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Scorpionfishes: Lionfishes & Much More
for Marine Aquariums
Diversity, Selection & Care
New eBook on Amazon: Available
New Print Book on Create Space: Available
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Note: RMF is out dive traveling 12/9-17; hence the dailies may
Red Eared Slider Turtle 12/16/17
<Hiya, Zack. Darrel here after being away for a while>
I read through what seems like the entirety of your website's turtle content,
and I learned a whole lot! If possible though, I really think myself and my
turtle friend could both benefit from direct communication.
So (rather long story) I recently found a Red Eared Slider turtle on the side of
the interstate that had been hit by a car (presumably).
I know I probably should have left him alone but when I saw that he was alive I
couldn't help but "save" him.
My mother works at a vet clinic and had spoken previously of turtles that had
been hit and brought into the clinic, patched up, and sent to a wildlife rehab
facility. This sounded perfect, however when I brought him into the clinic, they
said the rehab facility was full for now, and that they would have to put him
down unless I wanted to care for him. Obviously I chose the latter option, and
here we are.
Timeline and info:
I found "Okie" Saturday November 18th. He had a crack in his shell (top and
partially bottom) right around his left front leg. The crack begins an inch on
either side of the leg and goes around in a 1/3 circle shape. He was not
moving other than his head, and had bloody puss forming a scab on the crack, but
was no longer bleeding. His eyes were swollen shut.
We immediately got him into the warm car and gave him some water.
Upon arriving home we put him next to a heater to get the temperature to around
He went to the vet that following Monday and received some sort of reptile
antibiotic and had x rays taken (no internal damage was seen).
All during this time we were working with him on eating, but to no avail,
however he has always been drinking very consistently if put in water.
I brought him back into the vet on the 24th for his second antibiotic shot, at
which time I expressed my concerns about 1) his eyes 2) his lack of appetite and
3) his desire to turn left. The vet fed him with a syringe (maybe 4-6 ccs of a
green paste) and recommended beta carotene for his eyes (one drop from capsule
in mouth daily). She assumed the left turning was a neuro issue and said to hope
for the best.
Within a day one eye opened partially and by today (Monday) that eye is 75% open
and he has started to move forward instead of just left.
SO, things are looking up, but my two questions are:
1) I read on your site they can go months without eating. Is this true? I'm
really worried about him not eating, but I don't think he will have a desire to
eat until he can see. Also, with him being a wild turtle, how can I get him to
transfer to pelleted food?
2) Just after today's visit to the vet, he started doing this thing where he
opens his mouth and moves his head forward, about once per minute. Your site and
others seem to say this is very bad. What more can I do? He will
get more antibiotic on Friday.
<First, you're getting good care from your vet.>
<Don't worry too much about eating, they can go a long time between meals and
being hit by a car does depress your appetite>
<Water is good for a soaking, but until he has healed and the cracks have
scarred over don't let him SIT in water... keep him warm and dry with daily
bathing. What I'm saying is that when you are sick (you, me or a
turtle) warm, wet conditions are ideal for bacterial and fungal growth right at
a time when we're not equipped to fight it -- so make sure Okie dries out
thoroughly between baths.>
<The constant yawning can be a sign of many things but in reality none of them
are things you can treat so don't worry about that or about the left turning. If
they are all signs of neurological system damage or just from
the actual injury we're not going to know.>
<Keep him warm & dry and during his baths offer him tiny pieces of beef or
chicken liver (TINY pieces) because they are high in basic vitamins that he
needs. Also try earthworms (available at fishing/bait shops) to see if he'll
bite, so to speak. After he begins eating, by all means transition him to Koi
<Best of luck to you and Okie>
Is my turtle sick? 12/16/17
<Hiya Darrel here>
Lately a lot of things have been changing for both me and my turtle, and though
he appears generally happy and healthy there are some things that cause me to be
a bit concerned for his health.
Most importantly, the tank has been moved from a rather warm place in our home
(the kitchen) to my bedroom. Though by no means cold, it isn't kept the
comfortable temperature the kitchen is kept at. Furthermore, a
water softener was installed (my parents are redecorating on a large scale)
which causes my water to turn a horrid shade of yellow almost immediately. Then
his UV light broke, so he's gotten a new one there as well. For me, I moved back
fulltime with my parents (I have been around only during weekends for years due
to my study). In short, I see a lot more of my turtle than I did before, perhaps
causing me to notice behaviour I did not before and freaking me out. So, one way
or another, I'd like to know if I have cause to be concerned or if I'm simply
<Even paranoids have real enemies>
As for the little guy himself, he appears to be happy and healthy, splashing
fanatically when I'm around, swimming and basking (apparently, he's also on land
a lot more than I realized after lights out, not the best bunk mate). Still
there's also a reason I'm a bit concerned. He has gotten a rather white mouth
(see pic) and is rather nibbling his food instead of gulping it down like a
glutton, or even ignoring it altogether. When posting on another forum someone
mentioned the pink skin could also be cause for concern. I've read the section
on RTI, and
I don't recognize any of the symptoms, other than him sometimes breathing loudly
when surfacing (wouldn't call it wheezing). Generally only noticed in the dead
quiet of night.
<no real red flags so far>
I'm in a small town with generally sub-par exotic pet knowledge, and am on a
(very) tight budget. I'd like to be fairly sure something is wrong before
hauling him in the car and driving him to a specialty vet, but I've had the
bugger for years and I would be very sad to have him suffer. I'm working on
getting access to 'regular' water again, and have turned on the heating in my
room, but is there cause for additional action?
