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Assessor macneilli Whitley 1935, the Blue Devilfish. Found on
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Mickey mouse platy maybe preggo? /Neale
We are new communal fish tank owners (thanks to our 3 yr old son!! :-D). I LOVE
watching them, they are very interesting :-) We have had the fish for about a
month and my female Mickey mouse platy has gotten somewhat fat/wide and looks
like she may be pregnant.
<If there's ever been a male alongside her in the last, say, six months... then
yes, chances of being pregnant is very high. These fish are more or less
continually pregnant when kept with males.>
The only 'dark spot' that I can see is behind the female parts on the fin, not
very dark. (wrong terminology?!? Sorry!)
<No problems. The famous "gravid spot" only really holds true for Guppies and
other small livebearers. It's not a patch of colour, but the expanded dark sac
around the embryos being pushed against the thin muscle wall around the vent. On
small fish, this dark sac is visible. But on bigger fish like Platies and
Mollies, it's often not visible.>
The wide part looks somewhat dark when she is in the right light. We have these
2 male guppies (who are BFF's) and they just started showing interest in her
within the last 2-3 weeks. They aren't mean to her at all, just follow her
<Indeed. Closely related, and will surely try and mate with her. No chance of
fertilising her though.>
Anywho, I attached 3 pics, they aren't very clear-sorry the fish are quick and
didn't want to use flash and blind/confuse them! Sometimes she will hang out on
the bottom of the tank- not for too long- and she is very active, usually all
over the place and seems very happy. I am trying to give as much info as
possible! If she is pregnant, how long till she will have babies? Is she
<See above. But also be aware of constipation and dropsy. The former is quite
common when herbivores, like Platies, aren't given plant-based foods (Spirulina
flake for example) and fresh greens (slices of cucumber to graze on are good).
Can be treated with Epsom salt and more green foods. Dropsy looks similar, but
the scales rise up so the fish has a pine cone
appearance viewed from above. It's a serious issue. Fluid retained inside the
body, abdominal swelling, often related to bacterial infection. Both
constipation and dropsy are covered elsewhere on WWM.>
I just don't know if I should get a breeding tank??
<Not for the female, no. Very stressful for them. But by all means corral fry
into a trap for 2-3 weeks until they're big enough to swim with adults.
Some tetras (such as Black Widows) and most cichlids (including Angels) are very
predatory towards fry. May need to keep the fry in the trap or ideally another
aquarium for longer.>
Any info would help!! Thanks for you time!!!
Export suggestions. Actually: Sources of Ca reactor media
Have you ever heard of people Gavin <having> problems with using clean snail
shells in a calcium reactor?
<I have not.... but am of the decided opinion (Diana Fenner distributed Knop
Products including reactors and media in N. America for five years; I responded
to queries re) that mined materials of more soluble Calcium and Magnesium
Carbonate are far better that "shiny" shells. READ here:
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>
Sick Molly's; no data, rdg.
I am not sure if I am in the right area but I need some help my water is 0.05
<.... is this specific gravity? If so; likely you mean 1.005. What salt/s did
you use here?>
I have mollies with some weird symptoms started out like dry looking patches and
now looks like this orange one she is the only one that looks like this they
start out like the balloon Molly and progresses there are only 3 I can see that
look like this but only the orange that looks this bad I found 2 baby's with
what looks like little holes in there head and one baby his eye was white and
pooped out I believe
<... need more data; re water quality, system, maintenance, feeding, history of
the system. Let's have you read here:
and the linked files above.... for input, and to grant you an idea of what sorts
of info. we're looking for. Bob Fenner>
Re: Sick Molly's
Sorry I am sick and not functioning on all cylinders myself it is specific
gravity and it is 1.005
<Mmm; if you had other livestock.... than shown in your pix; I might well be
raising the "saltiness" here>
I use marine salt by instant ocean
tank is over a year old and cycled I use SeaChem stability and ammonia alert
it's o it only measures free ammonia but I also checked with a ammonia tube
tester it shows zero I use a biological cascade 1000. I do 15% water changes
weekly. I test with high range ph test kit it is 7.5
Nitrite is 0 nitrate is 5.0
I have had issues with phosphates getting up between 1.0 and 2.0
<Meh; not to worry>
but use a phosphate remover, also by SeaChem. I only have 1 live moss ball
in the tank it has really good oxygenation I have 1 Plato
<Pupil of Aristotle?>
1 shrimp a few zerite snails
it's a 45 gallon corner tank and 4 adult female mollies, 6 juveniles and
honestly could not tell you how many babies my levels were fine so didn't
worry about it I want to give them away but can't till I know what's up in
this tank I got Molly's all at once never added any more snails were added
after and shrimp feed omega one twice daily micro pellets for babies or
crush the omega one in a pill crusher I do both I have city water, use aqua
safe to remove chlorine my temp is 80.2. I have used Metronidazole in the
water it was by apI twice
<Don't keep putting this in: Toxic>
48 hour intervals then I started giving mixed 1/8 tsp api to 1/2 tbs omega
one soaked in 1/2 tbs water for 30 min now I have started using life guard
<For what? What for?>
while waiting to find out if anything can be done.
<...> really <...>
I have not seen anything like the pics I have sent you, do you have any idea
what this could be I believe my mollies came with whirling disease I had the
whirled for a year I euthanized her when she finally stopped eating I kept
her in a floating baby nursery with a nylon bottom lost a lot of babies to
this disease it finally stopped I hope.
<.... wish I had a microscope nearby there.... Do you have another system
you can move just the mollies to; jack up the salinity? BobF>
Re: Adding a skimmer to my wet/dry system
The day slipped away from me today, sorry for a late reply. Here's a shot of my
wet dry. There's approximately a 12" X 8" footprint available on the right side
of the sump and 30" in height. I can certainly squeeze one in there if you think
it would be advisable.
<I'd put in with the pump if the one I'd like would fit>
Some more insight into the wet dry, it's a biofil1 rated for 125 gallons (not 30
gallons as I mentioned previously; that estimate was the total volume of the
sump if filled to the brim)... This has been working great since installed.
Again, looking to slowly upgrade to a reef system which is where the skimmer
comes into play.
