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Clavelina robusta Kott 1990. Western Pacific; Australia, Indonesia. Philippines, Japan, Solomons. Dense clusters of cylindrical zooids. Dark blue to gray in color with yellow, green or white rings about both siphons. S. Leyte 2013

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Updated 11/27/2014
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Aiptasia    11/27/14
This is not a question but informational.
I purchased a large 18” almost flat piece of live rock covered with blue and purple coralline algae. it of course had some bristle worms not worried about them as I have never had them be a problem. it did have a bunch of Aiptasia anemone on it. I had killed a couple with Kalk but I decided to many to do that with. Bought 3 peppermint shrimp from the same place, put them into my 250 gallon tank at the time they were only thing in the tank except rock. the second night I could not find the shrimp, I figured they were hiding or died. none of the Aiptasia disappeared. then a week later most of the Aiptasia were gone. They had hidden to molt and then they went at the Aiptasia. I had read that they almost never take care of the larger ones. I had one that was almost 2 inches across and it has now been taken care of. if I get out the flashlight at night I can find the shrimp climbing around. if you start out with nothing in the tank and the shrimp have only been getting fed Aiptasia they work even on the bigger ones.
Thanks Bruce Burnett
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Re: Helfrichi Firefish Ectoparasite    11/27/14
Good morning and thank you for your answer,
As a follow up, the ectoparasite came back. I can now see it on all three Firefish, one having a high number of parasites. They seem more shy and now they hide at night time. Also, they've started scratching against sand. It still seems they are the only affected fish in the tank.
I intend to try and catch all three fish and treat in a separate tank. I need you advice on the medication you think will help me kill the parasite, as physical removal is technically impossible.
<I would use an arthrocide... an acetlycholinesterase inhibitor. Please read here re:
http://wetwebmedia.com/isopodcontr.htm  and
My best bet is still Cupramine in therapeutic doses for a short period (2-3 days), but I would love to use something more fish friendly.
<Do read the above>
Thank you in advance for your advice!
Kind regards, Andrei
<Again; glad to share. Bob Fenner>

Indian Glass Fish; sources     11/26/14
Dear Madam/Sir,
> I am interested in the Indian Glassfish, which are several species ( Parambassis ranga, Parambassis lala, and Parambassis siamensis).
> Do you know of breeders I could contact?
> Thank you very much,
> Itamar Harel, Ph.D.
> The Brunet Lab
> Department of Genetics
> Stanford University School of Medicine
Indian Glass Fish
Hello Dr. Harel,
I do not know any commercial breeders.
Are you aware of the book “Ornamental Aquarium Fish of India” by John Dawes, Kishori Tekriwal, Andrew Arunava Rao? The last two authors, Tekriwal and Rao, give a brief review of the aquarium trade in India and would probably be worth contacting about breeders and/or collectors.
Otherwise, getting in touch with the major importers in your country/state would be the next step. In the UK certain retailers have a reputation for being able to import specific fish for academic usage. Wildwoods, in Enfield, for example, has worked with researchers at the Natural History Museum in this way on work being done on snakeheads.