Many thanks in advance,
<Your turtle is 'at home' in almost all kinds of water conditions, so don't
obsess over your water -- if you'd drink it or bathe in it or do your laundry in
it then it's fine for her as well>
<The pinkness is normally a concern but that concern comes with lethargy and a
total lack of appetite, so not now>
<From what little I see, I say the change in climate has put her off her game
for a while. As long as she basks sometimes and swims sometimes and eats
sometimes ... let's just keep an eye on her. When she stops being
alert, stops reacting to your presence, then we'll change some things around --
we'll warm her basking area first and see how that changes things. So write back
when you know more>
Baby res about 2 inches (2 months old) not eating has white
Hi I live in India (Hyderabad) where the weather in Dec is between 66F
<Hiya -- I live in California where it's 80f today>
I have two baby RES both purchased at same time. They live in a 50
Gallon tank with some resting space. I feed them Osaki pellets, drops of
calcium and drops of cod liver oil once a day. – I feed them in a
separate tank. They also get 3-4 hours of natural sunlight (without
glass and other barriers). Also I think they both are shedding skin (I
see some powdery flakes in the water). I change half the water everyday
and replace the entire water two times a week.
One of them which is larger has not been eating much lately.
<If "lately" you mean a few days or even two weeks, do not worry as long
as it appears to be active and alert>
I even changed to a different brand of pellets. Today I noticed a white
slimy discharge when I placed it in the small tank to feed. It wasn’t in
any particular shape but was a bit stringy. Does this mean there is a
<where is the discharge from? The cloaca (the butt)?>
<Tell me this: are they both active and alert an have eaten at least
once in the past 7 days?>
<If so ... keep doing what you are doing and see if things change>
Upside down clam in a rock?
I was looking at the rock in my tank today and found something curious. It
appears to look like it is a baby clam inside down in a rock. It will close up
if you touch it and has some dark siphon coming out of it. This isn't a
hitchhiker as this rock was once dry 7 years ago when I put it in the tank.
Nothing new other than a few inverts today in the past year. Attaching photos
<Don't know if I'm seeing what you're referring to... the bivalve like shells
toward the middle? Perhaps an Arca species. Spat may have come in on other hard
material, water w/ other specimens. Bob Fenner>
Re: And now I have three of them!
Hello Neale and all of you splendid people at WetWebMedia. Greetings from
<And to you, greetings from Berkhamsted, England!>
Thank you for your good info about articles, they are very inspiring. I will
plan my research and the trips accordingly. I hope I will be able to find the
time after the Asian Games.
Through Facebook, I met a new friend online from Yogyakarta (a neighboring
province). He is a fish seller who specializes in FW morays, sourced locally
from rivers in southern part of Java. In fact he kept Strophidon
Sathetes on large FW aquarium for months, as well as other "FW" moray types.
They said that the longest time he had experienced in keeping G. Tile, E.
Rhodochilus and G. Polyuranodon in "freshwater" (freshwater with a
little amount of seawater mixed in) were 2-3 years before those are being sold.
He even mentioned that he once had a white-mouth moray in FW for a few months
before someone bought it from him. This city will be on my list
of "places to visit" in my quest for getting more understanding about FW moray
<Indeed! This sounds like what'll be a great trip. So many interesting things to
learn about freshwater Morays, and you're lucky enough to be able to find out
about them in the wild.>
As for my clown loaches, they're still being good friends with the eels, sharing
their home pipes in peace. I think they looks so cute together, so I will keep
the loaches there for a bit longer. The loaches looks fat and
healthy, and so far still colorful. They often use the long bodies of the eels
as "pillows" to "sleep", ha! But again I am very aware that the water I am
putting them now is not their usual habitat. With that in mind, what are the
sign of "salinity too high" for loaches? Does this include losing their bright
<Possibly. But more likely they'll become skittish, nervous, disinterested in
One thing I noticed is that Mr. Emerson (my largest moray) has been moving this
home pipes around a lot these past few days. He dug the sand in and out under
the pipes, moving the pipes from one corner of the aquarium to
another. So I guess he must be hungry but getting bored with the live river
shrimps and the feeder guppies & mollies.
<Does seem possible. A variety of foods are always a good idea, to round out any
vitamin shortcomings in the foods you've used so far. Squid, white fish like
tilapia, and clams all good options.>
And to think about it, the river shrimps on my aquarium has grown a bit, they're
eating well (they seems to love to eat the leftover body parts of their fallen
comrades, or even their moulting friends),
<Normal. Recycling calcium. They're meant to do this!>
and has become rather large, with long menacing pincers. So, not so appealing
anymore for the eels (I think, do I make sense? What do you think dear Neale? I
think those shrimps are macrobrachium types).
<Many shrimps have larger front claws, so in itself not definitely
Macrobrachium. But on the other hand, Macrobrachium are so widely farmed in Asia
that the odds of them ending up in the aquarium trade is high. I've
even seen them here in England, though the demand for them is not great.
Not alive, anyway! Very delicious when cooked!!!>
So just a few hours ago, I cut up a large, thawed frozen shrimp and threw it to
the aquarium, experimenting, maybe the largest moray would eat it.
And yes, Mr. Emerson opened his jaws very widely and ate the pieces of frozen
shrimp in the manner of a snake. It's very interesting to see how snake-like he
is when eating. And it was humorous to see him sniffing
around confusedly trying to find the rest of the pieces, right after the river
shrimps literally stole the pieces from under his nose, ha! My friends told me
that morays are blind as a bat, they only have the sense of smell and the sense
of movement (they could detect movements). After seeing how easy it is for
shrimps to steal food from under a moray's nose, I believe it.
<Spot on. Indeed, they can be "blinded" by too much smelly food in the tank at
once. Like a bright light blinding a person, I guess, making it hard to see
The other two, Mr. Wakeman (the second largest moray) and Mr. Echidna (the
smallest, my first moray) doesn't seem to be interested in frozen shrimps for
now. I hope they will follow suit soon.
<Quite so. Plus, do offer some white fish as well as molluscs, like clams.
The more variety, the better.>
Well, that's my latest updates for now. Thank you for following my fish stories
and being such a good listener. Have a nice day!
<And you too. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Opaque BTA tips? 12/13/17
Thanks a million for the reply Bob,
I enjoyed your talk at MACNA.
