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The Bryozoan Reteporellina graeffei (Kirchenpauer 1869). Fiji 2017

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General FAQs. Ask us a question: Crew@WetWebMedia.com
Updated
12/16/2017
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Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Gabe Walsh, Earl Clay III, Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Lynn Zurik, Chuck Rambo, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized daily
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Scorpionfishes: Lionfishes & Much More for Marine Aquariums
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Note: RMF is out dive traveling 12/9-17; hence the dailies may be delayed.

Red Eared Slider Turtle       12/16/17
Hi there,
<Hiya, Zack. Darrel here after being away for a while>
I read through what seems like the entirety of your website's turtle content, and I learned a whole lot! If possible though, I really think myself and my turtle friend could both benefit from direct communication.
<no problem>
So (rather long story) I recently found a Red Eared Slider turtle on the side of the interstate that had been hit by a car (presumably).
I know I probably should have left him alone but when I saw that he was alive I couldn't help but "save" him.
My mother works at a vet clinic and had spoken previously of turtles that had been hit and brought into the clinic, patched up, and sent to a wildlife rehab facility. This sounded perfect, however when I brought him into the clinic, they said the rehab facility was full for now, and that they would have to put him down unless I wanted to care for him. Obviously I chose the latter option, and here we are.
Timeline and info:
I found "Okie" Saturday November 18th. He had a crack in his shell (top and partially bottom) right around his left front leg. The crack begins an inch on either side of the leg and goes around in a 1/3 circle shape. He was not
moving other than his head, and had bloody puss forming a scab on the crack, but was no longer bleeding. His eyes were swollen shut.
We immediately got him into the warm car and gave him some water.
Upon arriving home we put him next to a heater to get the temperature to around 75 degrees.
He went to the vet that following Monday and received some sort of reptile antibiotic and had x rays taken (no internal damage was seen).
All during this time we were working with him on eating, but to no avail, however he has always been drinking very consistently if put in water.
I brought him back into the vet on the 24th for his second antibiotic shot, at which time I expressed my concerns about 1) his eyes 2) his lack of appetite and 3) his desire to turn left. The vet fed him with a syringe (maybe 4-6 ccs of a green paste) and recommended beta carotene for his eyes (one drop from capsule in mouth daily). She assumed the left turning was a neuro issue and said to hope for the best.
Within a day one eye opened partially and by today (Monday) that eye is 75% open and he has started to move forward instead of just left.
SO, things are looking up, but my two questions are:
1) I read on your site they can go months without eating. Is this true? I'm really worried about him not eating, but I don't think he will have a desire to eat until he can see. Also, with him being a wild turtle, how can I get him to transfer to pelleted food?
2) Just after today's visit to the vet, he started doing this thing where he opens his mouth and moves his head forward, about once per minute. Your site and others seem to say this is very bad. What more can I do? He will
get more antibiotic on Friday.
<First, you're getting good care from your vet.>
<Don't worry too much about eating, they can go a long time between meals and being hit by a car does depress your appetite>
<Water is good for a soaking, but until he has healed and the cracks have scarred over don't let him SIT in water... keep him warm and dry with daily bathing. What I'm saying is that when you are sick (you, me or a
turtle) warm, wet conditions are ideal for bacterial and fungal growth right at a time when we're not equipped to fight it -- so make sure Okie dries out thoroughly between baths.>
<The constant yawning can be a sign of many things but in reality none of them are things you can treat so don't worry about that or about the left turning. If they are all signs of neurological system damage or just from
the actual injury we're not going to know.>
<Keep him warm & dry and during his baths offer him tiny pieces of beef or chicken liver (TINY pieces) because they are high in basic vitamins that he needs. Also try earthworms (available at fishing/bait shops) to see if he'll bite, so to speak. After he begins eating, by all means transition him to Koi pellets>
<Best of luck to you and Okie>

Is my turtle sick?       12/16/17
Hello,
<Hiya Darrel here>
Lately a lot of things have been changing for both me and my turtle, and though he appears generally happy and healthy there are some things that cause me to be a bit concerned for his health.
<OK>
Most importantly, the tank has been moved from a rather warm place in our home (the kitchen) to my bedroom. Though by no means cold, it isn't kept the comfortable temperature the kitchen is kept at. Furthermore, a
water softener was installed (my parents are redecorating on a large scale) which causes my water to turn a horrid shade of yellow almost immediately. Then his UV light broke, so he's gotten a new one there as well. For me, I moved back fulltime with my parents (I have been around only during weekends for years due to my study). In short, I see a lot more of my turtle than I did before, perhaps causing me to notice behaviour I did not before and freaking me out. So, one way or another, I'd like to know if I have cause to be concerned or if I'm simply paranoid.
<Even paranoids have real enemies>
As for the little guy himself, he appears to be happy and healthy, splashing fanatically when I'm around, swimming and basking (apparently, he's also on land a lot more than I realized after lights out, not the best bunk mate). Still there's also a reason I'm a bit concerned. He has gotten a rather white mouth (see pic) and is rather nibbling his food instead of gulping it down like a glutton, or even ignoring it altogether. When posting on another forum someone mentioned the pink skin could also be cause for concern. I've read the section on RTI, and
I don't recognize any of the symptoms, other than him sometimes breathing loudly when surfacing (wouldn't call it wheezing). Generally only noticed in the dead quiet of night.
<no real red flags so far>
I'm in a small town with generally sub-par exotic pet knowledge, and am on a (very) tight budget. I'd like to be fairly sure something is wrong before hauling him in the car and driving him to a specialty vet, but I've had the bugger for years and I would be very sad to have him suffer. I'm working on getting access to 'regular' water again, and have turned on the heating in my room, but is there cause for additional action?
Many thanks in advance,
Joanne
<Your turtle is 'at home' in almost all kinds of water conditions, so don't obsess over your water -- if you'd drink it or bathe in it or do your laundry in it then it's fine for her as well>
<The pinkness is normally a concern but that concern comes with lethargy and a total lack of appetite, so not now>
<From what little I see, I say the change in climate has put her off her game for a while. As long as she basks sometimes and swims sometimes and eats sometimes ... let's just keep an eye on her. When she stops being
alert, stops reacting to your presence, then we'll change some things around -- we'll warm her basking area first and see how that changes things. So write back when you know more>

