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by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Re: Stringy white poop, many deaths
The directions that came with my Metro recommend 2 teaspoons per pound of food.
<That's a lot of fish food!>
I did the math and I need approximately 0.014 tsp per cube of bloodworms, which
is just slightly less than 1/64, which is the smallest teaspoon measurement I
have. I'll just add a little less than 1/64 tsp and be generous with the Garlic
<What's the garlic for? I would not be adding random 'cure all' chemicals
alongside specific treatments.>
The math for Kanaplex will have to be done later and hopefully the fish will eat
it. Perhaps they just need to be starved for a day or two as encouragement.
Alternatively, I could mix it with daphnia (only other frozen food I could find)
but I think the hypan is more likely to eat the bloodworms, since eating the
last dead fish more than likely infected him too. Do you have a preferred brand
of Spirulina flakes?
<Not really; they're all good!>
New Life Spectrum is my go-to brand but they don't make them and neither does my
second favorite, Omega One.
<Understood. I've used the Tetra brand, but pretty much any should work a
I hope you're having a wonderful day!
<Off to donate blood now, so wonderful isn't quite the word, but hopefully
useful! Cheers, Neale.>
Weak snick - Reidi seahorses; likely env., poss. nutr.
Hi, I need some help
I have 3 males Reidi who have weak snick... they try to eat but no
sucking happen... the tank have very little nitrates (4ppm) and I don't
see why they would have catch this, I say catch because since all 3 of
them got it at the same time, I think I can rule out the injury or
''something stuck'' as a cause
<Something environmentally off here for all three to be co-effected>
The only thing different is the food I gave them a couple days before it
happen (still PE Mysis, but from a different batch) since then I bought
some Hikari Mysis that are smaller, and hopefully easier to catch.
The only other thing that change is a rise in temperature from 21.5 to
23.5 in 1 day time.
Any idea what have cause this?
<Again; the environment. I would return the temperature to the lower
value, effect a fifty percent water change via gravel vacuuming,
possibly add a unit of ChemiPure and/or PolyFilter to your filter, flow
the seahorses are not trashing around or scratching, they seem really
healthy and a really interested in food, but are not able to eat
I try a freshwater bath, they did really good in it, didn't trash or
look stress (15 min) but now it's been more than 48h later and no
I heard about formalin bath, I have some (bottle containing 4.46%
formaldehyde (11.52% formalin) with malachite green) but don't have the
dosage for a bath and I'm not able to find the formalin 37% rapidly.
<Too toxic, dangerous; and not likely there is a pathogen at work here.
You'll do naught but stress and poison the fish>
Someone told me that I could dose the main tank with this products,
that the cause may be Ciliates, and since they are in the main tank I
should treat... but wouldn't it kill all the nitrifying bacteria risking
an ammonia spike?
<You'll kill everything. DO NOT DO THIS>
so what should I do?
<As I've stated above>
- wait a little more to see if the freshwater bath worked
- do an other freshwater bath
- do a formalin/malachite green (with Methylene blue or not) bath or
dose the main tank
- If the freshwater dip didn't help... would the formalin really do
something more? maybe I should go more with Furan2?
<None of these you list>
any advise would be appreciate
info on my tank
65 gallons (with sump and UV light)
salinity : 1.024
temp : 22
nitrates : 4 ppm
no ammonia or nitrites
I have the Reidi since May 2017 and they are captive breed
Thank you for your time!
<Thank you for sharing. Do please keep us informed of your further
actions, observations. Bob Fenner>
Re: Stringy white poop, many deaths
Thank you for your help!
I have a small bag of Metronidazole. The tank is full of snails and
shrimp and I can't set up the quarantine tank right now, so do you
recommend mixing the Metro into some Repashy or bloodworms?
<Getting medicine into fish via their food is usually more effective
than adding to the water. But dosing can be tricky if the fish spit out
some of the food. I'd tend to follow the instructions on the package, or
advice from the vet, rather than simply improvising.>
In terms of feeding greenery, I used to have Spirulina brine shrimp and
emerald entre but they went bad during the move and I can't find any
around here. Tiny town problems.
Would crushed algae wafers, cucumber, zucchini, lettuce, or broccoli
<The algae wafers are a useful staple for any community fish, and should
be part of their regular diet. Spirulina flake food (sold for
livebearers) is also an excellent staple. The other green foods, if
eaten, are all good additions to their diet.>
I also have some Cobalt pellets with Spirulina and probiotics. In terms
of antibiotics, I have Kanaplex, Furan 2, ParaGuard, and Fungus Cure
(says it treats secondary bacterial infections). I've always been
partial to Kanaplex, but which do you recommend?
<Kanaplex would also be my first recommendation here. The others are
more or less antimicrobials rather than true antibiotics.>
The tank does have an air stone. In terms of water chemistry, ammonia
and nitrites are always zero, nitrates less than 5 (usually zero. I dose
a little for the plants), pH around 7.5, 10 dGH, 11dKh.
