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Atriolum robustum Kott 1983. South Africa to
New Guinea, Philippines. Small urn-shaped zooids of about an inch
in height. Large and few oral siphons. Most are rust-orange or
greenish shades. Often confused with Didemnum molle which
has much smaller oral siphons. Color due to the endosymbiotic algae
Prochloron. S. Leyte 2013 |
size download & Link to Archived Marine Daily Pix
Other Specialized Daily FAQs Blogs: Freshwater,
Brackish, Last Few Days
Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Nate Guerette, Rick Novy, Bobby
Rudro, Jordan Stari, Sue Garrett, Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Sabrina Sharp, James Gasta, Eric Russell, Chris Perivolidis,
Lynn Zurik, Chuck Rambo, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved
about, re-organized daily
Current Crew Bios., Not so current Crew Bios
Small Marine Aquariums
eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums
Book 2: Fishes
eBook on Amazon: by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums Book 3: Systems
eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
| PLEASE: Write reviews of my works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF
Issue with my Black ghost knife fish
After reading through your website about issues with Black ghost knife
fish, I feel contacting you is a good thing to do.
I did a water change and cleanup in my 400 liter freshwater tank
yesterday, and today my black ghost is acting strange.
<Mmm; how much clean up and percentage water may be the issue here. Best
(per the SOP on WWM) to do these frequent, partial (no more than a
quarter, 25%) change outs... WITH stored, pre-treated water. Municipal
sources nowayears can be highly variable>
Yesterday he (as most, i don´t know the sex of the fish, but it´s a he
to me) was fine, he hanged <hung> around his tube, doing his black ghost
thing, he ate well (feed him red frozen mosquito larva and some
pellets), and he seemed happy.
Today he is swimming just by the surface, as if not being able to
breath, he wont eat and it´s worrying me. Only thing that comforts me is
that he still has a great color and the "coat" isn´t showing any signs
of any diseases.
<Again; my guess/bet is that the root here is the cleaning, new water>
Regretfully, I haven´t got anything to be able to test the nitrate or
After a water change, can the water change so drastically that nitrate
can appear in less than 24 hours?
<Not usually much increase; no>
I know a black ghost isn´t an easy fish to care for, but I must´ve been
doing something right because he has been with me for at least 2 years
and he is 35-40 centimeters long.
My apologies if any replies from me is slow, and if my description isn´t
the best, but English is not my first language. (Am from Sweden)
<I understand you perfectly.>
I hope you can help me, for I have nowhere else to turn to right now.
Thanks in advance for you help
Best Regards, Malin Norberg, Sweden.
<If it were my system, Apteronotid, I would do nothing at this point...
No medicine/s, water treatments will improve the situation. Only time
going by will help. Bob Fenner>
To sanitize or not sanitize?
Background: I have a 50 gal freshwater tank (with a 70-gal canister
that happily housed three goldfish until we moved about a year ago.
When I set up the tank again, I struggled with water quality
issues/bacterial infections (I assume, based on the symptoms) and
ultimately lost the goldfish.
<Yikes; am wondering what the cause/s were here>
I know goldfish have their challenges--which is why when I decided to
start again with new stock a few months ago, I went for tetras to start.
Things were stable for a while, then I started losing them with similar
symptoms: general lethargy followed by difficulty swimming, no signs of
external parasites. On advice of the local aquarium shop guys, I treated
the whole tank with a broad-spectrum antibiotic to try to kill whatever
bugs were lurking.
That worked until a few days ago, when another tetra died following a
similar pattern. This is getting to be pretty crazy-making for me, and I
imagine the fish aren't especially thrilled either.
At this point, I'm contemplating breaking down the whole tank and trying
to sterilize everything, which brings me to my question: should I?
<Possibly; do have some fish-friends come by and look... am wondering if
there's something toxic in your system. Perhaps a geode... or metal
And if so, what method would you recommend to make sure I really, really
get all the bugs--
<Bleach washing... here is an SOP:
The same procedure applies for sterilizing a complete system. DO read
through this thoroughly and get some help... Take CARE to not splash
bleach on you or the surroundings>
because the only thing that might make me crazier would be going through
that monumental effort and then having the problem crop up again.
Final note: current stock is 7 tetras, one angelfish, water parameters
are good last I checked, and I do 25% water changes every 2 weeks.
<Ah, welcome. Bob Fenner>
Planted tank glass cover; poss. blocking light
I have a 58 gallon oceanic planted tank. I need a replacement glass
cover which is unavailable as the company is out of business.
<Mmm, you can buy the glass and cut it yourself, or have a glass
business do this for you. They can also show you how to Silicone some
hinges in place and handles to lift the front>
I have a 36" aqua light with 2 96watt compact fluorescent bulbs that
sits directly on top of the aquarium edge.