Baby res about 2 inches (2 months old) not eating has white discharge       12/16/17
Hi I live in India (Hyderabad) where the weather in Dec is between 66F to 86F.
<Hiya -- I live in California where it's 80f today>
I have two baby RES both purchased at same time. They live in a 50 Gallon tank with some resting space. I feed them Osaki pellets, drops of calcium and drops of cod liver oil once a day. – I feed them in a separate tank. They also get 3-4 hours of natural sunlight (without glass and other barriers). Also I think they both are shedding skin (I see some powdery flakes in the water). I change half the water everyday and replace the entire water two times a week.
<excellent care>
One of them which is larger has not been eating much lately.
<If "lately" you mean a few days or even two weeks, do not worry as long as it appears to be active and alert>
I even changed to a different brand of pellets. Today I noticed a white slimy discharge when I placed it in the small tank to feed. It wasn’t in any particular shape but was a bit stringy. Does this mean there is a stomach infection?
<where is the discharge from? The cloaca (the butt)?>
<Tell me this: are they both active and alert an have eaten at least once in the past 7 days?>
<If so ... keep doing what you are doing and see if things change>

Upside down clam in a rock?       12/16/17
I was looking at the rock in my tank today and found something curious. It appears to look like it is a baby clam inside down in a rock. It will close up if you touch it and has some dark siphon coming out of it. This isn't a
hitchhiker as this rock was once dry 7 years ago when I put it in the tank.
Nothing new other than a few inverts today in the past year. Attaching photos
Thanks
Jason
<Don't know if I'm seeing what you're referring to... the bivalve like shells toward the middle? Perhaps an Arca species. Spat may have come in on other hard material, water w/ other specimens. Bob Fenner>

Re: And now I have three of them!       12/14/17
Hello Neale and all of you splendid people at WetWebMedia. Greetings from Jakarta!
<And to you, greetings from Berkhamsted, England!>
Thank you for your good info about articles, they are very inspiring. I will plan my research and the trips accordingly. I hope I will be able to find the time after the Asian Games.
<Oh!>
Through Facebook, I met a new friend online from Yogyakarta (a neighboring province). He is a fish seller who specializes in FW morays, sourced locally from rivers in southern part of Java. In fact he kept Strophidon
Sathetes on large FW aquarium for months, as well as other "FW" moray types. They said that the longest time he had experienced in keeping G. Tile, E. Rhodochilus and G. Polyuranodon in "freshwater" (freshwater with a
little amount of seawater mixed in) were 2-3 years before those are being sold. He even mentioned that he once had a white-mouth moray in FW for a few months before someone bought it from him. This city will be on my list
of "places to visit" in my quest for getting more understanding about FW moray eels.
<Indeed! This sounds like what'll be a great trip. So many interesting things to learn about freshwater Morays, and you're lucky enough to be able to find out about them in the wild.>
As for my clown loaches, they're still being good friends with the eels, sharing their home pipes in peace. I think they looks so cute together, so I will keep the loaches there for a bit longer. The loaches looks fat and
healthy, and so far still colorful. They often use the long bodies of the eels as "pillows" to "sleep", ha! But again I am very aware that the water I am putting them now is not their usual habitat. With that in mind, what are the sign of "salinity too high" for loaches? Does this include losing their bright colors?
<Possibly. But more likely they'll become skittish, nervous, disinterested in food.>
One thing I noticed is that Mr. Emerson (my largest moray) has been moving this home pipes around a lot these past few days. He dug the sand in and out under the pipes, moving the pipes from one corner of the aquarium to
another. So I guess he must be hungry but getting bored with the live river shrimps and the feeder guppies & mollies.
<Does seem possible. A variety of foods are always a good idea, to round out any vitamin shortcomings in the foods you've used so far. Squid, white fish like tilapia, and clams all good options.>
And to think about it, the river shrimps on my aquarium has grown a bit, they're eating well (they seems to love to eat the leftover body parts of their fallen comrades, or even their moulting friends),
<Normal. Recycling calcium. They're meant to do this!>
and has become rather large, with long menacing pincers. So, not so appealing anymore for the eels (I think, do I make sense? What do you think dear Neale? I think those shrimps are macrobrachium types).
<Many shrimps have larger front claws, so in itself not definitely Macrobrachium. But on the other hand, Macrobrachium are so widely farmed in Asia that the odds of them ending up in the aquarium trade is high. I've
even seen them here in England, though the demand for them is not great.
Not alive, anyway! Very delicious when cooked!!!>
So just a few hours ago, I cut up a large, thawed frozen shrimp and threw it to the aquarium, experimenting, maybe the largest moray would eat it.
And yes, Mr. Emerson opened his jaws very widely and ate the pieces of frozen shrimp in the manner of a snake. It's very interesting to see how snake-like he is when eating. And it was humorous to see him sniffing
around confusedly trying to find the rest of the pieces, right after the river shrimps literally stole the pieces from under his nose, ha! My friends told me that morays are blind as a bat, they only have the sense of smell and the sense of movement (they could detect movements). After seeing how easy it is for shrimps to steal food from under a moray's nose, I believe it.
<Spot on. Indeed, they can be "blinded" by too much smelly food in the tank at once. Like a bright light blinding a person, I guess, making it hard to see things.>
The other two, Mr. Wakeman (the second largest moray) and Mr. Echidna (the smallest, my first moray) doesn't seem to be interested in frozen shrimps for now. I hope they will follow suit soon.
<Quite so. Plus, do offer some white fish as well as molluscs, like clams.
The more variety, the better.>
Well, that's my latest updates for now. Thank you for following my fish stories and being such a good listener. Have a nice day!
<And you too. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Opaque BTA tips?     12/13/17
Thanks a million for the reply Bob,
I enjoyed your talk at MACNA.
<Ah, thank you for your kind words Dave. BobF>
Dave

