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Clavelina sp.  S. Leyte 2013; a colonial Ascidian, Sea Squirt species.

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General FAQs
Updated 5/22/2015
Other Specialized Daily FAQs Blogs: Freshwater,
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Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Nate Guerette, Rick Novy, Bobby Rudro, Jordan Stari, Sue Garrett, Darrel Barton,
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Triggerfishes for  Marine

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by Robert (Bob) Fenner
PLEASE: Write reviews of my works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF

Cichlid with Popeye and Red Stuff (17 megs...)         5/22/15
<Your email has been deleted due to too-large file size.>
Cichlid with Popeye and Red Stuff... six Megs, no use of WWM          5/22/15

Hi! I have been reading for a few days now on how to fix PopEye,
<Mmm; this is a physical trauma... either the fish was attacked or swam hard into something
which is what I think one my cichlids has. His left eye is popped out and has something red popping out as well. I have attached a picture to see what you think. To give a little background, I have a 150gal Cichlid tank I got a year ago from a previous owner. It has 2 Eheim Pro 2 Canister Filters, 2 heaters, and a power head to move water. I have the API master test kit, and ammonia is always 0 nitrite is always 0 and nitrate is normally 10ppm
<Good values. I do hope/trust the water is hard and alkaline for this Mbuna
or lower, but lately in 3 out of the 6 tanks I have the nitrates have been 40ppm.
<Too high by twice>
I don't know how to get it lowered
<? READ on WWM re>

as water changes and keeping it clean have no effect. Is it the nitrates that is causing the problem with his eye?
<Could be related>
Is it contagious?
<No... unilateral exophthalmia... SEE READ ON WWM RE>

All the fish are full grown and very active I would hate to lose any. I feed them Wardley Advanced Nutrition Perfect
Protein and sometimes they get frozen bloodworms
<And this>

and brine shrimp with Spirulina. Sorry for the long email, just really worried about my tank. Any help you can give would be great! Also today with the water change I added 1cup of Epsom salt as I saw it was recommended Alot
<No such word>
is that okay? Or will it even help?
<Could possibly help. Again; ALL THIS IS GONE OVER AND OVER ON THE SITE>
Thanks again.
<Look for sharp objects in the tank and/or other mean fish/es... and remove. Bob Fenner>

Aba aba knife fish; fdg. /Neale         5/22/15
I have recently purchased a aba aba knife fish of 15 inch and kept it with my black Arowana in 3 ft tank on temporary basis
<I'll say! Aba-aba (Gymnotus niloticus) get extremely large and are very aggressive. Expect an adult length of over 1 metre. They are very territorial, and usually vicious, biting anything else kept with them. An Arowana could easily be killed by one, whether directly or by being so frightened the Arowana damages itself.>
and the fish is only eating live fish.
<Very bad idea. Do NOT do this. All you are doing is introducing parasites and diseases.
Is there any way that I can change her diet to dry shrimps.
<Dry shrimps would be only occasional treats. Shrimps (and prawns and other crustaceans) contain Thiaminase. Over the long term this leads to a vitamin B1 deficiency, the cause of many problems with carnivorous fish. Do read here:
Many safe foods will be taken including tilapia fillet, earthworms, and cockles. You may need to starve your Aba-aba for a few days, but that isn't a problem. Aba-aba will take frozen foods without fuss, and some also take carnivore pellets (such as Hikari Massivore).>

With regards,
<Cheers, Neale.>

Crayfish; hlth., infectious; no pic          5/22/15
My name is luck
I would like know crayfish marron or Cherax Tenuimanus have Aphanomyces astaci or not????
<Judging by? Looks, behavior? Have you read the wiki coverage:
Bob Fenner>

Re FH, making more belligerent         5/22/15
Thanks once again for your help sir...now my flower horn is in good condition.. He is in 250 liters aquarium.. And a good filtration system is there.. The pit's of his head is healed.. "BT now he is not so aggressive like before". I tried to feed him green food suggest by u...but he is not taking green foods....now he is eating 'humpy head' and 'red sumo'. what can
I do for bringing back his aggressive ness
like before? Pls help. Now he is 1ft long...and the head is like a cricket ball.
<Mmm; well; there are two general approaches here: Feeding live foods and placing a "whipping boy" fish in with it. The first might incorporate known-clean (parasite free) freshwater organisms; but I would use marine or brackish... fishes, shrimps. The second; some very sturdy, but smaller, faster, smart fish that could evade the FH; perhaps a large barb or three.
Bob Fenner>

Encrusting SPS ID         5/22/15
Hi gang,
Have a coral that we're having trouble identifying. It's really cool. Came as a hitchhiker and grows pretty fast. Attached pics. Thank you!
<Mmm; due to your stmt. re fast growth, the size and shape of these exsert polyps, am guessing this is some sort of encrusting Porites... but, am sending off to friends for their input. Bob Fenner>

Re: Crab ID        5/21/15
These are the best I have. He's hidden in my sump and cant find him. He does have black claws. Do these pictures work?
<A Xanthid likely.... you have scanned through the WWM Crab ID FAQs....?


Pond repair question        5/21/15
Hi Bob,
I recently bought a property in northern Vermont, neglected for many years, with a large (1/2 acre or about 20,000 sf) bitumen asphalt pond.
<Oooh, olde school>
The pond should be around 7' deep but has a leak at roughly 4'6". There is a drain valve in a manhole which I tested and works fine. My plan was to drain the pond, either fully and muck it out,
or enough to expose the leak cracks and then fill and seal them.
I am reluctant to fully drain it at the moment as there are many frogs and salamanders breeding - and I think one snapping turtle which I'd like to get rid of.
<Yes; I would>
There are many cracks around the sloped edge with organic material growing out of them. Fortunately, a metal snow shovel seems to clear off most of it.
<I'd consider making a shotcrete (and color) berm... with anchored pencil rod re-bar and mesh (chicken wire likely)>
What would you recommend patching it with?
<Maybe more asphalt emulsion... Henry's or such... But... really... best to have the soil tested... IF you want a more permanent improvement... See WWM re liners...>
My thought was to gouge out the cracks and fill with either hydro-cement or asphalt/bitumen.
<Worth trying>
Is there a plastic or polymer solution to this?
<Not as far as I know; no>
During Feb/Mar, I measured the surface ice to be 16"+, so freeze/thaw is another problem.
<Yes... a few approaches to this as well... the slope and berm...>
See pics attached...
Many thanks,
Wendell Anderson
<Let's keep chatting till you're aware of your choices here. Bob Fenner>


