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Gardinoseris planulata
(Dana 1846). Massive to encrusting. Corallites separated by high walls, columellae present, septa-costae fine, even. S. Leyte 2013

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General FAQs
Updated 8/21/2014
Other Specialized Daily FAQs Blogs: Freshwater,
Ponds, Brackish, Last Few Days Accrued FAQs,
Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Nate Guerette, Rick Novy, Bobby Rudro, Jordan Stari, Sue Garrett, Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Sabrina Sharp, James Gasta, Eric Russell, Chris Perivolidis, Lynn Zurik, Chuck Rambo, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized daily
Current Crew Bios., Not so current Crew Bios
Small Marine Aquariums
Book 1: Invertebrates, Algae
New Print and eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums
ook 2: Fishes
New Print and eBook on Amazon: by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums Book 3: Systems
New Print and eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
PLEASE: Write reviews of my works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF

Re: platy foods and plants     8/21/14
Thanks again Neale. Yes, it is all hierarchical...very Lord of the Flies...for platys and for us.
<Indeed. Kill the pig, and all that.>
So, so far, I believe all's well in Neptune's Tavern. I believe she's in good health. While it's probably a good thing that many of the hobby fish are aquaria raised as opposed to culling from the deepy deeps, no doubt their genetic fortitude has been influenced and compromised.
But, as a new hobbyist, I take my charges seriously and intend to do the best by them. Thanks for immediate responses, clear insights and recommendations all around. I suppose if we were to do the very best by them, we wouldn't hobby them at all. !
<Certainly a lot of pleasure comes from finding out how to keep certain fishes, and to develop your skills/habits accordingly.>
The Best.
<Likewise, Neale.>
Re: platy foods and plants
The dulse is a big hit and brought the shy girl out...defending her dulse!
<Cool. Nice to know they like the stuff.>
I note you have an opinion with regard to freeze dried foods. What is your thought? It's dehydrated *and* frozen = too many nutrients removed and overly processed? or another insight into it...
<Freeze-dried foods can be useful, but their big drawback is cost. For what you're getting, you pay a lot. On the plus side, they're easy to store and less messy than (wet) frozen foods you keep in the freezer. For Platies and most other community fish, sticking with a good flake or pellet food (Hikari, Tetra, New Life, etc.) will ensure all the vitamins and minerals, and you can use either freeze-dried or regular frozen foods as treats.
There's no real benefit to using either when you're keeping small community fish, but it's often fun for the fishkeeper to vary their diet. But in all cases, flake or pellet foods from a good manufacturer will provide a properly rounded diet with all the nutrients they need, whereas doing the same thing with fresh, freeze-dried or frozen foods is much harder. In the wild small fish will eat all sorts of different insects, worms, etc. getting different nutrients from each species they eat. But if you just use two or three different kinds of frozen foods (bloodworms and brine shrimps, for example) you cannot be sure you're providing all the nutrients they need. Hence, even if you do offer bloodworms in one for or another (live, frozen, dried) they're a treat, not a staple.>
<Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Two female Turquoise rainbows     8/21/14
I got a female and a male Boesemanni Rainbow so that brings it to three females and the one male. These fish are lightening fast.
I hope that doesn't bother the angelfish who is very laid back
<Shouldn't do. The Angel/Rainbowfish combo is an established one, generally works well. Male Rainbows can be mutually aggressive, but rarely harass other fishes kept with them. Increasing numbers (esp. of females, so males outnumbered) is a good way to minimise problems.>
<Cheers, Neale.>

Clowns; sys. for Percs     8/21/14
Thanks always for the advice and apologies if I missed this in the archives. I am trying to decide if a 20 gallon reef is acceptable for a pair of clowns (Percula).
<Mmm; yes; but barely... should they reproduce, there may be trouble for any other fishes present>
I know WetWebMedia recommends against keeping nanos, but this tank is inline with several larger tanks (250 g reef, 90 g reef, 100 g sump, 30 g fuge), so water stability is not (hopefully!) an issue.
<Ah, good>
The tank has been empty of fish for years and has a well established sand bed and live rock. It has a few colonies of flourishing zoos and a few crabs. My question is if the space is psychologically too small for fish assuming water stability?
<For tank produced individuals of this species; considering your experience... I think you'll be mighty fine>
< Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Brain coral with a white patch     8/21/14
Hi again,
Thanks a lot for your reply. I didn't know if I'd get one let alone the same day.
<We respond to all; ASAP>
It's kind of reassuring to know my coral is not in serious trouble.
I'd like to thank you for the website too, just about every search I do on the web regarding my fish tank comes up with results from you guys, such a wealth of knowledge. I have learnt a lot from you's, thanks
<Certainly welcome>
Ady peters
<And you, BobF>

