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Diploria labyrinthiformis (Linnaeus 1758). Typically hemispherical in
appearance. Often with some valleys being parallel, spaced about 5-8 mm.
apart, trough-like, appear double-walled. Cozumel 2012 |
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Acropora millepora disease identification... scant info.
Hi there. I got some of millepora that just suddenly bleaching out at
the tips for no reason. Even though my parameter been stable all the
time. Only got spike in nitrate from 0 to 5-6. Phosphate from 0 to 0.1.
<... what other livestock, esp. chemo-photosynthetic is here? All need
some/measurable NO3 and HPO4>
But did big wc to lower them down. In addition still battle with red
slime lately. Can u help me id the disease. Thanks
<Not w/o more information. Let's have you read here:
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>
Spotty tiger Oscar and other problems 9/27/14
Hi there my husband has 3 freshwater tropical aquariums, one of them has
an albino Oscar, a tiger Oscar, a Kissing Gourami, a Firemouth cichlid,
a Nicaraguan, and two Plecos. The albino Oscar has lost some scales on a
large area on both side looking almost like flesh wounds and the tiger
Oscar has a few small/large white greyish spots on one side.
<Do look at the behaviour/s of the Plec and the Kissing Gourami. Plecs
are sometimes seen to attach onto Oscars and other large fish, rasping
away at the mucous. Similarly, Kissing Gouramis very occasionally do
this too. In both cases the problem seems to be triggered by hunger.
Plecs have huge appetites and need a lot of food, particularly "filling"
greens (such as lettuce, courgette and sweet potato) pretty much on
offer every day of the week. Without these foods, they feel hungry even
if they're getting some pellets or wafers, kind of like how people feel
hungry even if they've actually eaten quite a lot of protein and fat
(e.g., meat) but very little fibre (i.e., fresh fruit and vegetables).
So, review what your Plecs are being offered. Perhaps move them away
from the Oscars for a few weeks, medicate as per Finrot, optimise water
quality (zero ammonia and nitrite, minimal nitrate) and see what
happens. Kissing Gouramis are a species prone to starvation in aquaria.
They're filter feeders in the wild, and need very large quantities of
food to do well. That's one reason they're often tricky to keep, and
even those that do survive have a concave profile to their bodies that
shows they're underweight. A decent portion of finely powdered
Spirulina flake offered 3-4 times a day will help a lot, alongside the
odd algae wafer, frozen brine shrimp, live daphnia, etc.>
And in the second, he has a few Plecos, and some other communal fish, of
which the biggest Pleco has a few grey patches but the third all fish
seem fine, please could u help me with this as I really have no clue,
well to be honest I have a couple but I'm not am expert so not really
sure many thanks sheen
<If the Plec has some problems with its body as well, I would suspect
water quality. Review and act accordingly. To recap, any tank with an
Oscar or a Plec (or both!) needs to be big, minimum 55 gallons for one,
75 gallons for both, and equipped with a large filter. By large, I mean
choose a filter from your favourite range that's for the aquarium the
next size up; so if you have a 75 gallon tank, choose a filter rated for
tanks 100 gallons or more. Make sense? Do also read:
Constipated Yellow Bellied Sliders 9/27/14
I have 2 yellow bellied sliders and I haven't seen ANY poop in their
tank for a week. This has not happened before. They are very active
though and have a great appetite so I don't know what to think. I left
them with my mom for 3 days (I haven't seen poop since) and she may have
fed them more than I do, but other than that, nothing changed in their
routine. What is happening and what should I do? Please answer asap.
<How much and what sort of fresh green foods do you offer them? Turtle
pellets aren't a good staple, despite the advertising. Stop feeding them
entirely, if used, and only offer your turtles fresh greens. Pond weed
sold for Goldfish tanks works great. Dump it in their tank, and when
they're hungry (which may take many days if they've been spoiled with
high protein foods) they'll eat them. More fibre means more faeces, and
that's what you're after. Once things back to normal, bias their diet
with green foods, using pellets sparingly. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Constipated Yellow Bellied Sliders 9/28/14
Thank you! But it turns out that they do poop, but one of them eats
it..which is very strange. I am not sure what that means, but I don't
think it is healthy.
