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Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner
1877), the Panamic Graysby, Cabrilla. Eastern Pacific; Sea of Cortez to
Ecuador, Galapagos. To twelve inches in length.
Adult in Cabo 2016 |
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Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Gabe Walsh, Earl Clay III, Darrel Barton,
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner
| PLEASE: Write reviews of my works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF
Note: RMF is out diving 3/25-4/2; hence the dailies postings
may be erratic.
Re: Baby Elephant Nose with a damaged nose
Thank you! ��
<Welcome Renee. BobF>
Re: Baby Elephant Nose with a damaged nose 3/30/17
Hi Bob - the little elephant nose is still fighting, but its not looking good
(lying upside down in the tank, not really swimming) but he's going to have to
call it quits - and I'm going to keep going until he does. But I've never kept
this kind of fish before so I was hoping to share my plan and get your opinion
The tank he's in is my hospital tank for plants, no fertilizers or anything,
just my normal water additives (Equilibrium, Alkaline buffer, Acid buffer, and
Stability) and a cup (in a ten gallon tank) of waste water from another tank per
week for food for the plants.
But he's the first fish to be in there in 3 years. The water parameters show
only yellow (no ammonia), blue (no nitrite), and yellow (no nitrate). I've read
on your site that this species is sensitive to many common products used in
aquariums such as salt, Prime, etc., and I haven't used anything like that in my
efforts to help this fish. But I did a 20% water change this morning (I don't
want leftover food hanging around in there), changed the filter medium, and
that's about all I've done. I'm keeping the tank temp at 77 and keeping a towel
over it to keep things dark and quiet for him.
I'm dropping small amounts of food near him, leaving it for half an hour, then
vacuuming it out. Does all of that sound ok to you?
<I'd try the food only twice per day>
Is there anything else that I could be doing that would help?
<Not really; no. There are downsides to trying most everything. Bob Fenner>
Re: Baby Elephant Nose with a damaged nose 3/30/17
Ok, thank you. Whatever happens it means a lot to know I didn't miss anything.
<Ah yes. B>
Re: Ill/Injured Black Ghost Knifefish, Please Advise
Thank you muchly for the swift reply & probable diagnosis - I completely
agree it could be either of these things or even a combination of the
two. RTS has been picking at the poor BGK, so this morning I removed RTS
to a temporary holding area while I set the 20 gallon quarantine. The
bulging "sac" is now almost gone and it looks like mostly live tissue
protruding from the wound, I also found a small piece of what could be
intestine floating around near BGK.. Awful. It looks a tiny bit better,
but of course now I worry if the fish will be missing necessary
I have read heavily into thyroid complications/tumours and treatment
using iodine/iodide (iodide being the safer of the two?).
<The latter; and/or the valence state which is iodate. In actual
practice, common terminology iodide/ate is often labeled/named as
elemental iodine (which they are not)>
Seeing the studies showing it's effectiveness in tissue
repair/regeneration, I do believe it would be wise to treat the fish
with a potassium iodide solution. Is this "Reef Iodide" from Seachem
safe for freshwater use??
<Yes it is>
I assume you would not be giving me the wrong information, of course,
just want to be sure. I've also found in my searches that salts or
"Epsom" salts may be added to the aquarium water??
<Yes. Please see Neale Monk's piece re its uses in freshwater>
What are your thoughts on this in regards to my BGK?
<Worth trying. Relatively safe; and effective>
Would a small amount of salts or magnesium prove helpful as well?? Would
this react badly to the iodide?
Chemistry, I'll admit, was not my strongest point. Another thought, I've
seen/read that the addition of almond leaves may be useful for reaching
more preferable water conditions for a BGK... Any thoughts on this?
<Can be of use in softening water, making darker/less transparent; which
are of use>
I've been searching through my usual online supply shops and have not
yet found the reef iodide from Seachem but I do believe I will order (it
or a similar product) as soon as possible.