Re: Pond repair question        5/21/15
Hi Bob,
Thank you. See below.
<Uhhh; a mess for others to read through>
> Subject: Pond repair question
> Hi Bob,
> <Wendell>
> I recently bought a property in northern Vermont, neglected for many years,
> with a large (1/2 acre or about 20,000 sf) bitumen asphalt pond.
> <Oooh, olde school>
> The pond should be around 7' deep but has a leak at roughly 4'6". There is
> a drain valve in a manhole which I tested and works fine. My plan was to
> drain the pond, either fully and muck it out,
> <How?> {was thinking to drain it fully and rake/shovel it out)
<<DO look into buying or renting a trash-pump... diaphragm type if there's much in the way of larger solids... And I suspect there will be further damage from entering the pond>>
> or enough to expose the leak cracks and then fill and seal them.
> <With...?>(Thoroseal WaterPlug in cracks, cover in Thoroseal or bitumen driveway sealer, Henry's roof sealer?)
<<NEED to know if the damaged area is expansive... i.e. if it's moving at all. If so the Thoro products won't work; nor asphaltous material if much wet, flexible.... might try a patch... of roofing material AND the Henry's... will require a few dry days to dry the pond, dry the repair>>
> I am reluctant to fully drain it at the moment as there are many frogs and
> salamanders breeding - and I think one snapping turtle which I'd like to
> get rid of.
> <Yes; I would>
> There are many cracks around the sloped edge with organic material growing
> out of them. Fortunately, a metal snow shovel seems to clear off most of  it.
> <I'd consider making a shotcrete (and color) berm... with anchored pencil
> rod re-bar and mesh (chicken wire likely)>(I think this will be Plan B - assume you mean just the top edge to below present waterline where leak is, will it adhere to the underwater area after draining enough to expose and dry it) (I walked it and there is roughly 500' of perimeter x 6'-8' of exposed berm, about 30" in elevation depth)
<<Yes to over the existing edge throughout>>
> What would you recommend patching it with?
> <Maybe more asphalt emulsion... Henry's or such... But... really... best to
> have the soil tested... IF you want a more permanent improvement... See WWM
> re liners...>(I assume a 1/2 acre liner would be most costly? - Plan C perhaps)
<<I'd count on a half dollar to a dollar a square foot... for the whole project... IF the soil can be mixed w/ an impervious clay... might hold, be cheap>>
> My thought was to gouge out the cracks and fill with either hydro-cement or
> asphalt/bitumen.
> <Worth trying>(Plan A, as above with ThoroSeal plug)
> Is there a plastic or polymer solution to this?
> <Not as far as I know; no>
> During Feb/Mar, I measured the surface ice to be 16"+, so freeze/thaw is
> another problem.
> <Yes... a few approaches to this as well... the slope and berm...>
> See pics attached...
> Many thanks,
> Wendell Anderson
> <Let's keep chatting till you're aware of your choices here. Bob Fenner>(Thanks again...)
<<Cheers, BobF>>

Aba aba knife fish; fdg.         5/21/15
I have recently purchased a aba aba knife fish of 15 inch and kept it with my black Arowana in 3 ft tank on temporary bases
<Dangerous.... inappropriately small. MOVE ASAPractical to larger quarters>

and the fish is only eating live fish. Is there any way that I can change her diet to dry shrimps.
With regards,
Mehandi Shaikh
<Perhaps mixing in some of the same sort/s of fish/es (dead) w/ the dried shrimp... SEE/READ on WWM re Feeding Knifefishes of all kinds (the FAQs).
Bob Fenner>

Heliofungia actiniformis         5/21/15
Dear Crew,
I just thought I would share an interesting story.
<Oh, good>
I sent in a picture back in '12 of an unknown coral that had sprouted from a brain I purchased. I was fairly new to the hobby, and so I guessed it was a member of the genus Euphyllia. Well, as time has gone by I recently remembered that I had sent
the picture, and thought I would do a follow up (especially since I don't hear many success stories with this coral). It later detached from the rock, and has increased to about four inches in diameter.
The tank they were in originally crashed during a move, and so many things did not make it(summer of '14). These two, however, did survive; and I took this photo two days ago. I feed them every few days, and they prefer large meaty
foods (shrimp/krill). Currently I have then about 12 inches below a ReefBrite LED. Salinity-1.026, pH-8.2, KH-8, Ca-380-410ppm, Mg-1600ppm, nitrate-0.5-2ppm. For what its worth, and Im not an expert, I do not think I would recommend this coral in general.
<And of all species of Fungiids (the Mushroom Coral family), this one rarely does well...>
Its beautiful, tends to sting others and moves with some frequency.

<Ah yes>
It also can start to go downhill quickly. I had an accident with one last October and the entire bottom of the coral lost tissue, and the skeleton still shows in places though it is still living and eating. The system has no fish, only corals, and snail, a
tiny unidentified clam(2cm), and pods. Anyway, have a fantastic day, and happy reefing!
<Thank you for sharing your valuable experience. Bob Fenner>

That fish followed Arya        5/20/15
<<Well, it looks like you all had fun with the fishes... Cheers, Neale.>>
Re: re: That fish followed Arya

h my goodness! I'm honestly not sure how I sent that to you! Haha so
<No problem. Neale>
It was a good time.