But thank you for the diet tips, I did not know that pellets are not
enough. I will make sure to include greens in their diet. Do you know
what I could do about him eating the poop?
<Nothing directly, but if given enough bulky green foods, as well as
unshelled krill and similar crunchy morsels, they should feel less
"hungry". Much like humans; the more fibre we eat, the less crap/junk we
Thank you again :)
<Most welcome. Neale.>
Ornate Wood Turtle Update 9/27/14
Hello again! I wrote about a year ago about a turtle with shell rot that
was being fussy about her calcium. Just dropping in to say that she's
healing up great (no pictures right now). She's got scarring that the
says might not fade, but the exposed bone is peeling up, and there's
healthy scute growth under it. Now that she's healed, she's really
curious and lively, which is a real change from how lethargic she was a
Thanks for your help and advice, guys!
<Always nice to hear a happy ending! Thanks for letting us know. Cheers,
RED EAR SLIDERS MATING 9/27/14
My 4 1/2 yr old RES turtles, i have been leaving them out of water, in
the house, and put them back in tank while feeding alone, for almost an
year now. They seem to be doing fine with female sleeping around all the
time in one place and male moving a little bit here and there in
Can turtles mate outside water?
<Not Red-Ear Sliders, no.>
or if they do while in tank when feeding, can they be left on land after
<After mating, yes, the female can be removed to another tank and will
come on land to bask as normal. She'll swim normally, too. Fertilisation
is internal, so after mating it doesn't matter much what she does.
Generally though breeding Red Ear Sliders is not recommended for a
variety of reasons, not least of which is the fact far more baby turtles
are produced than there are people able to keep them PROPERLY. So any
eggs produced should be destroyed.>
And they doesn't seem to be eating their pellets these days at all, at
least from past 4 days, what can i do about it?
<Wise turtles. Pellets are okay as treats, but not a good staple diet.
Instead offer fresh greens (pretty much any cheap aquarium plant will
do, including Pondweed/Elodea) alongside plant-based pellets (Koi
pellets are excellent) rather than the typical high-protein reptile
pellets. Do have a read here:
Feeding isn't difficult for this omnivorous turtles, but many, MANY
people get it wrong even so!>
Please help me ID these 9/28/14
I found these creatures living all over the walls in the drain chamber
of my sump. At first I thought were pods, but
after a closer look, I'm nor sure. I wanted to
ID them to assure they are not a threat. I found
similar pictures online, but I'm not sure.
<Scypha sponge. Commonly referred to as Q-tip or pineapple sponge.
Harmless filter feeders.>
Thank you very much,
Re: platy foods and plants 9/28/14
What an altogether funny looking fellow this chlamydogobius eremius!
<Quite so. Also suicidal. Keep the tank covered; they jump! Otherwise
bullet-proof and very breedable. Czech (?) breeders have a golden morph
that appeals to some; worth looking out for.>
I missed the Desert Aquarist Society meeting on the 14th (drat) due to a
family issue. However, I have found 'The Guy' at our *Arizona Nature
Aquatics* shoppe. He is very knowledgeable also and runs a beautiful,
beautiful place. Indeed, as promised on his website, he has, in fact,
raised fishkeeping to an art form. Just wait until I win the lottery!!
All's well in the tank. Unexpectedly, two of the babies that I thought
were too large to eat, were not. I later surmised this was because Terme
was about to birth, *again. *( 'ovarian pockets', indeed). There now
seems to be at least one new baby. I will not name this one...I suppose
it's goofy to name one's platys and ghost shrimp but I grew up with Walt
Disney... The previous, remaining baby, Wozzle, is fending well, appears
to be female.