<Well.... I'd use the space you mentioned (to the right of the wet dry) to put
in a refugium... tie/plumb it into the pump/sump with a couple of bulk head
fittings, a section of pipe twixt, and run a slow input of water from the
overflow to the 'fuge>
Again I really appreciate your wisdom and insight.
<Bob Fenner, petfish kind of guy>
Re: Adding a skimmer to my wet/dry system
You’re a gentleman and a scholar. Thank you Sir!
<Well; a bit of both perhaps. Cheers Chad! B>
Re: Possible reciprocal connections?
Link and logo now on this page.
about 2/3 down
<Thank you; your site name and link on most all "Links" pages. BobF>
Chloroquine/sulfathiazole or Chloroquine/Cuprazin(50%)copper, formalin,
malaquite, NNS; Crypt
In my aquarium, that have for about 5 years now, I have a Naso for 5yrs , one
blueface for 2yrs, one Apolemichthys trimaculatus for 4years now, one Zebrasoma
flavescens (around 10 years now, came from another aquarium I had) and now a
Choerodon fasciatus from Australia.
Well, this 500liters tank is a mixed of fish, inverts and some corals.
Very good water quality, very good light, very good skimmer and for some extra
control some months ago a 55W UV (AquaMedic).
Well the problem is i have some, very few signs of crypto. The Naso have one eye
with a little cloudy white circle one one eye but very little, already for 2
weeks aprox. Only with the 250W on we can see this signs.
Yes, the Choerodon fasciatus is for sure the reason, maybe indirectly. Of
course, 4 weeks on quarantine tank before i put this fish at the DP tank, at the
first time he show some stress, after two days he went again for the qt tank and
one week later he went again in de DP tank, with more confidence.
Well, even with these measures, he wake up some ict of the thank and the
pectoral fins of this fish are now with some white areas.
So, all invers and coral went to another tank (yes, these fishes are my top
concern and I prefer to treat the DP tank like I did some years ago and after
treatment, water changes, SeaChem resigns and after one month, the inverts and
coral can go again, with some live rock (also quarantined) to.
In another situations for sure the fish should go to another tank, be treated
and the display for at least 8 weeks without any fish. In this situation, the
Naso elegans is already with 30cm, and I prefer to maintain all the fish in the
I changed the specific gravity to around 1.012, and Chloroquine at 15mg/liter (i
have a kern 440 21N to weigh fish drugs).
After two days, no much betters signs in any. No Ammonia at the thank and all
SeaChem resigns was retired, uv off etc.
When I change water I add the proportional amount of Chloroquine.
Well because I still have no positive signs of, I am thinking of also put half
dose of Cuprazin (have copper, formalin and malaquite) or at least, add
sulfathiazole with the Chloroquine.
Normally when the fish have cloudy eyes or some skin red areas like one
Zebrasoma some years ago, I use sulfathiazole, alone, at rate of 1gr /100 Liters
for 3 days. Do you know if sulfathiazole can be used at this ratio,
simultaneously with 15mg/liter of Chloroquine (Resochina)?
<It can be.... but I'd first or only try adding the CP to foods rather than the
water... at a higher dose possibly... as the real drug strength does vary quite
a bit.... and getting the drug INTO the fishes is what you want>
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Before I begin, I am continuing to attempt research before, further, application
of Mr. G's anti-parasitic fish caviar. The active ingredient is Chloroquine
phosphate but without a percentage listed, as well as vitamins, amino acids and
garlic. I am trying to treat what appears to be classic marine ich, crypt
parasite. It is limited to a few spots on the single hippo(regal) tang that was
freshwater dipped but not quarantined, kill me now.
<You're learning; don't give up now>
He is a smallish member of the tank, eats voraciously, makes use of cleaner
shrimp and aside from spattering of parasite appears healthy. The only other
fish inhabitants are two tank raised ocellaris clowns and a yellow watchman goby
with no symptoms after two weeks. There will not be any more fish added, ever,
if we can pull thru this calamity. However there are a variety of corals and
invertebrates. So this concoction purports that it is entirely "reef safe" but
it seems counter intuitive that any chemical could avoid complications.
<You are correct here; NONE are completely "safe">
The directions state to feed this slurry, as much as fish will consume in 3-5
minutes, for three weeks. I fed a few drops to gauge response and all the fish
gobbled it down. I only did this once but would like to boost the tang with the
included vitamins and such for further health and immunity concerns. If the
Chloroquine is contraindicated perhaps an immunity boosting supplement?
<Yes; a good idea; always... akin to vitamin prep.s for humans>
He eats frozen mysis and algae sheets currently. Do you have any experience with
<I do not personally. Almost always I encourage people to buy CP or other drug/s
to make their own mixtures>
Is it different than quinine(when using search indices for Chloroquine these
quinine faqs repeatedly recur)?
<There are a few different quinine compounds used, of use; only one Chloroquine
Are there foreseeable dangers if any of the product were to get by the fish(or
<Minimal; acceptable dangers>
The lfs would quarantine the fish in hyposalinity but the stress on the
surgeonfish might be it's undoing and as far as I have read the parasite now
exists in my tank. As usual yours is the opinion I most highly regard, and this
is yet another instance where a quarantine tank would have averted disaster.
<You seem to understand the situation. Don't catastrophize.... won't help. Focus
on your positive actions, probable outcomes. Bob Fenner>
Yellow tang not eating. Env.
Hello. My name is Russ and I have had a 55g saltwater tank running for about 1
year now. I have 70 lbs of live rock and keep it lightly stocked.
I only have a few corals and though I research it has been mostly learn as I go.
I had a problem with my RO water system that went undetected for a few water
changes. Had brown algae rapidly grow through the system, but the parameters
remained stable. I bought a new RO/DI system and did a 50% water change. There
was so much algae that I also did some cleanup of the walls and the rock that
was without corals attached. I had consulted with several people on a forum I
belong to, and the information I got was mixed as to whether I should do that,
but there was so much that I felt my corals were in danger. Anyway, done is
done. That brings me to my problem, which I am also getting mixed info on.
Up until I cleaned the tank my Yellow Tang was doing fine. It was healthy and
active and it's appetite was good. But now (last 4 days) it is not eating and
just stays in one cave structure. I see no signs of disease other than weight
loss, it is getting very skinny. I am moving it to my sick tank today.