<Other brands/manufacturers also sell... Am just a fan of the SeaChem
line... Real products, consistent>
Thank you again, so much, for your advisements
<Glad to assist your efforts. Bob Fenner>
Re: Ill/Injured Black Ghost Knifefish, Please Advise /Neale
Ok, according to Neale's article in regards to salts/Epsom salts and
their freshwater use, am I supposed to be putting 34-68 teaspoons of
salt in this water?! It claims in the chart that as a prophylactic
treatment, one should add salt at 1-2 g/l? That would equate to
approximately 34-68 teaspoons in a 55 gallon aquarium, as per the
instruction given. Yikes. If a BGK is sensitive to water quality
changes, is this a wise addition? Should one be scaling down the dosage
for such a sensitive fish? Is a small amount of salt better than none or
<You need to review the concept of concentration. If I threw in 27,000
tonnes of Epsom salt into an aquarium the size of the Atlantic Ocean,
and stirred thoroughly, that wouldn't have any discernible effect at
all. The pile of salt was big, but the amount of water was much, much
bigger. Your aquarium holds 210 litres; so to get a concentration of 1-2
gram per litre, you'd be adding 210 to 420 grams. I'm doing this in
metric because it's easier. While one teaspoon is approximately 6 grams
of salt, for this quantity I'd still be using kitchen scales, and even
in the good ole US of A, kitchen scales have metric as well as Imperial
units. So it's a no-brainer to do it this way. Add the salt to a bucket
of warm water, stir thoroughly, and once it's all dissolved, add in
stages to the aquarium, perhaps 25% of the bucket every 15 minutes. This
will give the filter enough time to push the salted water around the
aquarium evenly. There's absolutely no point using smaller amounts of
salt because even at 1-2 gram/litre you aren't going to stress most
fish, and lower amounts aren't going to have any effect.>
In this article is also explains how Epsom salts are useful for tanks
holding hard water fish... Is this "hardness" not stressful for a soft
<Sure, long term. But we're using the Epsom salt here as a short-term
fix, and can phase it out once the fish is/are healthy again.>
If I were to add almond leaves in the water, would that counter-act the
hardness created by Epsom salts and create a better environment for the
fish? Or would this neutralize things, rendering both ineffective?
<A fair question, and I'd suggest removing anything likely to acidify
the water, at least temporarily. That said, the impact of almond leaves
is probably trivial. Use a pH test kit to monitor, if needs be.>
Acrylic tank lifespan 3/30/17
Hi, I am rather humbled to ask, but what is the "lifespan" of acrylic
aquariums for both larger and smaller models? I ask because I have been
in the tank maintenance business for 25+ years, and some of my clients
tanks are that old or older.
<A well-made system of small/er size (hundred gallons or so) should last
twenty years or more if kept on a level, planar stand>
Also, if an acrylic tank starts to get the "cloudy spots" in the seams,
or any other tiny leak, will those seam leaks grow?
<They will unfortunately. IF there are whited out areas that approach
half the seam width, a good idea to drain, have corner doweling
solvented in all inside seams>
Thank you in advance
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Jellybean Cichlid; foods, fdg.
We have a jellybean cichlid along with 2 jewel cichlids in a 55 gallon
tank. They all get along fine but my jellybean is always begging for
We feed them the cichlid flakes since they never took to pellets. Is
there something else I should be feeding him so he's not always begging?
<Ah yes; need more sustenance, substance than flakes; I would train them
on nutritious, palatable types of pellets, possibly laced with
frozen/defrosted foods. Please read here:
for any input.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
FH snuggling? 3/30/17
I got this FH around Valentine's Day. I'm not sure how old he is but he has
quadrupled in size (about 5inches + tail) since I've had him and has grown
and considerably large hump, and from which I've read seems to be a sign of
<Mmm; not necessarily, no>
Before getting him I already had a large, 8 or 9 inch Pleco. At first the FH
would "attack" the Pleco, I think soon realizing that he has little effect
on him the "attacks" decreased, now, he just kind of muscles him around.
However, now he's doing this weird almost snuggling thing with him.
<Social animals; actually crosses>
At first I was thinking maybe the water temp and went down and they were
trying to keep warm with body heat, but I just don't know.
<Are poikilotherms... no heat to be had>
Is he trying to mate? (Sorry if the picture is too big, I don't know how to
resize). It's about a 45gal tank btw, and I know both of my fish are
probably too big for it.
<Just like Gilligan's Is.; looking for a little buddy is my guess. Bob
April 2017 Calendar 3/28/17
Here is an April calendar for the WWM. Still studying Web development. Are
you out and about travelling?