Re: Help with my spiny eel!     11/26/14
Ok cool! Thank you. Indian Fern is otw (had to order it as no lfs has any).
<Often the case. But do read Bob F's comments on this superb addition to almost any FW aquarium, here:
Always worth having some to share with other aquarists, too.>
But I do have one last question. I placed all my fish (except the Pleco) back into the aquarium and all seem to be doing fine. I also moved over my rainbow shark from the second tank and put him in with the others, since i wouldn't be moving over the Pleco. I figured it might help the tank seem a little less empty for now. The problem I'm having is the rainbow shark seems to be aggressive (mainly to the eel, angel, and tetras) and now I'm worried about my eel. I know eels don't shed their skin, but i found what looks to be exactly that on the "floor" of the tank. Could it possibly be his slime coat?
<To a degree, yes, but not as a visible "sheet" usually.>
Do they shed those as one whole piece like a snake?(visually of course).
and if so, what does it mean and should i be worried.
<Would wait a few days. Sometimes fish do odd things when their environment changes, such as shed mucous that traps silt, but a day or two later, they're fine again.>
I have since moved the rainbow shark back to his original tank with the Plecos (he won't mess with those big guys. They don't put up with it.)
<Indeed. The "fish we call sharks" are not really community safe, and best kept with bigger fish that won't take any nonsense. As you observe, the larger L-numbers will pay back any transgressions in kind!>
But I'm worried about the eel. Any answer is greatly appreciated.
<Give it a day or two before panicking. Turning down/off the lighting often helps a great deal. Check the Spiny Eel can't jump out though -- this is a critical phase, if he's not feeling settled. Write back if he hasn't settled down and/or isn't eating. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Betta died and I want to know how to make tanks safe for another Betta     11/26/14
Hi Neale,
Thanks so much for all your help. My local fish store sold me another product called Betta Basics and said to use it with every water change. I think I am to use it instead of my water conditioner. It claims to remove chlorine, chloramine and ammonia as well as buffering to a pH of 7.0. It doesn't say what is in the bottle anywhere on the label and I am wondering if you would use this or the Discus Buffer you recommended along with water conditioner?
<I don't know this product, but if it promises to buffer to pH 7, then I'd use it without adding additional buffer. Check the pH across a week or two every day or so, and see if the pH is steady. If it is, job done!>
Today I did a 50% water change, treated the water again with the Betta Revive (for whatever that may be worth) and added some food. Tomorrow I will put the charcoal filter cartridge back in and will be returning the snail to the aquarium later tomorrow night.
<Do bear in mind carbon/charcoal removes medications. It also needs replacing weekly to do the things it promises to do. In most FW aquaria, it's almost never worth using, and swapping its space in the filter for more plain vanilla biological filter media will be immeasurably more useful. Of course some filters have carbon pads built into them that you can't substitute, only replace with new carbon pads, and that's a nice little earner for the manufacturer!>
How long would you wait before getting the new Betta?
<If the tank only contained the Betta and no other fish, then there's no real point waiting. Usually, the waiting period between a fish dying and adding a new one is so that you can see if any other fish are going to get sick. It's obviously best to treat sick fish before adding healthy ones.
It's also often the case with aquaria that people have added to many fish (or the wrong kinds of fish) and waiting a while lets the tank settle down.
But in a Betta aquarium, these aren't considerations.>
I got the impression from your reply that I shouldn't leave the tank uninhabited for too long or all the good microbes will die.
<Indeed. But whether you use a fish source of ammonia (a Betta producing waste), a non-fish source (rotting fish food), or a non-living source of ammonia (such as bottled ammonia, used to raise aquarium concentration to 2-4 mg/l) doesn't matter.>
Thanks again!
<Welcome. Neale.>

Ceratophyllum demersum     11/26/14
Happy Holidays Crew, What are thoughts on any negative effects of Hornwort on phytoplankton blooms, if any? I'm having second thoughts on using this plant in my fry tanks. Thanks in advance. Aloha Brandon
<Ceratophyllum, under suitable light, will inhibit the growth of many (but not all) types of algae according to the scientific literature. But as is usually the case with allelopathy, the impact is variable and depends upon the macrophyte (i.e., the plant) being in good health and growing quickly (i.e., receiving lots of light). Ceratophyllum is a common choice for fry tanks, not so much for algae control (it probably doesn't do a huge amount of this under indifferent lighting) but because it provides shelter and the fine leaves trap organic food particles where Protozoans can prosper, and these in turn are excellent food for baby fish. Cheers, Neale.>

