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Cheilinus chlorourus (Bloch 1791), the Floral Wrasse (1). Hardy, but not as good-looking as some of its congeners. To twenty inches long in the wild; much smaller in captivity. Indo-Pacific out to the Tuamotus. KBR, N. Sulawesi, Indo.
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Royal Gramma Flashing     10/13/18
Hello,
<Hello Tim>
I am looking for some insight and/or recommendations regarding the recent condition of my royal Gramma and Jawfish. This is my first tank, but I have spent countless hours reading books and reviewing forum posts on the hobby. There is just so much information out there and some of it is conflicting. Any thoughts or suggestions you can provide on my situation would be greatly appreciated.
<Let´s see>
Environment:
- BioCube 32 LED FOWLR
- 3" of substrate
- Filter floss on top shelf of sump
<Hopefully rinsed VERY frequently>
- Large particle lignite carbon in bag on second shelf of sump
- Heater set to 78
- 1 powerhead w/ variable flow
- 20 lbs mix of live and dry rock (50/50)
- AccuraSea 1 Synthetic Seawater Mix - Two Little Fishies
Current Occupants:

- 2 turban snails
- 2 Astrea snails
- 1 Nassarius snail
- 1 cleaner shrimp
- 1 royal Gramma
- 1 yellow head Jawfish
Parameters:

- pH = 8.0 – 8.2
<Aim for 8.3 using a quality buffer>
- Ammonia = 0 ppm
- Nitrite = 0 ppm
- Nitrate = 10 – 15 ppm
- S.G. = 1.023
<A bit higher would be better,1025/35 ppm (natural sea water salinity>
Maintenance:
Daily: Feed fish LRS Reef Frenzy; clean algae as needed; and monitor fish.
<A more varied diet would be better, have you try Spectrum pellets? "Thera +A" helps treating parasites; a vitamin supplement is also needed, either added directly to the tank water or by soaking the food.>
Weekly: Replace filter floss; check water parameters; vacuum substrate and conduct 5 gallon water change.
Monthly: Replace carbon.
<Must be remove when medicating the tank>
Situation:

I started the tank approximately 5 months ago. The initial cycle completed approximately 3 months ago, (i.e., no ammonia detected for the past 3 months). I purchased the royal Gramma from my LFS about 2 months ago without a quarantine.
<The root of the problem, ALL fish must be quarantine at least for 4 weeks>
The Gramma was initially skittish, but it calmed down after about 48 hours. Gramma has been eating like a horse ever since and appears noticeably larger then when we purchased it. I then added the above CUC (no quarantine) to deal with some algae growth. I lost 2 Nassarius snails within the first week, but the other snails looked fine.
<What about calcium levels?>
I attributed the snail loss to my failure to conduct a drip acclimation on the snails.
<Possibly>
The CUC has kept the algae in check. About 2 months ago, I purchased a yellow head Jawfish (no quarantine) from my LFS. The Jawfish was extremely skittish for about 24 hours, but he calmed down.
<Normal behaviour for new fish>
He has built some burrows for himself and has been eating well ever since.
A little over two weeks ago, I noticed the Gramma was flashing. Not much, but if I watched for about 20 minutes, I would see the fish dart around and then swim into the live rock or side of the tank multiple times in a row. The Gramma did not have any small white spots (ich), but I did notice some slight discoloration around the purple head and gill area. The Gramma was also hanging out a little bit more in the back of the tank. However, the Jawfish seemed fine at this time. My LFS examined pictures of the Gramma. They suspected some type of parasite, but they did not think it was ich.