Coralline issue; ID from pix?    12/13/17
<19 megs of pix? Did you read our requirements?>
Posted over on r2r and they suggested to email you guys and see if you know what kind of coralline algae this is.
<... Kind? As in species? Not w/o microscope imagery>

Grow supper fast. Grows in to shaded to dark places and is slimy when removed from the tank or rubbed on in
tank. The one shell pic has been out of water now 9 months been rinsed a few times in tap water. Here is the post over on R2R about it and what I have went threw in my tank.
https://www.reef2reef.com/threads/aggressive-coralline-algae-or-some-type-sps.303101/
Thank you if you respond and thank you if you don't would understand.
<See, as in READ on WWM re Corallines? Bob Fenner>

Re: Can I write for your site?     12/13/17
Hi Bob,
You are right. I was thinking at the beginning of the article?
Katie
<Do please send along the finished piece, w/ whatever images when you're done. BobF>

Weird invert buried in sand Id help?      12/12/17
I was raking my sand with my Python and I started sucking up one of my Fighting Conch or tiger conch and it looked like the Conch was attached to this thing or just next to it Quinta dentley <Coincidentally?> but I thought it was just the
Conch having a really long sexual experience but it turns out it was its own thing I have no idea what this thing is I do have a bristle worm issue in my tank but it wasn't near a lot of them and it does not look nothing like a bristle worm maybe it's some sort of bristle worm machine I don't know maybe you guys can
Thank You!
<Neato! This appears to be a Sipunculid... not harmful; indeed, indicative of healthy circumstances in your system. Bob Fenner>

Indo-Pacific Lagoon Biotope      12/12/17
Good evening crew!
<Hi Chris>
I'm planning an Indo-Pacific lagoon biotope tank, and I wanted to run my ideas by you.
<Excellent. I wish more people chose to do biotype setups.>
I have spent many hours so far on the site, can always spend more!
<You can never learn too much!>
First, some information. The tank is a standard 75 gallon, with a 20 gallon sump. I am currently still in the setup phase,  having just added salt water and 100 pounds of fine substrate (around 1.5 to 2 inches in depth). I will be adding around 50 pounds of base rock and rubble, and an as-yet unplanned quantity of live rock. The rock is mostly
structured into 2 bommies, with plenty of space to hide and swim. The return pump is a Blueline 30HD-X,rated for 1110 GPH, plumbed to three separate spray bars in the display tank. I'm using an Eshopps X-120 skimmer, rated for 75 gallons with a heavy bioload. Tank lighting is a Fluval LED bar, 59 watts at 25000K, directly on top of the aquarium.
Additional flow is created by 4 Koralia powerheads, rated at 1500 GPH each, two of which are on a Wavemaker, alternating flow.
<So far so good, you have clearly made a solid plan.>
As far as future livestock plans go, I wanted to have a peaceful community type setup, mainly featuring Cardinalfish. I was thinking about having a school of 7  or 9 *Ostorhinchus compressus* or *Ostorhinchus cyanosoma.* The other livestock I was considering was a single *Salarias ramosus*, <Ah the starry blenny. I have written interminably about this but I always like to mention what a great fish these blennies are along with their close kin.
Industrious, interesting-looking, and so much personality. They always end up being a favorite despite their (ahem) lack of what a lot of people consider to be beauty. Fascinating behavior will go a long way towards your enjoyment.>
a pair of *Signigobius biocellatus*,
<Ah the Two-spot blenny, different feeding habits than the other blenny, more likely to get along due to this. another interesting customer behaviorally.>
a pair of *Stonogobiops nematodes* with an *Alpheus randalli*, <Classic pairing of pistol/snapping shrimp and goby, also interesting to watch.>
or a single *Stonogobiops yasha* with an *Alpheus randalli*.
<Same. I personally would simply go for the Starry Blenny but it's up to taste and I would not include both options, as you mention.>
I know that in all probability, they cannot peacefully coexist, which is why the Starry Blenny is likely not going to make the final cut. I have also been thinking about a centrepiece fish, but have not decided what it might be, or even if my tank will support more than the cardinals and gobies. Just today, I learned of the *Calloplesiops altivelis*, or marine betta, but I believe they might be too aggressive and/or hunt the Cardinalfish.
<I wouldn't, especially with crustaceans. I don't know that it would go after the cardinals but may target other inhabitants. It's very instructive to check Fishbase.org in these cases and see what stomach contents a fish
has been seen to have. They are also one of those fishes that, in my experience, like to hang out where they are out of sight. Interesting animal but not one I'd consider a centerpiece. Many, many choices for this so definitely look into what kinds of smallish fishes you'd like that would be a safer bet. Flame Angels might be neat or some other colorful eye-catcher found in the area.>
Other invertebrates will likely include Nassarius snails. I wanted to have an area of sea grass or macro, though it is difficult trying to find regional species for sale. My best bets so far are Sargassum, Caulerpa sertularioides, Halophilia ovalis (hard to find) or Thalassia testudinum.
<Will have to look online. I have found some odd stuff via online auctions.
A note about Sargassum...I have had it grow quickly, beautifully, then  crash hard and die off and make a mess. Cool to have if you can get it but keep an eye on it. I got mine on some live rock incidentally. It could be
worthwhile to consider that if you are after that sort of algae. As side note, if you plan on a biotype tank, vegetation/macroalgae is mandatory in my view. It is a key step in transforming your standard "garden style"
aquarium into a more accurate slice of the real thing. It's omni-present in nature but how many times have you seen a home aquarium with a holistic, complete look vs. a someone barren, artificial rock-only setup? Down the
road, it would be neat if you wrote us with a follow-up with some pics!>
Corals will be limited to a few species, likely gorgonians or Sarcophyton, probably not both. I would be adding the shrimp gobies and shrimp first, followed by the cardinals, and lastly the Twinspot goby. Corals are way down the line, at least a year of stable tank operation before I add them.
<Sounds great and that slow and easy approach is hard to stick to but infinitely rewarding.>
I don't currently plan on dosing anything, though I hear it can be helpful to dose iron, nitrates or phosphate for the macro. Test kits will be ordered! Thank you for your time and input, I greatly appreciate all that you do, and all of the information you have here on WWM. Chris C.
<My two cents worth (which may be controversial) is to keep to a water change regiment with decent salt and use that in place of additives unless you have a very particular reason. Maybe calcium for clams, which I also recommend as a possibility for your setup. I'm my humble opinion, many people jump towards additives as a matter of course as if they are required on the same level as a skimmer or salt. Don't add what you aren't testing
for and skip a given additive unless you can observe a specific reason that your inhabitants would benefit noticeably. Hope this is useful! -Earl C.>

