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Thalassoma rueppellii (Klunzinger 1871), Klunzinger's Wrasses (2). One of the few "klunkers" from the Red Sea. To eight inches maximum length. Formerly and often still misidentified as T. klunzingeri. Gulf of Aqaba.
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Updated 12/9/2018
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Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Sara Mavinkurve, Wilberth Gamboa, Earl Clay III, Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Lynn Zurik, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized daily
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Scorpionfishes: Lionfishes & Much More for Marine Aquariums
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner

I'm back in the hobby! Query re stocking, mixing sand gobies      12/9/18
Gentlemen,
<And ladies...>
It's been a long time for me - but, I'm back in the hobby in a much
smaller
way.
<Ahh! Welcome back to the fold>
Used to follow threads on your website faithfully.
I have a 45g AIO tank with a Rainford Goby. He's cute and active - but really can't keep up with the sand sifting that needs to be done.
Question: Would it be wise to add a Golden Head Goby - or would there likely be too much territorial fighting? I realize each tank (fish) is different - but, in general is this a bad idea?
<They'd likely get along fine, but if it were me, mine in such a size, shape system, I'd go with either two Rainford's or two Golden Head gobies. More interesting behaviorally.>
Thanks
Gene
<Welcome! Bob Fenner>
Re: I'm back in the hobby!     12/9/18

Thank you so much. That seems like a wise recommendation. I’ll get another Rainford.
<Cheers Gene. BobF>

Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca)     12/9/18
Hi Neale,
How are you?
<All good.>
I have come across and interesting and seemingly rare puffer for sale. Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca).
<Does turn up very occasionally in the UK trade, mostly at the stores specialising in oddballs; I've seen them at Wildwoods for example. A second variety, known as the Golden Milk Spotted Puffer, is also traded, which may or may not be a regional or colour morph of the same fish.>
I have a tank available in my fish room. I can't find much at all by way of information about this fish?
<Very few people have kept it. I haven't, for a start!>
I saw you made brief reference to this fish in a PFK article.
<Yes.>
Do you know much in terms of care requirements?
<Very similar to the standard issue GSP, though potentially much larger, up to 30 cm. Much more peaceful towards its own kind though, but still a fin-biter, so tankmates should be chosen with care. Might work okay in a jumbo reef or FOWLR system alongside suitably punch, fast, and robust fish such as Sergeant Majors and Damselfish that would hide among rocks when resting. Otherwise very undemanding; hardy, euryhaline, eats all the usual meaty foods. Wild fish probably consume a lot of algae, too, so stuffing some Spirulina flake into, say, mussels would be a good way to keep their vitamin levels topped up.>
Also is £140 an OK price?
<About right. It's never cheap, but is very beautiful.>
Thanks!
<Hope this helps. Neale.>

Musk turtle      12/8/18
Hi, I wonder if you can help me please? We have a musk turtle hatchling and we have got to go away for a day and a half.
I have no one to turn the UVB light and the heat light on would it be better for me to leave them both on?
<Leaving them both off would fine for a few days, assuming the house doesn't get freezing cold. Alternatively, an inexpensive timer at the mains socket end of the lamp's power cable can be used to switch such things on and off without problems.>
Thank you
Sharon
<Most welcome. Neale.>

Water Level Issues      12/8/18
Hello, my name is Joshua Bishop, I work at a public library with a 660 gallon saltwater aquarium. I have a low water issue with our sump tank.
The level is so low that with the protein skimmer on, not enough water makes it to the filters to be redistributed to the aquarium.
<?>
Would I be able to use a small amount of fresh water to raise the level?
<Yes... am surprised... that there is not some sort/make of AWT (automatic/automated water top-up/off) system employed here>
The way our filtration and water change system is set up, I have to change 150 gallons with 45 pounds of salt at once and it takes two weeks to fill the water change tank.
<Is this... due to a limitation on production of RO... DI... water? I'd use some of this water every few days to top off your 660 gallon system. Do you have a hydrometer, other means of measuring specific gravity? Use this as your guide, and/or mark the level in your (transit volume) sump (with a marking pen), and simply add the treated freshwater to keep this level up>
Sorry if I left some pertinent information out. If you require any additional information, please let me know. Thank you for any assistance you can provide!
Joshua D. Bishop
<Am very glad to assist you. Are my comments clear? Please use your search tool with the string "automatic water top up system" to look for what I'm referring to here. IF you have room, I'd have/install one here.
Bob Fenner>