<I agree here with your LFS, not a visible parasite but an internal one, this is why quarantine is a must, even if there is no noticeable illness.>
On the advice of the LFS, I did the following:
- Added cleaner shrimp (no quarantine)
<Not very helpful if parasites are internal>
- Increased thermostat to 81 degrees
- Lowered salinity with 2 gallon exchange of salt water for fresh water
- Dosed PraziPro for potential flukes
- Removed carbon from sump
- Attempted a fresh water dip for the Gramma, but he was too quick for me to catch. I gave up trying to catch him after 3 failed nights of chasing him with nets and bags. He is now terrified of the nets....
<Would be worthy to take out all the rocks so you can catch the Gramma Loreto and treat it with copper on a separate tank>
The above modifications haven been in effect for the past two weeks. While I have observed the cleaner shrimp briefly working on the Gramma (so cool), I have not otherwise observed any improvements with the Gramma's condition. In fact, I think the Gramma's discoloration may be even more pronounced now (see attached pic), and the flashing has continued at about the same rate. He does seem to be back in the front of the tank a little bit more now. In addition, I noticed the Jawfish is now rubbing his head in the sand occasionally, which is a behavior I have not previously observed.
<Disease is spreading>
I have only seen this a few times. The Jawfish otherwise looks and acts normal. Both fish are still eating like champs.
One other note, I think the Gramma and Jawfish may have had a little tussle about 3 weeks ago. I say this because I noticed the Gramma was occupying the main burrow built by the Jawfish. They seemed to have sorted this out now, because the Jawfish moved into a new home burrow. There have been no other signs of aggression (jaws wide open/nipped fins/chasing/etc) between the two fish, but I am not watching them 24/7.
<If aggression is taking place(even out of your sight),it could be an added factor, since stress is a direct access to most diseases>
Plan Forward:
My original thought was to setup a quarantine tank to dose the Jawfish and Gramma with copper and to let the display tank go fallow for 2 months. After researching on this site and others, I think this may not be the best option.
<Not the easiest but certainly a wise option>
The quarantine tank and meds will certainly stress the fish out, and I am not certain I am dealing with a parasite. My new plan was to reset the salinity and temperature to my original points and wait and see. I will still go ahead with purchasing the quarantine equipment for future fish/corals/invertebrates, but I will hold off on adding anything to the tank until this situation is resolved.
<It won´t solve with the current treatment>
Do you have any questions, suggestions or advice regarding the Gramma/Jawfish? Again, I am new to the hobby, and it is quite possible I am missing something basic here.
<Keep Reading...>
Separate/bonus question, would it be an overstock to have a 1 Jawfish, 1 Gramma, and 2 ocellaris clownfish in the BioCube 32?
<Bioload is fine according to your tank´s capacity>
Thank you in advance!
<Welcome Tim.>
Regards,
<Same to you>
Tim
<Wilberth>

Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?     10/13/18
Is there an antibiotic that you would recommend?
<Anything for Finrot worth a shot. Kanaplex is good, and the old Maracyn 1 and 2 combo is well regarded. Just avoid the "new age" medications such as tea-tree oils that really aren't very effective. Salt isn't much use,
either. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?     10/13/18

Is there an antibiotic that you would recommend?
<PS. Outside of the US, it may difficult to get antibiotics without a prescription from a vet. Here in the UK, I favour a European product called eSHa 2000 that's effective and tolerated well by even sensitive fish.
Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?     10/13/18

Ok thank you very much
<Most welcome and good luck. Neale.>

ACF Tadpole Die-off     10/13/18
Over the last few months I decided to raise around 80 African Clawed Frog tadpoles and for the most part, things have gone fine. 3 days ago, I was down to my last 4 tadpoles, in the 10 gallon tank, within 2 days, 3 of the
last 4 had died off and my last tadpole looks like this (see attached image).
<I see.>
In the last day, the end of the tail went limp like the other 3 before they died but in this case, the tadpole's tail end has essentially just rotted off, it's the only occupant of the tank nothing could have bitten it. All of the water parameters are normal, no ammonia, nitrites, nitrates,
<I doubt nitrates are zero. So if your test kits are offering these numbers, you probably should distrust them. Zero ammonia and nitrite are certainly possible, indeed, preferred; but since nitrate is the end product of filtration, it should accumulate over time between water changes.>
the GH and KH are constant.
<Constant what? As a reminder, neutral, medium hardness water is the ideal.
Water temperature should be around room temperature, 18-20 degrees C being ideal for the classic Xenopus laevis species most widely traded. Avoid excessively high temperatures, and similarly, avoid chilling and/or exposure to cold air. Xenopus tropicalis is less commonly traded, and requires warmer water (24-28 C) and prefers softer water chemistry.>
About 2 weeks ago, when there were 7 left, I altered the water change schedule to 50% every 3 days since the parameters were staying constant.
<Do remember water changes need to be more or less daily, and ideally twice daily. Xenopus tadpoles, like baby fish, are very sensitive to 'old' water, especially in small tanks. The easiest approach is to reduce the number of
tadpoles per tank, which puts less pressure on water quality, and in turn makes it easier to rear them successfully. Trying to rear huge numbers can be an overwhelming task. Do be ruthless about removing uneaten food and
dirt (turkey basters are ideal for spot cleaning) while also ensuring more, small meals rather than 1-2 big meals.>
The only issue I've had was the heat going out in the house for 3-4 days but the lowest the house dropped to was about mid 60s (F).
<Might be a bit cold, especially if there were cold draughts of air as well.>
As of 2 days, after the first tadpole had died and the others were acting sluggish, I restarted daily 50% (looking back, I would've gone with 30% but I've been a bit burnt-out these last two weeks) changes on the 10 gallon. My
thinking was that perhaps the water wasn't being properly oxygenated on the every 2 days water change schedule but now with this tadpole's Finrot-like symptom, I'm just baffled - each of the others had the same tail tip droop
but none of them lasted long enough for it to progress to more than a droop. (Note: the final tadpole just died early this morning but I'd still like to figure out what on earth happened to prevent anything like this in the future should I decide to raise more tadpoles at a later date).
<While the tail-drooping is remarkable, it may be more a reflection of general failure to thrive rather than some specific disease or problem.>
Additionally, I've fed them Xenopus express tadpole food daily for the past 160-odd days since the tadpoles hatched. Over the last few days, after the heat went out, the last 4 tadpoles all became lethargic and stopped eating/actively swimming. Each of them were receiving about 0.3ml of the tadpole suspension a day in the week prior every afternoon, Xenopus Express' feeding instructions assume you're raising the tadpoles in bulk and don't translate well to smaller numbers. I had almost no issues while I was dealing with a large number of tadpoles but once I was under 20, I found myself a bit uncertain of a good feeding schedule/amount, I'd welcome any suggestions on how much to feed a single tadpole.
Thank you for any advice.
--A
<Hope this helps. Neale.>

 

Press Release - Vibra-Bites     10/13/18
Attached – please include in next issue or post
Chris Clevers
President/COO
Hikari Sales USA, Inc.
Offering Hikari®, Bio-Pure®, Bio-Pure® FD, Aquarium Solutions®, Pond Solutions®, Reptile Solutions® & Takara Products
www.hikariusa.com<http://www.hikariusa.com/>
www.facebook.com/hikariusa<http://www.facebook.com/hikariusa>
www.youtube.com/allfishlovehikari<http://www.youtube.com/allfishlovehikari>
www.google.com/+Hikariusa-aquatic-diets<http://www.google.com/+Hikariusa-aquatic-diets>
twitter.com/fishlovehikari<http://twitter.com/fishlovehikari>
PRESS RELEASE – For immediate publication
Hikari Vibra-Bites™

Hikari® is please to introduce its newest addition to its extremely popular line of tropical diets, Vibra-Bites™. Great for all types of tropical fish, this flavorful nutrient mix offers many unique benefits. From the pellet design, which mimics a blood worm moving through the water, to the incredible color enhancing ability which will help your fish glow with a flood of color, to the exacting nutrient balancing through extensive feeding trials that helps us offer growth and form you won’t believe, this is truly a new generation aquatic diet. The oxygen barrier package helps maintain the quality and perfection consumers have come to expect from the leader in aquatic nutrition worldwide. For more information contact us Hikari Sales USA, Inc. at fish@hikariusa.com or (800) 621-5619. You can also see more information on this item at www.hikariusa.com

Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?     10/12/18
So far he is still fine. Still has a bit of prolapse, assuming it was a messy bite. Hopefully it isn't as bad and it can heal naturally. I have cherry shrimp in the tank so meds is off limits and catching him is somehow a pain, others I can catch with my hands, but this guy is very evasive. So QTing is pretty much impossible without destroying a bunch of plants just to catch him. Thank you very much.
<Understood. Antibiotics should be safe, even with shrimps and snails, though you could just watch and see what happens for now. Obviously yes, organic dyes, formalin and copper compounds are not safe with invertebrates. Cheers, Neale.>