Opaque BTA tips?      12/12/17
G'Day guys,
>Dave<
Just saw Bob Jenners talk on Anemones from MACNA via YouTube.
Quick question....
I have several green BTAs that have slowly developed a whitish opaque look to their bubble tips similar to the photos below.
<Happens at times>
Wondering if this is a sign of ill health or if there is something I should be doing to correct it.
<Don't know the root cause here, what it portends, but would initiate iodide-ate dosing and check overall water quality.>
I've kept these anemones for 3 years and they seem quite happy. Never move around, they have multiplied several times and have the tank to themselves with the exception of one pair of ocellaris clowns.
<Ah good>
They get a single Anemone pellet from Vitalis each once a week.
<I'd up this to one twice a week>
Any reply would be much appreciated.
Dave McAuliffe
Western Australia
<Bob Fenner>

 

Re: Can I write for your site?      12/12/17
Hello Bob!
<Katie!>
Good morning! Please see the attached expanded guest post for your website.
As for the image we can use this:
https://pixabay.com/photo-1015876/
<A stock image?>
Let me know what you think about this and how you get on publishing it.
Thanks!
Katie
<I'd guess we'd insert such free use content in your work where you think it fits. BobF>

Request for publication rights      12/12/17
Hello Jorge Alfredo,
<Hi, Robert/Bob Fenner>
We are a French publishing house of International field guide of marine species (waterproof PVC books). You can see them at
<http://www.pictolife.net/> www.pictolife.net.
We are creating a new one which is on the Canaria zone and we would like to ask you the publication rights for the picture we found on
<http://www.wetwebmedia.com/POTD840.htm>
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/POTD840.htm:
Stypopodium zonale
We could offer you a book for each photo that we use, and the name of the photograph would appear on the back cover of the book.
Our company is very young and this kind of arrangements is necessary for us at this step.
You can have a look at our books on the Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Eastern Atlantic and Low Tide on our web site, you'll see then if its quality is worth your participation.
Our book about the Canaria will be of the same quality.
Let me know if those conditions would be acceptable for you. You can answer by email at : contact@pictolife.net.
Yours sincerely,
Antoine Dray
<I do grant you use of this Brown Algae photo in exchange for one of your Caribbean books; please send it to me at 8586 Menkar Rd., San Diego, CA 92126, USA. Make it known if you'd like the full size file.
Bob Fenner>

Re: Forest fire digi and red digi     12/11/17
I have lots of other sps Acropora millipora lots of Zoas and Palys and a fair amount of lps torches hammers octospawn etc.
<Ahh, the Acroporas are fine w/ Montiporas, but the Zoanthids... Euphyllias... are very likely mal-affecting your digitatas... You could try chemical filtrants (e.g. ChemiPure, Polyfilter), raising your RedOx (via ozone best)... or moving them elsewhere, to another established system. I'd have you read on WWM, using the separate terms "Cascade event" and "allelopathy". Bob Fenner>
Re: Forest fire digi and red digi     12/11/17

Thanks
<Welcome Justin. B>

Re: Dinoflagellates Id     12/11/17
Bob,
<Hey William>
Howdy again. What kind of ozone setup would you recommend for our 300g aquarium. We will be controlling it with an Apex, with ORP probe.
<Am a huge fan of getting a unit that is "just about right" in terms of output (a bit tricky... as depends on system volume, biomass, foods/feeding... and a few other factors. Though I do like/trust Apex as a make, things can/do go wrong. I have a simple... straight forward (for me) pitch/article on O3 et al on WWM: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/redox.htm
We have been dosing 40ml peroxide for 10 days now our ORP is up to 335ish. When you indicate to keep it high do you mean 400 to 450?
<I'd aim for 400 microsiemens/cm.... and keep it near this or slightly below>
We have not seen Dinos in a week. We have also noticed that new frags put on our rock it starts deteriorating in a few days. Ones left on the frag rack do not suffer this same fate. Prior to putting coral on rack we dip them in Brightwell Restor, I works really well. Sounds like we still have something toxic on our rocks.
<Mmm; maybe>
Thanks for your help and patience.
William
<Glad to conspire with you. BobF>

Re: Black Ghost Knife fish     12/11/17
Hello Bob,
<Gavin>
Thank you again for your advise.
<Welcome>
I will try the Chemi-Pure and a more regular cleaning of the filter.
So many people tell you different things, for me it's very confusing.
<Mmm; don't allow it to be. SEEK to understand the underlying science; question opinions>
I will let you know the results. Until then Merry Xmas & Happy New Year Bob.
<And you and yours. BobF>
Kind Regards
Gavin