<Very nice! Yes; down in Roatan presently. Will post. B>
Re: Two Curiosities (Cycle and Skimmer/evaporation)
I had a follow up comment to your responses to my email yesterday. I
actually never got the email response, but I saw your comments in the
<Bizarre... we respond directly to all. I don't like that you didn't get
the msg. directly>
This may be because I accidentally sent yesterday's email through one of
my work accounts. I'm sending this one through my personal email, which
I have always used with WWM before. For your convenience I copied/pasted
the email and response from the daily FAQs page below.
Anyway, thank you for your response/endorsement of my plan. You said
that you often suggest putting the old/dead rock under the new. I wanted
to clarify that my plan is to do that very thing. Right now, as I add it
a piece at a time, I'm putting most of the old rock in the sump. I have
space reserved in there for a refugium that I haven't set up yet. I'm
sticking most of the old rock in there. Once I get most of it in the
system, then I will do my final aquascaping. This will involve (briefly)
pulling the new rock out into a plastic tub containing system water (syphoned
out for this purpose and to help prevent water sloshing out while I have
my hands in there), pulling the old rock out of the sump and arranging
it in the tank (I've already practiced this on a cardboard cut out and
taken pictures of the way I want to arrange it),
<Neat; a very good practice>
and then arranging the new rock on top of it. I even have holes already
drilled in the old rock and zip ties already inserted so that I can
attach the new to the old.
Thanks again for all your help. I hope that your diving trip goes very
<Ah, thank you. BobF>
Ill/Injured Black Ghost Knifefish, Please Advise
Hello WWM Crew,
I am writing to you in desperation, I am at a loss. I have an 11-12 inch
Black Ghost Knife Fish who has never been named, so we shall call him BGK
for the time being.
Approximately 2 years ago, I found an add for this fish on kijiji and jumped
at the opportunity. It seemed a perfect idea for my 55 gallon, as the fish
was coming from 15 gallon housing and I assumed it wouldn't be much larger
than 5-6 inches at maximum. To my surprise, I was given a 10-11 inch fish in
an ice cream pail.
I got the fish home as quickly as possible, (didn't acclimate him properly
at all) and got him set up in my running 55 gallon set up with a small
rubber lip pleco that had been residing there since first water quality
tests came clear. All was well and I had a magnificent fish in my 55 gallon
(which I know is far too small as a "forever" home, I am currently planning
to buy a 150-175 gallon upgrade as he is now finally reaching the 12 inch
milestone, then perhaps a larger custom build in the future).
Through the next year, I brought home 2 blood parrot cichlids that were
awful sad looking in the store. As well as a Red Tail Shark. All was well
for a while. The cichlids grew however, as did their aggression. They were
eventually rehomed due to aggression issues, I clearly should've researched
more before committing.
Rubber lip pleco passes away for unseen reasons. I can only blame this on
myself, the only explanation I can come up with is either he wasn't getting
enough out of the algae disks I was feeding or the RTS bullied him. The RTS
seems to get along "swimmingly" with BGK. I should also mention at this
point that BGK is totally peaceful and content unless of course there is a
tiny fish nearby that would fit in his mouth.
Fast forward about a year. BGK is now approximately 12 inches and on the
verge of outgrowing the 55 gallon tank. RTS is about 3-4 inches, doing well.
Both have their own hiding spots in the tank, a cave for the RTS and a large
12" clear pvc tube for BGK. A midsize piece of driftwood provides extra
cover and seems to be neutral ground. Water quality tests today show ammonia
at 0, nitrites 0, but nitrates slightly high at 30-40. I do consistently
weekly(sometimes bi-weekly) water changes of %20-%25 to keep nitrate levels
at a semi-acceptable level, but our water comes out of the tap with Nitrates
at 25-30. I have yet to find any kind of nitrate removal system besides live
plants which are not yet an option with this set up. I realize that this
high nitrate level causes stress to the fish.
<Yes; all a matter of degree and type>
I notice this morning that there are still pieces of bloodworm around the
tank, highly unusual. BGK turns around to say hello and I see he's obviously
wounded in some way. Under his jaw where there is usually the white spot, it
seems like there is a deep laceration where the internal organs have begun
to protrude. It looks like a large bubble, a sac of some kind.