What is growing on and near my live rock?     10/12/18
Hi folks,
<Hey Shawn>
I have been using your site for many years and it has always been a blessing and answered every question I had!
<Glad to know it has helped you that much!>
I have a 90gal tank with quite a bit of live rock and very few inhabitants currently (few small snails). Getting the tank ready to stock once again and (outside of some unwanted algae), I have some things that started growing that I have not experienced before. I can't seems to find exactly what these tree/twig looking things are that are growing on and next to my live rock. Kind of remind of Mangrove roots here in FL. Here is a pic of them in the tank and one that got temporarily de-rooted as I was
cleaning tank and bedding while readying for next participants.
<This is some kind of calcareous algae, looks like Halimeda incrassata.>
Regards, Shawn
<Have a nice day. Wilberth.>


Red Sea fish ID     10/12/18
Dear Mr. Bob,
<Hey Mohammed>
I'm Mohammed Hassaan from Egypt. Please I need your help about this fish ID
I searched a lot on Fishbase.org and could not find it.
Thank you, Mohammed Hassaan
<This is a juvenile Parrotfish, Family Scaridae (Labridae for some); I believe it's a Chlorurus gibbus. http://www.wetwebmedia.com/chlorurus.htm
Bob Fenner>

Bichir with spinal deformity      10/11/18
Greetings, most revered and knowledgeable WWM crew:
<Wowzah. Howdy Linda>
I have a fairly young (<1 year old) saddled bichir that appears to have developed a spinal deformity.
<I see this in your excellent pic>
I know it just looks like she’s propping herself up in the attached picture, but her tail is always ‘bent’ in that manner regardless of position.
<Have encountered this before in Polypterids (and other animals); often ascribed to trauma, genetics, nutritional, environmental factors>
She lives in a 180 gallon community aquarium along with a hodgepodge variety of 3” to 5" cichlids — acara, parrot, salvini, geophagus, striped pike and jewel — along with an 8 inch chocolate cichlid and a ~1 foot silver Arowana who is rapidly outgrowing the tank (he will soon be rehomed to a 6 foot long 125 gallon by himself).
<With a heavy, complete top assure me>
In all, there are 14 fish in the tank including the bichir, who is currently about 6 inches long. The tank has a pea gravel substrate and is decorated with quite a few of large pieces of Mopani wood planted and moderately planted with Anubias and Bolbitis fern, which are the only things the jewels can’t uproot and the parrots (mostly) won’t eat.
<Ah yes>
It gets a minimum of a 50% water change once per week with remineralized RO/DI water (my well water sucks unfortunately — 180 ppm nitrates right out of the tap)
<Wow; glad you filter this>
— since I have such a wide variety of fish in there, I try to shoot for moderate water parameters: kH ~6-8, pH 6.5-7.5, temp 76F. They get fed a variety of frozen (bloodworms, Mysis, Spirulina-gut-loaded brine), fresh (store-bought tilapia/sole, shrimp and occasionally mussels), Hikari pellet foods (bio gold, bio-gold excel and carnivore food sticks), and the occasional treat of earthworms. The bichir mostly ends up eating the tilapia and shrimp, although she will pretty much eat anything that makes it to the bottom of the tank that she can get her jaws on — she isn’t a picky eater at all, and will happily eat pellets if that’s all she can find.
<Ah, good>
I got her (at least I think she’s a her) as a wee thing at about 3” long, and at that time her spine looked normal; she's never had any difficulty swimming or eating and has otherwise always seemed healthy. I realize that it may simply be genetics, but I wanted to make sure that there was not some sort of environmental or nutritional factor that I overlooked.
<Nothing "jumps out" in your recounting; likely is either a non-obvious break/trauma or genetic issue. FWIW, have seen these fish/es live long lives w/ this tweak>
I do think I will eventually move her into a 120 gallon along with the geophagus and Acaras, so that I can give them the sand substrate that they prefer.
<A good idea/move>
As always, any insight or suggestions you might offer are appreciated.
Cheers, Linda A.
<Mmm; the only statement I'd add is that I've become dubious re the use of Bloodworms as fish food; would delete them from your fish's diet. Bob Fenner, who is going to ask Neale Monks here for his independent assessment>
Bichir with spinal deformity /Neale      10/11/18