<Ah, thank you for your kind words Dave. BobF>
Coralline issue; ID from pix? 12/13/17
<19 megs of pix? Did you read our requirements?>
Posted over on r2r and they suggested to email you guys and see if you
know what kind of coralline algae this is.
<... Kind? As in species? Not w/o microscope imagery>
Grow supper fast. Grows in to shaded to dark places and is slimy when removed
from the tank or rubbed on in
tank. The one shell pic has been out of water now 9 months been rinsed a few
times in tap water. Here is the post over on R2R about it and what I have went
threw in my tank.
Thank you if you respond and thank you if you don't would understand.
<See, as in READ on WWM re Corallines? Bob Fenner>
Re: Can I write for your site?
You are right. I was thinking at the beginning of the article?
<Do please send along the finished piece, w/ whatever images when you're
Weird invert buried in sand Id help?
I was raking my sand with my Python and I started sucking up one of my Fighting
Conch or tiger conch and it looked like the Conch was attached to this thing or
just next to it Quinta dentley <Coincidentally?> but I thought it was just the
Conch having a really long sexual experience but it turns out it was its own
thing I have no idea what this thing is I do have a bristle worm issue in my
tank but it wasn't near a lot of them and it does not look nothing like a
bristle worm maybe it's some sort of bristle worm machine I don't know maybe you
<Neato! This appears to be a Sipunculid... not harmful; indeed, indicative of
healthy circumstances in your system. Bob Fenner>
Indo-Pacific Lagoon Biotope
Good evening crew!
I'm planning an Indo-Pacific lagoon biotope tank, and I wanted to run my
ideas by you.
<Excellent. I wish more people chose to do biotype setups.>
I have spent many hours so far on the site, can always spend more!
<You can never learn too much!>
First, some information. The tank is a standard 75 gallon, with a 20
gallon sump. I am currently still in the setup phase, having just
added salt water and 100 pounds of fine substrate (around 1.5 to 2
inches in depth). I will be adding around 50 pounds of base rock and
rubble, and an as-yet unplanned quantity of live rock. The rock is
structured into 2 bommies, with plenty of space to hide and swim. The
return pump is a Blueline 30HD-X,rated for 1110 GPH, plumbed to three
separate spray bars in the display tank. I'm using an Eshopps X-120
skimmer, rated for 75 gallons with a heavy bioload. Tank lighting is a
Fluval LED bar, 59 watts at 25000K, directly on top of the aquarium.
Additional flow is created by 4 Koralia powerheads, rated at 1500 GPH
each, two of which are on a Wavemaker, alternating flow.
<So far so good, you have clearly made a solid plan.>
As far as future livestock plans go, I wanted to have a peaceful
community type setup, mainly featuring Cardinalfish. I was thinking
about having a school of 7 or 9 *Ostorhinchus compressus* or
*Ostorhinchus cyanosoma.* The other livestock I was considering was a
single *Salarias ramosus*, <Ah the starry blenny. I have written
interminably about this but I always like to mention what a great fish
these blennies are along with their close kin.
Industrious, interesting-looking, and so much personality. They always
end up being a favorite despite their (ahem) lack of what a lot of
people consider to be beauty. Fascinating behavior will go a long way
towards your enjoyment.>
a pair of *Signigobius biocellatus*,
<Ah the Two-spot blenny, different feeding habits than the other blenny,
more likely to get along due to this. another interesting customer
a pair of *Stonogobiops nematodes* with an *Alpheus randalli*, <Classic
pairing of pistol/snapping shrimp and goby, also interesting to watch.>
or a single *Stonogobiops yasha* with an *Alpheus randalli*.
<Same. I personally would simply go for the Starry Blenny but it's up to
taste and I would not include both options, as you mention.>
I know that in all probability, they cannot peacefully coexist, which is
why the Starry Blenny is likely not going to make the final cut. I have
also been thinking about a centrepiece fish, but have not decided what
it might be, or even if my tank will support more than the cardinals and
gobies. Just today, I learned of the *Calloplesiops altivelis*, or
marine betta, but I believe they might be too aggressive and/or hunt the
<I wouldn't, especially with crustaceans. I don't know that it would go
after the cardinals but may target other inhabitants. It's very
instructive to check Fishbase.org in these cases and see what stomach
contents a fish
has been seen to have. They are also one of those fishes that, in my
experience, like to hang out where they are out of sight. Interesting
animal but not one I'd consider a centerpiece. Many, many choices for
this so definitely look into what kinds of smallish fishes you'd like
that would be a safer bet. Flame Angels might be neat or some other
colorful eye-catcher found in the area.>
Other invertebrates will likely include Nassarius snails. I wanted to
have an area of sea grass or macro, though it is difficult trying to
find regional species for sale. My best bets so far are Sargassum,
Caulerpa sertularioides, Halophilia ovalis (hard to find) or Thalassia
<Will have to look online. I have found some odd stuff via online
A note about Sargassum...I have had it grow quickly, beautifully, then
crash hard and die off and make a mess. Cool to have if you can get it
but keep an eye on it. I got mine on some live rock incidentally. It
worthwhile to consider that if you are after that sort of algae. As side
note, if you plan on a biotype tank, vegetation/macroalgae is mandatory
in my view. It is a key step in transforming your standard "garden
aquarium into a more accurate slice of the real thing. It's omni-present
in nature but how many times have you seen a home aquarium with a
holistic, complete look vs. a someone barren, artificial rock-only
setup? Down the
road, it would be neat if you wrote us with a follow-up with some pics!>
Corals will be limited to a few species, likely gorgonians or
Sarcophyton, probably not both. I would be adding the shrimp gobies and
shrimp first, followed by the cardinals, and lastly the Twinspot goby.
Corals are way down the line, at least a year of stable tank operation
before I add them.