<Looks to be a tumor of some sort. From the position, possibly of
thyroid-equivalent; though could be part of the intestine pushed out.. a
prolapsed colon >
It's awful. I can't tell if the organs pushed everything out or if it was
actually a laceration that's letting things "fall" out. I don't know. It's
awful. I have no idea how it could've happened, there are no sharp spots in
the tank where he could've cut himself unless on the driftwood somehow but
even then it's highly doubtful. I have cats and it's possible they could fit
a paw through the filter gaps in the lid to go "fishing", but still highly
doubtful. I've been through google searches and the WWM pages regarding all
of it and I can't seem to find any other similar cases. I'm in the midst of
preforming a water change as I'm writing this on and off. I don't know what
else to do to help the fish, or if it can be saved. I almost feel like it
should be euthanized if it's struggling so. I'm located in Canada with not
much access to medications, any access will not come quickly as shipping is
never fast out here. The BGK seems to be in pain, it's obviously
uncomfortable, he's breathing rapidly with his mouth half-open kind of like
he's panting. The RTS is now picking at BGK. I will attempt to attach some
photos, I apologize in advance I'm sure they'll be a larger size than
necessary (not sure how to downsize them on cellphone)
PS. I'm also dealing with a big brown algae bloom at the moment due to the
arrival of spring and all the extra sunshine we've been getting - and no
pleco to help clean
PPS. The tiny white spots you see on BGK are small air bubbles as he's
sitting very motionless near the filter flow (also a sign of bad water
quality, I know, those nitrates. but at least it's not ich cause that's
about what it looks like in the pictures)
Thank you in advance
<Do please search, read on WWM re "prolapsed colon" and the use of
iodide-ate for thyroid issues. I WOULD treat (add to the water and foods) a
useful "iodine" treatment (made for fish systems)... Possibly the SeaChem
Baby Elephant Nose with a damaged nose
I recently came across a baby (1 1/2 inches tops) elephant nose in the
possession of an aquaintance that looked frighteningly thin to me.
<Very/Too common... under and mis-fed; stocked w/ incompatible life>
When I asked him about it he said the fish's proboscis was damaged but
didn't elaborate on how it got damaged. I looked closer and could see
that the animal's nose looks "different" but there was no sign of any
external damage - it just doesn't look straight. It seemed to be trying
to forage for food, but this guy's tank has a heavy current (29 gallon
with two hob filters and a powerhead) and he has what seems like a lot
of tetras and rasboras in the same tank. I told him the elephant nose
was starving and that if he didn't do something it was going to die - he
just shrugged. So I offered him $10 for the fish and he took it. The
little guy/gal, that I've named Finley, is now (as of 15 minutes ago) in
my 10 gallon by himself. This tank is heavily planted tank with only a
10 gallon filter on it. I've put in rotifers, daphnia, cyclops, and
mashed bloodworms (small amounts) and he seems to be trying to eat it.
My question is, is there any chance this fish's nose will heal as it
grows if I can just get and keep him eating?
<It may well do so under your good care. Mormyrids have "remarkable
powers of regeneration". Bob Fenner>
Red algae? 3/28/17
This appeared in my tank like 9 months ago The tank has been up up and
running for 15+ years. Nothing has been added coal wise in 4+ years. No live
rock has been added in like 10 years.
Just started grow out of the blue. And it grows very fast! Already cut some
out. Looks cool but is it bad or good?
<Are there signs of poisoning... of your other livestock? This looks like a
Rhodophyte, but might well be a BGA... esp. strange that your tangs aren't
consuming it. Is it (very) slimy? Do you have a simple microscope that you
can look at part of it under? I'd like to see pix if the 'scope has a USB
conn. I would remove it as it grows... Look to the usual: nutrient
limitation, competition, DSB/Refugium on RDP... perhaps the assiduous use of
chemical filtrants (Chemipure, PolyFilter) monthly to limit. Bob Fenner>
A microscope? Dude I haven't used one since 6th grade. 😂. Is not slimy. And
nothing has died in a long time.
My filters are just a butt load of live rock in my sump in the basement.
