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Erythropodium caribaeorum, Encrusting Gorgonian. Form encrusting mats that look hairy when polyps are extended, smooth, light colored, like leather when retracted.  Here growing on a unifacial sea fan in Key Largo 2014.   

Desktop size download & Link to Archived Marine Daily Pix

Updated 4/23/2014
Other Specialized Daily FAQs Blogs: Freshwater,
Brackish, Last Few Days Accrued FAQs,
Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Nate Guerette, Rick Novy, Bobby Rudro, Jordan Stari, Sue Garrett, Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Sabrina Sharp, James Gasta, Eric Russell, Chris Perivolidis, Lynn Zurik, Chuck Rambo, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized daily
Current Crew Bios., Not so current Crew Bios
____________________________________________________________
Small Marine Aquariums
Book 1: Invertebrates, Algae
New Print and eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums
B
ook 2: Fishes
New Print and eBook on Amazon: by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums Book 3: Systems
New Print and eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
PLEASE: Write reviews of these works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF

nitrate update... Ongoing iatrogenic confusion       4/22/14
Hello there, Bob
I emailed you a few days ago, regarding my 100 nitrates in my FOWLR 155. I have looked into different avenues for nitrate removal, and after some few hours of research, may have found a reasonable course of action.
I will most likely get a SMR1 media reactor, using ecoBAK bio pellets, with a maxi jet 1200 pump.
I understand this takes some time to colonize, so in the mean time I will do 25 percent weekly water changes to bring them down. I have contemplated utilizing 60 percent water changes, however an lfs near me in Pennsylvania told me anything over 50 percent change, will cause tank to cycle.
I have never heard of this, and cant find anything on that. Is this something you find to be true?
Overall, how does my course of action look? Ultimately the best course of action would probably be to rehome half my fish. Obviously I am trying not to do that.
<Dang the torpeedees>
RE: nitrate update      4/22/14
Torpeedees? Not understanding...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Farragut
RE: nitrate update      4/22/14
Ah..yes I see. Continue with the aforementioned plan. Sorry I am used to reading your scientific lingo, not history lol.
I am afraid of one aspect of bio pellets I have read about, and that is the dreaded oxygen depriving bacterial bloom. Hopefully starting slow with 1/5 dose will counteract that.
And lastly, I will, as you put it, march on with the plan, however does >50% water change cause tank to recycle?
<No sir... not... likely>
I was under the impression the bacteria was insignificant in water column, and contained in the surfaces, tank walls, rock, sand etc.
RE: nitrate update      4/23/14
Thanks, Bob.
And in your opinion, being my nitrates are hovering @100, realistically, once the pellets are established, what number should I expect. I do not believe for a second, with my given nitrate stat, and remaining bio load, 0 nitrates are in my future. However, if I can get them down to 40, would that suffice, or does more modifications need to follow to lower them further?
<Please read, Re-read what is posted on WWM re Nitrates, their control...
and NOT get confused via what you're reading elsewhere>
And...off topic, but girlfriend and I are looking to book a Caribbean trip for the summer. Any destinations better than others as far as wildlife diversity? I have snorkeled Cozumel, and don't have anything else to really compare it to.
<A bunch of possibilities. Have you been to the Caymans? A bigger fan of the smaller islands. Bonaire in the Lower Antilles is a great favorite. Belize, esp. to the south (Placentia)... Do either of you have a predilection for culture/archaeology? Botany? Food tourism? B>

Turquoise or Lake Kutubu Rainbowfish behavior      4/23/14
Hello:
I was at the LFS today and there were some beautiful Turquoise rainbow fish there. There were only two left. The guy who works there said that if I did not have the emperor tetras in the 75 gallon that they would go well with the two angels. Is it true that these rainbow fish are really aggressive?
<Male Rainbowfish can be very feisty, yes. Keep in mixed sex groups, partly for behaviour and partly for better colours; ideally 6 or more, though one male and two females can work well enough.>
The males are the beautiful ones and I read they love to dominate and will bully or kill anything in the tank if it can.
<That's overstating the case a bit, but males will try to throw their weight around with any other similar-looking fish, typically other Rainbows. Generally peaceful towards everything else.>
They look big enough to eat most tetras or swordtails and maybe aggressive enough to stress to death a couple of larger angels who are non-aggressive.
<Rainbows can make excellent Angel companions, but do bear in mind Lake Kubutu Rainbows need hard, alkaline water. They will eat bite-sized fish (anything up to, say, small male Guppies) but aren't predators beyond that.
Good with similar sized barbs, characins, etc.>
Thank you
<Most welcome, Neale.>