Strange gunk on Betta     11/26/14
I came home from school for Thanksgiving break. I went in to see my Betta male that I left home. I noticed he wasn't looking very well. He was sitting on the ground and his color looked faded. I checked his water temperature and the thermometer said it was 68 degrees and I also checked the under-gravel filter and it was filthy.
<Aquarium much too cold. Turn the heater up (or heaven forbid, "on" if someone has switched it off in your absence). As you hopefully know, Bettas are tropical fish, any anyone who tells you they can survive at room temperature is either (a) misinforming you or (b) living in the tropics where room temperature is tropical! Anything below 25 C/77 F is bad for Bettas, and below, say, 22 C/72 F quickly becomes lethal. I'm only stressing this point for the benefit of others reading this... you'd be surprised (saddened) how many people believe they don't need to provide their Betta with a heater, instead spouting out such nonsense as "this angle poise light over the top warms it up" or "it's bred to live in an unheated tank" or some such rubbish. Your Betta is almost certainly getting sick because of lack of heat. Fish are ectotherms, meaning the heat energy they need for normal metabolic processes comes from their environment (not internally, as it is with mammals and birds). If they're too cold, chemical reactions slow down below the necessary (safe) rate, and things like digestion and immune response stop working properly. Bacteria in the water that would normally be fended off by their immune system can run amok if the immune system is running at half speed, and the result is, of course, a sick fish. Finrot and Fungus are two classic responses to tropical fish being kept too cold, as are Whitespot infections.>
I did a 75% water change and cleaned the filter. I let him float in the new water for 20 minutes and then let him back in it. I then noticed he has some "gunk" on his left fin. I don't want to go out and buy a lot of chemicals if it isn't very serious and that could harm him even more.
<Indeed, that's a concern, but at the same time, medicines shouldn't be seen as an expense that can be avoided. In this situation though increasing water temperature and ensuring good water quality (as always, zero ammonia and zero nitrite) should do the trick, and if the fin damage/infection doesn't get worse, it should heal up in time. Using a reliable Finrot medication (Melafix wouldn't be my first choice here, despite its low cost and wide sale, but a proper antibiotic instead) is definitely worthwhile though. As ever, remove carbon from the filter during use otherwise the medicine probably won't work.>
I've had him for a year. I'm wondering if this is normal for older Betta fish or of it could be something serious.
<In an aquarium a Betta should live 2-3 years after purchase without too much trouble if given decent care. If the aquarium heater was turned down low, it may well be that over summer his water temperature was adequate, if not ideal, but now it's colder, he's really feeling the chill. Review, and act accordingly.>
I have a picture of it. I also noticed some black spots on his fin that i never noticed before. Are they normal or should i be concerned.
<Any dramatic changes in a fish are cause for concern, especially when linked to obviously bad environmental stress (such as lack of heat). Let me also direct you to Bob Fenner's book on keeping Bettas, here:
For under $10 (or $6 on Kindle!) you get pretty much everything you need to know about Bettas in one place. Since Bettas are so widely kept, we know everything that's needed to keep them healthy. Heat, filtration, a decent sized aquarium (I'd argue at least 4-5 gallons, anything less being pretty pointless) and an appropriate diet. Read, understand, learn and reflect.
Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Strange gunk on Betta     11/26/14
Thanks Neal. I got him a heater and he does seem happier. i plan on changing up his diet to more then pellets for a more happier Betta
<Most welcome and glad he's a better Betta (which is alliterative in British English!). Cheers, Neale.>

What is this?!? Pac. coast Chiton     11/26/14
Hi folks -
We found this creature on the sand on the coast at Arch Rock in Point Reyes National Seashore, California. As you can see, it has some size to it.
The speckles are dark sand grains. The flesh is light yellowish orange.
Is this a Chiton of some sort? The shiny plates are "boney"; the rest is slightly soft to the touch and flesh-like. Is it intact?
<Mmm; yes this appears to be a Gumboot or Giant Western Chiton, Cryptochiton stelleri>
Brian Bean
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Hyposalinity Question     11/26/14
Hello, Crew!
Can a 50 gallon FOWLR survive hyposalinity to ensure a complete eradication of Cryptocaryon when the tank is already lacking a host fish?

<Yes... but not most invertebrates>
Or is it better to (a) remove the rock along with snails and crabs into a separate container while the main tank is in Hyposalinity
or (b) just leave live rock in the tank with normal salinity during a fallow period? I am just theorizing that lack of host fish and low salinity will ensure complete eradication. Thanks in advance!
<All this and much more is gone over and over, archived on WWM. Use the indices, search tool to look up re Crypt.
Bob Fenner>