<Sounds great and that slow and easy approach is hard to stick to but
I don't currently plan on dosing anything, though I hear it can be
helpful to dose iron, nitrates or phosphate for the macro. Test kits
will be ordered! Thank you for your time and input, I greatly appreciate
all that you do, and all of the information you have here on WWM. Chris
<My two cents worth (which may be controversial) is to keep to a water
change regiment with decent salt and use that in place of additives
unless you have a very particular reason. Maybe calcium for clams, which
I also recommend as a possibility for your setup. I'm my humble opinion,
many people jump towards additives as a matter of course as if they are
required on the same level as a skimmer or salt. Don't add what you
for and skip a given additive unless you can observe a specific reason
that your inhabitants would benefit noticeably. Hope this is useful!
Opaque BTA tips? 12/12/17
Just saw Bob Jenners talk on Anemones from MACNA via YouTube.
I have several green BTAs that have slowly developed a whitish opaque look to
their bubble tips similar to the photos below.
<Happens at times>
Wondering if this is a sign of ill health or if there is something I should be
doing to correct it.
<Don't know the root cause here, what it portends, but would initiate iodide-ate
dosing and check overall water quality.>
I've kept these anemones for 3 years and they seem quite happy. Never move
around, they have multiplied several times and have the tank to themselves with
the exception of one pair of ocellaris clowns.
They get a single Anemone pellet from Vitalis each once a week.
<I'd up this to one twice a week>
Any reply would be much appreciated.
Re: Can I write for your site?
Good morning! Please see the attached expanded guest post for your
As for the image we can use this:
<A stock image?>
Let me know what you think about this and how you get on publishing it.
<I'd guess we'd insert such free use content in your work where you
think it fits. BobF>
Request for publication rights
Hello Jorge Alfredo,
<Hi, Robert/Bob Fenner>
We are a French publishing house of International field guide of marine
species (waterproof PVC books). You can see them at
We are creating a new one which is on the Canaria zone and we would like
to ask you the publication rights for the picture we found on
We could offer you a book for each photo that we use, and the name of
the photograph would appear on the back cover of the book.
Our company is very young and this kind of arrangements is necessary for
us at this step.
You can have a look at our books on the Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean,
Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Eastern Atlantic and Low Tide on our web
site, you'll see then if its quality is worth your participation.
Our book about the Canaria will be of the same quality.
Let me know if those conditions would be acceptable for you. You can
answer by email at :
<I do grant you use of this Brown Algae photo in exchange for one of
your Caribbean books; please send it to me at 8586 Menkar Rd., San
Diego, CA 92126, USA. Make it known if you'd like the full size file.
Re: Forest fire digi and red digi 12/11/17
I have lots of other sps Acropora millipora lots of Zoas and Palys and a fair
amount of lps torches hammers octospawn etc.
<Ahh, the Acroporas are fine w/ Montiporas, but the Zoanthids... Euphyllias...
are very likely mal-affecting your digitatas... You could try chemical filtrants
(e.g. ChemiPure, Polyfilter), raising your RedOx (via ozone best)... or moving
them elsewhere, to another established system. I'd have you read on WWM, using
the separate terms "Cascade event" and "allelopathy". Bob Fenner>
Re: Forest fire digi and red digi 12/11/17
<Welcome Justin. B>
Re: Dinoflagellates Id 12/11/17
Howdy again. What kind of ozone setup would you recommend for our 300g
aquarium. We will be controlling it with an Apex, with ORP probe.
<Am a huge fan of getting a unit that is "just about right" in terms of
output (a bit tricky... as depends on system volume, biomass,
foods/feeding... and a few other factors. Though I do like/trust Apex as
a make, things can/do go wrong. I have a simple... straight forward (for
me) pitch/article on O3 et al on WWM:
We have been dosing 40ml peroxide for 10 days now our ORP is up to
335ish. When you indicate to keep it high do you mean 400 to 450?
<I'd aim for 400 microsiemens/cm.... and keep it near this or slightly
We have not seen Dinos in a week. We have also noticed that new frags
put on our rock it starts deteriorating in a few days. Ones left on the
frag rack do not suffer this same fate. Prior to putting coral on rack
we dip them in Brightwell Restor, I works really well. Sounds like we
still have something toxic on our rocks.
Thanks for your help and patience.
<Glad to conspire with you. BobF>
Re: Black Ghost Knife fish 12/11/17
Thank you again for your advise.
I will try the Chemi-Pure and a more regular cleaning of the filter.
So many people tell you different things, for me it's very confusing.
<Mmm; don't allow it to be. SEEK to understand the underlying science;
I will let you know the results. Until then Merry Xmas & Happy New Year
<And you and yours. BobF>
Bristlenose ID? 12/9/17
Just wondering if it is possible to ID a Pleco? There are a bunch of these
"Silver Tipped" Plecos at the LFS
Are these the Common Bristlenose or something with an L#?? I have looked
everywhere to ID them online and some people say they are common Bristlenose
that were line bred. Thank you
<Hi Judy. Identifying Ancistrus species is hard. The standard "Silver-tipped
Bristlenose" is (nominally) Ancistrus dolichopterus, but those usually have
off-white edges to their fins, particularly their dorsal and tail fins. Females
can lack these, of course, but on the male these white edges are usually pretty
obvious. Coupled with the lengthy tentacles
on their heads, male Ancistrus dolichopterus are particularly easy to recognise.