<All sounds fine.>
Thank you again,
<Good luck, Neale.>
Re: Betta fish sick - Bubba. help? Beh. f'
hope you're having a great day.
<Thank you; yes>
I noticed my fish keeps burping or puffs his gills out, I think there
really is something internally wrong with him.
<Mmm; these are natural behaviors for Labyrinth fishes... not to be
do you have any idea why fish might burp or make small air bubbles come
out from their gill (not bubble nests) ?
<Keep reading! Bob Fenner>
Re: Betta fish sick - Bubba. help? 1/17/18
Oh I see. Maybe I should quit worrying too much, & think "less is more"
with this new tank rescape. Haha! Thanks for your input! Appreciate it.
<Certainly welcome. Many Labyrinth fishes are also called "Bubblenest
*Have a wonderful day! *
<Trying to! BobF>
Re: Brackish moray ID 1/17/18
Good evening Marco,
<Good morning Ben.>
Greetings from Indonesia!
I am aware that there are not much information about fresh and brackish water
morays, so indeed, as an eel-enthusiast who lives close to the source, I'll
share whatever information that I can gather from around here.
<Kudos to you.>
As for our mystery eel, I visited Mr. Eko this afternoon, and asked him a few
questions about the eel. His answers are as follows:
1. The mystery eels that he has, were captured in the river in Java, a bit
farther from the river mouth (estuarium), but he said this species are also
known to inhabit not only on the river, but also the area around the river mouth
and the beach. So, they can be found in both full saltwater and light brackish.
They are from shallow waters, usually found in sandy beaches hiding in broken
corals or under clamshells, or in the soft mud of the rivers.
2. They are known to hunt crabs and shrimps on the shallow waters of the beach
and rivers. They can burrow their bodies in both soft sand and mud, but they are
more active in swimming around, than other types of morays which spent much of
their time burrowing or hiding. They could hunt during the day or during the
night as they please.
3. These eels were usually not captured by fishing hook, but by submerged traps.
4. They are not territorial, plenty of them can be found together in a small
area, often bunched together under a clamshell or a rock, like noodles.
So I thanked Mr. Eko for his info, and he promised to inform me if there are any
other strange eels he captured or obtained. Before I left, he offered me to buy
a pike conger baby at discount, as apparently he has one left. He told me that
the pike conger were captured in the same area where they captured the mystery
eel. But I declined (pike congers are known to be aggressive and has sharp
teeth), and instead I bought another mystery eel from him.
So now I have two of these "mystery eels", I hope they will be happy in my
aquarium. Mr. Eko took pictures of the conger and the second mystery eel, I
attached it here. His shop is not as dark as my kitchen, so maybe these pictures
are better for ID ing the mystery eel?
<Yes, much better. Can't see details of the head, but at least the body
coloration is visible. It's definitely no G. richardsonii, G. tile, E.
rhodochilus, G. polyuranodon. The coloration of the body matches Uropterygius
micropterus quite well, so this ID is probably right. The ecology you describe
above also concurs with what is known about this
species. Only that it seems to live so openly is something I had not expected
from a Uropterygius species. I think this eel can be added to the list of moray
species in captive care.>
That concludes my e-mail for now, I will share to you more from my research when
I get new information.
Warm Regards, Ben
Sea creature ID 1/17/18
I found this creature on the beach at Sorrento, a town on Port Philip Bay, near
Melbourne, Southeast Australia.
It looks like a sea cucumber, but I have searched the net, including your site,
and haven't found any that are white.
It measured about 15cm end to end.
Could it be an albino? Or not a sea Cuke at all, but something else?
<Looks too smooth to be a Sea Cucumber... my guess is on a worm group. Perhaps a
Re: Red Mandarin Breeding 1/16/18
Hello again, this is Jinoo Kim and I am updating my progress with the breeding,
but I have a few questions however. I have a pair of mandarins and they keep
spawning. I was able to rear the eggs and put them in my
friend's Kreisel tank. However, it turns out that The father is a red mandarin,
while the mother is a green mandarin but she is borderline red (like a drab red
mandarin). What color will be the offspring?
<Are these both Synchiropus splendidus? I am guessing that the offspring will be
a mix of the colors of their parents>
Will their color be a mix between the parents' color, or will there be a variety
of green and red mandarins?
Also, how long will the eggs hatch?
<... let's have you read:
Anyways, I am really liking the progress so far, now I just need to building
something that can feed these guys through out the day with pellet foods. Maybe
an automatic feeder, with a funnel that goes down to an acrylic box where food
can be available and away from bigger fish. Kind of like Marc's mandarin diner,
except it's ALMOST set and forget. Anyways, thank you for everything! I have
never thought I would accomplish this far!
<Keep on going Jinoo! Bob Fenner>
Too Much Tinkering In My Reef - Please Help!