<Likely a cascade event... the algae profusion; its removal, poisoning the
corals, they in turn reacting, poisoning the Tang.... read here:
Can you inform me on what to do, and what to look for?
<Yes; I'd be moving the fish as you mention; continue doing regular water
changes, using chemical filtrants (GAC, Chemipure) to remove metabolites,
keeping my skimmer spiffed up... and hoping for the best>
Could this just be stress?
<Oh yes; big time: Chemical, biochemical>
I would appreciate any information I can get at this point.
Thank you, Russ.
<Read on! And welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Help! 2 New sick mandarins, Ichthyobodo and Tea Tree Oil
Thank you so much for getting back to me so quickly! I just wanted to give you
an update, and perhaps offer a theory? I was able to order Crypto-pro
(Chloroquine phosphate) which came in two days later. Unfortunately, one of the
mandarins didn't make it that long. I began treatment on the surviving mandarin
as soon as the medication came in with a single dose at 15mg/l, although by that
time his breathing was already labored. He lived for 4 more days, and a
post-mortem skin scrape showed he was heavily infected with Ichthyobodo.
So since at that point I had the medication on hand, I figured I'd try again and
ordered 2 more mandarins, figuring I could cure any infection if I treated it
early. When they arrived I found the parasite in the bag water, again, this time
both were breathing heavy from day 1. I immediately dosed CP at 15mg/l, but one
of the mandarins died just 2 days later, the other was excessively slimy,
breathing heavy, and did not appear to be improving. So I put some carbon in the
filter and did a 25% water change to remove the medication. Then as I was
combing the internet for ideas on what to do, I read that mandarins are
sensitive to medications (like copper) and can cause them to produce so much
slime that their gills become congested and they suffocate. I also know that tea
tree oil is used on people to dry out wounds like cuts/scrapes/blisters/acne
(take a good whiff and it'll clear your sinuses too!), is found in Melafix and
is considered safe to use on most fish. Now, I know how you feel "natural"
treatments like this are pretty much useless, and I completely agree with you,
but I may have actually found a use for it!!! I thought if I could dry up some
of the mucus to decongest her gills and help her breathe, then maybe her immune
system will be able to fight off the parasite?? So I grabbed some 100% tea tree
oil from the pharmacy and put 2 drops in the tank (10 gal) while she was
sleeping. By morning she had shed some of the mucus and was able to breathe
normal again! She still wasn't eating so I did this for 4 more days, and now she
is very active, healthy, and eating like a pig! I finally have a happy mandarin!
I'm sure the tea tree oil didn't directly kill the parasite or anything, but
maybe it at least helped
her breathe? What do you think??
<Got me.... as all anecdotal accounts go; it's impossible to sort out
cause/effect w/ one trial and multiple factors>
I'd love to know your thoughts on this
Thank you for all your help!
<Thank you for your report. Bob Fenner>
Re Trumpet Coral Problem, caused by Yellow Encrusting Sponge?
Thank you for your opinion on why my trumpet corals are recessing.
Here is some more info:
The anemones are not near the trumpets.
I do add iodide.
I target feed the trumpets and feel they are getting plenty of nutrients or else
they would not be multiplying so fast prior to this mass recession.
(2 to 400 heads in 8 years)
The refugium is full of macro algae and I battle hair algae in the overflows.
Allelopathy could be part of the problem.
My latest thought is in relation to the Jaspis serpentina sponge which is slowly
taking over my tank. A few weeks ago, I was scraping it off the back glass and
trying to dig it away from taking over some Zoanthids and birds nests.
Would the small sponge particles within the water column cause the trumpets to
Would you recommend removing rocks that have this encrusting yellow sponge on
<Yes I would... rinse, chip off; possibly bleach... but at least allow to air
dry for a week or more before re-using>
There is a LOT of yellow sponge in my tank. What does happy yellow sponge
indicate about the tank?
<Propitious circumstances; at least for it. BobF>
Adding a skimmer to my wet/dry system
I really enjoy going through all of your forums and FAQ’s. I have been scouring
your site for an answer to my question but don’t seem to see anything directly
related… which is why I am now reaching out.
I have an 80 gallon saltwater tank that has been set up and thriving for
about a year now. Despite everything I read about wet/dry’s being a nitrate
factory, my levels are consistently at zero.
<There are possibilities of "striking balance" w/ such use.... enough "reverse
reactions" occurring in live rock, substrate, care in what's fed and amounts;
partial water change outs....>
Nevertheless, I understand the importance of skimming (thanks to reading through
your many, many articles and responses on the subject), and want to put one into
my system. My aquarium has a built in center overflow that goes down to a 30
gallon wet/dry sump. The bio media is in the first chamber and my return pump
and heater are in the second chamber. I also have an air pump with two stones
under the bio media. There is room to put a skimmer in the second chamber, but
I’ve also read on your forums that the skimmer should be skimming water
straight from the tank and not after bio filtration.
<It matters very little here. MUCH more important for instance, that the contact
chamber of the skimmer and perhaps the collection cup be kept clean, than where
the skimmer is placed>
Is there any way to add this in given my current set up, or do I need to slowly
remove the bio media (handful every couple of days or so…) until all media is
removed and then add in the skimmer in that first chamber?
<Yes; as stated, can be situated wherever you have room>
My long term plan is to convert this ecosystem into a reef environment which is
why I feel the need to get the skimmer in the mix. If buying a new sump is
inevitable, that’s okay, but I’d prefer not having to.
<Can't tell w/o a good photo or look... if a decent skimmer will fit in the
current one; that is where I'd place it. However, I would be reading re how you
might modify this sump to add a refugium, lighting et al. here>
What’s my best course of action?
Current bio-load is:
(1) small blue tang
(1) arc-eye Hawkfish
(2) medium blue-green reef chromic
(2) medium Bartlett's Anthias
(1) small foxface lo
(1) green bubble tip anemone
(5) dwarf hermit crabs
Other than my wet/dry filtration I’ve got:
(50lb) live rock
(40lb) live sand
Thank you very much for your help!! It is appreciated more than you know.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Adding a skimmer to my wet/dry system
Thank you very much for a quick response and your insight, Bob.
I will get a photo of the sump so you can take a look at it. I’ll measure the
footprint available for a skimmer and let you know so you might advise something
you know of that can provide descent results.
