
Mollies require warmth, good water quality, space, and hard/alkaline water chemistry. Salt, though optional, is very beneficial. They're difficult fish to keep well, and become stressed in small tanks, in cool water, at high nitrate levels (let alone non-zero ammonia and nitrite), and in soft water. Review, and act accordingly. Cheers, Neale.`>

Help with Betta; hlth.     5/20/16
I'm not sure if you'll be able to help me, but it's worth a shot.. I rescued a Betta from my local grocery store a little over a year ago. He was in a tiny cup on display and I seen him there for at least a couple weeks before I decided to rescue him from that tiny cup :( he has been in perfect health since I brought him home. He lives in a 5.5 gallon tank with a filter & heater. His water stays at 80‹ and gets weekly water changes..
<Very good conditions>
A couple days ago I noticed he wasn't acting like his normal chipper self. A day or two later I noticed a little hole (possibly a wound) on the side of his gill cover that seemed to have something white growing out of it. There was only one white spot, it wasn't fuzzy and it was larger than a grain of salt. I started treating his tank with jungle lifeguard as soon as I noticed it.
<Where would this fish have picked up a pathogen, parasite? Have you added any livestock in this whole time, feed live foods?>
He stopped eating for a couple days and was very lethargic. I also noticed he seemed to be trying to itch the spot by rubbing against the tank decor/gravel... After a day or two or treatment, the white spot fell off and looked almost like the "wound" was turning a grayish color.. Today I noticed the spot looked more red/orange and it almost looks like something is trying to get out from under his skin/scales... I've been researching this non stop for days with no prevail.. Although he has been acting like he feels MUCH better I am still worried about the spot.. He has started eating again & has been swimming around like normal for the last two days, unlike the prior days that he would not eat, laid motionless at the bottom of the tank, or stayed at the top breathing regular air at the surface.. I will attach pictures that I just took of the spot on him. I'm almost wondering if it could be fish lice, although I would have no idea how he could have contracted it. He has no tank mates and has never been fed live food.. Any opinions on what this could be or ideas for treatment would be VERY appreciated!
Thank you so much,
<What do you feed this fish? Are there live plants present? Bob Fenner>


Re: Fluke       5/19/16
We have 3 Banggai cardinals, regal tang, bristle tooth tang, two clowns, 6 line wrasse, cleaner wrasse. Love rock and live sand.
<Due to these last two, I would be very careful of using de-worming medicines in this system. There are food-lacing techniques that may be worthwhile to try... These are gone over, archived on WWM. Do you consider that most all the flukes were removed from the tang and BF by your dip procedure?>
Lps corals, gorgonians and snakelocks anemone and beadlet anemone. Haven't treated the tank due to corals and the fluke treatment available in shops here aren't reef safe.
<There are none that are both safe and effective>
We have set up quarantine tank to take the fish out of main system and starve the parasites.
<Ahh; good>
I have identified the parasite to the genus Neobenedenia.
<Quite common>
I am lucky enough to have access to large amount of research through university libraries so I finally found some good papers about them and life cycle. Fresh water dipping
<pH adjusted, and w/ the formalin.... Read here:
and the linked files above re this biocide>
everyone before quarantine and going to starve the main tank parasite population for a month to be sure and then reintroduce the butterfly alone for monitoring to insure it's clean before releasing all the rest. We believe it was the butterfly that brought it in as she is newest fish and supposedly they are notorious with this parasite.
<Yes indeed. Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Re: Clarkii Clownfish and Zebra or Snowflake Eel       5/19/16
Thank you Bob. Your service to us hobbyist's is highly appreciated!
<Certainly welcome John. BobF>