Bristlenose ID?   12/9/17
Hello:
Just wondering if it is possible to ID a Pleco? There are a bunch of these "Silver Tipped" Plecos at the LFS
Are these the Common Bristlenose or something with an L#?? I have looked everywhere to ID them online and some people say they are common Bristlenose that were line bred. Thank you
<Hi Judy. Identifying Ancistrus species is hard. The standard "Silver-tipped Bristlenose" is (nominally) Ancistrus dolichopterus, but those usually have off-white edges to their fins, particularly their dorsal and tail fins. Females can lack these, of course, but on the male these white edges are usually pretty obvious. Coupled with the lengthy tentacles
on their heads, male Ancistrus dolichopterus are particularly easy to recognise. That said, I'm sure there are other wild-caught Ancistrus species out there that are very similar, and it's probably a safe bet that the name "Ancistrus dolichopterus" is simply a convention in the hobby for any and all species that have this basic appearance. Ancistrus hoplogenys for example is very similar indeed. Let me direct to an excellent article over on PlanetCatfish that covers the thorny issue of identifying Ancistrus species of this general type, here:
https://www.planetcatfish.com/shanesworld/shanesworld.php?article_id=380
On the other hand, the common generic Ancistrus sold in Britain at least is the species often referred to as Ancistrus temminckii, though quite possibly something else entirely, such as Ancistrus cirrhosus. This is the sort that starts off black-grey with bright white spots, and as it grows becomes more mottled brown-grey, the spots become less contrasty. This type of Ancistrus generally lacks the off-white edges to its fins, and so looks a lot like a scaled-down Common Plec. Your catfish seems closer to the 'Ancistrus temminckii' sort of Ancistrus than the 'Ancistrus dolichopterus' sort, but that's about as far as I'd be comfortable going! As I say, identifying Ancistrus is notoriously difficult, there are literally hundreds of species, including some described under trade names (i.e., L numbers) but as yet not defined as scientifically valid species. This is even before you think about the (likely common) hybridisation in home aquaria, though perhaps less common in the trade, where fancy varieties of Ancistrus has not really been a thing beyond albino and/or long-fin forms.
Still, unless the Ancistrus was wild-caught and supplied with a known origin, I'd rate your chances of identifying a given fish as close to nil, but those nice folks at PlanetCatfish do have an excellent forum frequented by some first rate aquarists.
Cheers, Neale>


Blue tang illness     12/9/17
Hello Bob and crew !
It has been a long time since my last contact.
Lately I lost view of my blue tang and today I saw him in a bad condition.
<Eeyikes Thanasis! This poor fish is about eaten away... HLLE is the general term...>
He has lost his blue color and he looks seek. He has not eaten for two weeks at least. I took a photo of him and I am sending it to you in case you can advise me what is wrong and if I can help him.
Best regards from Greece, Thanasis
<Perhaps vitamin, appetite stimulant added to the water directly, favorite foods soaked in it. Please read here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/HLLESWCauseF.htm
and the linked files above, and:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/paracfdgfaqs.htm
And write me/us back with your further observations. Bob Fenner>

Aquatic Experience – Chicago reports successful year with 21% increase in attendance     12/9/17
Images available for download here<https://photos.app.goo.gl/ec32eVoxXKdhQLvg2>
Fifth annual Aquatic Experience – Chicago reports successful year with 21% increase in attendance
Show with “everything aquatic under one roof” will make its East Coast
debut at Meadowlands Exposition Center outside NYC in 2018

CHICAGO (December 8, 2017)—The World Pet Association (WPA) is thrilled to announce a 21% increase in reported attendance at its fifth annual Aquatic Experience – Chicago, held November 3-5 at the Renaissance Schaumburg Convention Center. Plans are already underway for the sixth Aquatic Experience set to debut at the Meadowlands Exposition Center in New Jersey, just outside New York City, from October 19-21, 2018. For more information, contact the World Pet Association at 626-447-2222.

At Aquatic Experience – Chicago 2017 a total of 139 exhibitors filled the thriving show floor, showcasing the latest in aquatic trends and products alongside local and national hobbyist groups, livestock and equipment experts, and the industry’s best and trend-setting manufacturers. The Aquascaping Live! Contest participants competed in two categories (Nano or Large tank) for $3,900 dollars in prize money. First place winners in the Large tank category were Brady Kerewich, Phil Kerewich and Jake Zucker; first place in the Nano tank category went to John Pini. The 2nd International Shrimp Contest Shrimp King Award went to Silane Dilwyn Tng, and the grand prize of $500 was awarded to Mario Toromanovic for Best of Show in this year’s American Cichlid Association Fish Competition. For a complete list of winners please visit aquaticexperience.org/aquatic-competition-winners<http://aquaticexperience.org/aquatic-competition-winners/>

“Thank you to all attendees who have continued to exceed our expectations in Chicago every year,” said WPA President Jacinthe Moreau. “We’re thrilled to be expanding into the East Coast market next year and to be moving the show to the Meadowlands Exposition Center just outside of New York City. We already have a great aquatic presence at our America’s Family Pet Expo and SuperZoo shows in the Western US; this move expands our support of the aquatic industry across the entire country.”

This year’s show hosted the return of the only traveling sea lion experience in the United States, Sea Lion Splash; the educational Fish from Around the World exhibit; an electric eel display; a jellyfish touch tank; and a Kid’s Aquarium Contest. Guests also learned from aquatic experts as they attended seminars featuring high-profile speakers addressing intermediate level information to advanced aquatic issues.

Aquatic Experience – Chicago 2017 was generously supported by: Platinum Level – Aqueon, Coralife, Kent Marine; Gold Level - Fluval, Hikari Sales USA, Inc., Segrest Farms; Silver Level - DrTim's Aquatics, Fritz Aquatics, Industrial Test Systems, Inc., Rod’s Food, Southwest Cargo, Tetra, Two Little Fishies, Zetlight. Media Partners include: Aquarium Hobbyist Magazine/Reef Hobbyist Magazine, BlueZoo TV, Pet Age, Pet Business, Pet Product News, Reef Builders, Reef to Rainforest Media (Amazonas/Coral) and Tropical Fish Hobbyist.

The World Pet Association (WPA) is the oldest industry organization promoting responsible growth and development of the companion pet and related products and services. WPA works to inform and educate the general public in order to ensure safe and healthy lifestyles for our animal friends. WPA is the host of America’s Family Pet Expo, the world’s largest consumer pet and pet products expo, held annually in Costa Mesa, California. The organization also produces SuperZoo, an annual pet industry trade show that showcases a comprehensive collection of exhibits and offers a variety of informative educational seminars, and Atlanta Pet Fair, the Southeast’s largest competition and trade show for the professional pet stylist. For more information, please visit www.worldpetassociation.org<http://www.worldpetassociation.org>.