Filter for brackish aquarium   /Neale        5/20/15
Hello WWM crew. I have a 125 gallon brackish aquarium 1.012 sg and am using a couple of canister filters and just purchased a protein skimmer.
My question is, are canister filter nitrate factories?
<It's complicated. Regularly cleaned (every 4-6 weeks, say) there's no particular reason a canister should produce nitrate. All it will support is filter bacteria and any insoluble organic matter trapped in the filter media. But beyond that the insoluble organic matter can start to decay, and that can eventually release soluble nitrogenous compounds. If regularly cleaned, you'd wash away this insoluble material (dead plant matter for example) before it released any nitrogenous material. Ultimately, any/all nitrate in the tank comes from the nitrogen that goes into the aquarium via
fish food. Normally, some percentage of that nitrogen would be in insoluble material and it wouldn't have any impact on dissolved nitrate in the water. But in a canister filter that hasn't been cleaned for a while, some of that insoluble matter is now entering the nitrogen cycle in your aquarium, ending up as nitrate. This is where the "nitrate factory" idea comes from.
It isn't magically synthesising nitrate from the water; that makes no scientific sense at all. Make sense? Contrast with live rock. Like a canister, the bacteria on the surface turn ammonia into nitrite and then nitrate. But unlike a canister, live rock contains bacteria in the tiny anaerobic spaces inside it that turn nitrate into nitrogen gas. So whereas an unmaintained canister can cause nitrate level in the tank to creep up higher than a similar tank with a well maintained canister, putting lots of live rock in a tank will normally pull the nitrate level down lower than a
similar tank with a well maintained canister filter. In short: a well maintained canister doesn't make extra nitrate from nothing, but neither does it lower nitrate as you'd expect from a big pile of live rock (or for that matter, deep sand bed or plenty of fast-growing floating plants)>
I see they are not preferred for salt water but are they ok for brackish water?
<Since live rock is a common option for marine tanks, yes, canister have fallen out of favour. But this isn't because they don't work. Clean a canister once every month or so and it'll not produce more nitrate than any other biological filter. But most people leave their canisters running for many months at a time (mine often run six months before cleaning!) and that can, in situations like that described above, lead to further decay of insoluble organic matter that releases soluble nitrogenous compounds into the water. They may even start supporting their own biota of invertebrates that consume food and excrete nitrogenous wastes; tubeworms, cnidarians and the like.>
If so, I may choose to raise the salinity in the future, at what point would a canister not be a good choice?
<Less a salinity, more a question of frequency of maintenance. Properly maintained, a canister remains a viable choice, particularly in fish-only systems where reverse-flow undergravels can provide exceptionally clean and
clear water as well as excellent oxygenation along the bottom for those fishes that prefer to stay down there.>
Thanks for the help.
<Most welcome. Neale.>

Re: balloon molly with growth        5/20/15
So basically she is going to die....and there isn't much I can do to help?
<Mmm; perhaps not die soon; but nothing that I'm aware of... other than experimental surgery, medicine use>
If I am understanding your last sentence correctly, you are saying there isn't much that can be done in regard to treatments for the condition.
However, I can monitor water quality and nutritional input....? Are there better fish foods than others?
<Yes; please see WWM re Molly feeding. BobF>

Naso Tang and Algae        5/20/15
Hello Crew
Rich here with yet another question on Naso Tangs eating. My problem is a little different from most people's concerns with Naso Tangs not eating.
I have had my 6 inch Naso for about three weeks. It came from Blue Zoo. She is in a 180 FOWLR and doing quite well with her tankmates. She is plump
<Mmm; eating then... perhaps scrounging about the rock
and seems well adjusted. After reading numerous posts I have tried feeding her PE Mysis Shrimp, plain, soaked in garlic guard and even New Era liquid vitamins.
She has nibbled a few pieces of shrimp,
<... not shrimp eaters... Mainly Rhodophytes, Phaeophytes.....>
but usually leaves it alone. I have also tried Ocean Nutrition marine flake and Spectrum marine pellets, both which she totally ignores.
This fish however loves Ocean Nutrition Red Algae strips
<Ah yes>
that have garlic in it. She attacks the clip and shreds it off greedily.
My foxface and emperor angel get a little of it, but she eats about 90 % of it. I put half a strip in the tank in the morning and half at night. I have tried putting the other food previously mentioned in 1st to see if she will start eating it, but she seems to just want the algae.
The package states that it is 40% protein, but I am worried that she is not getting enough nutrition while just eating the algae. Should I be worried and what do you suggest I do? Thank you as always.
<Mmm; as long as the fish "appears plump" and is eating, I would not be concerned. Just read on WWM re feeding this species.... Bob Fenner>

Re: Bloated guppy        5/20/15
Thanks Bob. I will keep giving him eps salt baths - at what point in time will be safe to put him back on the main tank!
<Is safe anytime. B>

Sick puffer        5/20/15
Help!! I have a Sappa puffer and he is not well.
<Is this a Mappa Puffer (Arothron mappa,
a huge marine species) or an "SAP", more properly known as a South American Puffer (Colomesus asellus, a small freshwater species)?>
Breathing fast, not eating and not swimming for 4 weeks now.
<Usually environmental with puffers. They are generally tough animals, a little prone to skin parasites (Whitespot and Costia, for example) as well as intestinal worms. But most mortality comes from environmental problems.
Some data (aquarium size, water quality, water chemistry) are essential.>
Checked all water levels and everything is fine.
<Says you. Please, tell me about the aquarium as mentioned above.>
Just to be safe, I treated the tank with copper
<Lethal to puffers.>

then Prazi pro
<Only treats worms.>
then MelaFix
then took him out and treated him with antibiotics.
<Why? Did you suspect a bacterial infection?>
Checked his mouth for parasites messaged his belly and tried to force feed him,
<Dangerous. Not required.>

nothing is working.
<Hmm... well, more like the actual problem is identified.>
Please help.
<Help us to help you: tell me about the aquarium size, filtration, water quality, water chemistry, diet, tankmates.
Cheers, Neale.>

Crab ID        5/20/15
Good morning,
<Sorry for the delay; been out>
I was needing an ID on a hitch hiker crab. He was found eating Zoas and Palys while rearranging rock and frag plugs at night in a friends tank.
My friend caught him and I took him in in my sump. I was thinking calico crab but wanted a positive ID, could you help? I have attached some pictures.
Thanks in advance,
Angela Parsell
<Mmm; need better (more resolved, closer up) pix; but I would do as you've done: Isolated this specimen... too likely to eat most all in your main/display system in time. Bob Fenner>

