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Centropyge tibicen (Cuvier 1831), the Keyhole Pygmy Angel (2). Some folks have had better success with this species than I and my associates. Start with a mid-sized specimen, 3-4". Indo-west Pacific. One down in Wakatobi, S. Sulawesi, Indo.
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner

The hole      8/24/19
Here is a beer picture of the how it's getting bigger
<Yes, this female guppy is giving birth... parturition. BobF>

Happy birthday, WWM Cal.       8/24/19
Happy birthday Bob. Here is a September calendar for the WWM website. Cheers!
Mike Kaechele
<Thank you Mike. BobF>

Help with a new Potter’s Angel      8/24/19
Hello WWM Crew,
<Hey Gil!>
Hope you all are well!
I am contacting you today with regard to a new Potter’s Angel. I purchased it from Live Aquaria Diver’s Den, and he will be going in a 90 gallon Hawaiian endemic SPS tank.
After doing some research on this site and elsewhere, I’m wondering if my normal quarantine procedures need to change for this fish.
<Let's see>
I typically only treat with Praziquantel, and observe the fish carefully for ich for another two weeks after completing the Prazi treatment. This is done in a 2’x1’x15” tank, with a seeded sponge filter from my sump, and the smallest piece of live rock I can safely remove from the DT. If I dose anything other than Praziquantel, I know these are both gone forever but the live rock makes too big of a difference in the fish’s health for me to ignore. There’s also a couple pvc elbows for hiding in.
I know this is not enough space for my new angel (2.75”) and Potter’s are prone to sudden stress related deaths. He appears healthy after 24 hours of observation, other than attacking his reflection most of the day. Do you think it would be wise to truncate the QT procedure and move him straight to display in this particular case?
<I do count this Centropyge as one of the species that is generally better to "expedite" through quarantine. UNLESS there is/are compelling reason/s otherwise (apparent damage, disease), the majority of times it is better to use a simple pH adjusted freshwater bath to reduce the possibility of external pathogens and place new Potter's directly to the display/main tank.>
<Some background re here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/dips_baths.htm
and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>
Re: Help with a new Potter’s Angel     8/25/19

Hi Bob,
Thanks for the quick response!
I heeded your advice and the Potter’s is now in my DT.
Unfortunately, now I have a second issue- my Kole tang is rather furious about his introduction. Seriously, I haven’t seen aggression like this since keeping Mbuna Cichlids years ago. I’ve added tons of fish since having the tang and there was never an issue- frustrating it targeted such a sensitive fish!
<Happens... do occur in same areas, are competitors for space, algae... >
I’ve already tried rearranging aquascape to no avail. Any other tips?
<Catch the Kole (two nets, maybe two people) and place it in a floating plastic colander (yeah, a pasta et al. strainer) for a day... with the lights out. Likely will allow the Potter's time to become established, take some of the vinegar out of the Ctenochaetus. BobF> 

Better, difficult water parameters /Neale      8/23/19
I have a male betta in 5 gallons, filtered, WC every other day. My tap water has a pH of 8.5 and KH of 4. GH is 8-9.
<As you probably realise, pH is a bit high for this species. But that would seem to be a result of your water chemistry, though your carbonate hardness doesn't seem especially high.>
I can drop the pH by mixing with water from another tank that has organics, or mix with RO (current strategy) as aerating overnight does nothing to drop the pH.
<Indeed not. If there's a source of alkalinity in the aquarium, such as seashells or lime-containing gravel, or the water itself has some buffering capacity, any direct pH changes will be temporary.>
Regardless of the method, when the pH drops to 7.8 or 8, the KH has dropped to 2.5.
<Correct. Do you remember at school the old "acid plus alkali equals salt plus water" idea? This is more or less applicable here. When you add acid to a hard water aquarium, that acid is neutralised by the alkalinity in the water. Normally, this alkalinity is, in part or in whole, the carbonate hardness. So the acid reacts with the carbonate, and both are combined to form a soluble salt of some kind. The acid has therefore lowered the carbonate hardness. The carbonate hardness will continue to react with acid so long as acid is present, which is why carbonate hardness is a good indicator of buffering capacity -- it inhibits pH changes.>
I’ve tried the SeaChem products to buffer by bracketing and if the KH is at 4 or 5, the pH is once again at least 8.5.
<The basic rule is don't EVER try and change pH directly. It's pointless. At best it's a hit-and-miss approach; at worst you just fill your tank up with competing chemicals that produce unstable water chemistry that stresses your fish.>
Can my Bettas live comfortably in an 7.8-8 range pH with a KH of 2.5. ?
<It is not ideal, but tolerable if all else is positive.>
Is the pH or the KH the bigger problem?
<A-ha! You're on the right track now. When you decide to change water chemistry, you adjust hardness, whether KH, GH, or both. If you want soft, acidic conditions, your aim is to lower the hardness, because it's hardness (not pH) that matters to fish. If you have hard water, the question you ask yourself is where do you get demineralised water from? RO water or rainwater are the two standard options -- not domestic water softeners though! If you have "liquid rock" hard water with a high pH, a 50/50 mix with RO or rainwater will produce something that'll be fine for most community fish, including Bettas. The pH, while interesting, will be unimportant, so long as it's stable.>
These tanks are not cycled, I just do water changes every day with a drop of Prime. I have sponge filters cycling in a bucket, but not finished yet.
Thank you so much,
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