Hi WWM Team,
<Really like your subject/header here>
I hope all is well in the New Year! I am going through one of those
“tinkering too much moments” with my Red Sea Reefer 450. I have a mixed
reef tank and decided to add a 3 ½” Achilles Tang and 4”Watanabei Angel
within the last month. The fishes and corals are doing fine and my water
parameters were fine as well. I decided to be proactive and thought it
would be wise to add more biological filtration because of the new
<Can never have too much Biofiltration>
I bought a box of Marine Pure bioballs and a bottle of ATM nitrifying
bacteria (label states it treats up to 100 gallons – which is less than
my total tank volume). I’ve added the bioballs and the entire bottle of
ATM nitrifying bacteria into my tank last week. I turned off my skimmer
for 4 days as per instructions. My tank was instantly cloudy once I
added the ATM solution; I figured it is the bacteria in the bottle.
<Mmm; maybe secondarily>
As I wait for the bacterial colonization process, I noticed my Choati
Red Leopard wrasse was missing for a couple of days. She was always
active and eats very well. Again, I thought of being proactive is best
and have to go into the tank to search for her.
<Not by disturbing the sand bed I hope/trust>
I don’t want her to die and decompose in my tank, especially during this
tenuous stage of my tank. As I comb through the sand (about 1”
<I'd increase this by at least twice>
I could potentially disturbed some anaerobic pockets – loosened some
clumpy sand that had black residue rising up.
<Oooh, not good>
Long story short, I caught the Choati wrasse and relocated her to the
quarantine tank (unfortunately, the Choati wrasse died in the QT last
night). I tested my water in my main display and they are as follows:
Ammonia (Red Sea) = .2 ppm
Nitrite (Red Sea) = 0 ppm
Nitrate (Red Sea) = 16 ppm
PO4 (Hanna) = 0.06 ppm
PH (Red Sea) = 8.2
Alkalinity (Hanna) = 9 dKH
<All fine w/ the exception of the ammonia>
I decided to do three 20% water change in the last 3 days and added a
dose of Seachem Prime to lock up the toxicity of ammonia until my
mini-cycle completes itself.
<.... I would have just stopped feeding... >
I tested my water again, and it remains relatively the same:
· Ammonia (Red Sea) = .2 ppm
· Nitrite (Red Sea) = 0 ppm
· Nitrate (Red Sea) = 10 ppm
The water is still cloudy, which is surprising to me because I thought
the water changes would have rid the bacteria bloom in the water column…
<And the loss of ammonia, likely bumped off a good deal of nitrifying
The livestock (both fish & corals) still looks fine - the fish are
eating & active and the corals are fully expanded. Anyway, what would
you recommend with regard to the mini-cycle and cloudy water?
<Just stop feeding till the NH3/NH4OH drops to 0.0 ppm>
As always, your insights and recommendations are extremely appreciated.
Many thanks in advance.
<Thank you for sharing. Increase, mix in more sand when the system
restabilizes. Bob Fenner>
Re: Choosing a S. American Exotic 1/15/18
I finally got some Uaupesi Apistogramma.
<Nice! Apistogramma uaupesi is, I believe, the Apistogramma 'rotkeil' that had
some popularity a few years ago. Do bear in mind this is a true soft water
species (Rio Negro habitat) and a bit of a 'hothouse flower' so a Discus-style
environment is what you need for success. As with any dwarf cichlid, so watch
your water quality, including nitrate. Any nitrite or ammonia will kill them,
but even moderate levels of nitrate, 20 mg/l, are enough to cause serious health
issues in the long term. In other words:
don't skip water changes, and don't overstock the tank! If you have a pair, you
do want them breeding, but ensure plenty of caves, including some only the
female can enter. Otherwise, the male can be a bit hard on her, and you
don't want to be stuck with a lone male! On the plus side, once they're breeding
you should be able to sell the youngsters easily -- these are very desirable
fish! Cheers, Neale.>
Stringy white poop, many deaths
I've been having a bit of a problem with my Dwarf Neon Rainbows
and I'm at a loss at this point. I'll start the story by stating that
through the whole ordeal ammonia and nitrite were zero, nitrate was less
than 5, water
changes were done weekly at least and whenever else I thought they were
needed. I ordered 9 online nearly 2 months ago; 3 males and 6 females
all came alive but covered in ich. I was expecting ich, so they went
into a 10 gallon quarantine tank equipped with a cycled filter off an
established tank. I raised the temperature to 86-87 and after 2 days all
ich was gone but I left the temperature up for a week or week and a half
just to be safe.
All fish initially ate well. I fed almost exclusively frozen foods
(brine shrimp, Spirulina brine shrimp, bloodworms, daphnia, etc. I had
over 10 varieties) with New Life Spectrum, Hikari Micron, and Sera Onip
fed on mornings when I was running late. After a week the male that got
picked on a bit developed dropsy overnight and died within a couple
days. Now, after having a bad experience at a local fish store with
internal parasites I automatically treat all the fish I get. I treated
with General Cure first (has never proven effective at treating internal
parasites for me but it's proved useful for other things, so I use it
before PraziPro) and during
that treatment, one of the males stopped eating and developed white
stringy poop. He was like this for a few days before he began breathing
very heavily then died. I researched and researched and everything came
internal parasites. I used PraziPro and at some point fed Hex-Shield
(which I had forgotten I had) and the remaining 7 all had nice red poop.