A protein skimmer as well. We do not do any additives at all and do 70 gal
water changes I had a run of Cyanobacteria a month ago. Only thing added was
what a slime X or what ever.
But this was growing long before. I may try to find a microscope though. But
of course I would not know why to look at.
Am back to the Reds then... an unpalatable one (there are many). And the
suggestion to remove on a weekly basis; cut off and siphon out; address the
Stocking options for 600 gallon tank 3/27/17
Hello my name is Jason. You guys have a wonderful forum with plenty of
information and I was able to learn a lot from reading them. I have a 600 gallon
tank with measurements of 6ft length 5 ft width and 30in height. I am planning
to keep a pair or trio of Scribbled angel (Chaetodontoplus duboulayi). The other
fishes that I want to get are a trio of Golden Semilarvatus Butterfly, One Flame
Angel (Centropyge loricula), Blue-stripped Angelfish (Chaetodontoplus
septentrionalis), Blue-girdled Angelfish (Pomacanthus navarchus), Yellow-eyed
Kole tang (Ctenochaetus strigosus), Blonde Naso Tang (Naso elegans) and
Desjardin's Sailfin (Zebrasoma desjardinii). I will also keep a few Bartlett's
Anthias (Pseudanthias bartlettourum) as a dither fish. Is it possible to
keep a pair or trio of Scribbled angel in my tank with my other large angels and
<Yes it is; given plenty of room, break up (bommies) of the environment.
Need to get/be out of eye-shot of each other a good percentage of the time>
What do you think of my stocking list?
<Should work. I'd introduce the Anthiines first; to allow them familiarity;
feeding practice; the tangs next>
Thank you for your time for reading my e-mail.
Sincerely yours Jason
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Stocking options for 600 gallon tank 3/27/17
Dear Mr. Fenner,
Thank you for your quick reply. I appreciate it very much.
<Certainly welcome Jason. BobF>
Two Curiosities (Cycle and Skimmer/evaporation)
Hello WWM Crew,
I am about a month into the set up of my new tank, and I have several
curiosities that I am puzzling over. As you all are always here for me
(and I REALLY appreciate that) I thought I would send them your way in
the hopes that not only can you answer my inquiries, but also that they
might perhaps help someone else as well.
First a little background. I have a 75 gallon tank with a 30 gallon
sump. I filled the tank in late February, and on March 8 got 42 lbs. of
really good live rock at a LFS that is about an hour and a half away.
This stuff was well cured, large but light (very pours), and full of all
kinds of life: sea stars, brittle stars, all kinds of pods and Mysis,
sponges, worms, snails, clams, feather dusters galore. I took it home
and stuck in the tank. The original plan was to put an additional 35
lbs. or so of (formerly) live rock (now dead) that I had in my tank four
years ago that has been sitting in my basement dry in a 5 gallon bucket
since. The plan was to let the old rock “feed” the new rock through the
cycle period, and the new rock to fill the old rock with bacteria.
However, I didn’t have time to put all the dead rock in and aquascape
that day, so I just stuck the new rock in the tank for a few days until
I was going to have time to do the rest. Having seen all the life on the
new rock, I’m glad that I didn’t have time. Especially since on one of
the rocks was a hitchhiking Kenya Tree Coral (it’s about an inch tall
closed up).I didn’t even notice it until I was home. I had hoped to
start the tank as a FOWLR, and eventually (maybe) move on to some soft
corals. But I ended up getting thrust into the world of corals already.
I didn’t want to go ahead with the original plan for fear that
it would kill the coral and a lot of the other cool life on the live
rock. So, on the advice of a friend (who owns the LFS store where I got
the rock) instead of going ahead and putting in all the dead rock, I am
adding instead one or two of the rocks per week so that the bacteria can
build slowly and handle all the dead stuff on the old rock. I have also
washed them off really well—spraying them with a hose and also immersing
them in water several times. All of the dead rocks except one are less
than 5lbs. each and a few are really small. I’ve added four this way
(less than 10 lbs. so far), and so far all is well.
<This is a good, workable plan; though I most often suggest and use
old/dead rock under the new>
So now for the first curiosity. When I put the new live rock in the tank
originally and left it for several days, I expected a brief cycle—it was
well cured, but out of the water for almost two hours on the way home.