That said, I'm sure there are other wild-caught Ancistrus species out there that
are very similar, and it's probably a safe bet that the name "Ancistrus
dolichopterus" is simply a convention in the hobby for any and all species that
have this basic appearance. Ancistrus hoplogenys for example is very similar
indeed. Let me direct to an excellent article over on PlanetCatfish that covers
the thorny issue of identifying Ancistrus species of this general type, here:
On the other hand, the common generic Ancistrus sold in Britain at least is the
species often referred to as Ancistrus temminckii, though quite possibly
something else entirely, such as Ancistrus cirrhosus. This is the sort that
starts off black-grey with bright white spots, and as it grows becomes more
mottled brown-grey, the spots become less contrasty. This type of Ancistrus
generally lacks the off-white edges to its fins, and so looks a lot like a
scaled-down Common Plec. Your catfish seems closer to the 'Ancistrus temminckii'
sort of Ancistrus than the 'Ancistrus dolichopterus' sort, but that's about as
far as I'd be comfortable going! As I say, identifying Ancistrus is notoriously
difficult, there are literally hundreds of species, including some described
under trade names (i.e., L numbers) but as yet not defined as scientifically
valid species. This is even before you think about the (likely common)
hybridisation in home aquaria, though perhaps less common in the trade, where
fancy varieties of Ancistrus has not really been a thing beyond albino and/or
Still, unless the Ancistrus was wild-caught and supplied with a known origin,
I'd rate your chances of identifying a given fish as close to nil, but those
nice folks at PlanetCatfish do have an excellent forum frequented by some first
Blue tang illness 12/9/17
Hello Bob and crew !
It has been a long time since my last contact.
Lately I lost view of my blue tang and today I saw him in a bad condition.
<Eeyikes Thanasis! This poor fish is about eaten away... HLLE is the general
He has lost his blue color and he looks seek. He has not eaten for two weeks at
least. I took a photo of him and I am sending it to you in case you can advise
me what is wrong and if I can help him.
Best regards from Greece, Thanasis
<Perhaps vitamin, appetite stimulant added to the water directly, favorite foods
soaked in it. Please read here:
and the linked files above, and:
And write me/us back with your further observations. Bob Fenner>
Aquatic Experience – Chicago reports successful year with 21%
increase in attendance 12/9/17
Images available for download
Fifth annual Aquatic Experience – Chicago reports successful year with
21% increase in attendance
Show with “everything aquatic under one roof” will make its East Coast
debut at Meadowlands Exposition Center outside NYC in 2018
CHICAGO (December 8, 2017)—The World Pet Association (WPA) is thrilled
to announce a 21% increase in reported attendance at its fifth annual
Aquatic Experience – Chicago, held November 3-5 at the Renaissance
Schaumburg Convention Center. Plans are already underway for the sixth
Aquatic Experience set to debut at the Meadowlands Exposition Center in
New Jersey, just outside New York City, from October 19-21, 2018. For
more information, contact the World Pet Association at 626-447-2222.
At Aquatic Experience – Chicago 2017 a total of 139 exhibitors filled
the thriving show floor, showcasing the latest in aquatic trends and
products alongside local and national hobbyist groups, livestock and
equipment experts, and the industry’s best and trend-setting
manufacturers. The Aquascaping Live! Contest participants competed in
two categories (Nano or Large tank) for $3,900 dollars in prize money.
First place winners in the Large tank category were Brady Kerewich, Phil
Kerewich and Jake Zucker; first place in the Nano tank category went to
John Pini. The 2nd International Shrimp Contest Shrimp King Award went
to Silane Dilwyn Tng, and the grand prize of $500 was awarded to Mario
Toromanovic for Best of Show in this year’s American Cichlid Association
Fish Competition. For a complete list of winners please visit
“Thank you to all attendees who have continued to exceed our
expectations in Chicago every year,” said WPA President Jacinthe Moreau.
“We’re thrilled to be expanding into the East Coast market next year and
to be moving the show to the Meadowlands Exposition Center just outside
of New York City. We already have a great aquatic presence at our
America’s Family Pet Expo and SuperZoo shows in the Western US; this
move expands our support of the aquatic industry across the entire
This year’s show hosted the return of the only traveling sea lion
experience in the United States, Sea Lion Splash; the educational Fish
from Around the World exhibit; an electric eel display; a jellyfish
touch tank; and a Kid’s Aquarium Contest. Guests also learned from
aquatic experts as they attended seminars featuring high-profile
speakers addressing intermediate level information to advanced aquatic
Aquatic Experience – Chicago 2017 was generously supported by: Platinum
Level – Aqueon, Coralife, Kent Marine; Gold Level - Fluval, Hikari Sales
USA, Inc., Segrest Farms; Silver Level - DrTim's Aquatics, Fritz
Aquatics, Industrial Test Systems, Inc., Rod’s Food, Southwest Cargo,
Tetra, Two Little Fishies, Zetlight. Media Partners include: Aquarium
Hobbyist Magazine/Reef Hobbyist Magazine, BlueZoo TV, Pet Age, Pet
Business, Pet Product News, Reef Builders, Reef to Rainforest Media
(Amazonas/Coral) and Tropical Fish Hobbyist.
The World Pet Association (WPA) is the oldest industry organization
promoting responsible growth and development of the companion pet and
related products and services. WPA works to inform and educate the
general public in order to ensure safe and healthy lifestyles for our
animal friends. WPA is the host of America’s Family Pet Expo, the
world’s largest consumer pet and pet products expo, held annually in
Costa Mesa, California. The organization also produces SuperZoo, an
annual pet industry trade show that showcases a comprehensive collection
of exhibits and offers a variety of informative educational seminars,
and Atlanta Pet Fair, the Southeast’s largest competition and trade show
for the professional pet stylist. For more information, please visit
<Outstanding. Will post/share on WetWebMedia.com. Bob Fenner>
Thank you so much!
How to slow air flow 12/9/17
I have the aqua culture 20-60 gallon double outlet aquarium air pump. My
question is, how can you adjust the strength of the pump? I bought it
mainly for an air toy in my aquarium and it is too powerful. I read a
similar question on Wal-Mart's site (questions and answers/reviews) and
the answer suggested that the only way to tone it down would be to bleed
little of the air with a t way connector valve or perhaps a pinhole in
<Yes to the first idea. Get/use a "three way" valve and use the
controllable port to bleed off the excess pressure/volume>
I tried the pinhole idea before buying the valve, bad idea and had to
replace hosing as it stopped all or any airflow.