<Outstanding. Will post/share on WetWebMedia.com. Bob Fenner>
Thank you so much!
Liza

How to slow air flow    12/9/17
I have the aqua culture 20-60 gallon double outlet aquarium air pump. My question is, how can you adjust the strength of the pump? I bought it mainly for an air toy in my aquarium and it is too powerful. I read a similar question on Wal-Mart's site (questions and answers/reviews) and the answer suggested that the only way to tone it down would be to bleed off a
little of the air with a t way connector valve or perhaps a pinhole in the airline.
<Yes to the first idea. Get/use a "three way" valve and use the controllable port to bleed off the excess pressure/volume>
I tried the pinhole idea before buying the valve, bad idea and had to replace hosing as it stopped all or any airflow.
<... not able to control>
Can I use the T way connector valve to bleed off some air to reduce the flow strength? If so, how would I connect that?
<The incoming line between the pump and the valve will "line up" with the tubing going from the valve into the tank... the controllable port (using the screw valve) that is at a right angle you'll use to drain off whatever amount of air you want. If it makes a hissing sound, you can put a short piece of open ended tubing on it or still a pipe cleaner into the valve port>
Thank you for your time,
Bryanne
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Forest fire digi and red digi     12/9/17
I have these two corals amongst many other and all of a sudden it is having major effect to light.
<Interesting syntax>
I have been running 6 bulb t5 with two reefbrite strips for a year now. Last two days the coral looks completely fine and the lights come on the polyps recede and it almost looks like it’s bleaching. I have multiple colonies of the corals from sand bed to top of the tank and all have same effect. Weird thing is my blue digi and many other sps and lps corals are great.
<Perhaps a clue>
No pest that I can see. I did a water change and started running activated carbon with no change. I’m stumped all parameters are stable checked and re checked! Any insight would be grateful thanks!
<What are the other coral/Cnidarian species here? Bob Fenner>

Re: Molly coloring or ich?     12/7/17
Thank you for the reply Mr. Fenner
I am not using aquarium salt. Should I be?
<Mmm; IF the other life here can tolerate it... yes>
and if yes on what type of schedule?
<... please read where I referred you>

My tank is a 40 gallon long. One of my fish is a black ghost I know that is eventually going to be to small but I took him from a friend in a pinch that took down his tank. My other fish are blood fin tetras and Cory cats.
I thought I read somewhere that black ghosts can't do aquarium salt I know you will clarify that for me.
<The Tetras and likely the Corydoras are not fans of much salt... Better to place the mollies elsewhere if you have another cooler water, higher pH, dKH system>
Also I know you said you can't tell by the photos that it is ich BUT is black with white spots ever a common pattern on a molly?
<Mmm, yes... there are actual "Salt and Pepper" varieties>
You mentioned that
<...That it is full-bodied and has erect finnage, is out swimming are good signs>... I am taking it that you mean "good signs" as to the possible health of the fish and not "good signs" that is probably is ich.
take care. Joe Kerner
<Likely this fish is fine; would be better in a tank w/ conditions that
favor it. Bob Fenner>

About African dwarf frogs and eggs; repro.      12/7/17
So my Male African dwarf must of just turned 9-12 months old and now it is mating with my 3 year old female.
<Cool!>
The have been mating for many days now.
<What happens. Sometimes you even hear the males croak.>
For awhile they only laid 4 eggs 2 were fertile but died. This morning I looked in my tank and there’s prob about 500 eggs are they all fertile if so how can you tell if they are?
<By looking, really the only approach is to wait and observe -- after a day or two, infertile eggs (or at least non-fertilised eggs) will go cloudy, and eventually rot. A good approach is to remove most of the eggs to something like a floating breeding trap, so you can see them more easily. Plastic turkey basters are great for this. As the days pass, remove any cloudy eggs. Methylene blue is the tried-and-trusted medication for preventing fungus spreading onto healthy eggs if you need to optimise your chances of getting big numbers of tadpoles. Cheers, Neale.>

Powerheads and angelfish     12/7/17
Hello:
Just wondering if any type of current is bad for freshwater angels? I have a powerhead here from a while ago and I heard they are good for cutting down on algae, but I assume that one would have to turn it up too high for
algae and it seems that not many fish appreciate much current outside Plecos. Thank you
<Angels don't like current, no. Nor do they like bright light, and they certainly don't need live plants. So a tank optimised for Angels need not to be hard to keep algae free, with or without a Plec for company. Decorate
with rocks and bogwood, plus a few floating plants up top, and physically remove any algae from the glass as/when required. So far as current goes, something like a turnover rate of 4-6 times per hour is ample, preferably with the flow of water dispersed around the tank (e.g., with a spray bar) as opposed to a single jet (i.e., the default filter outlet). Whereas Angels come from deep, sluggish backwater pools and streams within the
rainforest, Plecs mostly come from a completely different environment, shallow water rapids and riffles. There are exceptions of course, but the popular L-numbers tend to prefer, and often demand, cooler, brighter tanks
with a lot more water current and oxygen. Your standard issue farmed Angels and Plecs are not so picky, and there is overlap if you're careful, but L-numbers haven't been bred across the generations for hardiness, and many are wild-caught, and simply must have conditions close to their natural default. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Choosing a S. American Exotic; Dwarf Cichlid sel.      12/7/17
I found Apistogramma Nijjseni to be an attractive fish. But everyone recommends 15g and up. I have a planted aquarium. 9g. There is nothing in there except Amanos and small horned cleaning snails. Would a pair survive?
<Probably. Your two main challenges are these:
Firstly, males can be hard on the females. Apistogramma are not really pair-forming. Most have what's called a harem, with the male guarding a territory that can include several females. So sometimes they are hostile
towards young females or females who don't want to breed. After mating the male continues to guard his patch, but the females often look after the fry alone. Indeed, females can become so protective they attack the males! It's therefore really important to have LOTS of caves (half coconut shells with a couple of holes are ideal).
Secondly, Apistogramma are sensitive to nitrate. In a small tank this will build up quickly between water changes. Regular water changes are very important to keep living conditions good.
Hope this helps! Neale.>

Epicystis crucifer     12/7/17
Hi I got one rock anemone Epicystis crucifer and it came so that it sits in shell so how should I insert in the tank, now it is in small hole in one rock but it doesn't stay there, the whole shell and anemone falls to bottom,
so should I "glue" the shell to rock or ??
<I would just wedge the shell in about the place you want the Anemone to settle on and be patient. If it wants to move, it will>
Thank you all ready
Best regards
John Hyttinen
<Welcome John. Bob Fenner>