Mbu puffer tank      8/23/19
For the last 2 months I have been cycling a 2000 litre aquarium for a mbu puffer (7ft x 4ft).
<A good starting point, but be aware of how big these fish can become. Some would argue even 2000 litres is less than ideal.>
I am finally collecting the mbu next week and just tested my water :
Ammonia <0.05
Nitrite 0.025
<These two really need to be zero.>
Nitrate 5
I know sometimes the test kits aren’t exact but I’m worried about the nitrite of .025 but should that be fine?
<Hard to say without knowing the brand of test kit or even how good you are judging the colours. Dip strip test kits for example are generally regarded as imprecise, and while this margin of error would be adequate for bog standard community fish, it might be risky with sensitive species such as a Mbu Puffer. I would be tempted to try the nitrite kit at least against one or more alternative test kits. Your local retailer may well offer this service, especially if they deal with expensive fish such as marines. I'd also check your values against your tap water. For example if you have neutralised (via water conditioner) any chloramine in the tap water, a test kit can register that as ammonia, even though it is harmless.>
I do 30% water change 3 times a week
<Sounds good. If the Mbu Puffer is relatively small now, say, 10 cm long, and kept in a 2000 litre tank with regular water changes, any slight backlog in ammonia and nitrite processing by your biological filter should fix itself over the next couple of weeks. "Fish-less" cycling methods are a bit unreliable, so while the filter may be more or less mature, it might be a week or two before it really beds down properly. Given the size of the tank, and the frequency of water changes, you should be fine with a small fish, much as you can finish off the cycling process of a community tank with a few Danios and not expect any major problems. Still, keep an open mind, and regularly test the water for at least the first month, and thereafter, at least weekly until you're 100% sure everything is working as it should.>
<Most welcome. Neale.>
Re: Mbu puffer tank      8/23/19