<... not able to control>
Can I use the T way connector valve to bleed off some air to reduce the
flow strength? If so, how would I connect that?
<The incoming line between the pump and the valve will "line up" with
the tubing going from the valve into the tank... the controllable port
(using the screw valve) that is at a right angle you'll use to drain off
whatever amount of air you want. If it makes a hissing sound, you can
put a short piece of open ended tubing on it or still a pipe cleaner
into the valve port>
Thank you for your time,
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Forest fire digi and red digi 12/9/17
I have these two corals amongst many other and all of a sudden it is
having major effect to light.
I have been running 6 bulb t5 with two reefbrite strips for a year now.
Last two days the coral looks completely fine and the lights come on the
polyps recede and it almost looks like it’s bleaching. I have multiple
colonies of the corals from sand bed to top of the tank and all have
same effect. Weird thing is my blue digi and many other sps and lps
corals are great.
<Perhaps a clue>
No pest that I can see. I did a water change and started running
activated carbon with no change. I’m stumped all parameters are stable
checked and re checked! Any insight would be grateful thanks!
<What are the other coral/Cnidarian species here? Bob Fenner>
Re: Molly coloring or ich? 12/7/17
Thank you for the reply Mr. Fenner
I am not using aquarium salt. Should I be?
<Mmm; IF the other life here can tolerate it... yes>
and if yes on what type of schedule?
<... please read where I referred you>
My tank is a 40 gallon long. One of my fish is a black ghost I know that is
eventually going to be to small but I took him from a friend in a pinch that
took down his tank. My other fish are blood fin tetras and Cory cats.
I thought I read somewhere that black ghosts can't do aquarium salt I know you
will clarify that for me.
<The Tetras and likely the Corydoras are not fans of much salt... Better to
place the mollies elsewhere if you have another cooler water, higher pH, dKH
Also I know you said you can't tell by the photos that it is ich BUT is black
with white spots ever a common pattern on a molly?
<Mmm, yes... there are actual "Salt and Pepper" varieties>
You mentioned that
<...That it is full-bodied and has erect finnage, is out swimming are good
signs>... I am taking it that you mean "good signs" as to the possible health of
the fish and not "good signs" that is probably is ich.
take care. Joe Kerner
<Likely this fish is fine; would be better in a tank w/ conditions that
favor it. Bob Fenner>
About African dwarf frogs and eggs; repro.
So my Male African dwarf must of just turned 9-12 months old and now it
is mating with my 3 year old female.
The have been mating for many days now.
<What happens. Sometimes you even hear the males croak.>
For awhile they only laid 4 eggs 2 were fertile but died. This morning I
looked in my tank and there’s prob about 500 eggs are they all fertile
if so how can you tell if they are?
<By looking, really the only approach is to wait and observe -- after a
day or two, infertile eggs (or at least non-fertilised eggs) will go
cloudy, and eventually rot. A good approach is to remove most of the
eggs to something like a floating breeding trap, so you can see them
more easily. Plastic turkey basters are great for this. As the days
pass, remove any cloudy eggs. Methylene blue is the tried-and-trusted
medication for preventing fungus spreading onto healthy eggs if you need
to optimise your chances of getting big numbers of tadpoles. Cheers,
Powerheads and angelfish 12/7/17
Just wondering if any type of current is bad for freshwater angels? I
have a powerhead here from a while ago and I heard they are good for
cutting down on algae, but I assume that one would have to turn it up
too high for
algae and it seems that not many fish appreciate much current outside
Plecos. Thank you
<Angels don't like current, no. Nor do they like bright light, and they
certainly don't need live plants. So a tank optimised for Angels need
not to be hard to keep algae free, with or without a Plec for company.
with rocks and bogwood, plus a few floating plants up top, and
physically remove any algae from the glass as/when required. So far as
current goes, something like a turnover rate of 4-6 times per hour is
ample, preferably with the flow of water dispersed around the tank
(e.g., with a spray bar) as opposed to a single jet (i.e., the default
filter outlet). Whereas Angels come from deep, sluggish backwater pools
and streams within the
rainforest, Plecs mostly come from a completely different environment,
shallow water rapids and riffles. There are exceptions of course, but
the popular L-numbers tend to prefer, and often demand, cooler, brighter
with a lot more water current and oxygen. Your standard issue farmed
Angels and Plecs are not so picky, and there is overlap if you're
careful, but L-numbers haven't been bred across the generations for
hardiness, and many are wild-caught, and simply must have conditions
close to their natural default. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Choosing a S. American Exotic; Dwarf Cichlid sel.
I found Apistogramma Nijjseni to be an attractive fish. But everyone
recommends 15g and up. I have a planted aquarium. 9g. There is nothing
in there except Amanos and small horned cleaning snails. Would a pair
<Probably. Your two main challenges are these:
Firstly, males can be hard on the females. Apistogramma are not really
pair-forming. Most have what's called a harem, with the male guarding a
territory that can include several females. So sometimes they are
towards young females or females who don't want to breed. After mating
the male continues to guard his patch, but the females often look after
the fry alone. Indeed, females can become so protective they attack the
males! It's therefore really important to have LOTS of caves (half
coconut shells with a couple of holes are ideal).
Secondly, Apistogramma are sensitive to nitrate. In a small tank this
will build up quickly between water changes. Regular water changes are
very important to keep living conditions good.
Hope this helps! Neale.>
Epicystis crucifer 12/7/17
Hi I got one rock anemone Epicystis crucifer and it came so that it sits
in shell so how should I insert in the tank, now it is in small hole in
one rock but it doesn't stay there, the whole shell and anemone falls to
so should I "glue" the shell to rock or ??
<I would just wedge the shell in about the place you want the Anemone to
settle on and be patient. If it wants to move, it will>
Thank you all ready
<Welcome John. Bob Fenner>
Marine Safe Paint 12/7/17
Hello Crew. I have a 155 gallon fowlr tank, and some of my fake ceramic
coral pieces have faded with age. I'm wondering, is there an aquarium
safe paint I can use to repaint them? Thanks in advance for your help.