Ich or not?       5/19/16
Hello again! I'm concerned about a female cherry barb I got several weeks ago. She has a white spot on her tail fin that looks a lot like ich.
<Just the one spot? Not Ich>
The thing is, the spot has been there since I got her (didn't notice it in the store, only after she came home). So it has been there at least a few weeks, possibly longer. Also, it is the only spot I can see and the other fish in quarantine with her have not showed any symptoms. She is not flashing or rubbing, in fact she is acting normally and eating well. What
do you think this might be?
<Accumulated body mucus... from a.. wound?>
I thought about treating for ich just in case but of course ich treatment wouldn't work until the spot dropped off. Is this something to be concerned about?
<I would not treat... with chemicals. I might elevate temperature to the low 80's F. if the other life can take this>
I'd appreciate any help you can give with this.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

So on the algae control; planted FW sys.      5/18/16
I read the post you referenced.
Currently I have two RGB LEDs running for about 8.5 hours. Also doing CO2 daily and Leaf Zone fert weekly.
So, my plan is to knock the lighting down to 7.5, CO2 every other day and leaf zone bi-weekly. Is that aggressive enough?
<How are you metering and measuring the CO2 injection? Better to introduce this slowly at first, and only during day/light periods. What plants are you growing? Can you send along a well-resolved image of the system in a
moderate file size? Need to know these particulars in order to render you a useful response. Please read re CO2 use and the plants in your care (on WWM) ahead of writing. Bob Fenner>

Skunk cleaner shrimp pregnant... and sm. crust. ID f's      5/18/16
Hi all! I've read all your answers to others with my similar situation so I will be brief. In regards to feeding babies if I do get them, I read phytoplankton and baby brine are best.
<Mmm; yes... some species/sizes of the former. I'd (quickly) get out and read some reference works here>
If I have a plethora of brine shrimp breeding in all of my tanks especially my refugium,
<Really? Artemia? Not likely>
could I keep the babies in there and add phytoplankton?
<...? Not likely... they need to be reared in a purposeful culture system; lest they get sucked up, frappe'ed by pumping, water movement>
My brine shrimp look like little tadpoles swimming around everywhere.
<.... these aren't them>

If I have a huge self sustaining population, is it possible that there are enough need hatch ones to rear the baby cleaners if I supplement their diet with Phytofeast?
Thanks in advance! Tabitha
<Where to send you....? Please read here re searching /lit.:
And soon; you NEED to be culturing useful foodstuffs NOW. Bob Fenner>
My tiny swimming shrimp... Legless amphipods, Mysids, Copepods?

Sorry to send more questions but I can't help it. I LOVE learning things!
<Me too!>
If it is unlikely that I have Artemia populations in my tanks (240gal and 100gal), do you have any guess as to what they may be? Photos were taken through 20x microscope lens with my iPhone on just over half max zoom.
Actual size is 1/16" wide and just under 1/4" long. He's one of the biggest of them.
Thanks again Tabitha
<See here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/crustidfaqs.htm
and the linked files in the series (in the tray at top). Bob Fenner>


Fluke      5/18/16
I don't know if you guys can help or give advice on this but your website is the best clue I've found so far to my problem.
I found the closest picture to what I found on my regal tang and butterfly fish on one of your message boards and I read through it to see if anyone mentioned the name but there didn't.
<The image... lifted? Is the opisthaptor of a Monogene....>

I was wondering if anyone could help me identifying this parasite.
<.... on the basis of what?>
The fish were showing hazy eyes, shaking of the head, lethargy and scratching off rock. We did a freshwater dip and the flukes came out into the treatment tank.
<I'd add a bit of formalin... See the dip/bath S.O.P. on WWM>
I would like to figure out a treatment to clear the system but we have lps in the tank so quarantine is I think the only option for the fish.
<See.... READ on WWM re Monogenetic Trematode/Fluke treatments....>
If I could identify the species I could learn more about its life cycle and try break it to rid the tank of it completely.
<Need data mate. This isn't time for a guessing game. Bob Fenner>
Sent by iPhone
Re: Fluke      5/18/16
That image I sent was taken of the parasites that came off my butterfly fish after we did the dip, not lifted it was taken on my own microscope at home.
<Ah good. Will post then>
It was just similar to the picture I saw on your message board.
<Sorry for my misunderstanding your msg.>
What sort of data would be needed other than the image of the parasite and I can let you know ?
<What other life, livestock present. Do you have live rock, sand? Have you used Anthelminthics, Vermifuges already?>
<Thank you. BobF>