Re: Water Level Issues       12/8/18
Sorry about the photo size. I appreciate your advice. Thanks again!
Joshua D. Bishop
<Very glad to help. B>

Hairy crab in my refugium      12/7/18
<Hello Kim>
I found this little hitch hiker crab in my HOB refugium today. I'm assuming he's a "bad" crab since he's hairy, but I wasn't sure how bad...
<Hmm... depends on how you define "bad." Just about all crabs have at least some capacity to be destructive, even if just by virtue of roaming about, knocking things over. There are many, many species of crab which appear "hairy" and they are not all of the same genus or even of the same family.>
moment he's about the size of a nickel. Can you ID it?
<I can ball park it. It looks like something in the Pilumnidae family and within the pilumnus genus.>
If it helps, the live rock was from Florida.
<Oh!! In that case, I think it must/might be pilumnus sayi or "spineback hairy crab." See here:
https://www.sealifebase.ca/summary/Pilumnus-sayi.html >
One forum member said it was a Xanthidae crab but that seems to cover a pretty broad category of crabs.
<Xanthoidea is a "superfamily." Thus, such a label does not narrow the ID down much.>
[image: 20181206_154743.jpg]
The display tank is a FOWLR with no fish yet, just cucumbers, hermits, snails, and one sea urchin that hitch hiked in. It sounds like there's a few mantis or snapping shrimp of some sort that hitch hiked in as well but I haven't been able to catch any yet with my pest trap (only caught one hermit crab 2x in one night when the trap wasn't even baited).
<Haha! Good luck!>
How much damage would this guy do in the display tank?
<Hard to say - depends on how big s/he gets!>
Is it safe to leave him in my HOB refugium, or would I risk him making it into the display?
<If he gets hungry/restless, he might it out and into the display.>
If I left him in my refugium (or maybe moved him down to my sump), would he wreck my pod population?
<I don't think so, but these sorts of crabs tend to be opportunistic predators/scavengers. So, if there isn't anything else to eat...maybe.>
He's such a cool little dude I'd hate to get rid of him...
<So keep him - feed him. Or, set up a separate system for him.>
But since I have a goby, a few wrasses, and a mandarin on my eventual stock list I need all the pod generation capability I can get!
Thanks!
~Kim
<Cheers! - Sara/Sihaya>

Re: positive fish ID    12/6/18
Mister Brenner,
<Close enough>
thank you for your swift reply and coming from you sounds as good news...some more pictures just in case you see something you dont like....
<Yes; mainly the downward tilt of the snout is what leads me to believe this is a juv. Black Tang. BobF>

Re: positive fish ID    12/6/18
Mister Fenner,
just have a more detailed picture maybe....are the markings a tell?
<Same resp. B>

Thanks, Neale! 10 gal. FW set up     12/6/18
This missive is for Neale, especially.
<Hello!>
I have a 29g FW aquarium but wound up setting up a previously retired 10g as a nursery when my Albino BNP pair became prolific. More than 100 surviving fry later (!!!!) Laddie and Lassie were separated and their progeny re-homed. Since it was already up and running, I decided to do something with the smaller aquarium, and your article about 10g tank stocking caught my eye
(http://www.wetwebmedia.com/Stkg%2010%20gal%20FW.htm).
<Cool.>
The 10g already had an Eheim Liberty 200 and prefilter, so I added 6 pounds of sand, moved a couple large Java fern over from the 29g, added floating plants, and then 11 Galaxy Danios and 5 Salt & Pepper corys purchased from a not-very-local LFS (6 hour round trip drive!). As per your information I did reduce the water flow of the Liberty to a trickle and all the fish seem to be relaxed, yet active. What fun they are to watch!
<Nice to know. It's well worth toning down the flow rate of some filters when using them in smaller tanks. Many of the fish we keep actually come from ponds, ditches, creeks, and other places with minimal water flow. So long as water quality is maintained, a gentle water flow can be just the right thing for these fish.>
WWM is a place I return to frequently, not just to research problems, but to educate myself about all aspects of aquarium and pond husbandry. Thanks to you, Neale, and the Crew for all you do!
<And thank you for these very kind words.>
Fuzzi
<Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Hi Bob. Below link to my question. any guidance welcome. Algae resistant coating    12/6/18
Bob
I found an article claiming siloxane is toxic but I don't yet have full article. I'll send you what I can get.
Siloxanes are in the glue that holds aquaria together, so I am a little skeptical.
Newer technology involving "nanoparticles" may be more plausibly toxic.
More, later. Please let me know if you learn something ASAP because I plan to set up my tank this week.
Best,
Peter
<I'd not use this product. BobF>