Thanks Neale,
<Most welcome.>
It is the JBL full master test kit.
<Should be decent.>
The ammonia of <0.05 is the lowest that is on the results pad.
<So can you assume it's zero?>
The nitrite is the second lowest, but it is very hard to tell the difference in colours.
<Indeed. I'd still compare and contrast with a second kit, even if just the once at your retailer.>
The tank itself has a large in built filter (it runs the whole way down the side of the tank, so 4 ft by 2ft by about 10 inches of bio media). It was not fishless cycling, it has had 3 baby giant gourami (about 3 inches) since week 2, though they are now about 5-6 inches. I plan to rehome them into my 1000 litre tank.
<Understood. Filter really should be mature then. Only things you might check are whether water current sufficient (remember, you want a filter turnover rate of something like 8 times the volume of the tank per hour) and whether the selection of media chosen are appropriate (i.e., more biological media, less chemical, especially carbon, which would probably be pointless here).>
The initial plan was to keep the gourami in the big tank until I found a mbu of a decent size, I didn't want to put a small mbu in as I hear they can be very unstable until a decent size.
<Possibly, but I think this is more to do with people tending to try and keeping juveniles in very small tanks, and keeping them in such small tanks for far too long, postponing the necessary upgrade. So net result is a juvenile in increasingly poor environmental conditions. In and of themselves, Puffers aren't delicate fish by any means, and it's notable that in marine fishkeeping, they're often regarded as among the toughest fish around. I certainly had far more trouble with Neon Tetras than any pufferfish species!>
I know it is hard to find MBU's of a decent size so wanted to make sure the tank was up and running, just happens that the opportunity to buy this one has come up.
<Correct. But even so, I'd tend to recommend the 40 cm Tetraodon species, such as Tetraodon lineatus, for people who want bigger puffers simply because their size demands are so much less. There are also some lovely marine species of similar size, like Arothron hispidus, that are lively, easy to keep, and quite peaceful. But if you're dead-set on Tetraodon mbu, you seem to be going around it in the right way, and have realistic expectations of what's needed. I'll direct you to an old article on this website from an experienced Tetraodon mbu owner, here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/mbupuffer.htm
While lovely fish, they aren't for the faint-hearted (or the financially challenged).>
The mbu is about 9-10 inches.
<And should get to well over twice that, aquarium specimens tending to level off around the 50-60 cm mark. Much bigger specimens have been reported in the wild, but I've never seen aquarium specimens bigger than 60 cm.>
Please can you advice whether you think it should be ok or best to avoid?
<See above. They are interesting pets, and if you have the space, time and money to set them up with the right tank from the get-go, they aren't difficult to keep. Your biggest challenge is keeping nitrate relatively low, especially if your tap water has high nitrate levels to start with.
Ideally, nitrate should be less than 20 mg/l, but certainly below 40 mg/l.
Other than running out of space, owners often run into the problem of over-long teeth. In the UK there's some debate about the legality of performing "tooth cutting" procedures on pufferfish. But certainly make yourself aware of how to try to keep your Puffer's teeth worn down as best you can, and if you can't find a vet capable of cutting the teeth, find out how to do it yourself. Obviously as the fish becomes so much larger than the average pufferfish, sedating and handling the fish becomes that much more complicated. I've used cuticle clippers on small pufferfish species, and clove oil to sedate them, but for the bigger species, power tools may be needed:
This sort of procedure is probably well outside what the British veterinary community would consider acceptable for untrained people, given the distress it will cause the fish. So realistically, while I'm happy to recommend cuticle clippers for the literally 10-second job of nipping off the ends of South American Pufferfish teeth, adult Tetraodon mbu will probably need a trip to the vet at some point if their teeth aren't kept worn down naturally.>
<Most welcome. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Worm ID      8/23/19
Hi there!
<Hey Orlando>
Thank you for your quick response!
I finally received the microscope I ordered, but I am not too knowledgeable on how it functions quite yet. I managed to get some pictures and video but getting things in focus is proving difficult.
The other thing I noticed recently is that there are clumps of worms right at the very top of the waterline of my containers, which I imagine is due to oxygen levels (half the mass of worms sits outside the waterline).
I hope these pictures help you ID them. Since they are in my daphnia cultures, I imagine they are fine to feed to my fish?
<Very likely fine to feed. Do appear segmented... and by the motion, are Oligochaetes... the general (family) term Tubificids is still my guess>
Thank you so much for your help!
<Thank you for this follow-up. Bob Fenner>

Semilavartus with abdominal distention      8/23/19
Sorry to bug you but any recommendations for this semilavartus? Severely distended abdomen gradually worsening over 6 weeks. Still feeding/ behaving normally. Prognosis is grim from what I’ve read. Had the pair 18 mo.s and have done amazing until now. DT is 800 gal. Thanks!
<Mmm; is this a tumor of some sort/etiology? An ovarian et al. cyst? Some kind of gut blockage? I might try adding a modicum of Epsom Salt (yes, to the main/display tank)... see Neale Monk's article on WWM re MgSO4... Possible a vermifuge (like Praziquantel) (and Metronidazole?) added to the food (see WWM re)... or more extreme tries possibly that would involve moving this fish (aye yi yi re catching it here) to a treatment tank. Bob Fenner>