Filter for brackish aquarium       5/19/15
Hello WWM crew. I have a 125 gallon brackish aquarium 1.012 sg and am using a couple of canister filters and just purchased a protein skimmer.
My question is, are canister filter nitrate factories?
<They can be; if not packed properly w/ filter media, cleaned regularly>
I see they are not preferred for salt water but are they ok for brackish water?
If so, I may choose to raise the salinity in the future, at what point would a canister not be a good choice?
<Changing spg slowly (a thousandths or so maximum per day) can be done w/ most all types of filtration. The issue is not changing it too much, too fast that it impugns biological filtration.>
Thanks for the help.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Bloated guppy       5/19/15
<Hello there>
The fish is still alive, eating well, moving well but still balloney :) I have done the water changes with Epsom salts twice - how long until he goes back to normal ?
<Mmm; could be days, weeks; perhaps forever. The bloating may be due to something incurable. I'd keep on doing what you're doing. Bob Fenner>

trigger fish       5/18/15
Hi guys
I have a blue throat trigger he is about 3 inches in length. I have had him for several months. Right now he is in a 60 gallon mixed reef. He was in a 125 that was running about 6 years and I came home to find the bottom glass cracked and almost all 125 gallons on he living room floor.
<Yikes; no fun>
So he, a 4 inch yellow tang and 5 Chromis and a skunk cleaner shrimp went into the 60 gallon for now. It took over a week to recover from that mess and every empty aquarium I had (3) are now holding the salvaged Liverock and sand. That was two weeks ago.
He looks great, swims openly and has been eating normally. Tonight while feeding some Mysis shrimp he pooped a long trail of many thin white threads. They looked like spaghetti and were sticky and several inches long. it took quite a while for the mass of threads to finally drop off bit by bit. Any Ideas?
<Mmm; well; could be simply stress; but perhaps expression of a lumenal worm infestation. Let's have you read here:
Scroll down to worm diseases, treatments
Bob Fenner>

Dead Coral Question      5/18/15
Hi, I have a ton of dead coral that has been only skeleton with no tissue dead coral skeletons because they leech nitrates.
<Mmm; no. Without the tissue, what is left is almost all CaCO3... a form of not very soluble limestone>
I always thought they would become live rock and harbor beneficial bacteria. What is correct?
<You much more so>
Thank you,
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Re: hard water stocking questions       5/17/15
Thank you for your offer of help Amy... Will keep your email about... as I often have CSS questions, issues... that Darrel Lantera has been able to solve thus far; but sometimes he's been busy. As to other help; who knows? BobF

balloon molly with growth      5/17/15
I have a Dalmatian balloon molly with a growth behind its right fin.
<Ahh; see this in your pix...>
looks like a solid mass, grayish green in color, consistently growing. I would say it has doubled in the past few weeks. Please see attached picture. I would appreciate any insight.
<Such growths are more and more common... tumorous; from various supposed causes... Narrowed genetic bottlenecking from so-much inbreeding,
hybridising... perhaps water quality, nutritional input. Naught to do re treatments other than improving the environment and foods/feeding. Bob

Re: hard water stocking questions         5/16/15
I’ll be sure to find some fish food that’s legit fish food. I’ll look into Hikari; “wafers” sounds much better than “flakes.”
Livebearers sound ideal - I’ll see what I can find in my area, and look for Ameca Splendens. They look really lovely, and perhaps my LFS would be interested in occasionally taking a few. My tank is 30” long; would a group of eight or so, with a 2:1 or 3:1 female: male ratio be likely to be successful?
I’d like to avoid overly-harassed fish.
<Wise indeed. Female Ameca splendens are pretty big, but yes, it's best for them to outnumber the males.>
Are there any livebearers that would work well with gobies? I’m wondering about guppies (Endler’s or swordtail or swamp) and bumblebee gobies - but I’m curious if any of the freshwater or brackish gobies can flourish with the kind of-aggressive-sounding livebearers.
<Enders would be fine; ditto Micropoecilia parae for example, or Micropoecilia picta.>
I’ll definitely save the cories for some other watershed.
It sounds like livebearers in general appreciate good cover, plant and otherwise, as well as algae. I was planning on having a planted tank, but I don’t have much light in my apartment. So perhaps I should add some decent lighting to my system and let some algae grow in? The LFS mentioned they use RO water specifically because the tap water supports algae growth far too well for their show tanks. I haven’t had any algae show up yet, but perhaps light is the missing ingredient.
<Sounds plausible. You need reasonably bright light for the diatoms and green algae that livebearers eat; lower light levels tends to end up with brush algae and blue-green algae that livebearers ignore. That said, Ameca splendens notoriously eats them all!>
Thank you again for taking the time to answer. If it weren’t for WWM, I’d have a ten-gallon tank, dead German Rams, and a few sickly tetras right now.
I’m sure you guys have web people, but if they have any tedious tasks that need offloading, I’d be happy to help out - I speak html, JavaScript, and css as well as some SQL. Anyway, if there’s something in that department that needs doing, I’d love to be able to give some of my time.
<That's very kind. I'll be sure to pass this on to Bob.>
<Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Blenny ate some super glue         5/16/15
Good news, the Blenny coughed it up and is doing well.
<Ah, thank you for this follow-up. BobF>

Chemicals         5/16/15
I have a backyard pond and was told I could use A Concentrated Spa Shine Clarifier for my pond.
<... can you tell me what the ingredients are in this "floc?"
I have fish and don't want to use it unless I know it is safe for them.
<Stop. I would not use this product in a biological pond>

If it is safe, how much would be used per 100 gallons. Could you advise?
Thnx! Sami
<Bob Fenner>

butterfly fish compatibility         5/16/15
Hi I was doing research but I couldn't find anything on this, I have true Falcula Butterflyfish, is it compatible with banner fish(Heniochus ) or will they fight?
<Mmm; in a 180.... likely 2, 3 H. acuminatus would go with the Falcula>
I was thinking of buying 2 or 3 banner fish and eventually placing them with the true facula in a 180 gallon fish tank.
thanks for your advice!
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Turtle info         5/16/15
I just cleaned my turtles tank and it started splashing around as if he wants to get out of the tank. Swimming back and forth trying to escape.

Should I be worried about him?
<Did you use dechlorinator in the water? While turtles aren't as sensitive as fish to untreated water, their eyes can still be irritated by the chlorine and Chloramine used to sterilise drinking water.>
Is that normal?
<Turtles are "prey" in the wild, and don't like being moved about or having their surroundings suddenly changed. So yes, it's normal for them to be a bit skittish at times. But if this always happens when you clean the vivarium, do think about things you could do to reduce stress.>
Thank you,
<Welcome. Neale.>

Re: Reflectors      5/15/15
Hey Bob,
I ran both reflectors, with same bulbs side by side, and the par difference was minimal 4 inches directly in front of bulb.
As expected, the bigger, 8.5 inch white reflector had better values off to the sides then did the 4 inch metal reflector.
Directly in front by 4 inches gave me about 220 par, off to sides around 180 on the questionable white one.
From that I will use the white ones, and my next test will be in the pudding (or algae).