Clear water, no issues, a new plant and a great new source of
fishkeeping info. I did upgrade to a new heater that can be *set* to a
Winter will come on and I don't run the house heater at night or in the
day when I'm not here. We can drop to 50's or high 40's in the house at
night, ratcheting back up to the high 80's during the day!
<Would suit Variatus Platies particularly well. Also Ameca splendens,
Xenotoca eiseni and many/most of the Goodeidae, probably better than
standard tropical conditions.>
Neale, I hope that you and all of yours are very well and content. You
remain a solid source of info for me as I continue to upgrade my
knowledge in this hobby.
<Thanks for these kind words.>
<Most welcome. Neale.>
Fish Space and 1 Missing 9/28/14
Hello. I live in the Arizona desert, on a floodplain. I have an
informal, irregullar shaped, 765 gallon, sunken, 45 mil. EPDM
liner pond in my backyard. The pond has a ph of 8, a gph of
625, and a submersible filter with a built in uv and a fountain
attachment. The pond contains 11 pond goldfish. 10 are comets, 1
is a Shubunkin. There are 3 adults comets, 7 baby comets of various
ages, and 1 baby Shubunkin.
Is there enough space for 11 pond goldfish to survive their entire lives
together in my pond?
<Should be... with regular maintenance. SEE WWM re>
It rained here last night. We got some hail. All my fish except the
Shubunkin have turned up. Do you think the tiny 1 inch Shubunkin is just
hiding? Thank you.
<How could I/we tell? B>
back link 9/28/14
I apologize for having to do this. Can you please remove my link from
Because my site is so green or new I have been severely affected by some
of the Google changes that have come out recently. That is why I would
like to remove it. Sorry for the inconvenience.
Snowflake Eel / Red Around Mouth... no data
I've had a snowflake eel for about three years that has always acted
Over the past two weeks has been hiding in the bottom and not feeding
much. When he did come out today to eat… I noticed a red color on his
cheeks, on both sides of his head. Would this red coloring have anything
to do with his recent hermit like behavior.
<... Who can/could state; given the information (lack of) proffered?
Have you read what is archived re Echidna nebulosa on WWM? Do so. Bob
My Little Puffer
I've Had this little Ocean puffer that arrived with a water change he
seamed fine but them I noticed he has what looks like a baby shrimp or a
tentacle sticking out of its side I've Googled it and nothing can you
please inform me on this please.
<?... Looks like fecal material to me. Should dislodge of/by itself. Bob
Re: Sudden Cleaner Shrimp & Fire Shrimp die-off in Seahorse
Hi Bob, sorry for the delay but I wanted to say a huge thanks for your
time & help with our question. Chemical media went in and so far
everyone else is doing great!
<Ah good. Thanks for the follow-up/news. Bob Fenner>
Re: Small Pond Goldfish Pond Survival
Thank you Neale! :)
Re: Favia Has Blister 09/25/14
Thank you Eric for your prompt response!
<<Quite welcome, Karl>>
I cannot remove the coral for dipping as it long ago spread from its
original plug to the rockwork.
<<Okay…should still be fine>>
I do not believe that it was a fish as all my fish are completely reef
safe (That includes any that are considered reef safe "with caution".) I
don't believe it was stung by another coral but I will check tonight to
see if any sweepers come anywhere near it.
<<Then likely these are not the cause of this phenomenon (as was the
case with my own issue re). I’m reluctant to call this a “complaint” as
it may well be a “normal condition” of these animals>>
I will probably pop the "blister" and will keep you informed.
<<Sounds good mate>>
Again, my sincere "thanks".
<<Always welcome… EricR>>
New fish owner- sick goldfish
I checked your FAQs first, but did not find a post that I was sure
addressed my issue.
My veiltail goldfish (Norman) has a white/see-through growth on his head
(more cotton than waxy). I thought it would get better when we bought
him a 20 gallon tank, but it is still spreading.
<In all honesty, 20 gallons is too small for Goldfish, and certainly a
potential source of problems once they're above, say, 8 cm/3 inches in
Initially, he developed a blood red spot on his head that cleared up
after every water change, but came back after about 3 days. He has not
had the red spot since we bought the new tank, but now the white patch
has grown near the same area and spread to his entire head.