I am considering replacing the glass top with 1/8" pyroceram glass which
resists heat. I think it would be safer. Pyroceram glass also blocks UV
light. Will this be a problem for a planted tank?
<Could well be... I would use cheap float glass myself... or you can opt
to leave the area where the light fixture straddles the top with this
glass area open>
<Wc, Bob Fenner>
listing; Hobbyist SW info. site
Would you be able to add my website to your listing? I have been running
the site for about a year now. My url is http://www.livecoralreef.com
and the site name is LiveCoralReef. If you could add it that would be
<Will look up your site to determine where it should be placed in our
links and do so tomorrow>
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Mini Carpet Anemone 7/21/14
Earlier today I did a routine partial water change in my 100 gallon.
<Mmm; the water was pre-mixed, stored ahead of time? We've had a spate
of "water change" queries, both fresh and marine...>
Everything was as it always is after a water change and acrylic
scraping, all shiny, clear, and pretty. So this evening I notice that
the water had become cloudy and there were many, many tiny white spots
floating everywhere. The spots did not appear to be swimming like "bugs"
might and the royal gramma was not chasing them like he would if they
They have lessened now and the water is less cloudy, but while all this
is going on I notice something going on with the two mini carpet
anemones that share a rock up high in the aquarium. In the more than a
year that I have had these two, one green and one red, I have not seen
them do this: Green was secreting long white streams of stuff. I am
guessing it's not poop since the royal gramma ate one of the larger
streams that floated by him.
Green seems to be finished with his business. Now, at the same time, Red
is secreting tiny brown irregularly shaped pellets of something, I am
guessing poop. No one is eating what he's secreting. They are coming
from a tiny opening in his center. Oh my gosh, I just went to take
another look to see if Red was still pooping, and I'll be darned, he
shot out a huge amount of these pellets, like a volcano erupting!! Those
white spots that are everywhere are coming from Red! This has been going
on for a good hour or more. What do you think is going on and why
haven't I seen this before?
<Sounds a great deal like reproduction to me>
P.S. he just did it again!
<Do keep your eyes on all... I'd mix up and keep ready as many gallons
of new water as you can; as well as a back up of chemical filter
material (GAC). Bob Fenner>
RE: Mini Carpet Anemone 7/21/14
Wow, that's kind of cool. So you think like male (Green) and female
(Red), anemone version of eggs and sperm?
I will do as you suggest, change the filter media (I use Chemi Pure
Elite and bags of GAC) tomorrow, and change some water the next day,
using the water I mixed up this morning.
By the way, I think I was wrong when I said no one was eating Red's
I noticed one of the pajama cardinals hanging close as though waiting
for the next batch to be expelled and the cardinals appeared to be
eating too, in their corner of the tank.
Might I find baby anemones in the near future?
<Mmm; not from sexual union in aquarium conditions; no>
Thank you Mr. Fenner,
<Certainly welcome. BobF>
Sail in discoloration. Tang beh., no info.
My sail<f>in tang has sudden gotten weird looking. One side of his body
is almost white and the other side is getting large areas turning white
none of it looks raised so I don't think its rich.
Any ideas would be appreciated .... its hard for me to get a picture of
him. He is also seeming to want so swim in front of the filter outtake
and not eating as well as he usually does.
<... could be many things here... water quality, fright... You offer no
real data. Read here:
scroll down to Zebrasoma... behavior FAQs and onward. Bob Fenner>
Baby goldfish color change age?
My 2 largest and oldest baby goldfish are going through their color
changes. (Largest one in the lower right of the picture I sent.) What at
what age do pond goldfish usually go through color changes? Thank you.
<A few months. B>
Thank you Bob! :)
Thalassoma quinquevittatum; stkg., sel.
I would like to know if three of these would pose a threat to a group of
6 gramma loretos already established in a 160g fowlr system.
<Not likely a threat unless the former were very big, the latter very
small. This Thalassoma is even more energetic than the usual members of
the genus... really zooming about. You'll want a "quiet end" (stack of
high rock) for the Grammas to hide out in>
Would one or two be better instead?
<Likely so... especially if all started small... 3-4"... with just one
"turning into" a male>
My goal is to see the color changes exhibited by the male wrasse. (I
can't select a male since I live in the USVI
<Oh! Am headed out to St. Thomas next week... to do a bit of diving>
and order directly from a stateside wholesaler.) The smallest loreto is
1.5" and the wrasses will be ordered as "medium."
Also, is there any snail that would work?
<Not any that I'm aware of... too likely to get flipped, eaten>
Thanks. Your service is invaluable.
<Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Re: Thalassoma quinquevittatum
Thank you, Bob. I'll try two wrasses rather than three. The rockscape
has two dense areas and dozens of small holes that the loretos
use--endlessly fascinating. I'll rely on my three tangs, my two dwarf
angels, and my cleanliness to control algae.