Yay! Or so I thought.
Some number of days later a female got white stringy poop, stopped
eating, began breathing heavily, then died. Down to 1 male and 5
females. More research and forum exploration led to Hexamita or Malawi
bloat. A Hexamita recommendation was to feed food soaked in Epsom salt.
Everyone but one female ate. The recommendation for one that doesn't eat
was to squirt the Epsom salt mixture down her throat. I figured since
she would die as soon as she got to the heaving breathing stage anyway
there was nothing left to lose. I filed the tip off a syringe I got from
the vet, gave her some Epsom salt mixture, and the white poops stopped.
Yay! Other recommendations were to use metro, so I ordered that just in
case. I did it once more and then it was time to pack the fish up for a
move across the state.
All rainbows survived the initial trip but the one female died the next
day. They were kept in the ten gallon QT for a few days but since the
remaining ones all appeared healthy and I really needed the tank off the
floor, they went into a 20 high. One male and four females left. None of
my frozen food made the trip. A relative lent me a cooler she swore was
incredible, yet all my food turned to mush. Everyone got stuck with
Repashy and pellets since finding pet stores here is hard, but at least
that made looking for healthy red poop easy. The remaining 5 fish were
all healthy in the new place for 3 weeks until the other day. One day a
female was suddenly breathing heavily and bloated with white stringy
poop. She didn't stop eating before then and none of the other fish,
minus the initial dropsy case, had bloated before death. Now, I had been
feeding pretty heavily because it kept them from decimating the shrimp
population while the plants grew back (a bit of melt since they got
packed up days before the move), so I fasted them. I was gone the entire
next day and didn't look at my fish at all. Yesterday I counted 3
females and 1 male. The shrimp were picking at a small piece of white
meat, the Hypancistrus was part way out of his cave (very rare).
Clearly, the female was turned into a meal.
I'm at a loss as to what to try next. Your key leads to Malawi Bloat
since there's no fungus or wounds appearing on the fish, but they aren't
cichlids. They've been treated for internal parasites and every time I
think everyone is healthy another comes down ill. What is there left for
me to try? I have one male and 3 females left. They look healthy and the
poop is healthy but I've learned that can change overnight.
<Hello Sabrina. Like you, my gut reaction here (if you pardon the pun)
is that we're looking at Hexamita or some similar intestinal parasite.
While you have used Hex-Shield, this is a "good" food rather than a
While it contains vitamins and minerals essential to good health, it
doesn't contain Metronidazole, which is the medication you want here. So
that's where I'd be going. Something like Seachem MetroPlex, for
Epsom Salt is often used alongside Metronidazole because it does help to
reduce swelling and constipation, but it isn't a medicine _per se_, so I
wouldn't expect it to treat this problem as it is. Squirting Epsom salt
into a Rainbowfish sound like a non-runner to me, more than likely
causing severe osmotic stress even if the experience doesn't harm the
fish psychologically. Ideally, use Metronidazole alongside a reliable
antibiotic, Nitrofurazone being particularly popular among aquarists. If
you have some other antibiotic kicking about, I dare say it'd be fine
though. At the same time, do ensure a number of other things. Firstly,
lots of oxygen; secondly, appropriate water chemistry; thirdly, a varied
diet with some fresh greenery (gut-loaded brine shrimp are handy); and
fourthly, keep nitrate levels as low as practical. Hope this helps,
Emperor Angel twitching head and scratching.
Thank you in advance.
I have an Emperor Angel and Powder Blue Tang in quarantine for 2 months
The powder Blue has been fine the whole time no signs at all but the Emperor has
been scratching and shaking his head. Both fish showed no signs to begin with
and both eat well, the angel was in hyposalinity (1.009 ) at
LFS so I continued it with both fish for the first month.
<... this is a very low spg. This exposure alone might explain the Angel's
At the end of the month I started to notice the Angel flashing and twitching his
head so I thought maybe velvet (thinking that the Hypo had kept it from getting
bad) or Flukes. I read that fluke should also have died in Hypo so I
treated with Quinine Sulfate for 2 week at 400 mg per 10 gallons.
<And the Quinine drug could be the cause here as well>
The first week was in Hypo at 1.012 and the second at 1.015. The fish eat well
the whole time with no issue, the Angel seem to stop flashing (or it seemed) but
at the end of the treatment I noticed it start up again. I now did a couple of
water changes to bring get ride of the meds and bring the water to 1.020. AT
this point the Angel was still scratching and shaking its head so I thought
maybe flukes and treated with PraziPro for 20 days with water
changes and new meds every 5 days. I has some rock in the tank which I removed
half was through the PraziPro treatment since I was still noticing the Angel
scratching and thought maybe the organics on the rock was keeping the PraziPro
from working. All Treatment is over now for about 3 days and I have the tank at
1.025, I have not noticed the angel scratch but I still notice that it shakes
his head and goes into the bubbles on the airstone. I am waiting to see if he
scratches, but more difficult without the rock but I did add some PVC for them
to hide in.
