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Kott 1990. Western
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner
| PLEASE: Write reviews of my works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF
This is not a question but informational.
I purchased a large 18” almost flat piece of live rock covered with blue and
purple coralline algae. it of course had some bristle worms not worried about
them as I have never had them be a problem. it did have a bunch of Aiptasia
anemone on it. I had killed a couple with Kalk but I decided to many to do that
with. Bought 3 peppermint shrimp from the same place, put them into my 250
gallon tank at the time they were only thing in the tank except rock. the second
night I could not find the shrimp, I figured they were hiding or died. none of
the Aiptasia disappeared. then a week later most of the Aiptasia were gone. They
had hidden to molt and then they went at the Aiptasia. I had read that they
almost never take care of the larger ones. I had one that was almost 2 inches
across and it has now been taken care of. if I get out the flashlight at night I
can find the shrimp climbing around. if you start out with nothing in the tank
and the shrimp have only been getting fed Aiptasia they work even on the bigger
Thanks Bruce Burnett
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>
Re: Helfrichi Firefish Ectoparasite
Good morning and thank you for your answer,
As a follow up, the ectoparasite came back. I can now see it on all
three Firefish, one having a high number of parasites. They seem more
shy and now they hide at night time. Also, they've started scratching
against sand. It still seems they are the only affected fish in the
I intend to try and catch all three fish and treat in a separate tank. I
need you advice on the medication you think will help me kill the
parasite, as physical removal is technically impossible.
<I would use an arthrocide... an acetlycholinesterase inhibitor. Please
read here re:
My best bet is still Cupramine in therapeutic doses for a short period
(2-3 days), but I would love to use something more fish friendly.
<Do read the above>
Thank you in advance for your advice!
Kind regards, Andrei
<Again; glad to share. Bob Fenner>
Indian Glass Fish; sources
> I am interested in the Indian Glassfish, which are several species (
Parambassis ranga, Parambassis lala, and Parambassis siamensis).
> Do you know of breeders I could contact?
> Thank you very much,
> Itamar Harel, Ph.D.
> The Brunet Lab
> Department of Genetics
> Stanford University School of Medicine
Indian Glass Fish
Hello Dr. Harel,
I do not know any commercial breeders.
Are you aware of the book “Ornamental Aquarium Fish of India” by John Dawes,
Kishori Tekriwal, Andrew Arunava Rao? The last two authors, Tekriwal and Rao,
give a brief review of the aquarium trade in India and would probably be worth
contacting about breeders and/or collectors.
Otherwise, getting in touch with the major importers in your country/state would
be the next step. In the UK certain retailers have a reputation for being able
to import specific fish for academic usage. Wildwoods, in Enfield, for example,
has worked with researchers at the Natural History Museum in this way on work
being done on snakeheads.
Re: Help with my spiny eel!
Ok cool! Thank you. Indian Fern is otw (had to order it as no lfs has
<Often the case. But do read Bob F's comments on this superb addition to
almost any FW aquarium, here:
Always worth having some to share with other aquarists, too.>
But I do have one last question. I placed all my fish (except the Pleco)
back into the aquarium and all seem to be doing fine. I also moved over
my rainbow shark from the second tank and put him in with the others,
since i wouldn't be moving over the Pleco. I figured it might help the
tank seem a little less empty for now. The problem I'm having is the
rainbow shark seems to be aggressive (mainly to the eel, angel, and
tetras) and now I'm worried about my eel. I know eels don't shed their
skin, but i found what looks to be exactly that on the "floor" of the
tank. Could it possibly be his slime coat?
<To a degree, yes, but not as a visible "sheet" usually.>
Do they shed those as one whole piece like a snake?(visually of course).
and if so, what does it mean and should i be worried.
<Would wait a few days. Sometimes fish do odd things when their
environment changes, such as shed mucous that traps silt, but a day or
two later, they're fine again.>
I have since moved the rainbow shark back to his original tank with the
Plecos (he won't mess with those big guys. They don't put up with it.)
<Indeed. The "fish we call sharks" are not really community safe, and
best kept with bigger fish that won't take any nonsense. As you observe,
the larger L-numbers will pay back any transgressions in kind!>
But I'm worried about the eel. Any answer is greatly appreciated.