Re: Purple Tang Issue     8/21/14
Do you perhaps think it could be flukes? And the fin rot type infection is
<Mmm; many if not most wild-caught/captured reef fishes do have Trematodes... but can only tell by sampling and looking under a 'scope>
I am dosing my reef tank with PraziPro to be on the safe side, a few people
I have talked to think that it could be flukes and the fin rot is from stress causing the lower immune response. I have friends who did this in the past with no ill effects.
I also plan to do a treatment of PraziPro to the tang in QT to rule that
<I'd be boosting the animals immune system... via foods, supplementing. B>

Re: Ongoing Blueberry Gorg Success - Update     8/21/14
Good Evening Bob,
<Fresh as a daisy this AM Steve>
14 month update on the Blueberry Gorg... Living strong and thriving here in SD. The specimen hasn't seen directly "daylight" from my Ecoxotic canons in almost 7 months. Once a week direct feeding to maintain... twice a week to promote growth. Getting my H2O from Scripps these days with no side
<The usual cautionary note to you, others, to store this fresh, real seawater for a good week or two (in the dark preferably) or bleach, dechlorinate it ahead of use. At times; real trouble.>
<And you. Thanks for the update. Bob Fenner>

Brackish Moray not eating... w/ non-brackish fishes       4/20/14
Hi my name is Hennie and I have a G tile eel my SG is 1.010 and pH 7.3 . I have my eel now for a week and it will not eat I try every day with shrimp and nothing. He has lot of hiding places and there is 2 Oscars 3 Malawi cichlids, rope fish tyre track eel and 2 sharks. What could be the problem
<Umm; likely the other fishes present... Not compatible. You need another system, or two, three... DO read re each of these species; their compatibility, system needs... they can't live well or long together.
Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/fwmorayart.htm
the linked files at top. Bob Fenner>
Re: Brackish Moray not eating... w/ non-brackish fishes      4/20/14

Thanks so much I have taken a look at the link and understand a lot now.
Thanks for your help
<Grateful to help you save the health and life your aquatic charges.
Cheers, BobF>
re:      4/20/14

Sorry to ask now agen but I see him opening he's mouth wide open a few times now sould I be worry or is it normal
<... Normal. B>
re:      4/20/14

Great thanks much now I will not bug you with my beginner questions haha thanks.
<Do keep studying, learning... and sharing. B>

Brain coral with a white patch        4/20/14
Hi there,
Been reading many tips and advice on your website, thanks but was wondering if you could help me out with my open brain coral.
I brought it 3 days ago, aclimatized it over for over 3 hrs before I placed it in my tank.
The trouble is I have noticed a white patch on the fleshy part of the brain, I'm not sure what it is or what to do about it but don't want this animal to be distressed.
<Looks to be a physical injury...>
My water is within the safe parameters so don't think it is that.
My light is a 4 channel led unit, that I keep on 40% no more.
I'll try to attach a picture. The white bit on the top is a piece of fish for its dinner.
Any help or advice would be appreciated.
Many thanks
Ady peters
<I'd most likely just double dose your system with iodide-ate and call it a day. T'were you a retailer or closer to the supply side, I'd soak in lowered spg (a thousandth or two) and administer a simple (hexose) sugar as an immersed bath. Bob Fenner>