I am at a loss as to what could be causing this,
<Likely... nothing pathogenic here>
they both have been eating well the whole time and seem to get along. The power
blue has not shown any
sign at all the whole time and the Angel has not had any spots or other symptoms
other than the ones mentioned. The tank was already established (it had a pair
of clown in it) so no cycle, I did notice a small ammonia spike in the first
week from going to Hypo to quickly but it recovered quickly ( I managed that
with Prime). The tank is only 33 gallons both fish are about 3.5 inches so I
don't what to leave them in quarantine too long but can't add them to my reef if
there is a problem since I will never get them out.
Any ideas could it be a little aggression from the angel maybe or is there
something that I am missing I didn't treat for. T really don't want to add
<Were these my fishes, I'd be moving them to the main/display system. With this
amount of time in hypo, the medicine exposure, they are likely pathogen free
externally. Bob Fenner>
Re: Emperor Angel twitching head and scratching. 1/14/18
Thank you for the quick response and the reassurance that I wasn't missing
Re: Betta fish sick - Bubba. help?
ah snails... I see.
update: I just decided to upgrade to a 5 gal tank. used Poland spring
<Mmm; don't know what this is "made of"... Treated tap would likely be
currently heating it up so I can put him in. just starting a nice clean
environment. I made sure to use the existing gravel, but also got new
I tested my water now & I'm back to 0ppm
Re: Major problem; acrylic crack
Thank you for your email replies. Now that you’ve seen the pics do you concur
with my repair plan?
<As stated already; yes I do. >
Do you think I’m taking way to big of a risk?
<Mmm; hard to guess for sure, but not likely much of one>
Have you seen similar damage successfully repaired?
Thank you so much
<Certainly welcome John. Bob Fenner>
Re: Major problem 1/13/18
Bob I can’t thank you enough for your prompt replies and advice. Have a great
<You as well mate. B>
Re: Oops.. forgot to ask.. 1/13/18
Oops.. forgot to ask.. 1/13/18
Hey Bob. In regards to the acrylic patches I plan on welding them down with
Weldon 16. Do I need to scuff both surfaces before applying the weld or leave
<Just leave smooth John... They will REALLY weld right on... B>
Re: Betta fish sick - Bubba. help?
thanks for ur reply!
I'll try daily 50% water changes w.o touching gravel, etc. poor fish!
re: Betta fish sick - Bubba. help? 1/13/18
and, yes he was a young fish when I got him. an elephant eared
Dumbo Betta (: I think he could've had a parasite. it was weird. one
time I got an Anubias plant.. I didn't realize when I purchased it but
it wasn't the best condition. maybe something infested the plant and got
into my tank because there were some small white/yellow teeny eggs when
I took it out. weird!
<The eggs more likely a snails>
regret! could be a mix of things. hope he makes it alive. I'll do the
daily 50% water change like you recommended. thanks.
Research on Things to do in Australia
My name is Janet and I’m a writer at Your RV Lifestyle. I was doing
research on things to do in Australia and just finished reading your
wonderful blog post:
In that article, I noticed that you cited a solid post that I’ve read in
https://australianmuseum.net.au/fish-and-fishes I just finished
writing a guide that is even more detailed, updated and comprehensive on
the 100 Best Things to do in Australia. It is over 10,000 words and
packed with practical tips and advice. You can find it here:
If you like the guide we’d be humbled if you cited us in your article.
Of course, we will also share your article with our newsletter
subscribers and followers across our social platforms.
Either way, keep up the great work.
<Will look over and post the link. Thank you for your efforts. Bob
Betta fish sick - Bubba. help? 27 megs... 1/12/18
Esther; Pls re-send your msg. w/ a file size a few hundred Kbytes.
re: Betta fish sick - Bubba. help? 1/12/18
hi! sorry, this was my message:
<Ok. We have to limit file size for two principal reasons, dinky storage space
by our ISP, and slow download rates while out traveling at times>
my name is Es. my fish is sick! he's been sick since November. it all started
with a black dot on his mouth area. then it spread to his top head.
<Unusual... such "blackness" is generally a matter of response to poor water
quality (e.g. ammonia burn), neural damage (generally traumas) and some
parasites... Is this genetic change here? Is this fish very young?>
now fast forward to today, underneath his mouth is turning white! like pale,
lacking color. in Dec, parts of his fins started to become thin and rip. his
gills underneath are blackish. he's a Betta fish in a 2.5 gal filtered,
heated tank (80F).
I tried Kanaplex and dosed 3x but it killed my nitrogen cycle! (
started it end of Aug, had my fish since then). didn't seem to work. also tried
the All-In-One Remedy Marineland medicine where you drop it in the tank. I'm
trying to feed less bc ammonia levels are around 1.0ppm.