<Give it a day or two before panicking. Turning down/off the lighting
often helps a great deal. Check the Spiny Eel can't jump out though --
this is a critical phase, if he's not feeling settled. Write back if he
hasn't settled down and/or isn't eating. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Betta died and I want to know how to make tanks safe for
Thanks so much for all your help. My local fish store sold me another
product called Betta Basics and said to use it with every water change.
I think I am to use it instead of my water conditioner. It claims to
remove chlorine, chloramine and ammonia as well as buffering to a pH of
7.0. It doesn't say what is in the bottle anywhere on the label and I am
wondering if you would use this or the Discus Buffer you recommended
along with water conditioner?
<I don't know this product, but if it promises to buffer to pH 7, then
I'd use it without adding additional buffer. Check the pH across a week
or two every day or so, and see if the pH is steady. If it is, job
Today I did a 50% water change, treated the water again with the Betta
Revive (for whatever that may be worth) and added some food. Tomorrow I
will put the charcoal filter cartridge back in and will be returning the
snail to the aquarium later tomorrow night.
<Do bear in mind carbon/charcoal removes medications. It also needs
replacing weekly to do the things it promises to do. In most FW aquaria,
it's almost never worth using, and swapping its space in the filter for
more plain vanilla biological filter media will be immeasurably more
useful. Of course some filters have carbon pads built into them that you
can't substitute, only replace with new carbon pads, and that's a nice
little earner for the manufacturer!>
How long would you wait before getting the new Betta?
<If the tank only contained the Betta and no other fish, then there's no
real point waiting. Usually, the waiting period between a fish dying and
adding a new one is so that you can see if any other fish are going to
get sick. It's obviously best to treat sick fish before adding healthy
It's also often the case with aquaria that people have added to many
fish (or the wrong kinds of fish) and waiting a while lets the tank
But in a Betta aquarium, these aren't considerations.>
I got the impression from your reply that I shouldn't leave the tank
uninhabited for too long or all the good microbes will die.
<Indeed. But whether you use a fish source of ammonia (a Betta producing
waste), a non-fish source (rotting fish food), or a non-living source of
ammonia (such as bottled ammonia, used to raise aquarium concentration
to 2-4 mg/l) doesn't matter.>
Happy Holidays Crew, What are thoughts on any negative effects of
Hornwort on phytoplankton blooms, if any? I'm having second thoughts on
using this plant in my fry tanks. Thanks in advance. Aloha Brandon
<Ceratophyllum, under suitable light, will inhibit the growth of many
(but not all) types of algae according to the scientific literature. But
as is usually the case with allelopathy, the impact is variable and
depends upon the macrophyte (i.e., the plant) being in good health and
growing quickly (i.e., receiving lots of light). Ceratophyllum is a
common choice for fry tanks, not so much for algae control (it probably
doesn't do a huge amount of this under indifferent lighting) but because
it provides shelter and the fine leaves trap organic food particles
where Protozoans can prosper, and these in turn are excellent food for
baby fish. Cheers, Neale.>
Strange gunk on Betta
I came home from school for Thanksgiving break. I went in to see my
Betta male that I left home. I noticed he wasn't looking very well. He
was sitting on the ground and his color looked faded. I checked his
water temperature and the thermometer said it was 68 degrees and I also
checked the under-gravel filter and it was filthy.
<Aquarium much too cold. Turn the heater up (or heaven forbid, "on" if
someone has switched it off in your absence). As you hopefully know,
Bettas are tropical fish, any anyone who tells you they can survive at
room temperature is either (a) misinforming you or (b) living in the
tropics where room temperature is tropical! Anything below 25 C/77 F is
bad for Bettas, and below, say, 22 C/72 F quickly becomes lethal. I'm
only stressing this point for the benefit of others reading this...