Any chance of survival?      8/18/14
Dear Crew
<Hiya - Darrel here>
Many months ago rescued a turtle from the wild after being upside down and buried in dirt. It looked awful. I invested a lot of obey into this turtle. It never basked so i would take it outside daily. When i went to summer camp my dad would be the one to take it outside. He left it out too long and it died.
<We're sorry for your loss, Greg>
Since i was so upset my parents were going to get me a new turtle. We only had a 20 gallon tank so it had to be a baby turtle because no other sized turtle would fit. We went to Chinatown and bought 2 baby turtles. One is healthy and after research i figured out that the other has a RI. My tank is very clean and i have 2 filters. I also put water conditioner in to make it healthy for turtles. Since the turtle was in awful conditions but is now in better conditions, is there chance of survival. (It has been wheezing, seems to be gasping on air, and puffs up it’s neck while breathing). P.s. will the healthy turtle catch the RI if it is in the same tank (80 degree water, 90 degree bask).
<A turtle will generally not catch a Respiratory Infection from another turtle if he's otherwise healthy, but when I have a sick turtle I usually treat the entire population. My thinking is "what it they all have the condition already and it's just that only one is showing the symptom?">
<Also the treatment for an RI is a treatment that all turtles can endure easily. Read here about how to treat a wheezy, bubbly nose: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/treating%20RES%20Dis%20DarrelB.htm >
<As far as general care goes, your 80 degree water is a bit too warm for normal conditions. Room temperature water is that they should swim in. Also remember that the UV-B light that they need can't penetrate glass -- and even regular window screen blocks a lot of it. Read here, measure your care against the standards given and correct anything that's not right: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/RESCareBarton.htm >
Please help, sincerely Greg

Re: Purple Tang Issue      8/18/14
Here are a few pictures
<Thanks... the tail... looks more like a bite>
Water parameters are tested via a API titration test kit. I have a full refugium , skimmer and macro algae for filtration with only bulk reef supply matrix activated carbon. Would you suggest giving MelaFix a try in QT?
<This stuff is a scam... worse than zip. No to using it period>

I have had some luck with it in the past for freshwater issues but have not used it in marine. I really don't want to use antibiotics again as he just went through two treatments, what are your thoughts?
<I'd go w/ the tried and true pH adjusted freshwater bath (a few minutes), perhaps with concentrated Furan compound (250 mg/gal.) route. BobF>

Water quality for overpopulated tank of Red Eared Sliders      8/18/14
Thank you for your web site and resources. I have searched your site and others and can't get exactly what I'm looking for. I'm hoping you can help me with a technical problem.
First, let me explain that these turtles are not mine, they belong to a nearby university , and I'm trying to improve their miserable situation.
There are four (2 adult, 2 younger) Red Eared Sliders in a 65 gallon tank which is half full.
It's a bad situation.
<Doesn't sound ideal, no.>
I'm in the process of building a wet/dry filter, and combining it with a carbon filter and a chemical filter.
<I wouldn't bother with carbon or zeolite. Both need to be replaced very frequently (couple of weeks?) otherwise they don't do anything, so you may as well focus on mechanical and biological filtration. I'd aim for a roughly 50/50 mix of coarse media (to filter out solid waste like faeces and decaying food) and finer media (to process ammonia, positioned downstream of the mechanical media). Do bear in mind you're unlikely to get zero levels of ammonia or nitrite in a turtle aquarium, and often the best approach is to focus on water changes rather than relying solely on biological filtration. For sure high ammonia levels can irritate the eyes and skin, but unlike fish, turtles can clamber out on the land when they need to, and swim only to cool down and to feed (at least, if we're talking about Sliders; some more aquatic turtles are indeed more sensitive).>
Also, I'm getting some starter bacteria and to get the filter media started and some bacteria to help with the high volume of waste.
<Assuming this aquarium isn't sterile (!) then it's probably very well supplied with bacteria to start the filter maturing. Do remember the "good" bacteria live on any solid surface with a good flow of water and oxygen, including rocks, plastic plants, top 1 cm of gravel.>
What is the correct water chemistry for RES? pH, GH, and KH.
<Water chemistry isn't critical; the old "avoid extremes" mantra works here; 2-20 degrees dH, pH 6-8. So provided your water isn't strongly peaty and acidic, or conversely, isn't brackish/saline, it's probably fine. The ideal is probably slightly hard and alkaline primarily because this favours the best biological bacteria growth (the "good" bacteria we want don't do well in soft/acid conditions).>
Any advice would be greatly appreciated.
<Hope this helps.>
I need to make a good attempt at helping them, because I'm not sure the politics will stay friendly to me for long.
Thank you,
<Sounds like you're making a valiant effort here; good luck! Neale.>

urgent help... Killing marines through NO2 poisoning...       8/18/14
Hey Bob-
Since speaking to you a few weeks ago, I think I have had my worst time with fish keeping. Since restarting my tank using bacteria (I attempted to treat fish in 100 gallon trough), I have lost 16 of 19 fish.