<... need to be 0.0... I'd have pre-made new water available, be switching out
half daily without touching the gravel or filter media, feeding VERY minimally>
i don't know what he has and would love any advice or feedback. please see
<Nothing attached. Try sending emails to yourself to assure their attachment. IF
the files are very large, upload them elsewhere and just send links along>
everyday that goes by, he's on the gravel more. but he still moves around, just
doesn't seem as curious. he is still eating, surprisingly. I don't want to spend
a ton of money and would LOVE to find the REMEDY! are you
able to help me save him?
<You've got to get the ammonia down...>
let me knew your thoughts...
Thank you very much,
Worried, helpless girl
<Try the water changes for now Esther. Bob Fenner>
Re: Brackish moray ID 1/12/18
Nice to hear that your winter is warm, I hope this is good for your
<I don't think they care. It's the same temperature in the house and
their tanks all year round.>
Sorry for the bad quality of the film. I hope to borrow a better camera
later, to take a better picture of my eel, or a cell phone with a strong
<This would be good. Maybe we can get a proper ID instead of just
In any case, if my eel is actually an Uropterygius micropterus as I
assumed, it is already 20cm maybe more, so I guess it's near adult (not
baby eel anymore), as maximum length of this species is 30cm (according
So, if it's really U. micropterus, then we confirm what Fishbase said is
correct (that it is both brackish and marine). It also seems to be happy
in its 1.008 sg aquarium, and are very docile in temperament, it is very
friendly with the E. rhodochilus and G. polyuranodon, no aggression
<Good to hear.>
When I am back to Sumenep, I'll ask Mr. Eko in which part of the river
he captured them: Was it at the river mouth, or further inland, did he
used a submerged trap or did he picked them up in shallow waters. This
way we could have some more info about the habitat of the eel.
<That's a good idea. Most of such useful information is lost with
export, it's great you are close to the source.>
Too bad this species is not so common as pets, as I think this eel could
be one of the easier ones to keep. It is not as pretty as E.
rhodochilus, G. polyuranodon or G. tile, but it is not so hard to feed
and not so shy, mine seems to spend almost as much time swimming outside
the pipes as waiting inside. It also does not run away from my hands
when I am cleaning the aquarium, interesting eh?
<Yes, especially since Uropterygius species in general are reported to
spend most of their lives hidden in rocks and mud, but to be honest: not
much is known about the behavior of members of this genus at all.>
Well, thank you and have a nice day!
Best Regards, Ben
Major problem. Acrylic crack 1/12/18
Good morning to you all and thanks in advance. I bought a 750 used acrylic tank
from Bill Wann in Wisconsin (I assume you’ve heard of him?)
<Saw him give a presentation a couple months back at the Aquatic Experience in
last week. The tank was shipped uninsured via freight carrier.
When I finally got it home after picking it up I took the wrapping off it to
discover a damaged area.
The damage is at the bottom edge of the right side panel where the overflow is
glued to the side wall. Hopefully the pics I provide will be sufficient for your
<Is any part of this impact discernible by touch inside or out?>
I plan on welding a 1/2” acrylic patch to the inside and outside of the area. I
was thinking that the inside patch would be actually 2 pieces of acrylic at a 90
degree angle so I can weld it to the bottom as well as the side panel. The major
concern I have is that the shattered area spreads across both sides of where the
overflow is welded to the side panel. Basically that means I have to split my
inside patch on both sides of the overflow wall. If I patch correctly do you
think I’ll be ok?
<I do hope so. What you describe is the route I would go also>
The tank is 1” acrylic all the way around. It’s 10’ long, 4’ front to back and
<... IF it were me fabricating this tank, I would have sized up to 1.25" thick
cell-cast acrylic... Even with a good job of top bracing there is going to be
noticeable bowing here>
It sits on a custom 2” square stock steel stand. Thank you so much for your
assistance and opinion.
<Please see our file size requirements... Folks are sending WAY too large
images. Bob Fenner>
Part 2 major problem 1/12/18
Sorry guys but the first message wouldn’t allow me to attach more pics of the
<Because you've exceeded our overall ISP storage. Argh!<>
Here they are. I also forgot to mention that the crack is on the inside and
doesn’t go all the way through. I’d say it goes about 3/4 of the way through the
1” panel. I also plan on shooting some Weldon 4 into the crack as well as the
<Good. I would do this as well... tis the reason I asked re being able to feel
the damage. B>
I mentioned in my first message. Thank you.
Odd parasite or injury 1/11/18
Hi! I have a Pleco (I honestly am not sure what breed) who is
about 15 years old.
<Likely Pterygoplichthys species of some sort -- by far the most common of the
"Common Plecs" in the hobby.>
I rescued him in 2010 from a foreclosed on home in the middle of the Las Vegas
summer. The previous owner had left a fish tank in his home in a living room in
front of uncovered windows. For several months I would jog past this place and
see the tank and decided to ask the bank if I could remove the tank, not knowing
there was a fish in it still. It’s a miracle he was still alive.
<They are tough fish, that's for sure!>
The original owner’s children informed me he was almost 8 years old.