Re: 45 gallon, tall octagon tank      5/15/15
Thanks soooo much!
<Most welcome. Neale.>

Tusk fish... stkg./sel.       5/15/15
Hey Bob, was thinking about getting a Harlequin tusk fish. The Australian ones are just too expensive and understandably so. I've been looking at an Indo Pacific specimen from BZA that's about 4 inches and has been there for about 3 weeks and is eating. A little worried about cyanide
<If this fish is eating... and living; it has not been cyanide exposed>

but they "assured me" that the collectors that they work with are some of the ones that police for that kind of activity... Who knows, right? Anyway, should I decide to get it, do you recommend QT?
<A week or so...>
My QT tank is 55 gallon with live rock but no sand. Would that be a problem for it?
Do they "need" sand to feel secure?
<Not this Wrasse, no>
<Welcome. BobF>

Re: hard water stocking questions      5/15/15
Thanks so much for responding to my question.
<You're welcome.>
You’re certainly right that the problem for most celiacs (including me) is ingesting gluten. The problem with flakes is that there’s often dust - something that reliably gets me sick. Then, too, is the wish to avoid second-guessing sources of contamination. Keeping known sources of gluten out of my apartment makes it easier to introduce new foods. Plus, it’s more relaxing :)
<Do consider using micro pellets or wafers then, for example the excellent ones from Hikari. Neither should produce much by way of dust since you don't crumble them.>
My plan was to feed the fish with Repashy and maybe the occasional frozen bug. Repashy is gluten free, and I like that it’s a prepared food - seems more likely to have what’s actually needed for fish than whatever I’d manage to make.
<Repashy doesn't appear to be a fish food but a reptile food. Please try and use a fish food as your staple. Reptile food isn't actually all that good for many reptiles, and probably hopeless for fish. Prepared fish foods have micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) that tend to be difficult to supply if you use just frozen or live foods, so unless you're an expert fishkeeper, it's just easier to stick with prepared foods (flakes, pellets, wafers, etc.). You certainly don't have to use flakes, that's true; livebearers for example can/will thrive on a diet of sinking Hikari algae wafers alone. But at the same time I wouldn't recommend just feeding them frozen bloodworms, which are kind of the equivalent of popcorn chicken. Easy to eat, and popular, but not necessarily a balanced diet in themselves.>
On feeding my bacteria - I’ve been adding ammonia solution. I wasn’t able to find any ammonia locally without lemon scent, so I got some Dr. Tim’s.
My water is definitely potable - it tastes pretty nice, actually. When I test the pH after letting it sit overnight, I get a pH near 8.2. Our local water, pre-treatment, has a pH near 7.3 - but it comes out of the treatment plant at 9! I suppose I can fill up some buckets with water the night before a water change. Would pH 8.2 be comfortable for some fish?
<Yes. Ideal for livebearers, Killies such as Florida Flagfish, most of the ricefish and of course brackish water and desert fish, and probably tolerated by the hardier community tropicals such as Zebra Danios and Peppered Corydoras.>
Desert fish are a pretty amazing class of fish. Would fish like the desert goby or Aphanius Mento be best in a single-species setup?
<Tend to be, yes. Desert Gobies are relatively short-lived by breed readily, so the ideal situation is to get a half dozen, let them settle in and breed so you have a stable population. Male Aphanius mento are rather aggressive, so best kept in harems (one male, multiple females) unless the tank is big enough for several males (not 2 or 3) to spread themselves out among the rock work. There are some other desert fish out there, including some wonderful native species in the US, Spain and elsewhere, but all too often these fish are threatened with extinction so trade is limited/non-existent. Your national Killifish club may be able to provide some tips on these additional species.>
For some reason I’ve been thinking of a tank with top-dwellers and substrate-dwellers, but I can move on to a different plan.
<Do also take some time to look into the family Goodeidae, such as the two fairly regularly traded species Xenotoca eiseni and Ameca splendens. While "nippy" and not suited to community tanks, Ameca splendens is very pretty (males have yellow-edged fins and are pale to dark blue with metallic spots, depending on their social status) and work rather well in groups. Eminently breedable, and more or less herbivorous (they'll thrive on algae, lettuce, cooked spinach, and floating Indian Fern) they will thoroughly enjoy hard water and an unheated tank at around room temperature. Big groups are stunning! Xenotoca eiseni is a little less nippy and perhaps a little less showy, but still a nice-looking fish with shades of blue, black and orange on its body. Goodeids occupy all levels, feeding from the top as readily as grazing algae from the rockwork.>
Thanks again,
<Cheers, Neale.> 

Re: Fish pond dilemma        5/14/15
Thanks for your thoughts. No other types of 4 legged things here that raid ponds.
<... not dogs, cats?>
Definitely some type of bird.
<Well; there are others... sea eagles, other raptors.... I'd be looking at ref. works for Espana... asking the "fish and game" there re>
It's happening after midnight and before 6.30am. Herons wouldn't normally leave the koi behind n they don't have any tell tale spear marks on them.
I have spent the afternoon draining my pond n had a headcount and no fish are missing.? So, I have 5 fish taken out my pond on 2 separate occasions n not eaten or taken away????
Koi are not huge , small enough for a heron to swallow in one go. 30-70cm long I guess most of them.
I am baffled.
It's a bird because of the Poo at the scene of the crime!
I will have to net it which seems crazy as here we have heron issue in winter but never now. Already it's very hot here 88 degrees today and the herons have an abundance of fish to eat away from residential areas. I net it always Jan n Feb. until mid March.
This house is more exposed so pond more visible I don't know what to think.
Now I just need to tackle the green water!!
<Your answers are archived on WWM re. BobF>

Thank you for your donation to WWM        5/14/15
Wes; much appreciated. Bob Fenner

Thank you for your donation to WWM        5/14/15
Sarah; much appreciated. Bob Fenner

Reflectors; gauging their effectiveness        5/14/15
Hey Bob.
On my scrubber I have 5 inch metal reflectors from depot. A lot of light is escaping peripherally, so my dad went to home depot and got me 8.5 inch clamp on work lights instead.
They are a carbon material, so they won't rust. The insides are white (reflector portion), as opposed to metallic aluminum color. Will white reflect well, or do you need the shiny chrome looking stuff?
<Test them out w/ your meter.... and keep reading furiously>