Question about African Clawed Frog      8/23/19
Hi, I was wondering about my Albino African Clawed Frog. It is turning black like it has dirt on it, but we just cleaned the tank that it is in.
<Hard to say without a photo. Couple of obvious things to ask. First, did you use a water conditioner? If not, ammonia or chlorine could be irritating the skin and/or causing damage. Secondly, was there a lot of
silt in the water? This can stick the mucous on the frog, but will wash away in time. Will direct you to some reading for now:
While popular critters and quite hardy, Xenopus are not without a few basic needs. These include relatively cool water (20 C/68 F) and adequate space (60 litres/15 US gallons). They rarely cohabit well with fish or other animals, and while a filter of some sort is essential, very turbulent water flow rates will stress them. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: quoyi parrotfish      8/22/19
Anytime, thanks to you Bob.
<Cheers my friend, BobF>

Better, difficult water parameters (Betta splendens)      8/22/19
I have a male betta in 5 gallons, filtered, WC every other day.
<Mmm; I'd do water changes just once a week>
My tap water has a PH of 8.5 and KH of 4. GH is 8-9.
<Got you>
I can drop the PH by mixing with water from another tank that has organics, or mix with RO (current strategy) as aerating overnight does nothing to drop the ph.
<Ah no; boiling might, but... I would not do this>
Regardless of the method, when the PH drops to 7.8 or 8, the KH has dropped to 2.5. I’ve tried the SeaChem products to buffer by bracketing and if the KH is at 4 or 5, the Ph is once again at least 8.5.
Can my Betts live comfortably in an 7.8-8 range PH with a KH of 2.5. ?
Is the PH or the KH the bigger problem?
<A bit of both at extremes... put more clearly (hopefully), you have to have/want "some" KH (or GH), and a pH that is neither too high, nor low... The values you mention are fine for "modern" Betta splendens (cultured; let's say versus some species that might be closer generations-wise to wild-collected)>
These tanks are not cycled, I just do water changes every day with a drop of Prime. I have sponge filters cycling in a bucket, but not finished yet.
<Ahh; I would cycle them, move the media when it is ready, go to the weekly partial (half) water changes. All will be well otherwise (given the water quality parameters mentioned here)>
Thank you so much,
Amy Larson
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Help identifying?      8/22/19
Hi Bob,
I got a camera attachment that fits on the microscope and was able to get the pictures attached. (the attachment was inexpensive and it worked reasonably well) I think your guess that my mysterious critter was a glass sponge might be correct. Those sure look like spicules.
The real question
- how did they get into my tank?
<Mmm; most anything wet, salty enough... Foods, any livestock introduced>
Should I be concerned - will they be a nuisance or just let them do their thing?
<For me, the latter>
Thanks again.
<Thank you for your follow up. BobF>

Re: Sexes guppies      8/22/19
Thank you
<Welcome Kosha/Tracy. BobF>

quoyi parrotfish, sel./stkg.       8/21/19
hey guys just seeing what info you may have on quoyi and how reef safe they are what's the risks
<Hey Tom, In my opinion, Green Blotch Parrotfish is not so suitable to keep in captivity, often dying "mysteriously" after a few months despite having been eating well. If you must try one, start with a healthy specimen and provide it with a large tank, 150 gallons or more; do bear in mind it will grow to up 15" in length and will produce lots of waste, being this one of the reasons why I wouldn't recommend it to keep in a reef system, other than that, I consider it to be reef safe as its diet, unlike other types of
Parrotfishes (which are coral eaters), is based primarily on algae. I hope this helps. Wil.>
Re: quoyi parrotfish       8/21/19

yes it does i am looking at them for a few of my clients that have 400-500 gal systems as were looking for something a little different how are they with starfish and shrimp?
<Nice size system for the Scaridae. It won't bother the starfish or shrimp.
Cheers. Wil.>
<<Well-done Wil.
Thank you for your sharing. B>>    

Re: My snails seem to be filtering the top of the water       8/20/19
Thank you for your email, i will make sure to do that.
<Ah, and please make it known how your actions unfold. Cheers, BobF>