<Nice. They can live a long time, given good conditions, easily well over 20
Needless to say this fish has bonded to me.
<It's lovely when these Plecs become tame. They're so shy otherwise, and
reportedly nocturnal, but once settled, they'll come out during the daytime. My
Panaque is right now at the front of the tank begging for food. If there was
anyone else in the room, or any noise, she'd be inside her cave hiding away.>
I have had no idea that a fish could have such an awesome connective
personality, he sits in my hand, follows me from one side of the tank to the
other and greets me when he sees me come home from work.
He even plays soccer with me with his own little aquarium soccer ball that he
also sleeps on.
The problem is that he got a spot on his nose a few months ago and I treated the
water with a multi-purpose fungus and parasite treatment. It didn’t go away but
didn’t seem to get bigger. Then one morning it had a weird transparent mushroom
bubble looking thing growing out of it.
<Understood. Bubbles or blisters under the skin are a sort of injury, with gas
or liquid collecting underneath the skin, creating a sort of bubble. Sometimes
they're caused by supersaturation of the water with oxygen. This almost never
happens in freshwater tanks, but is slightly more common in marine tanks. Either
way, it's caused by ridiculously too much aeration, so that too much gas
dissolves in the water, and for some reason it comes out of solution inside the
fish, rather like when you open a can of soda-pop and the bubbles all fizz out.
The bubbles cause substantial damage to nearby tissues, and can develop into
visible bubble-like growths just under the skin. Anyway, toning down aeration
helps, and eventually the "gas bubble disease" fixes itself. Now, if the bubble
is fluid-filled rather than gas bubbles, we call it a blister, and these are
usually caused by a bacterial infection. They can respond well to anti bacteria
treatments. The fact the bubble is around the snout suggests some sort of
physical injury, such as the gravel being too sharp, and catfish generally are
particularly prone to these odd problems because they rest with their nose,
whiskers and belly on the substrate. So unlike other fish, which float, they're
more prone to becoming scratched and/or infected with bacteria living on the
substrate. It's more or less similar to what we'd call Finrot, and might be
treated with the same medicines. But I'd also recommended reviewing the tank,
cleaning the substrate as thoroughly as practical, and ensuring that there's
nothing rough in the tank that the catfish might abrade itself with.>
I treated his tank again and it fell off or went away and he seemed happier.
Then a month goes by and now there’s a new one there and the first one is back
and is red like it’s full of blood. I have done so much research and can’t find
any information on it. Can you give me some suggestions as to what this is and
what I should do?
<Do see above.>
My buddy is in his senior years and I want him to continue to be healthy and
happy. I feed him zucchini and algae wafers (which he doesn’t eat, he prefers
the zucchini). I once gave him a piece of mango which he promptly spit out of
the tank at me so mango is a NO! Spinach just became a rotting tank plant, so I
supposed I have a picky eater. I named him Old Greg. I love him so!
<Do try some other foods to vary the diet. Algae wafers will be eaten, but also
offer slivers of white fish and shrimp, bits of mollusk such as cockles and
mussels, sweet potato, cooked or canned peas. A lump of bogwood may also provide
useful fibre for Plecs of all types, even those that don't actually digest wood
(as Panaque spp. do) and merely consume it while rasping away at any algae.>
Thanks for your help!
<Most welcome. Neale.>
Aquarium Service Business; ALS Ops Man.
Dear WWM Crew,
Fist I would like to thank you for running such a comprehensive site.
Its amazing, how much insight is here.
<Ah, welcome. Much time, effort of collected/directed interest>
I have been running an aquarium pond service biz since 2007 and recently
took it full-time. I am always trying to learn more and build better
With that being said, I have been searching for some content that was
mentioned in this post. (Our old service company's Operations Manual)
<Oh; I am the originator of same>
Do these documents still live on the website?
<In parts, yes. Most of it is presented as articles on the business
SubWeb of WWM:
"<Oh yes! Our old service company's Operations Manual is placed in
sections of the WWM Business SubWeb... AND am in the middle of writing
an introduction piece for Al Connelly of TFH re this part of our trade,
my history/experience (Aquatic Life Services)>"
<<Oh! Yes... heeee! >>
Hello Bob. Aquarium Service Business 1/11/15
I have been having ongoing chat with James G who has been kind enough to
give me info about my fish store start up I'm thing of doing in Toronto
<Ahh; good to get vendor info. for sure. I also have some friends in the
trade there that you might benefit from chatting with. Oh, and will be
there in May giving a talk at the CAOAC>
James said that perhaps you might be able to offer some insight into the
tank maintenance side of the business as I am very interested in looking
at all sides of the business and earning as much as I can before I
<Oh yes! Our old service company's Operations Manual is placed in
sections of the WWM Business SubWeb... AND am in the middle of writing
an introduction piece for Al Connelly of TFH re this part of our trade,
my history/experience (Aquatic Life Services)>
I have few questions for you and please add any insight you can as I am
still learning what questions to ask about this.