<Yes; there are marine epoxies that are safe and best for this
Re: Marine Safe Paint 12/7/17
Cool. Do you know of any off hand that I can use? Maybe something at a
home improvement store?
<Would have to shop online or foot... but should have small quantities
at hobby/craft shops. BobF>
December calendar 12/7/17
Here is a December calendar for the WWM. See you later this morning.
<Ah, good. I s/w Pete re 8655 and the fading T1-11. B>
Zebra Moray Question, comp., repro. /Marco
Gabe here. Hope you are well. A retailer reached out to me yesterday about
taking in a pair of Zebra Morays that someone donated to the store last week.
Hobbyist had a small tank and decided to ditch them after buying them as babies
and keeping them for a few years... Shame. They are beautiful specimens. 3.5'
each. I have them in a 90 gallon right now, while I change some things around in
a 180 for them, so please know that they will not be in this small tank for more
than a week or so. The LFS had them in a 40
gallon tank, so I felt obligated to take them off their hands. I can't stand to
see them suffer in a small tank. My question was, because they are a pair, is it
possible they will mate?
<Mmm; I doubt it; but am asking MarcoL his opinion here>
I know that they are hermaphrodites, so at this point I'm not sure the sexes of
them. One is larger than the other, so I was thinking that maybe one has changed
to female in hopes to mate? Not sure. I didn't think that they normally paired
up unless they had plans to mate, but it sounds like these two eels have been
together since birth from the way the LFS put it. Any way to tell if one is a
female/ready to mate? Should I pass this on to Marco?
<I've done so here>
They ate this morning before I ran off to school. Seem happy as of now. I'll
keep you posted. Should have them in the 180 by the beginning of next week.
Cheers-Gabe Walsh WWM Crew
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>
<<Gymnomuraena zebra often don't get along well with conspecifics and have even
killed each other on rare occasions. You are lucky having found two, which
appear to be a pair. Comparable pairs have mated and produced eggs in captivity
(as have some other moray eel species), although the larvae could not be raised.
I am not aware of any moray eel larvae raised in captivity at all probably due
to the long time and planktonic nature of their larval stage. In contrast to
many other moray eels, Gymnomuraena zebra are protogynous hermaphrodites, they
all start as females and the largest ones change to males. If you really have a
pair, the larger one likely is the male and the smaller one the female. When the
females produce eggs they become quite bloated. However, aside that I am not
aware of any other external trait, that can be used to tell them apart. Hope
this helps. Cheers, Marco.>>
Re: Dinoflagellates Id 12/6/17
We base our genus off of a web site WWM recommended. If my diag of
Ostreopsis is questionable, or just flat out wrong, please let me know
what you think.
<Had a few courses in phycology, decades back... but can't remember even
a bit re Dino ID, systematics. Had read this AM re Ostreopsis; one of a
few genera involved in algal poisoning in the wild>
I have learned that different types of dinos can require different
<Ahh, then you know more than I>
The dirty method is to raise your nitrate and phosphate to encourage the
growth of competing fauna that will overtake the dinos.
<Oh! Thank you for this>
Once we have something else, green algae, Cyano, etc we have we’ll know
techniques to fix that. This gets back to us starting with a sterile
tank and had nothing to compete with the dinos.
What is RDP?
<Reverse Daylight Photoperiod. Running a light/dark cycle in a tied in
sump/refugium often aids in stabilization, decrease in pest algae growth
in a main/display>
We are dosing peroxide for our RedOx.
<Hard to keep steady. I'd use an ozonizer if you can afford it>
<Thank you, Bob Fenner>
Re: Black Ghost Knife fish; ongoing... NO3
I read the literature on the web site you forwarded, even though it
mostly spoke of Marine set ups, it did in parts touch on Fresh water and
in part mention the filter system.
That got me thinking do I NOT clean my filter regularly enough? Is the
filter the reason my Nitrate/Nitrite is high?
<Might be a factor; best to only clean/change out "part" of the filter
media at every interval. As an example, if you're using two units of
Chemi-Pure let's say, take out the oldest one and leave the less old
one, adding a new unit>
All most people say is do regular water changes.
I am under the impression don't mess with the filter, clean it when you
notice the flow rate drop, say every 6 months.
<Mmm; no... better more frequently. Like every month for the mechanical
media... the chemical should be switched out/some rotated for new about
this same interval>
I use an Aqua Pro 2200 Canister Filter. The 3 sponges & wool in the
bottom basket, the rest filled with Biohome Standard Media and a tray of
Marine BioBalls which is all suppose to allow for colonisation of
bacteria's and alleviate Nitrate/Nitrite problems with less cleaning
<We had this convo.... I'd remove the BioBalls, use ChemiPure in the
Should I be cleaning the filter more often? Have I got the filter set up
In the tank itself are two air stones (bubbles/water movement), a sponge
filter, an Aquael Turbo Filter 2000 internal filter and I use it with
just the sponge like a power head pointed from one corner of the tank to
the width of the tank so no dead spots (2 Ft..) more bubbles/water
movement, right? Also an Eheim streamON+5000. Optimum water circulation
with a natural, smooth current formation.
<Okay; good to have more circulation, and aeration helps... most
canister filters are deficient here>
There is lots of water movement and aeration in my tank I think Bob, so
is the filter the problem?
<Not a problem, other than the driven nitrification from the bioballs,
but could be improved as I've stated>
Once again, again thank you for your knowledge/ information.
Molly coloring or ich? 12/6/17
I bought a couple of mollies today at my LFS. I was thinking it was natural
coloring for a molly but now I am hoping it's not ich. I attached 3 best pics
they are not great pics but they are the best I took of around 10 hopefully you
can tell me if my fish have problems. Thanks in advance Joe
<I can't make out if this fish has Ich or not Joe. That it is full-bodied and
has erect finnage, is out swimming are good signs. Is the water here alkaline,
hard... are you using aquarium salt? I would ask you to read re Mollies on WWM,
and as much of the Molly FAQs files linked at top that you have time for. Bob
Re: Bacterial lesion on Longnose butterfly? 12/5/17
Thanks Bob. Unfortunately, when I got home from work, the fish had died.