Last night I had 6 fish, however, sometime during the overnight, I lost a 7 inch orange shoulder tang, 4 inch desjardini sailfin tang, as well as a fire clown fish.
I immediately measured water quality (1.023 sg, 82 degrees Fahrenheit, 0 AMM, 5 nitrites
<NitrItes? Incredibly high... WHY are you placing fishes in an uncycled system?>

) I understand the nitrites are high, but they have been high since I restarted the tank after putting fish in it. On Friday I did a 50 gallon water change, (1/3 water volume) and added more stability bacteria.
Do you believe in fact the elevated nitrites are what is killing these fish?
<.... Robert; are you joking? IF so, this is NOT funny>

Upon inspection of fish prior to last night, I noticed a string, white substance attached to the orange shoulder tang, as well as the clownfish.
The orange should also had blotches on him, it was not ich.
My lfs, upon similar description I am giving you, thinks its bacterial, and I should use formalin or quick cure. If it is nitrites, I know letting it run will eventually bring it down. If it is bacterial, when tank does cycle out, when does one know it is safe to add fish?
<.... ? Disappointing. LEARN TO USE WWM>

Also, if bacterial, will flipping on uv light help any? I have left it off in effort to help speed cycle tank, but I also understand where there is good bacteria growing, there could also be bad bacteria.
I am beginning to think I had way to many fish in a tank before, and that was the root of my issues. Going forward, if there is a such thing, I may just opt for less fish, more of the eye catching fish. Eel, lionfish, etc.
<Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/marcyctrbfx2.htm
and the linked files above. Yes; all of them. Bob Fenner>
RE: urgent help      8/18/14

Well, no this is not a joke. I attempted a quarantine/hospital environment, and failed miserably keeping ammonia manageable. I simply had to
many fish. I attempted to eradicate the ich, restarting the tank. I felt, at the time, by best interest was to get the bigger body of water (my tank) up and running, use as much bacteria as I possibly could, and get them back in there tank. This was not by design. I would never advocate doing this, but given I had no where else to go with them, I had to do what I thought was right. My lfs would NOT take them in, and I do not know anyone well enough in my area to spare my fish.
With that said, and again, I know it sucked, and wasn't ideal whatsoever, moving forward, do these symptoms sound like velvet, brook, etc, or is that simply the byproduct of high nitrites? (again no ammonia) For what its worth, and maybe this is incorrect, according to an article by Randy Holmes Farley, nitrites in saltwater are not nearly as toxic as freshwater, and some fish can live in nitrites in the 100's.
<Not NitrItes; NitrAtes. KEEP READING>

My dilemma, or oncoming dilemma, is, is this a disease, that needs to be treated again, or something that needs time to cycle out and stabilize.
The highest ammonia level I have seen, measuring once per day the last two weeks, was .5, and it lasted 3 days, in which all of the remaining fish lived thru. Again, I know I screwed up horrible, should have let the fish and the ich be, and not attempt to keep that many fish in an uncycled environment. Moving forward, how do I know if right now I am dealing disease or new tank syndrome?

Used 90 gallon, too much crazing for comfort?      8/18/14
I probably visit your site daily so thanks for providing such a great source of information! On to my question which I think I know the answer to, but wanted a second opinion.
So I just bought this tank off CL which is supposedly 2 years old. The tank
holds water fine and was being used until I bought it. Here is what I noticed when I got home though (see pics).
I know some crazing isn't that uncommon with acrylic tanks, but does this tank need support added or am I just being paranoid?
<I would not fill this tank w/o putting in internal corner supports. See WWM re>
Tank specifics - standard rectangle SeaClear 90 gallon (reef ready) with two openings on top (euro style?). Unfortunately the tank is 3/8 thickness, but when filled I didn't see any bowing anywhere.
The only crazing is at the bottom seams and a little on the corner. The top brace seams are fine all around. The pics included are the worst spots and they were taken with the tank dry. The seam is completely smooth on the outside and inside when I run my hand along it. So the "frosty" spots are in the seam itself.
Rest of the tank looks great, just not sure what to make of the crazing.
<Structural weakness. Bob Fenner>


Re: Used 90 gallon, too much crazing for comfort?      8/19/14
Ok thanks for the reply. Kind of what I thought also. This might be a silly question, but with the reinforced seams is that a very long term fix years) or a short term (a year) assuming it is done correctly? Many years (decades) of life to this system w/ the reinforcing square doweling inserted (solvented) into the corners. I would definitely be doing this job. BobF>

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Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
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  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
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  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
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