Moray eel compatibility     11/26/14
Hey WWM crew! Have messaged a fair bit in the past and you guys have always been helpful! Just wondering if you could help again on a few quick questions :)
Tank details;. 5ft bowfront Juwel vision tank - 120 gal (450 litres)
Current stocking list;. Blue throat triggerfish x1. Saddleback butterflyfish x1. Galaxy clarkii clownfish x2 . Skeletor moray eel x1 (Just recently acquired)
The Skeletor moray seemed quite active after putting him into the tank, so was wondering if this is normal?
<Is common behavior... looking for a way out>
Has been swimming around the tank and in between rocks but haven't had this with previous morays I have kept before so thought I had better ask :)
Now the next question would be about future stocking, as am looking to get these few fish below;. Regal angelfish (yellow bellied variant). Flame angelfish . Red tail tamarin wrasse. Blue ribbon moray eel
Would this be too much to add?
<Yes; particularly the last
. Rhinomuraena don't do well in captivity period; would highly likely perish here. Tamarin wrasses are not easy... neither most Regals>
are there any from the list above that you would add first?
<The Centropyge>
Am worried about the 2 morays though so thought I would ask, so do you think they could mix?
if so how would you do it?
Thanks and best wishes!
<And you. I'd keep dreaming, reading at this point... look for other livestock, perhaps another system.
Bob Fenner>

Re: Genetics?     11/25/14
Well, I keep my water hard and alkaline; I have 7 tanks with Mollies out the wazoo...it's just in this tank, with this particular pair and progeny.
<That is curious. Some Molly lines/strains seem to be more picky than others. Recall some Molly species are more brackish water fish, whereas others are more freshwater fish, and since you can't tell by looking which ones gave the most genes to your specimens, it's a gamble whether yours will need salty conditions to thrive or not. A while back I wrote a piece on Mollies for Practical Fishkeeping Magazine that I think reveals a bit more about these very complicated fish, now uploaded to their website, here:
The bottom line is that the genetics of Mollies is complicated, and it's hard to say precisely what conditions the fish in front of you will need. Brackish is always better, but it isn't always practical, and therein lies the challenge.>
I don't have exact numbers now but can fill you in later.
<Excellent... that will help a lot.>
I keep a Betta in all my tanks, but if this is detrimental to them, I will remove them.
<Does depend a lot on the Betta. Farmed Bettas are pretty tough, and while soft water is better, they can do well in hard water if all else is excellent. If yours are happy, then leave them be.>
Unfortunately I lost 3 female Bettas to a death trap ornament, so there's another thing everyone should keep in mind.
<Indeed. Bettas aren't as easy to keep as many people think. Keeping them for long and healthy lives takes a bit of doing.>
Thanks, Neale, for your reply.
<Most welcome. Neale.>

Live Rock/Sand     11/25/14
Hey Bob, question for you... I have a 150 gallon tank with 150lbs of LR in the display and about 30lbs in the sump. Parameters are Ammonia 0, Nitra <i> tes 0, pH 8.2, and salinity 1.023 and nitrates are at about 60-70ppm.
<Mmm; too high. See WWM re how to keep this under 20 ppm>

Inhabitants consist of a Black Dogface puffer (6-7 inches), Teardrop Butterfly (3 inches), Long Nosed Hawk, Comet, and a Flagtail Blanquillo.
I can't seem to get my nitrates under control. I feed mysis once a day, and a variety of meaty fare for the puffer every other day.
I've had the same LR and live sand for 4 years.
<This is part of the issue. Some LR needs to be added, switched out every year or so... more soluble areas, biodiversity lost over time>

Once a week I change 25% of the water, and before doing that I shake out all rocks and move sand around vigorously then change the filter socks/skimmer about an hour later.
<Good... but I'd be rinsing the socks out... likely daily>

My question is do you think the Rock and sand are saturated and possibly leaching nitrates?
<More of the former>
If so, do I need to change out the rock, and sand?
<At least some; yes. Do you "do" macroalgae culture in your sump? I would... on a RDP light pattern... and have as large a fine DSB there as possible>
Thanks so much,
<Welcome! Bob Fenner>
Re: Live Rock/Sand     11/25/14

Hey Bob,
I was hoping you'd say that :) Now I have something to go on.
I have lots of "dead rock" that is fully cured that I will slowly start changing out with existing rock. How about the sand? Should I be siphoning some out now and then and replacing with new?
<Is a good way to do it>
Rinsing the socks daily is a good idea.
<Best to have two, three sets... be bleaching/rinsing, drying the others between use>