you'd be surprised (saddened) how many people believe they don't need to
provide their Betta with a heater, instead spouting out such nonsense as
"this angle poise light over the top warms it up" or "it's bred to live
in an unheated tank" or some such rubbish. Your Betta is almost
certainly getting sick because of lack of heat. Fish are ectotherms,
meaning the heat energy they need for normal metabolic processes comes
from their environment (not internally, as it is with mammals and
birds). If they're too cold, chemical reactions slow down below the
necessary (safe) rate, and things like digestion and immune response
stop working properly. Bacteria in the water that would normally be
fended off by their immune system can run amok if the immune system is
running at half speed, and the result is, of course, a sick fish. Finrot
and Fungus are two classic responses to tropical fish being kept too
cold, as are Whitespot infections.>
I did a 75% water change and cleaned the filter. I let him float in the
new water for 20 minutes and then let him back in it. I then noticed he
has some "gunk" on his left fin. I don't want to go out and buy a lot of
chemicals if it isn't very serious and that could harm him even more.
<Indeed, that's a concern, but at the same time, medicines shouldn't be
seen as an expense that can be avoided. In this situation though
increasing water temperature and ensuring good water quality (as always,
zero ammonia and zero nitrite) should do the trick, and if the fin
damage/infection doesn't get worse, it should heal up in time. Using a
reliable Finrot medication (Melafix wouldn't be my first choice here,
despite its low cost and wide sale, but a proper antibiotic instead) is
definitely worthwhile though. As ever, remove carbon from the filter
during use otherwise the medicine probably won't work.>
I've had him for a year. I'm wondering if this is normal for older Betta
fish or of it could be something serious.
<In an aquarium a Betta should live 2-3 years after purchase without too
much trouble if given decent care. If the aquarium heater was turned
down low, it may well be that over summer his water temperature was
adequate, if not ideal, but now it's colder, he's really feeling the
chill. Review, and act accordingly.>
I have a picture of it. I also noticed some black spots on his fin that
i never noticed before. Are they normal or should i be concerned.
<Any dramatic changes in a fish are cause for concern, especially when
linked to obviously bad environmental stress (such as lack of heat). Let
me also direct you to Bob Fenner's book on keeping Bettas, here:
For under $10 (or $6 on Kindle!) you get pretty much everything you need
to know about Bettas in one place. Since Bettas are so widely kept, we
know everything that's needed to keep them healthy. Heat, filtration, a
decent sized aquarium (I'd argue at least 4-5 gallons, anything less
being pretty pointless) and an appropriate diet. Read, understand, learn
Re: Strange gunk on Betta
Thanks Neal. I got him a heater and he does seem happier. i plan on changing
up his diet to more then pellets for a more happier Betta
<Most welcome and glad he's a better Betta (which is alliterative in British
English!). Cheers, Neale.>
What is this?!? Pac. coast Chiton
Hi folks -
We found this creature on the sand on the coast at Arch Rock in Point
Reyes National Seashore, California. As you can see, it has some size to
The speckles are dark sand grains. The flesh is light yellowish orange.
Is this a Chiton of some sort? The shiny plates are "boney"; the rest is
slightly soft to the touch and flesh-like. Is it intact?
<Mmm; yes this appears to be a Gumboot or Giant Western Chiton,
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>
Can a 50 gallon FOWLR survive hyposalinity to ensure a complete
eradication of Cryptocaryon when the tank is already lacking a host
<Yes... but not most invertebrates>
Or is it better to (a) remove the rock along with snails and crabs into
a separate container while the main tank is in Hyposalinity
or (b) just leave live rock in the tank with normal salinity during a
fallow period? I am just theorizing that lack of host fish and low
salinity will ensure complete eradication. Thanks in advance!
<All this and much more is gone over and over, archived on WWM. Use the
indices, search tool to look up re Crypt.
Moray eel compatibility
Hey WWM crew! Have messaged a fair bit in the past and you guys have
always been helpful! Just wondering if you could help again on a few
quick questions :)
Tank details;. 5ft bowfront Juwel vision tank - 120 gal (450
Current stocking list;. Blue throat triggerfish x1. Saddleback
butterflyfish x1. Galaxy clarkii clownfish x2 . Skeletor moray eel x1
(Just recently acquired)
The Skeletor moray seemed quite active after putting him into the tank,
so was wondering if this is normal?
<Is common behavior... looking for a way out>
Has been swimming around the tank and in between rocks but haven't had
this with previous morays I have kept before so thought I had better ask
Now the next question would be about future stocking, as am
looking to get these few fish below;. Regal angelfish (yellow bellied
variant). Flame angelfish . Red tail tamarin wrasse. Blue ribbon moray
Would this be too much to add?