Ha, I am on St. Thomas. It would be a kick to meet you.
<Oh! Will be at Megan's Resort 7/25-31... Would you like to go diving
with use? How to contact you? Via this email I take it>
I'm sure you have a full agenda, and I'm having the dreaded dental
surgery next week--plus the new fish arrival on Thursday evening.
However, toss me a line if you like. Maybe there will be a gap in
Cheers, back atcha,
Re: little worm in freshwater tank
Thank you for your reply, I'm relieved. Than i go and replant my tank :)
<Most welcome, Neale.>
Reef tank to FOWLR tank: Can I use spring water instead of
Hello, first of all thanks for all the knowledge you share with us, I
have literally cancelled weekend activities to continue reading! I have
a 2 year old reef tank with Caribbean fish, invertebrates and
softies/lps corals. Have had no tank crashes and I kinda now my way by
now, checking parameters
often and doing frequent water changes. I want to switch to a FOWLR tank
to be able to have other fish species, and also to have to test for less
chemicals (make it less time consuming). Right now I always use RO/DI
water. My question is: Can I use spring water for the new FOWLR tank
instead of RO/DI?
<Mmm; depends... on what exactly IS "spring water"... MANY companies
filter, collect... and label such products. NOT a standardized item. But
to answer directly; you can (yes) likely use this for aquariums>
(Of course treated for Cl and chloramines first). I spend too much money
on cartridges (expensive in Mexico). If so, what parameters would I need
to check in that spring water to see if it's viable for marine
<Ahh! Good (the) question: Alkalinity, calcium and magnesium mostly>
And what are the "acceptable ranges" for those chemicals/silicates/heavy
<Zip; not measurable with hobby kits for metals; Si compounds I wouldn't
be concerned re>
The reasons for wanting to do this are (am I right?)
1. Maintaining a high DKH (8-12) and Ph (8.2-8.4) would be easier and
maybe with no need for additives or buffers. (I add baked baking soda
daily to my reef to keep ph and dKH in range)
2. No need to spend money on cartridges and resins, no time investment
on changing them.
<Ah yes; I understand and agree with you>
I know the downside is the high phosphates and probably silicates which
will fuel algae, but I was thinking I could control this with low
lighting or no lighting when there is an algae bloom?
<Or a number of other methods>
Also keeping my nitrates in 0 dosing a carbon source and/or a
<Either or both... but I would be testing your source and system water
over time first and foremost>
What do you think, is there a way to do this?
<Oh yes; a few ways>
Thanks a lot for reading my novel haha I really appreciate it.
<Thank you for sharing. Nos vemos, Roberto Fenner>
Re: Reef tank to FOWLR tank: Can I use spring water instead of RO/DI?
Hola Roberto Fenner! Thanks very mucho for your response ;) by spring
water I mean water that is pumped from the underground (my city,
Guadalajara has a lot of underground water).
I've heard this water is really good quality and mineral rich since it
is naturally filtered, my questions are:
1.Why should I check this water itself for Ca/Mg, if the salt mix will
<The added biominerals in the source water may drive an imbalance in
alkalinity among other disproportion>
(I would use Instant Ocean) Do you mean that if there's too much it will
add up to the salt mix and get out of range?
<Can, could; yes>
3. If piping is made of copper, would small traces of it affect marine
<Could; but in actual practice, this is rare. IF the copper piping is
new, and/or there's been a good deal of construction... shaking the
pipe, making new "faces" for chemical, physical interaction; there can
be "pulses" of free copper. Again, very rare>
4.Part of the project to migrate to a FOWLR, other than being able to
keep non-reef species, is to simplify mi life, would I still need to
continuously check/dose Ca/Mg as I do in my reef or would 30% monthly
water changes be enough to maintain acceptable levels?
<Possibly... I would check, do the water changes weekly... And do READ
re such matters as supplementation... there are a few options here>
(since this levels would be decreasing daily until the next water
Thanks again in advance, and may I recommend, scuba diving in Holbox!
<Ah yes... was just talking w/ some folks re diving there, in the
Yucatan a few days back>
It's near Cancun and you can swim with the beautiful shark whales, in
July or August, it's really paradisiacal.
<Te recuerdes y tienes razon!>
Hector from Mexico (no era penal)
<Roberto al norte en San Diego>
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands,
Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
- Set-Up 2: Filtration of All
Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps,
Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
- About Livestock: Regional Accounts:,
Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths,
Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
- Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae,
Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges:
Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ
Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms,
Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
- Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes,
Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers,
Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine
Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving,
Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals,
Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control,
- Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms,
Treatments & Pests:
Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention,
Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health,
Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... &
- Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:,
References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography,
Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public
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