<Sure; helps me to organize my thoughts for the above>
How do you find your clients.
<Best by referral from previous work; a decent presentation on your
website... NOT via ads in directories. Sometimes through your store
through requests for help with/installs, moving... BUT the "big"
accounts (installs of tens of thousands, hundreds of dollars a month and
more ongoing) don't come through LFS>
What is the rate that you charge per hour to have this maintenance done.
<At least 35 US/hour for actual work, 50/ supervision, 100 for
consulting, two hour minimum... paying the service staff (or yourself) a
percentage of the labor charge... thirty some percent to start... A good
deal of the rest will be taken up by "indirect labor charges"... taxes,
insurance, licensing... You'll see>
What is the average amount of time spent doing a maintenance per call.
<Counting loading up, travel, on-site, clean up and
ordering/paperwork... an hour minimum, more often 2-3>
How often would you see a client over a month on average to do this
<For marine systems, once a week or more... Freshwater; depends; but
usually once a week>
Do you charge by test or item done or just by the hour.
<Two basic types of accounts: Inclusive (all included: tests, foods,
salt, livestock...) and non-inclusive; billing the customer for all.
NEEDS to be done in writing; via account folders (you'll see the forms
we used at ALS on WWM>
How do you bill for this work.
<Monthly; we sent a billing statement and pay envelope via USPS>
Not sure but do you also sell fish and coral.
<We sold all products and services to do w/ ornamental aquatics>
Would you have any in sight to tank design.
<And fabricated up to 2" acrylic, had glass, cabinet work made by
others... sold tens of millions of dollars worth over the years
Well that should get our conversation started.
<Heeee! I'll say!>
Thanks for your time Bob.
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Current Aquatics LLC
Aquariums | Ponds | Water Features
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Re: Brackish moray ID 1/11/18
Warm greetings from Indonesia. How's Germany today?
<Warmest winter I remember.>
I observed the eel and see no visible dorsal fin that starts above the
gill opening. So there is a possibility that this is an Uropterygius eel
instead of a G. richardsonii or E. rhodochilus?
<If you don't see said dorsal fin on the eel in question, but you are
able to see it on your Echidnas, the mystery moray likely belongs to the
genus Uropterygius (Anarchias would be another option).>
<Sorry Ben, I can't make out any detail in the vid, it's too dark and
blurry. You should use some additional light source when taking pictures
Thank you and Best Regards,
<Have a nice day.>
Nuisance algae......or is it?! 1/11/18
Hi guys, been using WWM for at least 15 years now and always recommend it to new
and experienced Aquarist alike.
Now I need some help though please. My 200gallon reef tank is about 18months old
and has always had good pH (8.1 to 8.2), temp (26oC), alkalinity (8-10dKH),
calcium (400-450ppm), magnesium, etc etc. My nitrates are always virtually
undetectable but exist and my phosphates the same but show 0 on my Salifert test
kit. I have a Tomini tang, purple tank,
magnificent Foxface, 2 Percula and 1 Chromis. Also several conch, sand sifting
stars, snails, etc although no hermits.
I have different macro algae in my sump
<On an RDP light schedule I hope/trust>
and skim a nice cup of brown off every few days (Skimz mini 1000 skimmer).
I have a hell of a lot of turnover within the tank (2 x Maxspect gyres xf250 on
lunar tidal cycle & 3 x all pond solutions synced powerheads putting out around
8000lph each on full. I also use an Ecotech L1 as my return pump set to about
50%). I have 2 main 180w maxspect r420rs on my DT and 1 x 60w r420r on my sump
on alternate settings.
About 5 weeks ago I added some reeflowers white sand stuff and boom (!!!) I get
the outbreak that can be seen in the attached picture. Do you think this
is diatoms, Cyano or dinos??
<Most likely BGA, does it feel slimy? Have a look under a scope... Cyano lacks
If I turn over my sand then the brown
<Brown? This looks red in the pix. Might be something else. Again, READ on WWM
re ID... iodine test, simple viewing under a moderate power microscope... will
appears back within hours and is now starting to spread on to my rock work.
<... can't tell w/o high resolution. The rock looks like a nice encrusting red
in the photo>
I need to know what it is to try to combat it. I have performed all the general
mitigation measures such as reduce feeding, increase flow, reduce photoperiod,
increase amount of macroalgae but it doesn't appear to be shifting. Any
identification and/or advise you could give would be very gratefully received.
<Uhh, read here:
and the linked FAQs files above>
I have also put a pic on of what my sandbed looked like before this outbreak!
<This looks like Cyano...>
Yours patiently, Martin Gorton
<Cheers. Do please write back w/ your further observations, efforts/effects. Bob
Re: Invasive polyps; clav. 1/11/18
Thank you for your answer, not the one I was hoping for but at least now
I know what I have to do !
<Cheers Thierry. BobF>
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
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Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
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Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
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Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
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Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
- Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes,
Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers,
Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine
Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving,
Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals,
Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control,
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Treatments & Pests:
Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention,
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