Marine Safe Paint     12/7/17
Hello Crew. I have a 155 gallon fowlr tank, and some of my fake ceramic coral pieces have faded with age. I'm wondering, is there an aquarium safe paint I can use to repaint them? Thanks in advance for your help.
Aaron
<Yes; there are marine epoxies that are safe and best for this application.
Re: Marine Safe Paint     12/7/17

Cool. Do you know of any off hand that I can use? Maybe something at a home improvement store?
<Would have to shop online or foot... but should have small quantities at hobby/craft shops. BobF>

December calendar     12/7/17
Here is a December calendar for the WWM. See you later this morning.
<Ah, good. I s/w Pete re 8655 and the fading T1-11. B>
Mike

Zebra Moray Question, comp., repro.    /Marco   12/6/17
Hi Bob-
Gabe here. Hope you are well. A retailer reached out to me yesterday about taking in a pair of Zebra Morays that someone donated to the store last week. Hobbyist had a small tank and decided to ditch them after buying them as babies and keeping them for a few years... Shame. They are beautiful specimens. 3.5' each. I have them in a 90 gallon right now, while I change some things around in a 180 for them, so please know that they will not be in this small tank for more than a week or so. The LFS had them in a 40
gallon tank, so I felt obligated to take them off their hands. I can't stand to see them suffer in a small tank. My question was, because they are a pair, is it possible they will mate?
<Mmm; I doubt it; but am asking MarcoL his opinion here>
I know that they are hermaphrodites, so at this point I'm not sure the sexes of them. One is larger than the other, so I was thinking that maybe one has changed to female in hopes to mate? Not sure. I didn't think that they normally paired up unless they had plans to mate, but it sounds like these two eels have been together since birth from the way the LFS put it. Any way to tell if one is a female/ready to mate? Should I pass this on to Marco?
<I've done so here>
They ate this morning before I ran off to school. Seem happy as of now. I'll keep you posted. Should have them in the 180 by the beginning of next week. Cheers-Gabe Walsh WWM Crew
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>
<<Gymnomuraena zebra often don't get along well with conspecifics and have even killed each other on rare occasions. You are lucky having found two, which appear to be a pair. Comparable pairs have mated and produced eggs in captivity (as have some other moray eel species), although the larvae could not be raised. I am not aware of any moray eel larvae raised in captivity at all probably due to the long time and planktonic nature of their larval stage. In contrast to many other moray eels, Gymnomuraena zebra are protogynous hermaphrodites, they all start as females and the largest ones change to males. If you really have a pair, the larger one likely is the male and the smaller one the female. When the females produce eggs they become quite bloated. However, aside that I am not aware of any other external trait, that can be used to tell them apart. Hope this helps. Cheers, Marco.>>

Re: Dinoflagellates Id   12/6/17
We base our genus off of a web site WWM recommended. If my diag of Ostreopsis is questionable, or just flat out wrong, please let me know what you think.
<Had a few courses in phycology, decades back... but can't remember even a bit re Dino ID, systematics. Had read this AM re Ostreopsis; one of a few genera involved in algal poisoning in the wild>
I have learned that different types of dinos can require different treatments.
<Ahh, then you know more than I>
The dirty method is to raise your nitrate and phosphate to encourage the growth of competing fauna that will overtake the dinos.
<Oh! Thank you for this>
Once we have something else, green algae, Cyano, etc we have we’ll know techniques to fix that. This gets back to us starting with a sterile tank and had nothing to compete with the dinos.
What is RDP?
<Reverse Daylight Photoperiod. Running a light/dark cycle in a tied in sump/refugium often aids in stabilization, decrease in pest algae growth in a main/display>
We are dosing peroxide for our RedOx.
<Hard to keep steady. I'd use an ozonizer if you can afford it>
Thanks
William Anderson
<Thank you, Bob Fenner>

Re: Black Ghost Knife fish; ongoing... NO3   12/6/17
Hello Bob,
<Gavin>
I read the literature on the web site you forwarded, even though it mostly spoke of Marine set ups, it did in parts touch on Fresh water and in part mention the filter system.
That got me thinking do I NOT clean my filter regularly enough? Is the filter the reason my Nitrate/Nitrite is high?
<Might be a factor; best to only clean/change out "part" of the filter media at every interval. As an example, if you're using two units of Chemi-Pure let's say, take out the oldest one and leave the less old one, adding a new unit>
All most people say is do regular water changes.
I am under the impression don't mess with the filter, clean it when you notice the flow rate drop, say every 6 months.
<Mmm; no... better more frequently. Like every month for the mechanical media... the chemical should be switched out/some rotated for new about this same interval>
I use an Aqua Pro 2200 Canister Filter. The 3 sponges & wool in the bottom basket, the rest filled with Biohome Standard Media and a tray of Marine BioBalls which is all suppose to allow for colonisation of bacteria's and alleviate Nitrate/Nitrite problems with less cleaning time.
<We had this convo.... I'd remove the BioBalls, use ChemiPure in the space instead>
Should I be cleaning the filter more often? Have I got the filter set up wrong?
<.... Yes>
In the tank itself are two air stones (bubbles/water movement), a sponge filter, an Aquael Turbo Filter 2000 internal filter and I use it with just the sponge like a power head pointed from one corner of the tank to the width of the tank so no dead spots (2 Ft..) more bubbles/water movement, right? Also an Eheim streamON+5000. Optimum water circulation with a natural, smooth current formation.
<Okay; good to have more circulation, and aeration helps... most canister filters are deficient here>
There is lots of water movement and aeration in my tank I think Bob, so is the filter the problem?
<Not a problem, other than the driven nitrification from the bioballs, but could be improved as I've stated>
Once again, again thank you for your knowledge/ information.
Kind Regards
Gavin
<Welcome. BobF>