But I never got one. For the few days that I left it in the tank by
itself, I did “feed” it a small pinch of fish food every other day. In
fact, I have had no evidence of a cycle at all—even putting in the four
dead rocks so far (over the last two weeks).I’m not getting any ammonia
or nitrite (which I didn’t expect to get), but I’m not getting any
Nitrate either (and I have a brand new Nitrate test, and an older one
too).It is just a standard Nitrate test (not a low level one), but it
keeps reading 0—certainly not 5ppm (the next step up on the color
chart).I would have thought that after having been in there three weeks
that I would be getting some kind of Nitrate reading.
<Mmm; nope. You have a classic "balanced" aerobic/anaerobic
I am getting some algae this week—some diatoms and a little bit of hair
algae. I’ve had to use my lights more because of the coral. I did set up
my skimmer (Aqua C EV-180) a few days after I put in the new rock. This
is the first time I’ve used a skimmer (I didn’t have one before), but it
was easy to follow the directions and install it. It didn’t skim
anything at first (during break-in).It just churned the water, but after
I put in the first of the old rocks it started skimming some dark gray
water. It will slow down after a day or so, but then when I put another
old rock in, it will produce some more.
<Par for the course>
So here are my theories on why I am not getting any Nitrates.1. The live
rock is substantial enough (and the waste is still small enough even
with the four old rocks) that the denitrifying bacteria in the live rock
is removing the Nitrates as they are being produced.2.The Nitrates are
being used up by the algae in the tank. In addition to the diatoms and
hair algae, there are lots of coralline algae that seem to be growing
before my eyes.3.The skimmer is removing a lot of the dead stuff from
the old rocks before it can go through the cycle.4.All of the above.
<All three; but mostly 1)>
The other curiosity is mostly more of an observation. My skimmer, when
it is producing foam greatly increases the rate of evaporation in the
tank. In the period of time before I installed the skimmer, I thought I
had the rate of evaporation roughly figured. This remained fairly
constant while it was breaking in as well. But when it started producing
foam and skimming the evaporation really increased. I'm losing a little
over a half gallon a day. When I empty the cup and clean the tower, it
loses the head of foam and takes several hours to build it back
up. During this time the rate of evaporation slows way down. I'm not
losing that much liquid in the collection cup itself. It's evaporating
more rapidly. I guess I was curious as to why this is the case?
<More surface area; more rapid evaporation>
Is it normal? And is this something that is common with all skimmers or
<Normal for all>
Again, thank you for always being there for me (and all of us).I have
learned so much from your site and from the inquiries that I have sent
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Mandrian; induced stocking troubles in sm SW sys.
I have a 25 gal. reef tank. Yesterday I bought
a large mandrian that the store showed that he was eating frozen brine
<Mmm; needs more than this. Please read here:
and the linked Mandarin FAQs files above>
He is eating them in my tank. I have a couple of questions. How often
should I feed him?
<The reading; and soon. These fishes (Callionymids) need almost constant
feeding to thrive... large, uncrowded, non-competitive settings>
I work from home and sit right next to the tank. The tank is a
rimless tank that has no lid.
<Fishes jump out of these...>
I had a smaller size diamond goby and this morning it is gone.
I have looked around the tank and the back where the overflow goes and
nothing. I can only assume it jumped but cant find it. The LFS said the
mandrian and goby would be ok together.what are your thoughts on that?
<Not a good mix in such a small volume. The reading>
At the same time I bought the mandian I bought a yellow watchman and he
is still there. My livestock currently is additionally a
lubbock's fairy wrasse
<... see WWM re Cirrhilabrus systems... need more room and are superb
and a gold nugget clown/small anenome
and 2 peppermint and cleaner shrimp. I don't plan to add anything else
but I did enjoy the diamond goby cleaning the sand.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Indian Flapshell turtle shell
<HIya, Darrel here>
his wound seems to have gotten worse his scab fell off today leaving the open
wound worse, is there anything I can do to make it heal at all?
Thank you in advance!
<Wounds of this type are very difficult to heal. They take time and patience.