I've been changing them every other day so they don't just sit in the water. I have 10 that I use and wash once week. I do have a ball of growing Chaeto above about an inch and a half of "Miracle Mud" on a reverse light cycle. I don't know how good that mud is but my LFS told me it was great for nitrates but takes time to work. He's also had great success with it treating Lateral line disease. Go figure?
<Oh yes; am a believer...>
I'll get back to you in a few months when all rock is changed out. Thanks so much and have a great holiday!
<And you and yours. BobF>

Kickstarter... Nualgi      11/25/14
Hello Robert,
I wanted to share our story that could have ground breaking impact on our water and food resources.
Nualgi is the first nano-technology based product that promises to address nutrient overload in our waters.
Nutrients from intensive agriculture and animal husbandry as well as our back yards are washing into our drinking water reservoirs,
causing harmful algae blooms in our waters.
To get to Nualgi adoption, we are trying to fund University level research so it can be certified as safe for our drinking
water and aquaculture applications. Here is the link:
A press release is also attached.
I would appreciate very much if you can take a few minutes to review the video and share it with your associates.
Anil Nanda,
100E San Marcos Blvd, Ste 400, San Marcos, CA 92069
<Will share on WetWebMedia.com. Bob Fenner>

Betta died and I want to know how to make tanks safe for another Betta     11/25/14
Hi there,
I set up a planted 2.5 gallon tank about five weeks ago. The tank has a filter, I used Fluval Stratum Volcanic soil as the substrate in the tank. I cycled the tank for two weeks with only the plants (Brazilian micro sword and Bacopa) and driftwood before introducing one snail and one female Betta. Three weeks later ( this Friday) I noticed the Betta's colour was dull and grey and she wasn't eating. My pH and kH were both very low but all the other levels were perfect.
<pH and KH (carbonate hardness) are of course related. Low KH tends to mean the water has minimal ability to buffer against pH changes, specifically, drops. Day/night cycles occur where high levels of photosynthesis take place, so the pH can end up moving from a very high number during the day (as CO2 is removed from the water by the plants) and back down again at night (as plants no longer remove CO2). This is because CO2 dissolves in water to form carbonic acid, so the more CO2, as at night, the lower the pH (the greater the acidity). General hardness has little impact on pH buffering. In acidic aquaria it's recommended to use a commercial Discus Buffer (typically, a phosphoric acid mixture) to inhibit these pH changes while keeping the pH in the acidic range, typically 6 or 6.5 depending on the situation.>
The tank had dropped to 72 degrees so I thought she was cold and purchased a heater on Saturday which brought the temperature up to 82 degrees.
<You didn't have a heater prior to this? Bettas are tropical fish, and unless your ambient room temperature is 25-28 C/77-82 F, you must use a heater. Ignore any retailer who tells you they don't need heaters -- unless of course he's a tropical fish seller in Bangkok and your Betta is going to live in a garden pond there!>
She just hovered by the heater.
<Saying, "So... cold... need... warmth...">
I noticed a long, white, flat poop hanging from her.
<If transparent or off-white, commonly implies digestive tract infections or something similar that causes a lot of mucous to be expelled, hence the whitish thread. Constipation can do the same thing, but the faeces are normal faeces colour, in this case, some shade of black or brown depending on what they've eaten (though colour-enhancing foods often turn the faeces red).>
I went to my local fish store on Sunday and they said it was internal parasites.
<Which covers a very big range of possibilities, many of which have very different treatments.>
They sold me a medication called Betta revive.
<Nothing more than Naphthoquinones in water according to the manufacturer. Might help prevent Finrot or fungus in a few situations, but this/these medication/s aren't particularly effective. As always with medications, be sensible about cheap products that promise to cure everything without you needing to do a diagnosis. "If it sounds good to be true..." as my dad used to remind me!>
I treated her water Sunday (it turned it dark blue but by morning the colour had disappeared). This morning (Monday) when I went to check on her she was dead.
I would like to get a new Betta but I want to make sure the tank is safe and won't contaminate the new fish.
<Almost certainly an environmental issue, so just do a water change, clean the gravel if needs be, but otherwise don't focus on "hidden germs" as these aren't the issue. Would remind you the tank is a bit small (5 gallons is, for me, the minimum size for "easy" Betta keeping), you must have a filter, and you must have a heater. Water quality must be good, and without a fish, the bacteria will die back, so each day until the new fish arrives, add a little fish flake (about as much as you gave the Betta in one meal) and leave this to rot and so release the bacteria the ammonia they need. No need to add food the next day if the food is still solid and visible. You
can alternatively add ammonia, but that's a bit more of a hassle.>
The LFS said to continue to treat the water as per the instructions on the package, use the gravel vacuum to clean the gravel and do a few water changes.
Wait two weeks and then the tank will be parasite free and safe.
<Possibly, but I doubt that was the issue here. Stress (lack of heat,
perhaps pH variation) allowed the bacteria or Protozoans in the gut to multiply wildly, causing sickness. You can't eliminate these germs in Bettas any more than you can in humans, and as with humans, a healthy Betta has an immune system that keeps them in check.>
I just want to get a second opinion before I introduce a new Betta.
<Can I direct you to the best $5.94 you'll spend today, here:
Or if you don't have a Kindle/eBook reader, here:
Bettas thrive on research. Seriously, $5-10 spend on reading will save you many times that on healthcare costs.>
Thanks in advance!
<Most welcome, Neale.>