Tank transfer method for Whitespot      4/23/14
I am after some feed back about the tank transfer method for treating fish for white sport.
<... to avoid Cryptocaryon I take it. This is posted on WWM. Have you tried searching?>
I am more than lucky to have the facility to conduct this over the 5 transfers that seem to be the minimum recommended in forum posts such as the extensive on Reef Central. I am keen to hear what you think about this method. The science behind it and how it takes advantage of the crypt life cycle seem sound.
<Useful in some cases, circumstances, but not generally the route I encourage... for practical reasons: Once someone realizes their system is infested, there are almost always multiple generations at work... host fishes being moved about is not only debilitating to them, but accomplishes little as the Protozoans are being moved with them to the new settings>
Thanks for your thoughts. By the way I don't have Whitespot in any of my fish. I have traditionally QT all fish and do a round of hypo as a catch all. I just thought the tank transfer may be simpler and more certain at eliminating Ich. I would also like to add some fish to my main tank that are more difficult to hypo for extended periods due to diet such as the mandarin.
Thanks
Marc
<Search; read. Bob Fenner>

Marine Ich Procedures      4/23/14
Dear Bob & Crew,
<Joe>
Hope that this message finds you in good health and spirits!
<Ah, thank you>
Just a quick question today. Unfortunately, my 155 gallon in-wall reef has come down with a case of Ich. It couldn't have come at a worse time. When I first noticed it, my son by chance had to have emergency surgery (250 miles away, mind you). There was no opportunity to put the fish in quarantine.
Luckily, the fish load was quite light and the losses were minimal.
<Good>
My question is, for some curious reason, my yellow Watchman Goby
<Gobies and blennies are notably quite resistant... perhaps their being slimy, living on and in rough substrates... perhaps adaptive from being so near the tomonts>
survived the ordeal and I never noticed a trace of Ich on him. Granted, its much harder to see on this elusive guy but I'm baffled as to why something as virulent as marine Ich would leave in unscathed. As far as I know, this species has no special immunity.
<Actually; there is discernible range of susceptibility... For instance, some Tangs (Acanthurids) are veritable "Ich magnets", w/ other groups of fishes (e.g. Mandarins) being near resistant>
Lastly, I was planning on letting the tank go fallow for 2 months (thank God corals are not susceptible!) but with the watchman, I'm not sure if the Ich will remain in the system.
<Others, and myself... have stated the opinion that Crypt in various virulences may be omnipresent in captive systems; on most fishes...>
Any suggestions?
<Mmm, let's have you read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/reefparfaq2.htm
and as much of the linked files at top as you deem prudent.>
Thanks!!
Joe W.
<Welcome. BobF>

sick discus. Reading        4/23/14
Hello Timbra sent me to you!
I was given three sick discus! we thought parasite. There were three two died pretty quickly. The last one was treated with General cure for four doses.
<What do you think you were/are treating for?>
was not 100 percent better so moved him in with my big guys at which at first his spirts were listed. I have still never seen him eat but day before last he was out and not hiding.. this am he was at top with fins clenched then he moved around a pit..while in big tank...its prob been bout a week i have used PraziPro but he still ahs white poop and like i said doesn't look really happy..any advice?hes smalla bout two inches
<... Perhaps lumenal issue, protozoan... I'd have you read here re Metronidazole use:
http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/discusdisf3.htm
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>

Genicanthus question; hlth.
Hello, Crew
Thank you for your continuing support. I had recently purchased a male swallowtail angelfish. It has been in my QT
<Mmm; this genus does exceedingly poorly in small, unstable circumstances... I urge expediting them through a short duration dip/bath, directly into main displays unless there is obvious concern>
for 4 days. It has something hanging on his left gill area and I don't know what it is. Photos are attached. He is swimming and eating just fine.
I'm thinking may be an injury from trying to get him out of the bag during acclimation? Will it heal on its own? Thanks.
<Can't make out in these blurry pix...
The white injury area on the left pectoral... Again, I'd dip and place this fish... pH adjusted freshwater; w/ formalin if you have it.
Bob Fenner>