Re: help     12/5/18
my poor dwarf puffer died yesterday....I'm so sad. it is still a mystery how he got injured.
<Indeed. Time to reflect, think about stocking options, compatibility between species, etc. Use this as a learning experience.>
but he just couldn't heal
<Sad to hear.>
oh well, thought i would let you know.
<Thank you for sharing. Good luck with the remaining fish! Neale.>

Re: Red algae ?     12/5/18
Thanks Wil so grateful for this site.
Thank you
<Welcome Cathy!>
Cathy Napoli
<Wil>

Positive fish ID     12/5/18
Good evening Sir, This is Dirk from Pattaya Thailand
<Hey Dirk! Reminding me of the Dirt Hash there now!>
Hi guys just spend lots of money buying a Black Tang online from a supplier not so local to me but local enough to get my stuff back if he swindled me....
Can anyone confirm that a black tang in juvenile stages can have that much white in his from body or did he deliver me some sort of hybrid scopa? He claims he contacted his supplier and they claim it will turn black in time?
<I do think this is a juvenile Z. rostratum; mainly from the bend in the snout. You can see my pix here on WWM: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/zebrasom.htm
The white will go, and the rostratum will grow longer w/ time/size>
Please advise...Urgent as I would like to confront the supplier here with some positive (or negative IDs) from experts in the field...
<Don't think this is a Scopas. Bob Fenner>

Re: Goldfish Urgent Help Needed    12/4/18
He died last night
<Ahh>
What can I do to save his friend? He is ok now but I guess the water is bad.
<The same as previous sent, test kits, water changes... no flake food>
Should I take him out?
<The dead fish, yes; the live one, no; unless you have another established system of size to place it in alternatively. BobF>

Pea Puffer Weight    12/4/18
Hola, Crew! Thanks in advance for your help and advice - y'all are awesome!
<Thanks for the kind words.>
Hope you can give me some advice re: my pea puffer (Carinotetraodon travancoricus).
<Sure.>
First a little background. I have a three gallon Walstad-type tank, heavily planted with Mayaca fluviatilis, with Pellia covering about 1/3 of the substrate. Floating plants are Salvinia, duckweed, and giant duckweed.
Also lots of ramshorn snails. I originally set up the tank to grow out the Mayaca for pea my other tanks. Once that was accomplished, here was this well-cycled, heavily planted tank with no fish, kinda boring.
<So some might say!>
I love pea puffers, so after doing my research I concluded it would be ok to keep one in this tank. Of course once I decided this, no one had them in stock, despite the fact that they had been plentiful a few months ago.
Finally I found one at my LFS. It was extremely skinny (emaciated really) but looked otherwise healthy so I brought her home. I *think* it's a female, although it may just still be immature.
<Agreed, the blue squiggles around the face of the males can work, but isn't always reliable.>
So, into the tank she went, along with a pea-puffer-sized portion of live blackworms. This was about six weeks ago. In spite of the fact that I have never seen this fish eat, she quickly became quite plump.
<Good.>
She has obviously been doing quite well chowing down on the blackworms and snails. In fact I am wondering if she may be too plump, which would be bad for her health.
<Not really. I mean, gross overfeeding puts a strain on the filter, and if the food is protein-rich or fat-rich, then there's a risk of the same sort of problems you'd get overfeed a cat or dog. But fish don't need daily feeds, so skipping feeds is an easy way to slim down a plum little fish.>
She has definitely put a dent in the snail population, and it seems that the blackworms have established a small yet thriving colony so she can graze on them whenever she likes.
<Understood.>
My question is, do I need to intervene here?
<Interesting question. On the one hand, if you stop adding food, and let her graze naturally, she should be fine in terms of health. But on the other hand, there's a definite problem with the tank if snail and worm
populations are burgeoning.>
Should I remove some of the snails, etc?
<Some periodic reduction of the population size might be healthy, yes.>
Or would it be ok to wait until she has decimated the snail and blackworm population on her own, and then commence feeding her appropriate portions?
<This, too, could work.>
And is this blackworm/snail combination a balanced diet for her?
<Pretty much.>
I should mention that I have tried supplying other foods (soaked freeze dried krill, etc) but it just winds up feeding the snails and blackworms.
<Inevitable, really.>
I do make sure to feed algae tablets to the snails to make sure they are "gut loaded".
<Wise.>
I want to do my best for this little gal, so your advice will be much appreciated!
<See above.>
Oh, forgot to mention - I do an 80% water change every 5 - 7 days. Thanks again!
Joanne
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>