<Yes; particularly the last. Rhinomuraena don't do well in
captivity period; would highly likely perish here. Tamarin wrasses are
not easy... neither most Regals>
are there any from the list above that you would add first?
Am worried about the 2 morays though so thought I would ask, so do you
think they could mix?
if so how would you do it?
Thanks and best wishes!
<And you. I'd keep dreaming, reading at this point... look for other
livestock, perhaps another system.
Re: Genetics? 11/25/14
Well, I keep my water hard and alkaline; I have 7 tanks with Mollies out the
wazoo...it's just in this tank, with this particular pair and progeny.
<That is curious. Some Molly lines/strains seem to be more picky than others.
Recall some Molly species are more brackish water fish, whereas others are more
freshwater fish, and since you can't tell by looking which ones gave the most
genes to your specimens, it's a gamble whether yours will need salty conditions
to thrive or not. A while back I wrote a piece on Mollies for Practical
Fishkeeping Magazine that I think reveals a bit more about these very
complicated fish, now uploaded to their website, here:
The bottom line is that the genetics of Mollies is complicated, and it's hard to
say precisely what conditions the fish in front of you will need. Brackish is
always better, but it isn't always practical, and therein lies the challenge.>
I don't have exact numbers now but can fill you in later.
<Excellent... that will help a lot.>
I keep a Betta in all my tanks, but if this is detrimental to them, I will
<Does depend a lot on the Betta. Farmed Bettas are pretty tough, and while soft
water is better, they can do well in hard water if all else is excellent. If
yours are happy, then leave them be.>
Unfortunately I lost 3 female Bettas to a death trap ornament, so there's
another thing everyone should keep in mind.
<Indeed. Bettas aren't as easy to keep as many people think. Keeping them for
long and healthy lives takes a bit of doing.>
Thanks, Neale, for your reply.
<Most welcome. Neale.>
Live Rock/Sand 11/25/14
Hey Bob, question for you... I have a 150 gallon tank with 150lbs of LR
in the display and about 30lbs in the sump. Parameters are Ammonia 0,
Nitra <i> tes 0, pH 8.2, and salinity 1.023 and nitrates are at
<Mmm; too high. See WWM re how to keep this under 20 ppm>
Inhabitants consist of a Black Dogface puffer (6-7 inches), Teardrop
Butterfly (3 inches), Long Nosed Hawk, Comet, and a Flagtail Blanquillo.
I can't seem to get my nitrates under control. I feed mysis once a day,
and a variety of meaty fare for the puffer every other day.
I've had the same LR and live sand for 4 years.
<This is part of the issue. Some LR needs to be added, switched out
every year or so... more soluble areas, biodiversity lost over time>
Once a week I change 25% of the water, and before doing that I
shake out all rocks and move sand around vigorously then change the
filter socks/skimmer about an hour later.
<Good... but I'd be rinsing the socks out... likely daily>
My question is do you think the Rock and sand are saturated and possibly
<More of the former>
If so, do I need to change out the rock, and sand?
<At least some; yes. Do you "do" macroalgae culture in your sump? I
would... on a RDP light pattern... and have as large a fine DSB there as
Thanks so much,
<Welcome! Bob Fenner>
Re: Live Rock/Sand 11/25/14
I was hoping you'd say that :) Now I have something to go on.
I have lots of "dead rock" that is fully cured that I will slowly start
changing out with existing rock. How about the sand? Should I be
siphoning some out now and then and replacing with new?
<Is a good way to do it>
Rinsing the socks daily is a good idea.
<Best to have two, three sets... be bleaching/rinsing, drying the others
I've been changing them every other day so they don't just sit in the
water. I have 10 that I use and wash once week. I do have a ball of
growing Chaeto above about an inch and a half of "Miracle Mud" on a
reverse light cycle. I don't know how good that mud is but my LFS told
me it was great for nitrates but takes time to work. He's also had great
success with it treating Lateral line disease. Go figure?
<Oh yes; am a believer...>
I'll get back to you in a few months when all rock is changed out.