What is this thing???        5/14/15
I have 65 gal aquarium with lots of live rock and a healthy clean up crew. Only a few fish since the tank is still pretty young (5 months). I had purchased a conch snail from LFS; it lived about 2 weeks and I found my emerald crab feasting on him.
<Typical... Mithraculus crabs are not herbivores. See WWM re>
I left the shell since I like the way it looks in the sand and now there is some sort of creature growing from the empty shell! It looks like a rusty colored tube that has grown to about 1/5 of an inch long. Today, I noticed what looks like 2 little pinchers maybe?? That are sticking out of the tube and it looks like it has some sort of silk string that it has created. Wondering if I need to get this out of my tank or if this will be something cool like a coco worm or feather duster. Thanks for any help you can give me!!
<Likely some sort of tubiculous worm... though could be a tube-dwelling snail species. Not harmful. Bob Fenner>

Re: What is this thing???        5/14/15
Thank you!
<Ah; you're welcome>

Skimmer, op.       5/13/15
Hey Bob,
I have a Super Reef Octopus 1000 skimmer in my 72 that will be going into my new 150 very soon. Sometimes it works great but it just randomly overflows most of the time.
<Yikes... I hope some where, how that it doesn't make a mess, stink>
I cleaned it out a couple of months ago, and it is in the filter sock area of my sump fyi.
Should it be there or somewhere else?
<Mmm; somewhere the water is of a constant level; not too much turbulence... There are MANY differing sump designs>
I have mud in my middle chamber along with Chaeto and then the pumps and some rock rubble in the final chamber... Maybe it doesn't have enough waste to skim?
<Mmm; not the/a cause of overflow>
Should I put it on a 12hr on/off schedule?
<I might... >
It's really getting to me. Right now there is a black dogface puffer, teardrop butterfly, comet, Flagtail Blanquillo
<Neat animals; DO keep the top covered!>
and a long nosed hawk. I feed Omega flakes in the morning and Mysis at night. Also the puffer gets a meaty meal every other day. Is that too much feeding?
<Shouldn't be... use NO3 measures to gauge>
Thanks as always,
<Have you written the manuf. re the skimmer? I would. Bob Fenner>
Re: Skimmer      5/13/15

Hmm, the Coral Vue website says this...
"There are several common reasons a protein skimmer will overflow but the most common is a chemical within the water itself.
Chemical Reaction - Some chemicals react with the air that the skimmer produces and causes the skimmer to over produce foamate. Chemicals known to cause skimmers to overflow are, red slime remover, medications, reef/frag putties (epoxy Putty) frag glues, water conditioners, dechlorinators, stress coat, NEW filter socks, newly mixed salt, bacteria (seeding)
additives as well as other dosing medias. In order to remove these chemicals from the water column we suggest that you do several 20% water changes over the period of a month and add a good amount of fresh activated carbon to the system and change out every week till the skimmer has returned to normal operation."
What do you think?
<These are factual statements; causes of overflow... but you did not mention any of these possibilities. Is there a correlation twixt what and when you feed (mostly the puffer) foods?>
I do put in newly washed filter socks every night. They are rarely ever too dirty unless after I clean the tank and move around the sand and shake out rocks one a week. That's the only thing I can think of.
<I don't like this sort of mystery... thankfully I take it your skimmer overflows back into your sump.... I'd try cleaning the skimmer thoroughly, esp. the contact chamber and collecting cup... clean and dry. Bob Fenner>

Question for Bob about using some Ammonia absorbing media      5/13/15
Hi Bob!
I was thinking about using some Ammonia absorbing media, on my 210 mixed reef/fish tank, in a little fishs 550 reactor in the sump, to remove total ammonia, that is available for conversion into Nitrate.
<? Why this proposed use? >
Thus, lower overall Nitrate....so my question is, would that actually work?
<Can; but there are dangers; some serious>
<Removal of ammonia may result in a sudden die off of nitrogenous microbes... and the exhaustion of such media may result in a dangerous NH3/NH4OH spike.... I wouldn't do this>
Nish (guy with serpent starts that did the spawning thing..met you at GIRS spring fest)
<Cheers! Bob Fenner>
Re: Question for Bob

Thanks Bob. By the way, what do you think of some of these Nitrate reducers such as AZ-NO3.
<This is a worthy product. IS real, does work; safely and effectively>
Ok to use on mixed reef; corals, inverts, anemones, fish?
<Yes; this and Nualgi are faves
Thanks, Nish
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Question for Bob


Compatibility      5/13/15
Hey Bob, I wrote you last week about changing from a 72 to a 150. I'm using the existing sump so I'll have to get the fish in the 150 the same day as the changeover. I'm going to buy a harlequin tusk next week and QT him for 2 weeks. I would love to get a scribbled angel a little later on if you think it's a good idea...
Can you tell me the order (by number) that I should introduce these fish? I have 1, 4, 5 and 6 in my 72 right now. I may QT the blenny with the tusk in my cycled 55g tank.
What do you think?
<With the mix below; should work... I'd start the angel at 3-4 overall inches in length. BobF>
1-Dog face puffer
2-Scribbled angel
3-Harlequin tusk
4-Teardrop butterfly
5-Flagtail Blanquillo
7-Midas blenny

Ats question      5/13/15
Hey Bob.
I have an 80/gallon frag tank which about ten days ago had a 1.06 phosphate reading on Hannah checker.
A few 25/ percent water changes brought me to .65 or so on Saturday.
<Dilution plus some interaction eh?>

About 4 weeks ago I built a scrubber , ten inches wide, 300/gph and two 40/watt CFLs.
This past week it has finally started to grow nice thick algae. Since Saturday, my po4 has dropped from .65, to .39.
<On its way>
I used the same meter, which is about two weeks old, and same testing procedure to limit human error (clean vial in ro water, remove fingerprints, oils etc.
Does this much of a drop in p04 (.65 to .39) in four days sound too good to be true with scrubber alone?
<Not too good>
Or could it be my meter is off?
<Poss.; but not likely>
I back to back
test and always get a reading of .01 difference.
<W. B>
re: Ats question      5/13/15

Dilution I understand, percentage wise that made sense. (.75 remaining old water times phosphate value) but the additional losses I couldn't account for.
<Ionic precipitation w/ the newly made SW>
Having a few Acros in there, do you feel I have the luxury and time to let ats pull phosphate out, or should I still be doing big 25 percent water changes?
If the ats is working that fast, that's great, after all these years of reading about them, wish I tried it earlier. To me its a refugium on steroids.
From the research I have done, dropping phosphate that fast shouldn't have an adverse effect on other parameters such as alk, cal or mag.