<And you; BobF>
Overwhelmed by Ich 10/6/15
After 7 years since my last dealings with ich, my complacency has come to bite
me in the butt. I just ordered a bunch of fish(Flame Angel, Regal Tang, Sailfin
Tang, Starry Blenny, two Banggai Cardinals, and a McCosker's Flasher Wrasse) to
add to my current 265 gallon residents (pair of Ocellaris, Royal Gramma, Pygmy
Angelfish, three Pajama Cardinals, four Green
Chromis, and a female Pink Square Anthias (her fellow friends didn't make the
shipment)). It appears the Regal Tang is affected the most, but the Sailfin and
Flame Angel also have spots.
I have spent the last 10 hours reading about options, outcomes
, and I really want to crawl in a corner. On the bright side, the idea of a
quarantine tank seemed like a huge undergoing, but I know now how simple it can
be! I have read much about hyposalinity on your site, and it seems to have merit
by some, but the majority of you don't trust it. I removed most
of my inverts to my fallow tank. I was planning on dropping my display
tank salinity down to 1.012 at least until I came up with another plan.
Maybe I have this wrong, but my interpretation from all of my reading is that
hyposalinity is a good way of controlling ich but not eradicating it. My plan
was to then set up a quarantine system on my lanai (hoping that October in Tampa
Bay Florida will sustain an adequate temperature) in which I could treat them
with copper, if that is what you would suggest. Perhaps a
quarantine for two months of a salinity of 1.009 could rid the parasites without
<Doubtful; but possibly your fishes might develop sufficient resistance...>
After two months I could then drip acclimate my fish from their 1.009 to the
display of 1.012, and then everyone up to 1.025 over the course of a few days.
My concern with copper is the lack of biological filtration and all the problems
that would create. I read to help maintain proper ph during this time that
baking soda is the better way to buffer rather than the two
part system I currently use, correct?
<... not necessarily; no>
Would UV help or merely add to my dwindling funds with little return of results?
<Would help.... Do read re the use of Quinines>
Please forgive my rambling. I am horribly unfamiliar with this and would hate to
make a really bad scenario WORSE because I misinterpreted research. Please help!
Always grateful, Alyssa
<The hypo for now; and more reading.... and use of your spelling/grammar checker
going forward. Bob Fenner>
Mickey mouse platy maybe preggo?
We are new communal fish tank owners (thanks to our 3 yr old son!! :-D). I LOVE
watching them, they are very interesting :-) We have had the fish for about a
month and my female Mickey mouse platy has gotten somewhat fat/wide and looks
like she may be pregnant. The only 'dark spot' that I can see is behind the
female parts on the fin, not very dark. (wrong terminology?!? Sorry!)
<I understand you>
The wide part looks somewhat dark when she is in the right light.
<Oh! Tis not the fin itself that changes color, but the vent area (communal
opening for sex and excretory products) immediately above and behind the anal
fin... clearish itself, w/ the babies eyes appearing as dark, small dots near
We have these 2 male guppies (who are BFF's) and they just started showing
interest in her within the last 2-3 weeks. They aren't mean to her at all, just
follow her around. Anywho, I attached 3 pics, they aren't very clear-sorry the
fish are quick and didn't want to use flash and blind/confuse them! Sometimes
she will hang out on the bottom of the tank- not for too long- and she is very
active, usually all over the place and seems very happy. I am trying to give as
much info as possible! If she is
pregnant, how long till she will have babies? Is she pregnant?
<Just looks fat to me; but female livebearers are often permanently pregnant...>
I just don't know if I should get a breeding tank?? Any info would help!!
Thanks for you time!!!
<You could acquire a bit of live or faux floating plant.... See WWM re
Myriophyllum, Egeria, Ceratophyllum.
Sea Star Trauma (from power head)
Last night, I noticed that this starfish was crawling around the inlet to the
protein skimmer pump. My display is a 40 Gal with a HOB Protein skimmer. I've
had this star for months now and it's been doing great in the tank. Always on
Today, I saw that the star had wrapped itself around the intake of the skimmer.
I thought that it might have found something that it wanted to eat there. After
a couple of hours of no movement, I powered the pump down and saw that the star
had been stuck.
I moved it to a piece of liverock and it sort of wilted and has sat there for
the past few hours. It is clearly missing flesh from 2 legs. Is there
anything that I can do for it? Any chance that it will recover?
<I would be double, triple dosing iodide-ate, like Lugol's.... and redosing
weekly. And yes to hoping it will recover>
See photo attached.
<W. Bob Fenner>
Refractometer Regulation 10/5/15
Hello and much admiration of your knowledge and expertise. I hope you might have
the answer to a question about my RedSea refractometer. I have used it since
onset of my newer (six months) aquarium but as of recent it reads very high. The
directions specify to clean using reverse osmosis water and I do so
<Have you tried rinsing it; as in overnight, in freshwater? >
It seems though whenever I measure my aquarium water the refractometer reads at
or above 1.030. However my lfs read the same aquarium water on the same day as
1.025. The tricky part is that if I rinse the refractometer under hot tap water
it adjusts back to 1.025.
<Ah yes; salts crystallization in the unit>
My question is whether it is acceptable to rinse (not submerge) the unit?
<Yes; should not cause trouble>
Is this a normal process of getting stuck like a plastic hydrometer?
The refractometer advertises that it is calibrated for reef aquarium
temperature, not that I accurately understand, but I'm trying. I don't want to
make any rash changes though, all inhabitants appear satisfied and water tests
seem to confirm. The issue of basic salinity is of obvious concern, does this
sound like something the manufacturer could assist with?
It came with a tool for calibration but also claims to come already adjusted.
Do refractometers typically require fine tuning and what indicators for this
<Good ones do NOT require calibration, nor adjustment>
Your assistance is invaluable. One other silly thing, when measuring salinity or
getting a sample for water test tubes is it pertinent to take the water from a
certain depth or area (65 gallons if relevant)?
<In modern set ups it is not; as they are circulated such that thermal et al.
stratification is discounted>
Or is it accepted to just take the upper layer of water to avoid inserting my
<The surface should be fine. Bob Fenner>
Re: Sick Indian roof turtle 10/4/15
Firstly, thank you for the prompt reply.