First thing of course, is that he needs to be dry-docked ... which is to say
that he needs to be kept in a warm dry place while his skin heals. As long as
he/she doesn't move around too much to the point where he wears the scab off, he
can be left to roam inside whatever small container you use. If he's very
active, frantically trying to get out and won't settle down after a day or so,
then you will have to bandage the wound so he can't damage it as he moves.
Another alternative is to
confine him to a small container ... so small that he literally can't move ...
for 5 to 7 days until the wound starts to heal.>
<Warm & dry. Betadine (Iodine of some variety) every day. Perhaps a good wash
with Hydrogen Peroxide first and again once a week. Read here:
Would you settle an argument and maybe save a Black Ghost
Knifefish's Life; filtr. 3/25/17
I have a friend who has a 72 bow front. It is
completely empty and he wants to get a BGK to be the solitary fish in
the tank. His set up is perfect (according to what I've read on these
fish, I've never owned one) except for one thing - filtration. I've
repeatedly shown him the WWM postings that state that these fish need a
high water flow - as much as 8 - 10 times tank capacity every hour, but
he insists that is only for adults; that a juvenile will do fine
in the 72 with his Cascade 1000 (I think the gph for that model
is around 267 gallons per hour) until it has matured. He believes that a
higher gph rate would leave a juvenile plastered up against the side of
the tank. He has agreed to abide by your response to this post.
<The Cascade won't do... the ratings for power filters are generally way
off in terms of what they really deliver. He'd need three-four of these
hang-ons to move enough water, provide biological filtration. Perhaps
adding a large canister filter in addition. Bob Fenner>
Re: Rock flower nems... Time to separate, sell
What are your thoughts on a sand bed for the rocks vs. bare bottom
<For just holding? Bare or carpet... like Quality Marine>
Also what is this Cipro
<The UN sponsored antibiotic?>
Would this help any?
<Not here; no>
Mouths are still gaping and some are becoming soft
<Do you have an ongoing reef system you can use to provide water for these
Re: Rock flower nems 3/24/17
Yes just started changing over to our 5 year old reef for the water changes and
was working on discontinuing the extra iodine and simple sugar treatment based
on your advice
Re: Rock flower nems 3/24/17
Updated pictures with filters
Should I be worried about the mouths still being open like that?
<Not really; no>
Re: Rock flower nems 3/24/17
Ok thank you again for sharing more priceless knowledge with me.
<Glad to be of help. B>
My fish's tail... Lernaea? 3/24/17
So I have attached the best picture I could take of my fish's tail. It is clear,
but as you can see there's a white line on it, she never had this before, I've
had her for about a week and saw she had it today. What is it?
<Can't be absolutely sure as your large file is blurry, but this appears to be
an "Anchorworm"; crustacean parasite... common in imported livebearers and
goldfish raised in ponds.>
And are my other fish at risk?
<Mmm; yes... There are a few approaches to treatment... Please read here:
and write back if your path is not clear. Bob Fenner>
Saltwater questions; reef circulation
I had a 110 gal saltwater a few years ago but moved so sold it. I have a
couple of 125 gal freshwater tanks now but the saltwater pulled on me
until I got a small one. It is a 25 gal Innovative Marine. It is 7 weeks
recently bought a wave maker wanting to make the tank realistic to the
ocean. I just don't know for sure if it was the best for the tank or not
and wanted someone else's opinion that I respect. Here is a video of it
Video wave maker). I have it on the lowest setting there is. Thanks
<Your animals look healthy; not too tossed about by current. I WOULD
move the Goniopora and mushroom further apart though... to avoid them
fighting/allelopathy. Bob Fenner>
Re: Emperor angel mouth reddish in colour 3/23/17
Bob thanks so much for your prompt response!
Reason why I had emperor in QT so long was to see if I could get away
without medicating beyond the freshwater dip before it went to QT.
<... I understand the theory; but would have all understand that beyond two
weeks quarantine, there is more damage than good to be had likely>
I should give up in this concept and just medicate and have a maximum qt
experience of 3-4 weeks.
<... Not recommended. I suspect that there is nothing pathogenic wrong with this
fish; that its problems at this point are induced>
However week 5 issues (ich I think) arose which went away after using the
recommended length of Cupramine treatment.