Thanks so much and have a great holiday!
<And you and yours. BobF>
Kickstarter... Nualgi 11/25/14
I wanted to share our story that could have ground breaking impact on
our water and food resources.
Nualgi is the first nano-technology based product that promises to
address nutrient overload in our waters.
Nutrients from intensive agriculture and animal husbandry as well as our
back yards are washing into our drinking water reservoirs,
causing harmful algae blooms in our waters.
To get to Nualgi adoption, we are trying to fund University level
research so it can be certified as safe for our drinking
water and aquaculture applications. Here is the link:
A press release is also attached.
I would appreciate very much if you can take a few minutes to review the
video and share it with your associates.
100E San Marcos Blvd, Ste 400, San Marcos, CA 92069
<Will share on WetWebMedia.com. Bob Fenner>
Betta died and I want to know how to make tanks safe for
another Betta 11/25/14
I set up a planted 2.5 gallon tank about five weeks ago. The tank has a
filter, I used Fluval Stratum Volcanic soil as the substrate in the
tank. I cycled the tank for two weeks with only the plants (Brazilian
micro sword and Bacopa) and driftwood before introducing one snail and
one female Betta. Three weeks later ( this Friday) I noticed the Betta's
colour was dull and grey and she wasn't eating. My pH and kH were both
very low but all the other levels were perfect.
<pH and KH (carbonate hardness) are of course related. Low KH tends to
mean the water has minimal ability to buffer against pH changes,
specifically, drops. Day/night cycles occur where high levels of
photosynthesis take place, so the pH can end up moving from a very high
number during the day (as CO2 is removed from the water by the plants)
and back down again at night (as plants no longer remove CO2). This is
because CO2 dissolves in water to form carbonic acid, so the more CO2,
as at night, the lower the pH (the greater the acidity). General
hardness has little impact on pH buffering. In acidic aquaria it's
recommended to use a commercial Discus Buffer (typically, a phosphoric
acid mixture) to inhibit these pH changes while keeping the pH in the
acidic range, typically 6 or 6.5 depending on the situation.>
The tank had dropped to 72 degrees so I thought she was cold and
purchased a heater on Saturday which brought the temperature up to 82
<You didn't have a heater prior to this? Bettas are tropical fish, and
unless your ambient room temperature is 25-28 C/77-82 F, you must use a
heater. Ignore any retailer who tells you they don't need heaters --
unless of course he's a tropical fish seller in Bangkok and your Betta
is going to live in a garden pond there!>
She just hovered by the heater.
<Saying, "So... cold... need... warmth...">
I noticed a long, white, flat poop hanging from her.
<If transparent or off-white, commonly implies digestive tract
infections or something similar that causes a lot of mucous to be
expelled, hence the whitish thread. Constipation can do the same thing,
but the faeces are normal faeces colour, in this case, some shade of
black or brown depending on what they've eaten (though colour-enhancing
foods often turn the faeces red).>
I went to my local fish store on Sunday and they said it was internal
<Which covers a very big range of possibilities, many of which have very
They sold me a medication called Betta revive.
<Nothing more than Naphthoquinones in water according to the
manufacturer. Might help prevent Finrot or fungus in a few situations,
but this/these medication/s aren't particularly effective. As always
with medications, be sensible about cheap products that promise to cure
everything without you needing to do a diagnosis. "If it sounds good to
be true..." as my dad used to remind me!>
I treated her water Sunday (it turned it dark blue but by morning the
colour had disappeared). This morning (Monday) when I went to check on
her she was dead.
I would like to get a new Betta but I want to make sure the tank is safe
and won't contaminate the new fish.
<Almost certainly an environmental issue, so just do a water change,
clean the gravel if needs be, but otherwise don't focus on "hidden
germs" as these aren't the issue. Would remind you the tank is a bit
small (5 gallons is, for me, the minimum size for "easy" Betta keeping),
you must have a filter, and you must have a heater. Water quality must
be good, and without a fish, the bacteria will die back, so each day
until the new fish arrives, add a little fish flake (about as much as
you gave the Betta in one meal) and leave this to rot and so release the
bacteria the ammonia they need. No need to add food the next day if the
food is still solid and visible. You
can alternatively add ammonia, but that's a bit more of a hassle.>
The LFS said to continue to treat the water as per the instructions on
the package, use the gravel vacuum to clean the gravel and do a few
Wait two weeks and then the tank will be parasite free and safe.