Transferring FW "bottle ecosystem" school project to new aquarium     11/25/14
Hi WWM crew. I'm looking for some advice on how to handle a "bottle ecosystem" project my fifth grader just brought home from school. The converted 2 liter bottle contains 2 feeder guppies, three snails, some elodea, gravel substrate and a good bit of cloudiness from algae. The system has apparently been set up for about three weeks, I don't think with any water changes as in theory it's a closed system.
<Indeed. This is one of those examples of a school trying to get a point across (ecosystems cycle nutrients) without getting it right (you'd need massive amounts of plant growth under intense lighting to offset the waste produced by the fish, and even then, nutrients are also exported from ecosystems, which can't happen here). As a reef keeper, you'll be aware of this and how it's managed in saltwater tanks, even with the magic of live rock at your disposal. In freshwater ecosystems, nutrients are exported in all sorts of ways, from amphibious animals (such as ducks and frogs) consuming aquatic organisms but pooping on land, and probably most significantly by the transient nature of freshwater habitats as they gradually silt up and move across a floodplain or whatever, leaving fertile mud behind. In any event, you simply can't keep Guppies (for long) in just two litres of water. On the other hand, you could keep a few Daphnia for example, and such a system might be stable for many months before it collapses.>
My son wants to keep the fish (and snails I assume), and to my mind, the existing system of less than 2 liters is doomed in the not-too-distant future.
<Spot on. As an experiment, the teacher and kids have created something here that *looks* like a miniature pond or lake. So as a learning exercise the point is got across. Sunlight stimulates plant growth, animals eat the plants, animal waste is recycled by the remaining plants to create more plants. But in reality without heat the Guppies will die; without water changes the dissolved nutrients (nitrate, phosphate) will accumulate to toxic levels; and without space, the fish will eventually grow too big/consume the available oxygen and die. For Guppies, you want a heated, filtered aquarium upwards of 15 gallons/60 litres (you can keep Guppies in 10 gallons/40 litres, but it's hit-and-miss, especially if the males become aggressive). Don't forget male Guppies pester females, so if you're keeping just two, two females is the easiest option (two males often end up with one bullying the other).>
My plan is to buy a small aquarium with conventional filtration (gravel bed, biobag filter), jump start its cycle using some of the substrate from the bottle system and a commercial product like Dr Tim's One and Only or FritzZyme, then transfer the critters to the new system after normal drip acclimation.
<Sounds workable.>
Am I on the right track here, or is the "ecosystem" a better bet on its own? Any advice appreciated.
<Your track is indeed the right one. The "ecosystem" has many/most of the microbes needed, and as a way of "seeding" a new tank, it'll do nicely. Upscaling the aquarium to, say, 15 gallons will give you plenty of space for any moderate peaks in ammonia and nitrite to be diluted down to safe levels, especially alongside regular water changes.>
Thanks in advance,
<Most welcome. Neale.>

Link to: Last Few Days Accrued FAQs

Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
  • Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:, References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography, Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public Aquariums,

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