Please help - sick puffer /Neale        8/20/19
Dear crew,
Could you please give me some advise on my sick puffer. It is a 3 inch Tetraodon nigroviridis.
It started after he ate some snails from another tank. He (or she) was pinching its tail and started to change colour. See pics I have 3 of them and the other two have no problems and are bright coloured.
This is about a week. I first put him in a small tank and treated him with ESHA2000.
<I'm surprised; my puffers have usually done quite well with this product.>
He didn't take that very well; started to float on its back so I took him out immediately.
<Fair enough.>
After a week (yesterday) I treated him with 'SERA BAKTOPUR DIRECT'
<Another antibacterial medication; reasonably good, if less good than an antibiotic.>
for 30 minutes and directly after that with 'EASY LIFE VOOGLE'
<Not familiar with this.>
Sometimes he's real 'lively' and swims around but often he's just apathetic lying on the bottom of the tank.
The water is good, other fish don't have any problems. Salinity is about 1.005
What should I do?
<One thing is to try increasing the salinity and see if that perks him up.
With any brackish water fish, this is a good first step. It replicates what they experience in the wild, and some simply seem to enjoy it. Another thing is to try increasing aeration. Sometimes extra oxygen helps, and this
in turn suggests the aquarium is perhaps less good than we thought. Many brackish water species prefer high oxygen levels that replicate the tidal or littoral habitats they prefer. Finally, and again a good step with
brackish water fish, is to review water chemistry. Most prefer high alkalinity and a pH well above 7; aiming for 15-20 degrees dH, 10+ degrees KH, and pH 7.5 to 8.2 is ideal.>
Kind regards from The Netherlands
<I will observe that GSPs are not really social, and while some specimens cohabit in pairs or trios, not all will do so. Look out for behaviour that might suggest bullying or at least antagonism. Your fish looks essentially healthy, and I would not be randomly medicating unless you have clear symptoms of a disease. Lethargy and dark colours on GSPs can mean nothing more than social or environmental stress. Review, and act accordingly.
Cheers, Neale.>
Re: please help - sick puffer       8/20/19

Dear Neale, Bob,
I thank you for your answers. They are very helpful to me.
<Most welcome.>
I'll stop any medication and start increasing aeration and the salinity. I will also check the water parameters.
<Very good!>
Thanks again and have a nice day!
<You too.>
Kind regards,
<Cheers, Neale.>

Raising salinity       8/20/19
Hi crew!
<Hi Nicole!>
Hopefully an easy question for you.
I will save you the boring back story but how quickly can you raise the salinity for fish that have been in hyposalinity (1.010) for only a few hours?
I know if they have been in hypo for weeks it should be done gradually over
7-10 days but does the same apply if it's only been 6-8 hours?
<Is this the main tank or a quarantine?... How long did it take you to lower the salinity to 1010?... I'd raise it back over the course of a few hours, the drip method will work. Cheers. Wil.>
Re: Raising salinity       8/20/19

It a hospital tank. I panicked and put a fish in it thinking she had Brooklynella because she was breathing at the surface and swimming/acting funny but throughout the day determined she does not (I now believe I had a water quality issue which I am working to correct) and now she looks fine so I want to put her back in the display but wasn't sure how quickly I should raise her salinity back up.
<Ah yes, water quality issues often lead to symptoms frequently confused with diseases. Wil.>

Algae stages, SW      8/19/19
Hello Crew!
<Hey Danilo>
First of all I want to thank all of you, taking the time to answer questions—albeit probably some are very redundant I imagine LOL. Truly you all have patience!
<We do try>
I have a 28 gallon JBJ and sometimes I see what appears to be a little bubble algae or a tubes of green bubble algae but it transforms into hair algae when it matures.
Am I imagining things, or is this how some green algae develop and that seemingly bubble algae is in fact just hair algae in an early stage?
<I do think what you're experiencing is "succession", the one type/species (of green bubble algae) being overgrown by a different, filamentous species. Does happen. Aquatic environments can be very vivacious>
I appreciate your insight!
<Do see/read on WWM re all types of algal control if interested. Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Please help - sick puffer     8/19/19
Dear crew,
Could you please give me some advise on my sick puffer. It is a 3 inch Tetraodon nigroviridis.
<I will, but am referring you to Neale Monks here as he is far more knowledgeable re these Tetraodonts>
It started after he ate some snails from another tank. He (or she) was pinching its tail and started to change colour. See pics
<I do>
I have 3 of them and the other two have no problems and are bright coloured.
<I see this as well>
This is about a week. I first put him in a small tank and treated him with ESHA2000. He didn't take that very well; started to float on its back so I took him out immediately.
After a week (yesterday) I treated him with 'SERA BAKTOPUR DIRECT' for 30 minutes and directly after that with 'EASY LIFE VOOGLE'
Sometimes he's real 'lively 'and swims around but often he's just apathetic lying on the bottom of the tank.
The water is good, other fish don't have any problems. Salinity is about 1.005
What should I do?
<Mmm; were it me, mine, I'd cease treatment/s... this fish may have a bit of "stomach ache" from snail shells... and there might be some value in adding a bit of Epsom Salt, but I'd just wait at this point. The fish doesn't look skinny, diseased nor picked on, and will likely be fine in days>
Kind regards from The Netherlands
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>