Red algae?    12/4/18
Hi crew
<Hi Cathy>
Could you please help with an ID on this red algae it is a solid firm jelly mass that showed up in my sump looks harmless just want to make sure. It floats hasn't attached to anything doesn't seem to have branches at this stage, the side on my hand is smooth the side you can see has little lumps.
It's growing slowly only noticed it a month ago when I moved things around and it floated out.
<Looks like Botryocladia sp. Please read this link: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/redalgidf4.htm>
Thank you
Cathy Napoli
<Glad to help. Wil>

Flowerhorn not eating and kok is deflating         12/3/18
Hello crew and thank for any help you can offer me.(
Yesterday my Flowerhorn stopped eating and I noticed his kok was becoming soft and deflated.
I had changed 75% of his water on 11/25 and when I noticed the problem yesterday I changed 75% again.
<A good start.>
I also noticed that the area around his anus is reddish and it seems like he has been rubbing it against decorations (I can see a little tissue damage to the area).
<Red tends to indicate at the least inflammation, and at worst, bacterial infection. Medicate as per Finrot, using a reliable antibiotic rather than salt or tea-tree oil.>

I feed him twice a day with cz help in the morning and xo ocean free starry at night( he is a Thai silk). The water parameters are ph 7.8, ammonia 0, nitrites 0, nitrates 20, hard water 200ppm. I have well water and I treat it with prime when I do water changes. The only thing different lately was that he ate a guppy I fed him last week.
<Well, that was a mistake. Never feed live fish! Too risky. But that said, to suddenly cause sickness this rapidly is unusual.>
Right now he is 6” and he is in a 20gal tank but I am setting up a 75gal tank for him and I’m just waiting for the canister filter to be delivered.
<Move him to the bigger tank as soon as practical; better water quality will help, and 20 gallons is much too small for an adult Flowerhorn.>
I almost forgot, I added 1 tablespoon per each 10gal of Epsom salts and I did the first general cure treatment yesterday as it seems that it can be intestinal related. Any help you can offer is much greatly appreciated.
<An antibiotic, alongside Metronidazole, would be the best move here. Ensure optimal living conditions -- including more space and hard, alkaline water. Good luck! Cheers, Neale.>

Hi Bob. Below link to my question. any guidance welcome.
Applying a chemical prep. to aquarium insides to avoid pest algae growth         12/3/18

https://pets.stackexchange.com/questions/21960/can-i-use-hard-surface-protectant-to-prevent-algal-growth-on-my-aquarium-front-g
Thanks for your time
Peter
<Got me; but I don't think this will work. Better by far to focus on setting the system up correctly, doing regular/needed maintenance, and strive to keep (pest algae) nutrients low by not over-feeding, adding fertilizers, using competitors and algal predators. See WetWebMedia.com re algae control for your type of set up. BobF?
Re: Hi Bob. Below link to my question. any guidance welcome.         12/3/18