<Possibly, but I doubt that was the issue here. Stress (lack of heat,
perhaps pH variation) allowed the bacteria or Protozoans in the gut to
multiply wildly, causing sickness. You can't eliminate these germs in
Bettas any more than you can in humans, and as with humans, a healthy
Betta has an immune system that keeps them in check.>
I just want to get a second opinion before I introduce a new Betta.
<Can I direct you to the best $5.94 you'll spend today, here:
Or if you don't have a Kindle/eBook reader, here:
Bettas thrive on research. Seriously, $5-10 spend on reading will save
you many times that on healthcare costs.>
Thanks in advance!
<Most welcome, Neale.>
Transferring FW "bottle ecosystem" school project to new
Hi WWM crew. I'm looking for some advice on how to handle a "bottle
ecosystem" project my fifth grader just brought home from school. The
converted 2 liter bottle contains 2 feeder guppies, three snails, some
elodea, gravel substrate and a good bit of cloudiness from algae. The
system has apparently been set up for about three weeks, I don't think
with any water changes as in theory it's a closed system.
<Indeed. This is one of those examples of a school trying to get a point
across (ecosystems cycle nutrients) without getting it right (you'd need
massive amounts of plant growth under intense lighting to offset the
waste produced by the fish, and even then, nutrients are also exported
from ecosystems, which can't happen here). As a reef keeper, you'll be
aware of this and how it's managed in saltwater tanks, even with the
magic of live rock at your disposal. In freshwater ecosystems, nutrients
are exported in all sorts of ways, from amphibious animals (such as
ducks and frogs) consuming aquatic organisms but pooping on land, and
probably most significantly by the transient nature of freshwater
habitats as they gradually silt up and move across a floodplain or
whatever, leaving fertile mud behind. In any event, you simply can't
keep Guppies (for long) in just two litres of water. On the other hand,
you could keep a few Daphnia for example, and such a system might be
stable for many months before it collapses.>
My son wants to keep the fish (and snails I assume), and to my mind, the
existing system of less than 2 liters is doomed in the not-too-distant
<Spot on. As an experiment, the teacher and kids have created something
here that *looks* like a miniature pond or lake. So as a learning
exercise the point is got across. Sunlight stimulates plant growth,
animals eat the plants, animal waste is recycled by the remaining plants
to create more plants. But in reality without heat the Guppies will die;
without water changes the dissolved nutrients (nitrate, phosphate) will
accumulate to toxic levels; and without space, the fish will eventually
grow too big/consume the available oxygen and die. For Guppies, you want
a heated, filtered aquarium upwards of 15 gallons/60 litres (you can
keep Guppies in 10 gallons/40 litres, but it's hit-and-miss, especially
if the males become aggressive). Don't forget male Guppies pester
females, so if you're keeping just two, two females is the easiest
option (two males often end up with one bullying the other).>
My plan is to buy a small aquarium with conventional filtration (gravel
bed, biobag filter), jump start its cycle using some of the substrate
from the bottle system and a commercial product like Dr Tim's One and
Only or FritzZyme, then transfer the critters to the new system after
normal drip acclimation.
Am I on the right track here, or is the "ecosystem" a better bet on its
own? Any advice appreciated.
<Your track is indeed the right one. The "ecosystem" has many/most of
the microbes needed, and as a way of "seeding" a new tank, it'll do
nicely. Upscaling the aquarium to, say, 15 gallons will give you plenty
of space for any moderate peaks in ammonia and nitrite to be diluted
down to safe levels, especially alongside regular water changes.>
Thanks in advance,
<Most welcome. Neale.>
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands,
Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
- Set-Up 2: Filtration of All
Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps,
Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
- About Livestock: Regional Accounts:,
Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths,
Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
- Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae,
Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges:
Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ
Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms,
Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
- Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes,
Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers,
Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine
Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving,
Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals,
Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control,
- Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms,
Treatments & Pests:
Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention,
Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health,
Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... &
- Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:,
References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography,
Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public
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