<You’re welcome, I’ve been traveling much lately and don’t have access to the
The vet shifted from 3 doses of Enroflaxin to 7 doses of cephalosporin, plus
nebuliser. After that and continuation of dry docking, we can see that there is
quite a lot of improvement in Begum's health now. The swelling of the soft parts
between the legs has gone now and the gasping has stopped.
<That’s good to hear>
However, she is still not eating. We are continuing giving her cod liver oil
once in three days - as you suggested.
<Appetite goes away when you’re sick PLUS these treatments, while necessary and
obviously working – are an assault on Begum’s system. Let’s wait a little longer
before we worry about appetite. Next visit to the vet, ask for a Vitamin A, D &
Calcium injection. Just one.>
She had her eyes closed for a day. The vet recommended applying Moxifloxacin
ointment on the eyes. She has now half-opened them, but still sleeps a lot.
<she’s weak, that is not surprising or unexpected>
Plus, we can see some mucusy and bloody mixture at the corners of Begum's mouth,
which she releases into the water whenever we let her in her tank (only for 5-10
minutes, twice a day). I have attached an image of the same.
<that’s fine, don’t worry about it>
Also, her shell is deformed and I suspect it is metabolic bone disease (after
going through some forums and websites). I have also attached an image showing
the shell deformation. What treatment do you recommend for that?
<Calcium (note the injection above) – but worry about that AFTER she beats this
Also, we noticed that her nails have grown very long in a very short span (of
two days!). Is it a cause of concern? (Image attached)
The stools that she passes are very hard and rubbery. Initially, we panicked as
we thought it looked like some organ. But it later disintegrated in the water.
Is this because she is only having the cod liver oil? (Image attached)
Earlier, we did not put a UV light above her basking area. She used to be in
direct sunlight for two hours, basking for about 4-5 hours and otherwise in
water. Also, her diet was only lettuce leaves - she refused to have turtle /
fish food. Now, we have got a UVB lamp (Hagen exo terra reptile UVB 100 13W).
However, the website does not guide us regarding how long should the UV light be
kept on. Could you advise on that?
<For healthy turtle care, I match the UVB light to the daily cycle in my area.
For Dry docking and treatment, you could leave it on for 24 hours if you want –
18 hours at least>
<Lettuce is a really bad diet!! It contains no nutrients at all and is likely to
be what led us here in the first place.>
<Some turtles are known to ‘fixate’ and accept one kind of food and refuse all
others. Box Turtles (Terrapene Carolina) are notorious for this. I had one that
would only eat strawberries. We fought for over a YEAR. For a solid year she
would turn away from the food I offered and every day I wondered if she would
die … and for almost 400 days she ate nothing AT ALL… until one day, like it had
never happened, she start to eat the earthworm I’d offered. During that time she
had several injections of glucose, Vitamins A, D and E and Calcium … but no
solid food for over a year.>
<Let’s get Begum health first then worry about diet>
There is very little information available on care if Indian roof turtle
(Pangshura / Kachuga tecta). Is there any specific I should think of while
caring for Begum?
<Yes, I agree. We know much more about their skeletal arrangement than how to
keep one alive. My suggestion is the basics: Clean Cool Water, Warm Dry Basking,
Low-Fat, High Protein Diet and UVB>
<one thing, several biologists had reported them as poor swimmers. If this is
the case then any aquatic environment I would make would have a least one sloped
side so Begum could just “walk” up the slope to breathe. At least, when Begum
heals and it’s tie to return her to a normal cycle, I’d START with that to make
it easy on her>
Also, when I put Begum in water for some time, she starts floating. Im really
<She shouldn’t be in water deep enough to float!! Just enough to cover her
cloaca and enough to let her drink.>
<Dhruvang – you and Begum still have a long road ahead to full recovery. Be
patient and consistent>
Re: Sick Indian roof turtle 10/4/15
Just got your reply, but I have sad news. Begum passed away on 30th September.
She was really slow and not responding since morning. By afternoon, her eyes
were looking sunken in and there was no movement except breathing. I suspected
she was dehydrated and kept her feet immersed in shallow water, but either it
didn't help or it was too late. She breathed her last at around 3pm, exactly 15
years and 6.5 months after we got her.
And the house doesn't seem the same without her.
I want to thank you for putting up such a great website forum that help people
like me who do not have access to vets specialising in reptiles and amphibians.
Also, for your replies in trying to assist Begum's recovery.
Thanks a lot!
<On behalf of Bob Fenner, Neale, Sue and the entire crew, we're sorry for your
deep loss. This is the problem with reptiles and fish ... by the time an illness
is noted it is usually so far progressed that recovery is extremely difficult. I
will say that with a caring person like you, Begum most likely had a longer and
easier life than she would have had in the wild, so should another turtle come
into your keeping, that turtle would be very, very lucky.>
<Again, sorry for your loss>
Re: injured Indian flap shell turtle please help
HI! its me again (sadly).......
<Hiya – Darrel here again as well>
I noticed yesterday that my turtle had red patches on his skin I am a bit
concerned about it I have a couple of pictures (not good quality) they are the
best I could get I have circled
the areas (they look brown in the picture because of bad camera)........ his
behaviour is normal his eating and basking fine there are no other signs of
<Well, we’ve been through a lot here and there’s been tremendous progress. On
one hand I don’t want to dismiss a possible symptom … but a turtle that is
acting normally, swimming, basking, eating … active and alert … especially one
that has been very, Very sick … I’m tempted to leave it alone. The stress of
diagnosing and then treating what appears to be a small symptom is harder on him
than the treatment may be worth.>
<Soft Shell turtles are very susceptible to water quality issues and thus skin
infections, so if the spot gets bigger or more of them, take him out, let him
dry off, dribble a topical antibacterial (such as Povodine or Betadine), let
THAT dry on the patches … meanwhile make sue his water is really clean.
Hey everyone! So, quick question. Is fin-nipping normal in an African
cichlid aquarium. 10/4/15
I have a 60gal heavily hardscaped aquarium with some vegetation, water
parameters are all excellent.
<Helps to be specific here.>
In the tank i have 7 yellow labs, 3 kenyi cichlids, 1 electric blue johanni, 1
red fin shark, 1 bristle nose Pleco, and 1 Senegal bichir. The reason I ask is
it just seems like there is a little more aggression than i would expect at such
a young age (all the cichlids are under 3 in.) 1 of the smaller yellow labs even
having a small chunk of his dorsal fin nipped off. (currently
treating with MelaFix to help healing process.)