Thanks. I'll let you know how it goes.
Okay. Please send all such petfish matters to me/us at Crew@WetWebMedia.com
BobF

Goldfish Urgent Help Needed         12/3/18
Hi - I have a gold fish that has had swim bladder issues. I have a 40 gallon tank with 2 goldish who are about 7 inches each.
<Okay>
We went away for Thanksgiving and when I came back my ornamental goldfish Superfish was super bloated and hanging on the bottom of the tank.
<... Fed what?>
I went to the store and they said my ammonia is too high.
<What sort of filtration do you employ on your 40 gal.?>
I had changed the water and the filters when I got home and apparently took out all of the good bacteria.
<Happens. Do see WWM re goldfish et al. system maintenance, water changes.
Best to not change out more than abut 25% per week, WITH pre-stored treated or not new water>
They gave me some bacteria to put in the tank - and I have also put Epsom salt in the tank. I tried feeding them peas but he has not eaten anything for days.
<Better to not feed when/if ammonia is present>
He is now on his side barely breathing and my heart is breaking. Is there anything I can do?
<Do you have ammonia, nitrite, nitrate test kits? I would get and use simple colorimetric ones. NOT feed flake foods...>
Thank you for your kindness,
Trish
<Very glad to try, help you and your ailing fish. Please read here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/gldfshmalnut.htm
and search on WWM (tool on every page) for "goldfish ammonia burn". Bob Fenner>

Constipated turtle      12/1/18
Hey folks! I was hoping I could get your opinion on something.
<Sure thing!>
My red eared slider has/had a bit of shell rot, which I treated with iodine and an anti-fungal creme.
<Understood.>
I took her to a vet, even though there are no herp vets here, I just took her in because they have a lab, and I wanted her poop tested. Which they did, and they told me she apparently has too much fiber and starch in her poop. They told me nothing else useful, didn't give any kind of diagnoses, just told me that's bad and that I should only feed her animal matter, no plants.
<This is, well, wrong. Red-Ear Sliders are omnivores in the wild, with adults predominantly feeding on aquatic plants. They should indeed be producing lots of faeces, which would indeed look quite fibrous. Of course starchy foods, such as cereals, probably shouldn't be given too often, as these aren't a natural part of their diet. Better to focus on cheap aquarium plants (such as Elodea) as sold for Goldfish system, alongside pellets and small bits of seafood. ReptoMin isn't bad at all, especially for hatchlings, though it is a bit protein rich, so as the turtle gets older, it should be given less often. Koi pellets are a good, cheap staple.
They're plant-based and readily taken by hungry turtles.>
I tried doing that, and now she's constipated.
<Indeed.>
Probably this just layered over the fact that I was dry-docking her because of the fungus and only put her in water for about an hour every day.
<Right.>
She hasn't pooped in over a week, and now she WON'T eat any plant matter.
I'm not sure what to do now.
<Turtles often can't defecate unless placed in room temperature to slightly warm (i.e., not cold!) water, so that might be one factor. A protein-rich, fibre-poor diet will cause problems too.>
Even if taking her to the vet again was in any way useful, which it probably wouldn't be, it is now very cold, so taking her anywhere is very risky, especially since I don't have a car.
<Correct.>
Anything I can do?
<Placing the turtle in slightly warm (18-22 C) water should raise its metabolic rate a bit, and with everything ticking over nicely, its gut muscles can push the faeces out better. In cold conditions this doesn't happen because the muscles become inactive. I would check the tank has no gravel in it -- very occasionally turtles swallow gravel, and once inside them, it can cause serious blockages. An x-ray is the only way to check for this, but "prevention is better than cure", so don't combine turtles with gravel. Beyond these, simply increasing the fibre content of the food, and scaling back anything likely to cause constipation, such as dried shrimps, should be avoided.>
I've been keeping her in water mostly warmer than her usual temperature in hopes that it'll relax her insides and she'll rehydrate, and I tried putting a bit of olive oil on her food, though I'm not sure if she actually ingested any.
<Worth a shot, though!>
So far, no poop. Would human laxatives make a difference?
<Possibly, if you stuffed something like bran fibre into some small piece of seafood the turtle would swallow whole.>
Though I'd be scared of trying to force-feed anything because of the risk of it going in her lungs instead.
<Quite so. Force feeding animals is extremely risky, and shouldn't be attempted unless you've been shown what to do by an expert. With cold blooded animals, which have much lower food requirements than mammals, starvation will take many weeks, even months, to become a life-threatening danger.>
Any help would be appreciated.
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