Molly coloring or ich?   12/6/17
Hi Crew,
I bought a couple of mollies today at my LFS. I was thinking it was natural coloring for a molly but now I am hoping it's not ich. I attached 3 best pics they are not great pics but they are the best I took of around 10 hopefully you can tell me if my fish have problems. Thanks in advance Joe
<I can't make out if this fish has Ich or not Joe. That it is full-bodied and has erect finnage, is out swimming are good signs. Is the water here alkaline, hard... are you using aquarium salt? I would ask you to read re Mollies on WWM, starting here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/mollies.htm
and as much of the Molly FAQs files linked at top that you have time for. Bob Fenner>

Re: Bacterial lesion on Longnose butterfly?    12/5/17
Thanks Bob. Unfortunately, when I got home from work, the fish had died.
<Aughh! I should have been more emphatic re moving it NOW. >
I hate killing fish! Assuming that it died from a bacterial infection, is there anything special that I should do with my quarantine tank to make it safe to add new fish?
<Mmm; not the system, or quarantine, but the protocol itself for given species, AND specimens that are better off being "expedited". Not possible, well, practical to try and relate the vast range of decision making here.
"It" would take reading all of WWM, us chatting for a few days re>
There is nothing in there but a filter, a skimmer, and a piece of live rock. I assume emptying it and drying out the equipment should help.
Bruce
<Again; I don't think the issue here was "biological" (pathogenic), but the species, this individual being "diffed". Bob Fenner>

Dinoflagellates Id    12/5/17
Just looking for confirmation(I hope I’m wrong) that these are Ostreopsis Dinoflagellates.
<Yes to these being Dinoflagellates; by what characteristics do you class them in this genus?>
I thought I had them beat, didn’t see any for a month, then I saw a few under the microscope then BAM they are back.
<... only takes one>
I was using the dirty method to eliminate them.
<The "dirty method"?>
Did a water change after a month, and started skimming again.
<I would skim continuously>
We just a got our corals from the WWC sale, really bad time for the dino’s to come back. I hope the pix/video help someone else identify what they have.
300g aquarium
KH 8.6
Ca 416
Nitrate 5
Phosphate Some
<Necessary>
Sg 1.026
Mg 1250
The tank is about 8 months old. I think our problem stemmed from the fact that we started with fake ‘live’ rock and didn’t have any of the good bacteria in the tank. Should have that fixed now. Does anyone have a self guided laser that will destroy dino’s.
<Heeee! You're way ahead of your time>
Have a great day.
<I would use RDP, algal culture in a refugium, high/steady RedOx here as controls. Bob Fenner>

More than full size pic

Zebra Moray Question    12/5/17
Hi Bob-
Gabe here. Hope you are well. A retailer reached out to me yesterday about taking in a pair of Zebra Morays that someone donated to the store last week. Hobbyist had a small tank and decided to ditch them after buying them as babies and keeping them for a few years... Shame. They are beautiful specimens. 3.5' each. I have them in a 90 gallon right now, while I change some things around in a 180 for them, so please know that they will not be in this small tank for more than a week or so. The LFS had them in a 40 gallon tank, so I felt obligated to take them off their hands. I can't stand to see them suffer in a small tank.
My question was, because they are a pair, is it possible they will mate?
<Mmm; I doubt it; but am asking MarcoL his opinion here>
I know that they are hermaphrodites, so at this point I'm not sure the sexes of them. One is larger than the other, so I was thinking that maybe one has changed to female in hopes to mate? Not sure. I didn't think that they normally paired up unless they had plans to mate, but it sounds like these two eels have been together since birth from the way the LFS put it.
Any way to tell if one is a female/ready to mate? Should I pass this on to Marco?
<I've done so here>
They ate this morning before I ran off to school. Seem happy as of now.
I'll keep you posted. Should have them in the 180 by the beginning of next week.
Cheers-
Gabe Walsh WWM Crew
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

Re: Achilles Tang    12/5/17
Hello Again WWM Crew,
<Hey Dan>
I received a 3 1/2 inch Achilles from LiveAquaria last Saturday. Physically the tang looks fine and I placed him in my mature 10-gallon quarantine tank (no medication administered).
<Mmm; am glad I see your "options" below... I would NOT leave this Acanthurus here. Too stressful>
As of right now, I am unable to get him to eat. I have tried many types of foods - frozen Mysis, LRS, Rods, nori sheets, and fish roe. I am thinking he may be uncomfortable in a small QT? I am seeing 3 options available to me:
1. move the tang to my main display
<Yes I would>
2. start-up my 20-gallon tank to continue the QT process
3. do nothing, continue to try different foods (i.e., Masstick)
Which option do you think is best, or do you see other options that is not listed? Your POV will be greatly appreciated.
Many thanks in advance.
Dan
<I know where this fish originated (HI) and through (Quality Marine), and their processing. I would expedite this fish's move to the main/display system. Bob Fenner>

Re: Can I write for your site?    12/5/17
Ok great. Let me work on that and I will send it your way. Thanks!
Katie
<Real good Katie. BobF>

Re: Discus just not 'happy' :(    12/5/17
Hi Bob,
An update on the Discus, wish it was good news. So, despite Polyfilter, an increased water temperature and water changes to get nitrates well below 10ppm, I got up this morning to find the blackest of my Discus had died. It had seemed to perk up a bit the last couple of days and was showing its stress bars rather than being completely black. Then last night it was hovering close to the water surface.
<Darkness, poor body orientation... are very bad signs>
I turned up the aeration but obviously that didn’t help. No water change yesterday so I can’t even blame that. So, of the 3 I have left, I now have one who’s swimming slightly head down. Seems ok otherwise, eating and out and about. I’m not treating for anything, although I do have swim bladder medication on standby. It’s definitely not constipated. Sorry for yet another ramble, at the moment I feel like banging my head on a brick wall! I’ll keep up the water changes and see how these 3 get on. On the plus side, they’re not aggressive towards each other....best wishes. Liese
<Without knowing what, if anything, is amiss here; am wont to suggest a change. IF they were mine, I might try adding a "black water tonic/extract" in the hope of positively influencing water quality here. There are a few such products, or you can make one yourself from a peat product. Bob Fenner>

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Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
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