<Be ready to quarantine/relocate this fish...whatever injured it may be
unlikely to stop.>
It's really only the bigger yellow lab male terrorizing the smaller ones,
<Try isolating him in a spaghetti strainer/colander floating in the tank where
he can see and smell the others but not reach them, it may calm him down and
curb territoriality but be prepared to remove the fish permanently if not.>
and occasionally the johanni (though I expect it from him). Now before you say
mention tank size and occupants, allow me to dispel your worries. The red fin
shark is the largest fish currently in the tank, as he is the only one who is
fully mature. Right now he occasionally terrorizes (though mostly ignores them)
all of the cichlids, and they do what they can to avoid him. He will be moved
once they get bigger than him and the roles reverse. As for the bichir I am
aware of how large they get, and that he will need to be moved into a larger
tank eventually. I have a 150gal on standby in my garage, but seeing as he is
only about 2 inches,
<Well, why not set it up sooner than later? Better for all concerned including
your own enjoyment.>
I don't feel the need to get it going just yet.
<Best to be proactive rather than wait for the situation to inevitably escalate,
imo>The cichlids leave the bichir alone, almost to the extent where it seems
like they are afraid of him. They will clear a path whenever he swims by and do
their best not to be in front of him. So any help would be greatly appreciated,
as well as any tips of what to expect with maturity.
<I would utilize your access to a larger system soon, much of this aggression
would be curbed. Hope this helps! Also check out
Honestly i just don't have the money to get the 150gal up and running yet.
I still need to get the filtration system and heaters, decor, etc. The tank
itself was a gift. I've been putting money away for it, so it'll definitely be
ready by the time they get big enough, but not anytime soon. Im a 23yr old
college kid, not exactly rolling in cash yet.
< Ahhh yeah been there, done that! It seems like the tank is the 3big expense
but of course it ain't so unfortunately lol. I do a lot of DIY on my tanks., as
with anything there is speed, quality, and costliness, pick two hehe.>
XD ok, I'll definitely use the spaghetti strainer idea, though my gf may kill me
when she finds out.
<It'll stay between you and me :)>
Lol thanks for the quick response, ill keep yall updated. :)
<Please do, your experience can help others down the line.>
Re. Moray ID 10/4/15
I think you're spot on !
<Glad to be helpful.>
The reason I am saying this is because of the yellow eyes. I have spent hours
searching for a small moray (this one is about 5 inches) with yellow eyes and
found nothing. Thanks and that's why I love the WetWebMedia site !
<Thanks for your kind words. Cheers, Marco.>
Re: Dragon Eel, Dogface puffer, Volitans Lionfish question
Everything seems like it's back to normal...hopefully I don't jinx it by saying
so! My eel is eating, swimming around, comes out to greet us Everytime we go to
the tank. Ammonia levels still holding at 0. Thanks again for all your
insights...Evan <Good to hear! Keep water quality up and you seem to be out of
Possible reciprocal connections? 10/4/15
If you have any time to have a browse then a look at the following sites may be
of interest ? - especially the first two for marine fishkeeping information?
Would be happy to add links to your brilliant site.
<Have looked and I take it the first and third are mainly sites of historical
interest. Will def. post/link IFOCAS.
Thank you for your efforts. Bob Fenner>
Re: Possible reciprocal connections? 10/4/15
What link (with a banner if you can) would you like on IFOCAS?
(The third site published a series of seawater formulae - hence the approach
after seeing your data)
All the best
<Ahh; the upper left corner of the HP:
Again, I thank you. BobF>
Re: Community fish recommendations; plus Betta beh.
My apologies for exceeding the attachment amount on my last communication.
I assure you, it's not the case today.
Thank you very much for your previous reply about community tank mates for my
beta. He really is a docile creature for the most part and only seems to assert
dominance on any new residents. Once they learn their "place" in the tank, he
leaves them alone if they leave him alone. I took the pictus back to the LFS and
the first response they had was, "What fat catfish those are!" Yes, yes, they
were since they ate everything!
My purpose for writing today is that every since adding the 6 Harlequin Rasboras
and 3 Otocinclus Affinis, the beta has been getting more and more lethargic to
the point that yesterday and the day before, he just lies on the gravel in the
bottom of the tank as if he's bored or depressed. He doesn't have anything
physically wrong with him that I can tell . . . no velvet, no ick, no super red
gills, no laboured breathing . . . just nothing.
<What temperature is the water here? Bettas are "just slow" movers most all the
time; only get up and going when they perceive another Betta>
Tank numbers are straight on right now: 0 ammonia, 0 nitrates/nitrites.
Just for kicks since it's in my kit, I checked pH as well and it's a touch
higher than previous readings but I don't think that's an issue. Two days ago, I
did a 30% change, day before yesterday, another 30% change and yesterday, a 50%
change just to ensure that water quality wasn't an issue.
I used Prime for the dechlorinator. I have buckets specifically designated for
this task so they're not used for house cleaning or anything else.
This tank is about 3 weeks old and knowing that it's still cycling,
<Shouldn't have fishes in it then>
I've been keeping up on numbers and water changes. (I know now about fishless
cycling and have a 20L in the works right now for these guys once it's done.)
Tank temperature is about 80.
<Ah, this is fine for all>
I have a TopFin 10 power filter on this tank. (The 20L has a Marineland Penguin
100 power filter.)
I feed rotating foods same as detailed before with the exception of the
carnivore wafers. Beta has also decided that feeding from the bottom is a good
way to go. He started this behavior when I first obtained Pleco and started
dropping sinking veggie wafers. He's also decided that he likes Pleco's broccoli
as well and attacks it vigorously . . . well, at least previously he did. Now,
he'll come up for food if he knows it's there and is a vigorous eater but then
just goes back and lies on the gravel again.
He swims up for air and goes and "lays down" again, so to speak. It's almost
like a bored teenager just flopping in whatever position (s)he happens to land
in on the bed.
I've been reading (lectio) and have come across a couple examples of "lethargic
betas" but this seems to typically be the beginning of an illness which, unless
it's internal, I've not observed in this one.