<Likely an ulcer of some sort, with a subsequent bacterial infection
spreading outwards. Irritation causes mucous production, and dead skin
goes white. Could well explain the symptoms.>
Please help. He is active and eats fine. No other fish live in his tank
and I use My veiltail goldfish (Norman) has a white/see-through growth
on his head (more cotton than waxy). I thought it would get better when
we bought him a 20 gallon tank, but it is still spreading. Initially, he
developed a blood red spot on his head that cleared up after every water
change, but came back after about 3 days. He has not had the red spot
since we bought the new tank, but now the white patch has grown near the
same area and spread to his entire head. Please help. He is active and
<This is a good sign.>
No other fish live in his tank and I use well water to fill it. I do a
30% water replacement every week and his tank also has a filter.
<Good. But do review water chemistry (hard and alkaline is best).>
I do not know his age. Any idea what this could be and how I can treat
it? I have attached some photos.
<Well, they didn't come through.>
Any help would be greatly appreciated. We love our Norman and I would
hate for him to suffer due to my inexperience as a fish owner.
<Do start by reading here:
My first action here would be to get an antibiotic or antibacterial
medication, something fairly general like Seachem KanaPlex or the
popular combination of using Maracyn 1 and 2 together (the two products
different bacteria, so used together, work even better than singly).
Avoid tea-tree oil medications like Melafix that promise a lot but don't
consistently deliver. Do test water quality regularly, any nitrite or
ammonia above zero will be a problem. If in doubt, buy a bigger filter:
Goldfish are heavy polluters, so a filter recommended for a 20 gallon
tank will be insufficient for a 20 gallon tank because such a filter is
actually designed for small fish like Guppies and Neons. Instead buy the
model a size or two up the range, so a 30 or 40 gallon filter for a 20
If necessary, adjust the flow rate to avoid too much turbulence, but
otherwise a bigger filter will always be better. Cheers, Neale.>
QUEEN ARABESQUE PLECOS L-260; stkg.; sys.; comp.
Have been seriously considering getting this fish but am finding
<Indeed? Do try PlanetCatfish.com. It's by far and away the biggest and best
repository of up-to-date catfish information. Has an excellent forum, too.>
I have hard water and have read both that they prefer soft to medium hard and
also that they are ok in hard water?
<Hypancistrus species generally prefer softer water. They're less adaptable (or
hardy) as, for example, Ancistrus ("Bristlenose Plecs") or Pterygoplichthys
("common Plecs"). That said, if you have the warmth,
excellent water quality and lots of oxygen, they can do well in fairly hard
water. I wouldn't keep them above 20 degrees dH, pH 8 though, and ideally 2-12
degrees dH, pH 6.5-7.5 would be about right.>
Secondly, I have read they should be kept as a single specimen but also that
they should be kept 1 male to 2 females.
<Quite so. They're territorial. Singletons are easy to keep. Multiple females
per male can also work given space for the "harem" to spread out.
Allow about a square foot per specimen and you won't go far wrong.>
I have also read stocking is 1 fish per square foot regardless of sex.
<Indeed, I'd agree with this. Certainly spread any caves or bogwood roots around
the tank so the fish can have breathing space apart from each other, especially
I plan on keeping them in a lightly planted tank, 55 gallon with a school of
Corydoras and Celebes Rainbows.
<Corydoras potentially excellent companions, but do note more Corydoras prefer
rather cool water, 22-25 C/72-77 F, whereas Hypancistrus are happier around
25-28 C/77-82 F. So while "hothouse flower" Corys like Corydoras sterbai would
be good, the usual sorts like Corydoras aeneus won't enjoy that level of warmth,
and conversely, too cool conditions will weaken your Hypancistrus. Celebes
Rainbows dislike acidic conditions and need neutral to hard water chemistry to
do well (even thriving in low-end brackish) so they aren't obvious companions
for Hypancistrus at all.>
I realize some of the conflicting information is due to the wide range of
Loricariidae available, but I would like to get this right for them. I am hoping
some of you have kept this fish and can give me some guidance.