 

Galaxea, and mystery Cnidarian
Crew,
<SP>
I first and foremost would like to thank you for the informative website, and at first I have some good news. I took in a small Galaxea colony that had completely bleached about nine days ago, it was completely transparent except for a few tentacles with had faint green color. Since then here is the color I have seen develop, it also was not exhibiting polyp extension in the old tank. I am frequently surprised at how resilient coral can be.
Anyway, nearly a year ago I emailed about a strange species that appeared in my fish tank attached to a Favites colony I purchased. I thought it was likely Euphyllia of some sort, but it has exhibited non-Euphylliid behavior
I am fairly certain. It underwent rapid division (started with two separate individuals and now have over 15 all differ in size largest is about 3.5 inches) It had tissue that was attached to the rock, but after the skeleton reaches about an inch in diameter it somehow detaches from the rock (including the skeleton) I know I must sound crazy, but the colony also is
growing in diameter, but not especially in height. I have had Euphyllia before, and never seen this kind of growth. I will attach the current picture as well as the original I sent in and if more are needed let me know because Im not sure what this is. In hopes all is well,
Bryce
<Might be Euphyllia; perhaps acanthocauli... from a Fungiid: Heliofungia

Bob Fenner>


Re: Galaxea, and mystery Cnidarian
Would a picture with retracted tissue, and more skeleton be more helpful?
<If it was a close up and well-resolved, yes. BobF>

losing the war; High NO3; spinning
A few months ago I had asked you about nitrates and keeping them lower. You gave me some suggestions, and I have toured the WWB, RHF's articles, printed out info, keep a log book, and I feel I am losing the war.
I have added an oversized skimmer (RSO 3000), added about 30 lbs of live rock, did more frequent water changes.
I bought a salifert nitrate test kit, and they read today between 80-100.
This is after I did a 60 percent water change 4 days ago.
<Something amiss here... do you have crushed coral w/ muck galore embedded in it? A wet-dry or such?... I'd be looking into adding a very DSB; culturing macroalgae in an RDP sump/refugium; perhaps even using chem. filtrants, the Kalk trick...>
There is no detritus on the sand, as I have find sand, and 20x flow per hour.(VorTech and return pumps)
I am looking at bio pellets, or a denitrator.
<Worth looking at>

However, before I invest the money, and take the risk, (have heard bio pellets nuking tanks), I want to try one last option. I have two overflows on the tank (tank is 155), and each overflow has a sponge on the drain pipe. Each week when I do a water change, I clean each sponge,
<Sponges and similar mech. media may need to be changed out/cleaned daily>

which is loaded detritus. (uneaten shrimp, Nori, krill etc) I am thinking to remove them, to allow nutrients to reach filter sock, and eventually skimmer. Could this be worth a try, or is that not a significant cause.
<VERY worthwhile. B>
** I copy and pasted your reply email, to more easily answer the concerns you had.
You will see (()) around my responses:
Hey Bob,
A few months ago I had asked you about nitrates and keeping them lower. You gave me some suggestions, and I have toured the WWB, RHF's articles, printed out info, keep a log book, and I feel I am losing the war.
I have added an oversized skimmer (RSO 3000), added about 30 lbs of live rock, did more frequent water changes.
I bought a salifert nitrate test kit, and they read today between 80-100.
This is after I did a 60 percent water change 4 days ago.
<Something amiss here... do you have crushed coral w/ muck galore embedded in it? A wet-dry or such?... I'd be looking into adding a very DSB;
culturing macroalgae in an RDP sump/refugium; perhaps even using chem.
filtrants, the Kalk trick...> ((No crushed coral, sugar sized sand. It is 2 inches in some spots, 4-5 inches in other (thanks to VorTech))) ((It was a wet dry with bio balls, but I took them out, and the sump is spotless as far as detritus goes. Sump is just filter sock, skimmer))
There is no detritus on the sand, as I have find sand, and 20x flow per hour.(VorTech and return pumps)
I am looking at bio pellets, or a denitrator.
<Worth looking at>
However, before I invest the money, and take the risk, (have heard bio pellets nuking tanks), I want to try one last option. I have two overflows on the tank (tank is 155), and each overflow has a sponge on the drain losing the war pipe. Each week when I do a water change, I clean each sponge, <Sponges and similar mech. media may need to be changed out/cleaned daily>
which is loaded detritus. (uneaten shrimp, Nori, krill etc) I am thinking to remove them, to allow nutrients to reach filter sock, and eventually skimmer. Could this be worth a try, or is that not a significant cause.
<VERY worthwhile. B> ((I will remove these, just hope the noise from gurgling. The way the glass tops and canopy are mounted, it is not very feasible to clean them every day))
chasing numbers... and now NO2