Halide question      5/13/15
On my 80 frag tank (4ft*2ft*17 inches)
<Mmm; would not have such deep water...>

I would like to grow some sps. I picked up two metal halide pendants, and replaced the bulbs with new phoenix double ended 150watt 14/k.
What's a good starting point to hang them above water surface. Assuming all corals will be within 7 inches or so of surface, how high would you hang 150/watts?
<I'd get/use a PAR or PUR meter... monitor for a grid; about every six inches (you're going to be surprised by the data)... put the lighting on an adjustable suspended set of wires... two for safety... and start reading re better reflectors>
A lot of what you read pertains to 250/watt bulbs. Right now I have them about 10 inches off the water, but can raise or lower.
Thanks again, bob
<Enjoy the experience. B>
re: Halide question      5/13/15

Not much choice when it came to getting the reef ready "deep blue" brand tank.
Funny you mention par. I just picked up a used apogee mq-200 par meter. At ten inches, the par on my highest coral was around 140. Looks like that needs to drop 3 or 4 inches.
Better reflectors? I believe the ones i have are the blue line pendants, have to be >8 years old.
<Take the measurements as prev. stated>
These halides I have on the left and right of the tank,. In the middle, about 4 inches higher I have my Maxspect 120w led for my lps. The outskirts or sides of the tank is where the halides will be.
Since I am using both halide and led, shall i use the electric or sun calibration on meter.
Will be gridding this on my next day off
<Ah good>

Thanks bob

Re: Bloated guppy      5/13/15
Thanks! how often do I change the water on the isolation tank?
<I'd likely do (from the main tank) every two-three days>
and how much Epsom salt and aquarium salt shall I put?
<About a level teaspoon for the 2.5 gallons>
Should I replace the water I take from the main tank with new water plus salt or just new water?
<The latter; just new water. Bob Fenner>
Re: Bloated guppy      5/13/15

Thanks! Fish still alive - eating well too
<Ah, good. B>
Re: Bloated guppy

So I change the whole water for the isolation tank?
<I'd only change half at most>

Re: Cortez Stingray Fin Issues      5/13/15
Thank you for your reply. Unfortunately, the ray died this morning and I just want to make sure I understand and learn from my errors.
<Let's see>
When you say that the ray wasn't tropical do I take that to mean that he was a Cortez,
<... Yes... Urolophus maculatus; subtropical>
but they are not tropical or that it was actually a California Ray and they aren't tropical. I saw several posts discussing the difference between the two.
<Two different species; though U. maculatus IS sometimes called the Ca. ray... the latter is really U. halleri. Easily told apart>
I unfortunately trusted my LFS that did the install and knows my tank /current fish that the ray was compatible.
<Mmm; yes; should have known>
My mistake and I will make sure to do independent research on the fish and not make that mistake again.
Is this forum or do you have another recommendation of a site to ask for advice on compatible tank mates and conditions, so I don't result in unnecessary deaths while I learn this hobby.
<You're welcome to send along ideas for our separate input. DO search, read on WWM ahead of time please>
Thanks again for your help, Mike
<A pleasure to share. Sorry for your tribulations. Bob Fenner>

Mysterious electricity      5/13/15
Hey Bob, was at my local LFS on Sunday the entire day looking. A women, with a newly setup tank, can <came> in and purchased a Maxspect led, 180 watt, brand new.
She came back an hour later and stated upon plugging it in, it would not turn on, not even green light on ballast.
<Mmm... likely a polarity issue in her service/outlet at home. See here: https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/light-emitting-diodes-leds >
We plugged it in at the LFS store, and it came right on. Convinced she didn't have wire in all the way, she took it back home.
Again, an hour later returned, and her and her husband tried it on every electrical outlets in the house, and it still would not come in.
Her tank return pump, heater, skimmer, vacuum all work in these receptacles, but not the lights. We once again plugged it into store, turned right on.
I was baffled, although I am not an electrician or electrical engineer, I could not fathom a high amp vacuum working, but not an led fixture. She bought instead two ai prime LEDs, which worked.
Have you seen that before? She says the townhouse is less than 3/years old, so my guess is being an older house with older circuits was out the window.
Just curios. Thanks

Clown Trigger; sys.       5/13/15
> Hello Bob,
> My name is Savvas. I'm from Greece and I'd really appreciate your opinion. I'm thinking about starting a saltwater aquarium again. I'm saying "again", because I'm not new in saltwater aquariums. From 1992 up until to 2003 I had 2 saltwater aquariums which were very successful. For various reasons, though, I had to stop them. (mainly for job-related issues and me not having the necessary free time to properly maintain them)
> Anyway, now I have a 95 gallon tank and here's what I'm thinking about:
I'd like to set it up and have only one fish in it. Yep, you guessed what that would be: A Clown Trigger. This would essentially be literally a "Fish-only" aquarium. No reef and not live rock inside it. Just properly set up for one Clown trigger with all the necessary hiding places for it.
Do you think that this tank would be small even for only one Clown trigger?
<Could work for a few years... starting with a not-too large specimen; not over-feeding it>

What I'd really like is finding a relatively small CT (like 2'' or so) and having it in this tank grow as much as possible. Do you think that it would be impossible for only one Clown trigger to live its whole life in a 95 gallon tank?
<Not "whole" life; no>