<Hope this helps.>
I need some help. I have a growth on my golden dojo whom I've had for
three years, and I have no clue what it is or how to treat it. I have
attached a picture. It is the brown growth on his fin and also is coming
out of his "armpit" for lack of a better word. The brown on his head is
his coloring and is flat.
<Yes; not an issue>
The brown on and under the fin is definitely raised. He is acting
completely normal. Tank is fully cycled. 20 gallon long with one other
dojo, 4 platies, and 4 Oto catfish. Heavily planted with 30 gal
I did recently acquire some new plants, so I'm not sure if that's the
<Mmm; can't say... and I'd really not add medicine randomly here...
Likely this Loach till self-cure in time without...
and adding such do more potential damage than good..>
Thanks so much!
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Neotropical Cichlid ID
This is my unknown fish, can somebody please help me indentify
<... appears to be Hypselecara temporalis. Chocolate Cichlid.>
It was sold to me as a Firemouth, as it started to grow I started to
doubt it because its so different from the others.
Really appreciate any help given.
Angelfish sick 9/25/14
I have been searching for answers to my problem nothing is
found no matter were I go or look. My angelfish look like they have a
cloudy or mold on there skin, not moving that much like the usually do
it passes from one angelfish to another after one dies and on some of
them they don't have the same appearance's but die? My pH is 7.6 ammonia
is 0 nitrates 0 nitrites r 0 and still lost in this whole problem I used
amox and a few other things but still no go!
<Do need some information on the environment. While Slime Disease (also
known as Costia) is one possibility, irritation that causes mucous
production is more likely, particularly if a whole series of fish have
died. To recap: Angels need a largish tank (20 gallons for one or a
mated pair, 50+ gallons for a group of six) that has been cycled and
running awhile (6 weeks, minimum, and ideally a couple months). Water
chemistry shouldn't be extreme (farmed Angels are okay between 2-20
degrees dH, pH
6-8) but variation in pH is bad. Likewise water temperature should be
stable and preferably a bit warm, 24-28 C/75-82 F. Diet should be
varied, no feeder guppies please, but based instead on good quality
flake or pellets such as Hikari Cichlid Gold. Angels are delicate when
very young; avoid specimens less than 1.5 inches in diameter if at all
possible. Some varieties are distinctly sensitive compared to the
others, with Koi and all-black Angels being among the more
temperamental. By contrast, old fashioned marble and gold Angels seem to
be pretty good, as are standard silver Angels. Acclimate all new
specimens to your local water chemistry carefully (across an hour or
more, e.g., using the drip system).
Favia Has Blister – 09/25/14
I have a Favia about one year that has been growing nicely. This morning
I noticed an area about 20mm in diameter that has a blister. The soft
tissue has separated from the skeleton. It looks like a boil that
fluctuates in the current from a wave maker.
<<Indeed…and have seen this with my own Favia coral>>
Yesterday I did change my GFO and carbon. Parameters are perfect and I
am growing Acropora with ease in this system. I have attached a photo
showing the coral in question.
<<I see this>>
The lesion is on the right side at about the 1:00 O'clock position. Any
help would be appreciated.
<<As noted, I have experienced this phenomenon in my own system. The
“blister” may be a result of physical trauma (picked at by a
fish/crustacean or stung by another coral)…or maybe it’s even a sign of
a reproductive event (just guessing here). But in my case, it turned out
to be of no worry. I actually ‘popped’ the blister on my Favia coral. It
came back within a week or two…I popped it again, and this time the
coral healed and returned to its normal appearance. Not saying this is
what you should do, but is something to consider. You could also try a
dip in something like Tropic Marin Pro Coral Cure. Aside from this, I
would simply leave the coral be for now and observe>>
<<Happy to share… EricR>>
Re: Gold Severum floating on its side
You guys have a great web page, my sincere congratulations.