My snails seem to be filtering the top of the water     8/19/19
Hi, a few days ago i noticed my apple snails taking their foot and what  could only be described as siphoning the top of the water while doing an eating motion whilst at the top of the water level. Mind you the tank is a 10 gallon tank that i have sitting out on my porch. So algae levels are great because of sun. I check the temp of the water every day to make sure its not too hot. Could it just be they are eating the algae film at the top of the water?
<Possibly, but there are other possibilities (see below)>
If you guys could help out by answering my question that would be great.
<This behavior is troublesome in that it may be resultant from a lack of oxygen... OR elevated pH due to the overgrowth of the algae you mention. I would execute a series of large/r water changes (25-30% per day) for a few days, removing a good deal of the algae, gravel vacuuming... and shading the tank to reduce further algal proliferation. Bob Fenner>

Re: Coral And Marbled Catsharks... Books?        8/17/19
Hey have you ever experienced/heard of tangs nipping sharks?
<Yes I have, some tang species are more likely to nip at sharks eyes and fins than others, please see the following link and related: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/sharkcompfaqs.htm Cheers. Wil.>

Quarantine for new clams       8/17/19
Hey guys,
<Hey Jeremiah>
Thanks a ton for this site, it has helped me massively over the months I've been involved with this hobby.
<Thanks for your words, we are glad to be helpful.>
I currently have a Maxima clam and am getting two more tomorrow. I successfully kept the current Maxima for about two years and it has doubled in size and done very well.
I am planning on quarantining the two I get tomorrow in a ten gallon tank with a sponge filter and heater. I plan on the duration of the QT to be 4 weeks as the two I am getting are quite expensive and the one which I currently possess is the prize of my tank. I plan on situating each of the clams I am getting in their own piece of live rock (currently dry) on the bare bottom of the tank. The pieces of rock I have picked out should be pretty good long term homes for these guys. I will use a spare led light which is currently in my refugium to provide them light. It worked great up top until the blue lights burned out and then didn't look as good, but the white and other colors are what I need for the photosynthetics anyway. One of the new clams is about six or seven inches and the other is about two. I plan on filling the ten gallon tank, drip wise, with water from my main tank as a drip acclimation method.
<Good technique>
So here is where I'm not sure about the next step. How much ammonia do clams produce and how often should I change the water?
<They produce enough to quickly pollute small water volumes, especially when recently imported.>
I know they consume Nitrates and that leads me to think that maybe they shouldn't have water changes in the QT the same way a fish would. Is this true?
<Not completely true, Tridacna clams do consume nitrates but not harmful ammonia and nitrites. And like any other living marine organism, they produce them...not as much as fish, but they do, so you still have to do water changes during quarantine.>
Assuming I do change the water, my plan was to drain off the water to an inch above the largest clam and then drip water from my main tank into the QT to make up the new water. I was planning on doing this once a week, but obviously if I don't have to change the water I would rather not. I haven't found an answer to this question in your archives anywhere.
<I suggest using a HOB filter filled with old filter material from your main tank such as a filter floss or small pieces of live rock, anything that has been for at least a month in your tank/sump, this way you will allow nitrification to take place in your quarantine tank and ease the clams’ acclimation process, besides you can get by with only once a week water changes, don’t forget to constantly monitor your water levels.>
Thanks a ton for your time!
<Your welcome. Wil.>
Re: Quarantine for new clams       8/17/19

Thanks a ton!
<You’re most welcome. Wil.>

Can't get enough of that funky WWM stuff?
Link to: Last Few Days Accrued FAQs

Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
  • Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:, References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography, Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public Aquariums,

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