I understand that a far bigger tank would definitely be better, but for various reasons (mainly practical) I do not intend to buy a bigger tank.
> Thanks in advance for your time, I really appreciate it!>
> Best Regards,
> Savvas Fessas
<Welcome! Bob Fenner>

hard water stocking questions      5/13/15
Dear Crew at WWM,
<Hello Amy,>
I’m in the process of setting up my first freshwater aquarium. While I was initially confident about my stocking plan, the slow growth of my nitrite-digesting bacteria gave me time for extensive research. Predictably, I am now extremely confused.
My goal is a peaceful community tank with a low rate of dying fish. Actually, I’d like to have no fish death - but that seems unrealistic.
<Not completely. If you pick some species, such as livebearers or easy egg-layers, you can actually end up with a situation where deaths and births balance out, and your tank becomes self-sufficient across the years.>
My tank is 29 gallons (12” wide by 30” long) and currently running a filter rated for 40 gallons, though it sounds like I may need to supplement this for pretty much any fish.
<The "suitable for X gallons" on the filter packaging really means "suitable for X gallons if you moderately stock the tank with small fish". So provided you choose fish in the 1-2 inch size bracket, and keep, say, 20 of them in the tank to start with, your filter may well be just fine.>
I’d like to try a planted tank, so I’m thinking about adding a canister filter. Right now the tank houses only bacteria.
<Adding some fish food to feed the bacteria, or ammonia for the same purpose?>
I’m in South Dakota, where the water is hard (18 degrees GH) and alkaline (pH of 9).
<Really pH 9? That's positively caustic! Try leaving the water in a glass or bucket overnight then check the pH. Is it still pH 9? I would really try to lower the pH down to 8, even if you choose hard water species.>
So no neon tetras for me, much to my boyfriend’s sorrow.
<Indeed. But if not Neons, then various other tetras might be selected: X-ray Tetras, "False" Penguin Tetras (actually the commonest species), even Emperor Tetras are all possibilities up to 20 degrees dH, pH 8.>
My initial plan was to have a school of white cloud mountain minnows and a school of peppered cories in an unheated tank. I find peppered cories a little drab (I suspect this is extremely unfair of me), but I love watching them play. So I was pretty stoked about this plan.
<You can substitute pretty much any farmed, hardy Corydoras for a low-end tropical tank at 2-20 degrees dH, pH 6-8, temperature 22-25 degrees C/72-77 F.>
But then I found more information about my water (http://denr.sd.gov/des/dw/PDF/pwshandbook/0342hbk.pdf). The untreated water has a hardness dominated by carbonate (500 mg/L) and by calcium (200 mg/L). The treated water has much less carbonate (40 mg/L), less calcium (80 mg/L), and more sodium (160 mg/L). The conductance is high - 1300 uS/cm. Since some plants start objecting to the salinity of water at 700 uS/cm, I began wondering if my water is slightly brackish.
<Certainly sounds as if it's mineral-rich, at least. Brackish species might be an option. Or for that matter, desert fish (such as the Australian Desert Goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, or the Persian Killifish, Aphanius mento). Desert fish are often very well adapted to extremely mineral-rich water.>
Some of the brackish fish seem like they might do well in my hard-water, kinda-small tank. Particularly appealing are rainbowfish and gobies. Even though Celebes Rainbowfish aren’t brackish-water fish, it sounds like they tend to do well in mildly brackish tanks. Gobies sound like they can be difficult to feed, but flakes are out, anyway - I have celiac.
<Coeliac disease really prevents you from handling fish flake? Zipping over to the Mayo Clinic website, there's a medical doctor there who states that Coeliac sufferers can use gluten-containing skin products just fine (of course, some people can have an entirely different allergy to touching wheat, but that isn't Coeliac and not related to it in any way). Do read:
So I'd reckon that unless you eat the fish flake, a pot of flake food shouldn't pose any risk at all. Consult with your doctor though!>
And I suspect I could watch gobies for hours. Another option you’ve mentioned at WWM is livebearers. I’m not hard over on having a school of fish, but aggression stresses me out: so maybe Limia?
<Nice fish.>
For a bottom-dweller, rainbow darters seem cool - mainly because they seem a bit like gobies.
<They are indeed, but almost entirely specialists to flowing water that isn't too warm; really need a biotope tank.>
So I’m wondering: could all these fish tolerate the very-occasional two-week-long absence?
Or would water quality and/or feeding needs make that iffy?
<Most fish are fine without food for a couple weeks.>
Is my water essentially brackish, and suitable for salt-tolerant fishes only? Or are my salt levels basically unnoticeable for most fish?
<If it's potable water, it isn't brackish. Not saying whether it tastes nice to drink, but if offered as drinkable water, then no, it won't have enough salt to be brackish. You'd need to add marine salt mix.>
Are these even the right questions to be asking, or should I start cracking open the books on fish biology?
<I'd focus instead on water chemistry issues. pH much too high. Seems off to me. Have it checked with another test kit, perhaps at your local retailer if necessary.>
Thanks so much for your time,
<Welcome, Neale.>

Fish pond dilemma. Myst. koi pred.       5/13/15
Hi guys
I am writing to you for advise as I have no idea who else my have answers for me.
I live in Mallorca, Spain, not many people here keep fish so no real help at hand. I have had ponds n fish for many years and I have a problem I never witnessed before.
I moved to a new house with a new pond
<Whoa.... is the mode of construction, filtration... of import here?>
I have built approx 2 months ago. On Saturday morning, when I got up at 7am I noticed 2 dead koi in the middle of my lawn.
<Oh! Likely not>
Too far away to have jumped and also I noticed between the 2 fish blobs of bird poo.

My question is this, what other type of bird takes fish and doesn't eat them?
<Mmm; could be quite a few... Herons mostly... could be fished them out and could not fit down throat... perhaps whatever it was, was scared off during the act>
It's not a heron as this is not the time of year and I know herons don't leave fish behind?
<Not usually; no>
I thought seagull???
<How large were these koi?>
They are bandits maybe they can dive to take the fish but the fish were too big to take away or eat??
<Perhaps two-legged>
I got up early the next day, nothing happened , the same the next.
Today, I got up and found 2 more dead fish unmarked except for a bloody fin and another dead fish in the street!?
<Oh! Other animals... do you have skunks, other varmints thereabouts?>
What can you think of that takes fish out but leaves them?
I still am prone to think seagull? But we also have several birds of prey around.
Sadly, the pond is in the sun
<See WWM re... netting, wires above. READ: http://wetwebmedia.com/PondSubWebIndex/pdpestspreds.htm
and the linked files above>
and the water is very green
<And this too: Algae Control for Ponds>

so I am unable to see how many are missing. I need to ship in new parts to create better filtration and will also put a shade to resolve the green water.
<Ah yes>
Anyway, I am moving away from my question, pests that behave this way, definitely a bird, any thoughts ??
<The reading. Bob Fenner>
Best wishes

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Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
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