<Aughh! I should have been more emphatic re moving it NOW. >
I hate killing fish! Assuming that it died from a bacterial infection, is there
anything special that I should do with my quarantine tank to make it safe to add
<Mmm; not the system, or quarantine, but the protocol itself for given species,
AND specimens that are better off being "expedited". Not possible, well,
practical to try and relate the vast range of decision making here.
"It" would take reading all of WWM, us chatting for a few days re>
There is nothing in there but a filter, a skimmer, and a piece of live rock. I
assume emptying it and drying out the equipment should help.
<Again; I don't think the issue here was "biological" (pathogenic), but the
species, this individual being "diffed". Bob Fenner>
Dinoflagellates Id 12/5/17
Just looking for confirmation(I hope I’m wrong) that these are Ostreopsis
<Yes to these being Dinoflagellates; by what characteristics do you class them
in this genus?>
I thought I had them beat, didn’t see any for a month, then I saw a few under
the microscope then BAM they are back.
<... only takes one>
I was using the dirty method to eliminate them.
<The "dirty method"?>
Did a water change after a month, and started skimming again.
<I would skim continuously>
We just a got our corals from the WWC sale, really bad time for the dino’s to
come back. I hope the pix/video help someone else identify what they have.
The tank is about 8 months old. I think our problem stemmed from the fact that
we started with fake ‘live’ rock and didn’t have any of the good bacteria in the
tank. Should have that fixed now. Does anyone have a self guided laser that will
<Heeee! You're way ahead of your time>
Have a great day.
<I would use RDP, algal culture in a refugium, high/steady RedOx here as
controls. Bob Fenner>
More than full size pic
Zebra Moray Question 12/5/17
Gabe here. Hope you are well. A retailer reached out to me yesterday
about taking in a pair of Zebra Morays that someone donated to the store
last week. Hobbyist had a small tank and decided to ditch them after
buying them as babies and keeping them for a few years... Shame. They
are beautiful specimens. 3.5' each. I have them in a 90 gallon right
now, while I change some things around in a 180 for them, so please know
that they will not be in this small tank for more than a week or so. The
LFS had them in a 40 gallon tank, so I felt obligated to take them off
their hands. I can't stand to see them suffer in a small tank.
My question was, because they are a pair, is it possible they will mate?
<Mmm; I doubt it; but am asking MarcoL his opinion here>
I know that they are hermaphrodites, so at this point I'm not sure the
sexes of them. One is larger than the other, so I was thinking that
maybe one has changed to female in hopes to mate? Not sure. I didn't
think that they normally paired up unless they had plans to mate, but it
sounds like these two eels have been together since birth from the way
the LFS put it.
Any way to tell if one is a female/ready to mate? Should I pass this on
<I've done so here>
They ate this morning before I ran off to school. Seem happy as of now.
I'll keep you posted. Should have them in the 180 by the beginning of
Gabe Walsh WWM Crew
<Thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>
Re: Achilles Tang 12/5/17
Hello Again WWM Crew,
I received a 3 1/2 inch Achilles from LiveAquaria last Saturday.
Physically the tang looks fine and I placed him in my mature 10-gallon
quarantine tank (no medication administered).
<Mmm; am glad I see your "options" below... I would NOT leave this
Acanthurus here. Too stressful>
As of right now, I am unable to get him to eat. I have tried many types
of foods - frozen Mysis, LRS, Rods, nori sheets, and fish roe. I am
thinking he may be uncomfortable in a small QT? I am seeing 3 options
available to me:
1. move the tang to my main display
<Yes I would>
2. start-up my 20-gallon tank to continue the QT process
3. do nothing, continue to try different foods (i.e., Masstick)
Which option do you think is best, or do you see other options that is
not listed? Your POV will be greatly appreciated.
Many thanks in advance.
<I know where this fish originated (HI) and through (Quality Marine),
and their processing. I would expedite this fish's move to the
main/display system. Bob Fenner>
Re: Can I write for your site? 12/5/17
Ok great. Let me work on that and I will send it your way. Thanks!
<Real good Katie. BobF>
Re: Discus just not 'happy' :( 12/5/17
An update on the Discus, wish it was good news. So, despite Polyfilter,
an increased water temperature and water changes to get nitrates well
below 10ppm, I got up this morning to find the blackest of my Discus had
died. It had seemed to perk up a bit the last couple of days and was
showing its stress bars rather than being completely black. Then last
night it was hovering close to the water surface.
<Darkness, poor body orientation... are very bad signs>
I turned up the aeration but obviously that didn’t help. No water change
yesterday so I can’t even blame that. So, of the 3 I have left, I now
have one who’s swimming slightly head down. Seems ok otherwise, eating
and out and about. I’m not treating for anything, although I do have
swim bladder medication on standby. It’s definitely not constipated.
Sorry for yet another ramble, at the moment I feel like banging my head
on a brick wall! I’ll keep up the water changes and see how these 3 get
on. On the plus side, they’re not aggressive towards each other....best
<Without knowing what, if anything, is amiss here; am wont to suggest a
change. IF they were mine, I might try adding a "black water
tonic/extract" in the hope of positively influencing water quality here.
There are a few such products, or you can make one yourself from a peat
product. Bob Fenner>
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands,
Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
- Set-Up 2: Filtration of All
Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps,
Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
- About Livestock: Regional Accounts:,
Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths,
Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
- Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae,
Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges:
Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ
Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms,
Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
- Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes,
Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers,
Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine
Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving,
Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals,
Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control,
- Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms,
Treatments & Pests:
Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention,
Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health,
Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... &
- Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:,
References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography,
Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public
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