Another article I read on WWM said that betas can actually get bored with their
settings and sometimes rearranging the furniture might help. Whenever I've
changed things in the tank, he's one of the quickest to adapt to the new
settings, to be sure. Could it be as simple as this?
<Really just their nature>
My other thought is that he's upset because the Rasboras feed on the same strata
that he does but everyone certainly gets enough (at least I feel so, especially
since betas can go every other day for food.)
I know you folks aren't fish psychologists but any insight at all would be
greatly welcome. Thank you for all you folks do and I hope you all are having a
<You might want to try placing a reflective device (mirror or such)
periodically, every now and then... in or outside the tank. Bob Fenner>
Camallanus Consequences? Something else?
Hi Crew! I hope you are all well! I'm hoping you can give me some advice.
I did have a good 5 weeks or so after the Camallanus outbreak in late July, the
infestation stayed gone in the initial tank, none of the fish in my secondary
tank were affected and everything seemed fine. However 2 weeks ago one of my
beacon tetras started looking a bit wobbly in the water, head up/tail down and
taking a lot more effort to try and maintain position.
This had actually happened once before, prior to the Camallanus incident, and
that time I isolated the affected tetra in a breeder box (one of those 2 lt
hang-on style ones) so she couldn't eat food when I wanted her to fast, and
wouldn't have to fight a strong current etc. It was around a week maybe(?) but
not long before she was visibly better oriented and buoyant
again in the breeder box so I put her back in the main tank, and she was
I'm not sure if the more recent sick tetra was the same tetra as before, but
definitely one of the newer ones that I got to keep my original beacon tetra
company. Her condition rapidly deteriorated and within a day or two she had an
almost complete loss of buoyancy. At this stage she was still able to swim but
it was obviously very difficult and tiring so I isolated
her as before. The deterioration continued until she was laying on her side,
completely disinterested or unable to eat food but from there she got no worse.
She could still swim when disturbed or startled, and was quite vigorous, i.e. to
the point of still being a challenge to catch her in a net, but after a burst of
activity she would go back on her side again. Always the same side. Eventually
the downwards side got a bit dirty and irritated looking so I tried propping the
breeder box dividers diagonally so that she would at least be less on her side
and a little more upright. The downward side looked a little red streaked so I
tried some antibiotic which did clear that up. But the buoyancy issue never
improved. I tried moving the tetra to a bigger hospital tank once the "bottom
side" of the fish cleared up, and every now and then she would make the attempt
to swim around and even seemed interested in food again. But by now, she had
become very wasted and skinny, still couldn't swim well enough to aim for food,
still ended up on her side most of the time and was starting to become
permanently curled (away from the side touching the bottom of the tank). I
suspected whatever swim bladder issue she had was now permanent and after 2+
weeks she was not getting any better so I decided it was time to euthanize her
rather than let her linger on the bottom of the tank; I used clove oil. At this
point my suspicion was that she had suffered some internal damage from the
Camallanus infestation earlier on, since one of the beacons had a lot more worms
than the others. Initially I was concerned
that the floating pellets I'd been feeding (due to beacon tetras not eating
anything in the bottom half of the tank, once a food item drops lower than half
way they lose interest and won't chase the food) might have contributed but the
progression looked much worse than constipation.
Nonetheless, I stopped feeding the floating pellets and have not used them
Anyway the reason I am writing is that today I have noticed another beacon tetra
with the initial signs of swimming at an angle, struggling a bit to maintain
buoyancy, and I am wondering if there is anything I could do differently to save
this fish from ending up in the same condition as the one I euthanized.
<Other than standard "good care"; I know of nothing>
Alternatively, does any of this sound like an untreatable tetra disease and
should I be removing affected fish and doing anything to treat the tank they are
<If this were a commercial purpose... breeding facility; I don't doubt that such
fish would be removed, destroyed summarily>
The tank currently has beacon tetras, rosy barbs, guppies and danios. Is it
possible that it is dietary related?
<Mmm; wouldn't other fishes be affected similarly? Ans.: I doubt it is dietary>
The fish get a variety of food (not all at once) - community frozen food, frozen
brine shrimp, chopped frozen mysis shrimp (thawed before use), Spirulina + other
stuff pellets, sinking shrimp pellets, mashed pea occasionally, and very
occasionally flake food. Plus the barbs constantly pick at duckweed. I've been
worried about overfeeding so once or twice a week I only feed very lightly or
not at all. It is hard to tell whether the beacon tetras are getting enough food
though because they are a little more shy than the barbs/danios, I try to get
around this by feeding at both ends of the tank at once so the feeding frenzy
isn't all in the one place.
<Your careful observation is the best assessment tool here>
The current parameters in that tank are: GH 8 KH 5 pH 7.8 Ammonia 0 Nitrite 0
Nitrate somewhere between 20-40 (a little higher than I'd like).
<I'd keep under 20 ppm. See WWM re control of NO3>
I've cleaned a lot of gunk out of the filter today and did another water change
(I'd done one earlier this week), I'm going to go back to de-gunking the filter
every time I do a water change instead of every second time since I think that
experiment contributed to the current high nitrate level.
Anyway you've helped me a lot in the past and I realise that there might be no
clear or easy answer this time but please let me know if anything obvious stands
out that I could try or that I should be wary of.
<Nothing jumps out...>
Thanks for your help and advice!
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Help!! GF, still no useful info.
We did water changes each day, but the fish's condition deteriorated quickly...
<?! Strange.... and just this one fish>
His fins continued rotting off, and he developed the septicemia :( we euthanized
him this morning. When we tested the water at the Local fish store
<... see WWM re.... water changes with time, moving. You SHOULD have your own
they said the parameters were great...
<Which means nothing to/for me>
So what could have caused this?
<Can't tell w/ the lack of data provided>
And how do we prevent this?
And what should we do if we see it again (because water changes didn't help)...
Thanks so much!
<Again; and hopefully for the last time here, the ONLY way we can help you is if
you will READ. By reviewing other folks similar instances, perhaps somethings
will open to your awareness.... B>
Posting a question; Moray ID 10/3/15
I wanted some help with a moray ID but could not find a way to post.
<Oh; this is it. Marco? BobF>
Posting a question 10/3/15
I wanted some help with a moray ID but could not find a way to post. Please
<Could be a Echidna delicatula like this one:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/8473381@N08/3797531634 But the picture
does not show enough detail to be sure.