Article about Coral Reefs        11/30/18
Hello there,
<Hey Anna! Have read over, and will link. IF you have time, interest in a bit more of the science, there is a book by J.E.N. Veron, A Reef In Time, publ. in 2009... and the editor in me would like to add that the plural of zooxanthella is zooxanthellae. Thank you for your efforts. BobF>
Amazing job on your page http://wetwebmedia.com/StressinLPSArt.htm you have on your site really great stuff!. :) I've recently written an article Coral Reefs Around The World Are In Grave Danger. Here's What's Happening and was wondering if you thought my article could be a good addition to your page.
I have published it on this site, please take a look https://moboxmarine.com/blogs/mobox-marine-blog/coral-reefs-around-the-world-are-in-grave-danger
I would like to hear your opinion on this article. Also, if you find it useful, please consider linking to it from your page I mentioned earlier. Please let me know what you think. :)
Thank you very much,
Anna.

Re: Fahaka teeth problem    11/29/18
Thanks Neale!!
<Most welcome.>

Re: help    11/29/18
thank you all for your reply and assistance.
<Welcome.>
I believe my puffer was somehow in the wrong place at the wrong time and got nicked by activities from the catfish which is a fairly large (4-5" long) and pretty lively in the tank.
<Possibly, but Ancistrus are very placid, and it's extremely unlikely they'd "suck onto" the flanks of a healthy pufferfish. Otocinclus sometimes do this, and occasionally common Plec varieties, particularly
Pterygoplichthys spp., will latch onto large slab sided fishes. But I've never seen or heard of Ancistrus engaging in this behaviour. Their ecological niche is quite different to either the Otocinclus or the
Pterygoplichthys. I'd keep a very open mind about this explanation.>
He likes to go under a log and move it around and makes the glass gravel smack against the tank. So i believe Neale was right to say he was accidentally a victim.
<Perhaps.>
So you listed using some kind of antibiotic to help with the wound and the puffer's healing properly.....do you recommend a brand and type? how is it administered? Or do you think it will heal on its own?
<Something like KanaPlex is a good first choice, or the old Maracyn 1 and Maracyn 2 combo. Outside of the US, a reliable antibacterial, such as eSHa 2000, could be used instead. Avoid bogus cures such as salt, tea tree oil, or anything else that sounds like it cures everything. Follow the instructions on the packaging, most being dosed per gallon, and used across several days. Remove carbon from the filter. It's also a good idea to up the aeration a bit.>
TIA
<Cheers, Neale.>

Emperor Angelfish with PopEye    11/29/18
Hello,
<Hey Michael>
I reaching out to you because my beloved emperor angelfish needs help. In the last month he developed Popeye in his right eye, I believe it is an injury.
<Yes, a physical trauma>
Last week the swelling in eye was improving, about half way back in the eye socket. But now over the past two days it has swelled up bigger than before, and even worse there are three little air bubbles in his eye. I’ve had this fish for 5 year and he’s between 9-10ins long.
<It is reaching its maximum size to swim freely in a 240gal tank and it may be bumping with the rockwork or side panels of the aquarium>
I follow proper quarantine procedures and have parasites such as ich. Also he is not stressed out, he's the dominant fish and still eating well but has trouble lining up his food to his mouth.
<It is caused by a lack of complete peripheral vision>
What do you recommend I do?
<Read http://www.wetwebmedia.com/Popeyetrauma.htm and the related links.>
Tank details
240gal with 100gal sump
7 year old system
Ph 8.0
Ammonia 0
Nitrite 0
Nitrate 0
Thank you,
<You´re welcome Michael>
Michael Walton
<Wil>

Can't get enough of that funky WWM stuff?
Link to: Last Few Days Accrued FAQs

Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
  • Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:, References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography, Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public Aquariums,

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