After I sent email, Kept on reading the questions and answers from
others, wow so much insight and great information from the experiences
of other fish lovers and your great advice.
So... I put in practice some of the advise,
1 - made a partial water change,
<THIS is most important>
2- added some medication
BTW, it was such a pleasant surprise to receive a response but most if
all how fast you responded.
3 - followed your advise and moved my 2 beautiful gold Severums
to larger quarters (new 55 gal. tank). Fish are happily swimming...
<Ahh; very good>
Keep up the great work!
<Are endeavouring to do so. Cheers, BobF>
Dreaded Lernaea. Thank goodness for quarantine tanks
Greetings Crew, My biggest nightmare came true. Upon receiving a
shipment of Shubunkin goldfish, I noticed a fish with what looked like a
damaged dorsal fin. Almost looked as if a dorsal ray was protruding.
<Ah yes; quite common in pond raised, reared goldfishes>
I was a little worried about anchor worms but having never encountered
this parasite(only heard of), I shrugged it off and tossed fish into
quarantine tank. Coincidently I had to go on 7 day trip the following
day. Upon returning I noticed all fish were severely infected, some with
gaping wounds. All fish have passed away. Now I'm worried about my
quarantine tank. I was planning to let tank run without livestock for 30
days. Is it possible that nauplii would die off in this time frame and
break life cycle
or should I bite the bullet and treat with organophosphate to be on the
<Mmm; I'd bleach (chlorine) the entire contents... gravel if present,
filter/s... Leave running for an hour re the SOP posted on WWM re
Is there another medication I could use in this situation(hopefully less
<There are, but the Cl biocide is the easiest, cheapest, most assured
way of elimination>
Is there certain times of the year when I should avoid buying these pond
<Mmm; no; not really... in terms of avoiding parasitic issues. >
Thanks as always for the great site. Aloha Brandon
<Ah, welcome. Bob Fenner>
Small Pond Goldfish Pond Survival
I have a 765 gallon, irregular shaped, sunken pond. It is a 45 mil. EPDM
liner pond. It is a few weeks over 1 year old. It has a pH of about 8.
It has a uv, a fountain, and a submersible filter with a water pump of
about 625 gph. 2 of my adult fish died about 2 days ago. A calico
Shubunkin goldfish and a big white comet. They got gill damage. They got
it from being cooped up with 11 other goldfish. They were in a way too
small 50 gallon tank, with no filter or aeration. They stayed in there
for a day and overnight. My fault entirely. I should have known better.
I got 2 new replacement fish for them today. A little yellow comet and
another redheaded Shubunkin. They are both about 2 inches long. I live
in the Arizona desert. Will the 2 new fish have time to build up their
size and reserves before it gets too cold?
<Should do, but depends on how mild your autumns are and how cold it
actually gets in your winters. Remember, Goldfish can feed and
metabolise down to 10-12 degrees C, using low protein foods such as
wheat germ, but below that they shouldn't be fed anything at all until
springtime rolls round and it warms up above 10-12 C. Very small
Goldfish may do better overwintered indoors, and your 50 gallon tank
should be ample for that.
Mortality of yearling Goldfish can be quite high in cold climates where
ice forms over the pond, but Arizona might well be mild enough for yours
to do okay.>
<Welcome, Neale (in the UK). Have cc'ed RMF to add a more Southwestern
<<IF the pond is large enough, deep enough, protected by structure from
much influence of (weather) elements... to not vacillate much thermally
(see WWM re as always); the biota should be fine here. RMF>>
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands,
Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
- Set-Up 2: Filtration of All
Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps,
Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
- About Livestock: Regional Accounts:,
Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths,
Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
- Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae,
Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges:
Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ
Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms,
Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
- Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes,
Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers,
Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine
Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving,
Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals,
Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control,
- Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms,
Treatments & Pests:
Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention,
Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health,
Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... &
- Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:,
References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography,
Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public
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