Help!! Panic in Detroit; hoo hoo hoo hoooo!
I have this Ryukin and I'm not sure what is going on with his tail.
He was fine yesterday or the day before, and we just noticed this right now. I
don't think it was the filter intake at all, does it look like it would be
<Yes; of some sort, cause... bacterial most likely...>
What doe you suggest I do?
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>
Everyone else looks great. I have a 200 g with the new Fluval fx6 and
the water quality of good, we had it checked yesterday.
Re: Help!! 10/2/15
I am confused, if it's fungal, but caused by bacteria, do I need an antibiotic
med or antifungal?
<.... you need to read>
Should I put salt in the quarantine tank? Do you think he can be saved?
<No and yes>
What can I do at this very moment to help him while I get meds?
Re: Help!! 10/2/15
Ok so it seems that this is what I would need, however I've never seen it at the
pet stores here... Is there something comparable that you know of by chance?
I'll buy the esha2000, but it won't be here for probably a week.
<.... I would add nothing to this system... as the one fish only is
affected... Optimize, stabilize water quality and provide good nutrition and
this should fix itself. B>
Re: Dragon Eel, Dogface puffer, Volitans Lionfish question
So, just when everything is looking up...a new issue arises! I forgot how much
fun new tanks were. I noticed the Dragon Eel was facing straight into one of my
powerheads and appeared to be "gasping". Based upon past experience, I checked
my ammonia level and found it to be around 0.5-1.0.
Nitrites were 0.0, and nitrates 30-40. I immediately changed out 40 gallons of
water and got some SeaChem Prime and Stability to dose. The eel seemed more
comfortable very shortly thereafter. Within a few hours, the ammonia level was
<Seems a rapid change.>
Nitrites still 0, and nitrates down to 10. Today the eel just "isn't himself".
Hiding a lot,
won't eat, doesn't come out to greet you like before.
<Not surprising all considered.>There was once where it looked like some strings
of mucus came out of one of his rear nostrils, but hasn't happened since .I'm
assuming this is all related to the ammonia...
<Eels have a mucus coat to protect against these situations, maybe just shedding
some of that after its bad experience.> Just very upsetting to see him laying on
the sand hiding in a cave now. pH is 8.2, dKH 8.2, temp 78 degrees F. Anything
else I can do besides just wait and see?
<I would do the usual routine for a stressed animal...keep the lights low bit
not completely dark in the tank and room, noise to a minimum, generally avoid
anything that would stress it out especially any sudden water parameter changes
...keep it stable and do water changes when needed as a response.
"Only bad things happen fast". Tank may be experiencing a second cycle...more
specifics about the system, its history, setup, filtration etc. would be helpful
here. The powerhead thing implies a desire for oxygen possibly. Are you running
a skimmer?> Anything else to look for? Also, why the sudden raise and then
disappearance of the ammonia? Any info greatly appreciated!!!! <Keep a close eye
on the parameters, look for any uneaten food and remove it if the eel doesn't
consume it in short order. Ideally it will eat from a feeding stick on a
schedule...same spot every feeding, 3 days apart. If it doesn't eat soon don't
panic, they can go on hunger strikes. But do periodically offer food, rotating
food items (silversides, squid, octopus etc.). Could try soaking in garlic or
better yet Selcon (plenty of info on these on WWM). Eels are often pretty
durable. It would not hurt to have a quarantine ready or some other safe place
to put him in the odd event things go south in its display tank.>
FW Worm ID; no pic or rdg. 10/2/15
Was wanting to ask about a worm like creature I discovered in my tank internal
filter inlet tonight it was about 3/4 inch brown in colour when I
grabbed it it stretched to about 5-6 inches while attaching itself by a sucker
<Ooh.... was going to key Oligochaete; now.... Hirudinean>
but only at one end though wiggling around attached to the glass as i couldn't
get a grip I pulled it out got rid of it then I removed the fish some pregnant
platies I planned to birth put them back in main tank the tank in question was
used to temporarily house a juvenile breeding stock of expensive Plecos
previously to this these have now moved to larger
setup along with some tetras and tank was empty of fish before the platies went
in my main concern is will these be a risk of harm to the previously housed
Plecos or have been transferred in anyway to the bigger Pleco setup if so how do
I eradicate them also had a snail issue in this tank if you could advise me asap
Remote Deep Sand Bed Problems 10/2/15
Hello Mr., How are you?
<Fine; thank you Andrei>
It has been a while since I wrote, so greetings from Romania.
<Salutations from California>
Everything has been all right aquarium wise. I am glad to tell you that my
Zanclus is doing fine after 2 and a half years in my tank, and so are the rest
of the inhabitants. I now have a question about my remote deep sand bed that I
have in the basement. It is a 1.5 meters long, 50 cm wide and 25 cm of 1 mm fine
sand. It is in function for more than a year now, it
has Chaetomorpha growing on top and 2 Centropyge living in there. There are 3-4
large live rock pieces on top of the sand. The water movement is consisting of a
gravitational feed from the sump above and an overflow on the other end that
goes to another sump filled with liverock, maybe 4-5000 liters /hour. The thing
is that I have always tried to never disturb the
DSB. Now, I see a lot of worms when the lights go on (reverse lighting for the
Chaeto ), also from lateral side I see many channels that worms must have digged,
a lot of pods and small crustaceans but nothing really big enough ( I think )
that could stir the sand.
<I would periodically do this.... to part; let's say half of the bed.>
I avoided putting sandstars or gobies in there so they don't eat the benefic
fauna. But today, I have tried to stir the surface of the sand to see how clean
is it and I can tell you that a cloud of detritus come out. A big one! Now, what
do you think I should do?
<Vacuum part of it each maintenance period/interval>
Keep stirring it little by little? Or siphon it?
<A bit of both>
And what should I do for the future?
should I put some powerheads to increase the water movement? Should I add some
more critters , and if yes, what is in your opinion the best crew for a remote
DSB. Any other advices on this ?Thank you very much, Andrei from Romania
<The reading. Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands,
Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
- Set-Up 2: Filtration of All
Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps,
Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
- About Livestock: Regional Accounts:,
Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths,
Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
- Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae,
Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges:
Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ
Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms,
Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
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