<Pomacanthids have low tolerance to copper. I DO NOT recommend that they
be exposed to unnecessarily>
Also reason I was doing water changes so much was to keep water quality with the
amount it was eating. 35 gallon for a 4.5in emperor but I was concerned about
Emperor is looking a bit happier after the water change. The meds must be part
of the issue. However I noticed some white patches raises from the skin -cotton
like. You can see on the fishes left side at the bottom below
the fin around the breast. Photo doesn't show it very well but it is raised like
cotton. I will send photo in a separate email now. Also the ends on the bottom
fins look like they have lost skin.
I could put into my frag tank (attached to same system as Display) in a
container so it can acclimate to display conditions with no one picking on it. I
have a yellow tang and a Bellus angel in the 80 gallon frag tank. I could
observe to see if it's getting better. The display is about 1.025 so I think I'm
supposed to slowly raise from 1.021/1.022 to 1.025 over three days?
Or should I just do over a day and get in frag tank?
<Yes I would>
I worry about spreading the cotton though...I can't imagine this is velvet as it
didn't show in first 4 weeks, it's had 14 days of Cupramine too, and no new fish
Thanks again for your advice!!
<Just stating what I would do given similar circumstances. Bob Fenner>
Fwd: Emperor Angel mouth red Photos of cotton on skin (I sent another email
today referencing this photo)
> Photo not showing cotton very well but on the breast below fin. White patches
<Move this fish. B>
> Should this be medicated before putting in display system? Cupramine should
have cured... not sure I have anything else to medicate other than Methylene
Blue and Metroplex. I know you have expressed concern over
medication so far...
Rippled Coral Goby 3/23/17
Odd question for you... my green Rippled Coral Goby has taken a liking to my
Colt Coral over the past week. During this time, his coloration has lightened
dramatically. I'm curious if this some ill effect from the coral, or if this is
some adaptation/camouflage type ability? Here's some before and after photos.
<Can't tell the cause, but this light coloring is not good. I would move this
fish if you have another suitable system. Bob Fenner>
Re: Rippled Coral Goby 3/23/17
So sorry about the file size, I didn't realize at the time. This Rippled Coral
Goby remains an aggressive eater, and I only noticed the color fade since he
began roosting in my Colt. Color aside, he seems fine. This particular Colt
Color is a very light pink. When I turn my pumps off - the signal for food! - he
quickly swims to his roost up on the liverock and will jump in on the feeding
action against my two clowns. None of my fish have been seen fighting one
another, it's a pretty peaceful tank with a Royal Gramma and a yellow watchman
<Well; up to you of course. Color change alone is not reason to fret.
Re: Rippled Coral Goby 3/23/17
Thanks. Will monitor closely. I guess I was just curious if the Coral Goby would
slightly alter color to surroundings,
or if hanging out in corals could be harmful.
<Not likely; no. B>
Origin of the name cichlid. 3/23/17
Hello, crew, hope you're doing well.
<Yes; thank you Roberto>
I am writing to you today not for a problem with my fishkeeping, but
rather, more on the scholar side of the hobby.
Here in El Salvador
<Ahh; will be flying back, forth through the capital enroute and
returning from Roatan, 3/25, 4/2>
we have a small club of freshwater aquarists, where we share basic,
proper fishkeeping practices to novice, intermediate and even advanced
Even though our country is well behind in equipment, practices and
knowledge, we, as a club (and me as one of the administrators) strive to
share the passion for the hobby and make fishkeeping enjoyable to all.
This month's meeting will be the first about a series of expositions
about cichlids, starting with our native central American cichlids.
However, we have not found any information regarding what the word
cichlid (or its Latin family name Cichlidae) stand for.
<Actually, derived from a Greek word>
So, my question is, why are cichlids, called cichlids? So far we have
the fact they all share the single lower bone structure whereas other
fish families have it divided into two right?
Yet there is no real conclusive linking of the word cichlid to a
specific characteristic. Could you share some knowledge with us? it
would be nice to start of the first club meeting on cichlids with some
basic technical stuff.
<Lifted from Fishbase.org: Etymology: Greek, kichle = a kind of fish (
Re: Spiny Eel Compatibility
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
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- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
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Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
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Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
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Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine
Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving,
Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals,
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Treatments & Pests:
Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention,
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