Hello again,
In my 155 FOWLR, I have been showing a .5 nitrite
<... what?! D>

for a few weeks now. The tank has been running for 15 years, so I consider it established or mature. I have done big water changes, added stability bacteria, and cut down on feeding, still to see .5 nitrite.
It could very well be a false reading, however, I stumbled upon an article Randy Farley, and it stated UV light can cause nitrates to break down into nitrite. Is this true?
<... not appreciably>
Could this be why Im reading .5 nitrite?
And in regards to my last email, what is your true opinion on bio pellets?
<Can be of use; though not a panacea>
I see articles and FAQs on them, but nothing about how you feel they function, and the risks involved. I am afraid if my nitrates are @100 now after a large water change, they will keep reaching for the sky if I don't implement something.
Thanks

Poorly clownfish
Hello WWM crew!
<Jenny>
I desperately need some quick advice on how to help my poorly clownfish.
<I see your pix... the Clown; mouth open-ish... PVC pipe, a questionable stone>
I’ve had him in Quarantine as a new purchase for about 6 weeks.
<Appears to be a wild-caught specimen... Why not a cultured one?>
After around 4 weeks I noticed a faint white spot
<Single. Of, by itself, no need for real concern>
on his flank so he’s been under Cupramine treatment for 2 weeks. The white post is still there leading me to believe it is not Ich as it hasn’t moved/disappeared at all after/during treatment. It is still only very faint but I have now noticed a few more under his jaw.
<Likely just body mucus accumulating about Neuromasts>
Yesterday I dipped the fish in Sera Tremazol (uk anti worm-flukes med) for 30 minutes (longer than the 20mins recommended because I was cleaning his tank while he was in there and it took a little longer). I figured 30 minutes would be fine as the recommended bath is the same dosage for 6 hours.
Anyway, I moved him back to his newly cleaned QT after this and he seemed fine – eating and swimming around until later in the evening (perhaps 3hours later) and now he looks very unhappy. His mouth is slightly opened constantly (as per picture – white-spots not visible on camera). He is just floating around near the bottom of his tank whereas before he was up and down in that adorable clownfish fashion. He is also no longer interested in food. I’m also pretty convinced I saw him vomit – is that even possible!?!?!?
<Yes; likely just the dip/bath procedure>
It could’ve just been regurgitated food he’d been chewing but I saw this while he was showing no interest in food.
I found the small filter I have in there failed overnight when we had a power cut. I had to go to work so didn’t have time to fix it but did manage to add a tiny powerhead near the surface of the water as I thought (I hope!) that it’s just lack of oxygen!?! Does this sound feasible??? Do you think I could’ve given him to much medication in quick succession (the Cupramine followed by sera Tremazol?).
<No; I would not... six weeks in isolation...>
Can you recommend anything I can do if I Have over medicated him? I’m really fond of him and was looking forward to moving him and my other clown (in a separate QT) into the DT this weekend. Please help me!!!
<I would (simply) move this fish to the main/display at this point; perhaps through a one minute dip of pH-adjusted freshwater. It is unlikely it has any pathogenic disease at this juncture, and delaying here will result in its demise. Bob Fenner>
Jenny
Re: Poorly clownfish
Bob,
<Jen>
Thank you so much for your response. I am on my way home to transfer him to my main tank now as per your advice. If he continues to look like this - do you have any suggestions on what I should do?
<Stay observant for now...>
I am going to do a short FW dip before he goes in. He was sold to me as tank bred. Is this not the case?
<Can't tell from here... but larger, well-colored specimens... Lo dudo. BobF>
Link to: Last Few Days Accrued FAQs

Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
  • Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:, References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography, Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public Aquariums,

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