ID flatworm, Nudibranch or something else?      5/18/16
<Why six megs of uncropped pix files? See our limits please>
Hi, Just spotted it on the glass. Appears to be some type of slug / flat worm. Real fast moving line down the middle of underside (I think) so thinking fw but not sure, ears like a sea bunny Nude. Any ideas on id of this little critter?
<I see what looks like Rhinophores.... Bob Fenner>

Re: ID flatworm, Nudibranch or something else?      5/18/16
Yes def Rhinophores so most likely Nudibranch. Any ideas which species so i can work out what it eats before putting it back in the tank?
<Doesn't look like any Sea Slug I've seen before; sorry. You might peruse the many Nudi ID FAQs archived on WWM. B>

Black molly      5/18/16
I have a black Dalmatian Mollie she is 3.5in long and 1.5in from her belly to top fin. She is 3.5yrs old I call her Bertha she is one of my first babies born.
She has a pea size white cotton thing coming outta her butt
it looks like..Idk what is it..for a fish we r close I taught her to come when called by name she tries to wave hi but her fins won't let her do it right
<Hard to say. Photos are not at all clear. You could start by using Epsom Salt, which has a laxative effect that can helps Mollies (and other fish) pass obstructions in the gut. Constipation is common in herbivorous fish like Mollies. But at the same time, there are some more serious problems.
Stillbirths can cause real problems for livebearers. The dead embryos form a silvery or off-white sac that protrudes from the vent. Really, without surgical action, the embryos will rot, cause infections, and kill the mother. You can't pull these embryos out without a risk of seriously damaging the mother, so there's not a lot you can do here short of humanely
euthanising the fish.
Similarly, Hexamita, worms and other parasitic infections of the gut can cause problems. Hexamita is distinctive, producing a combination of lethargy, loss of colour, stringy white faeces, and often pits on the head and flanks. It's treated with Metronidazole. Camallanus worms are quite common among livebearers, exhibit themselves as the tips of red worms from the vent, and are treated using commercial anti-worm medications (such as Prazi Pro). Would direct you to this article:
Then follow the links at the top to read more about Mollies and their health/disease issues. Good luck, Neale.>

Clarkii Clownfish and Zebra or Snowflake Eel. Muraenid stkg/sel.      5/18/16
I have a 125 gallon (plus an additional 30+ gallon with sump) with approximately 100 pounds of live rock that has heavy filtration (oversized sump, oversized internal flow, return flow, protein skimmer, refugium with macroalgae/mangro's...etc.). Currently there's two spunky Clarkii Clownfish around 3"+ and 4"+. I also have a 4" Niger Trigger, a 6" Harlequin Tusk, and a 4" Canthigaster papua puffer. I plan to add a BTA anemone for my Clarkii's but would also like to finish my marine fish additions with either a Zebra or Snowflake eel. Everything I've read is that the Zebra is likely the most friendly for this set-up, but it's eventual size, and love for darkness (I have powerful LED's), plus might the Harlequin Tusk pick on it, makes me wonder if the Snowflake would be a better choice?
<About the same choice temperament/likeliness to get along-wise... but I'd choose the Snowflake as it stays smaller>
But then again, I wonder if Snowflake might someday mistake the Clarkii's for food and get them and then again would the Harlequin Tusk mess with the Snowflake?
<About the same likelihood for either of these Morays... >
Possibly I am just better off avoiding an eel altogether, but I would great appreciate your expert opinion.
<DO stack your rock like a pedestal for the anemone and place it a good foot above the bottom... to avoid contact w/ the Muraenid>
Thank you
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

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