Greetings, most revered and knowledgeable WWM crew:
I have a fairly young (<1 year old) saddled bichir that appears to have developed a spinal deformity. I know it just looks like she’s propping herself up in the attached picture, but her tail is always ‘bent’ in that manner regardless of position.
She lives in a 180 gallon community aquarium along with a hodgepodge variety of 3” to 5" cichlids — acara, parrot, salvini, geophagus, striped pike and jewel — along with an 8 inch chocolate cichlid and a ~1 foot silver Arowana who is rapidly outgrowing the tank (he will soon be rehomed to a 6 foot long 125 gallon by himself). In all, there are 14 fish in the tank including the bichir, who is currently about 6 inches long. The tank has a pea gravel substrate and is decorated with quite a few of large pieces of Mopani wood planted and moderately planted with Anubias and Bolbitis fern, which are the only things the jewels can’t uproot and the parrots (mostly) won’t eat. It gets a minimum of a 50% water change once per week with remineralized RO/DI water (my well water sucks unfortunately — 180 ppm nitrates right out of the tap) — since I have such a wide variety of fish in there, I try to shoot for moderate water parameters: kH ~6-8, pH 6.5-7.5, temp 76F. They get fed a variety of frozen (bloodworms, Mysis, Spirulina-gut-loaded brine), fresh (store-bought tilapia/sole, shrimp and occasionally mussels), Hikari pellet foods (bio gold, bio-gold excel and carnivore food sticks), and the occasional treat of earthworms. The bichir mostly ends up eating the tilapia and shrimp, although she will pretty much eat anything that makes it to the bottom of the tank that she can get her jaws on — she isn’t a picky eater at all, and will happily eat pellets if that’s all she can find.
I got her (at least I think she’s a her) as a wee thing at about 3” long, and at that time her spine looked normal; she's never had any difficulty swimming or eating and has otherwise always seemed healthy. I realize that it may simply be genetics, but I wanted to make sure that there was not some sort of environmental or nutritional factor that I overlooked. I do think I will eventually move her into a 120 gallon along with the geophagus and Acaras, so that I can give them the sand substrate that they prefer.
As always, any insight or suggestions you might offer are appreciated.
Cheers, Linda A.
<<Hello Linda. As BobF said, this sort of thing isn't uncommon, and when seen in tank-bred or farmed fish, is usually down to a genetic or developmental flaw. However, Polypterus endlicheri isn't commonly bred, and isn't one of the farmed species as far as I know, so that is perhaps less likely here. Diet is another possible factor, though your specimen would seem to be getting a very varied diet that should have all the essential vitamins and minerals often lacking in the diets of predatory fish that only take one or two food types. I would make the observation that potentially very large fish are prone to skeletal deformities if they don't have enough space, and given that Polypterus endlicheri can reach well over 70 cm in length, that's always going to be a risk when keeping this species in home aquaria. Indeed, it's arguably not a home aquarium species given its size and predatory nature. In any event, there is no cure for crooked spine, but it's unlikely to cause any serious harm to the fish either, so long as its able to swim to the surface to gulp air easily. Cheers, Neale.>>


Re: Unidentified "bug" on Betta Fish - Ich/velvet/???      10/11/18
Wanted to send an update:
<Thank you for this>
After testing ALL my available island water sources, I am back original the RO. The spring water stressed him out so much he bit parts of his tail off even with only 10% WC and a drip over 5 hours.
<Yikes; my usual admonitions re using "bottled/spring... water"... A highly variable product around the world, w/in a country at times>
It’s been a week back on old RO and he is doing better. Most of the ich s now gone too. I ordered Equilibrium and will be adding that to his RO from now on.
<Tres bien!>
Right now all the water tests great - adding Indian almond leaves from our tree sporadically also. So far other than the hiccup when I changed the water he’s doing great. Still eats like a horse.
<Great as well>
I’ve been doing 30-50% WCs re-dosing Ich-X in new water
20 min baths in Betta revive while I do the WC
Temp at 82-84
<All sounds/reads as good Ad. BobF>

Re: Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?      10/11/18
Turns out it was a prolapse and it got ruptured by another male, he pretty much bit it off. Is it detrimental to the fish?
<Potentially; I would observe, ideally medicate as per Finrot. The issue isn't so much digestion as secondary infection by bacteria. With luck he'll recover, but losing part of your colon is pretty serious.>
He still seems to be fine.
<Fish are astonishingly resilient sometimes! Neale.>

Peacock Gudgeon Constipation?     10/10/18
Hello, my peacock gudgeon has some sort of parasite I think. He eats everything, but he has some sort of translucent bubble sticking out of the anus (looks like a fish egg, but it’s a male). He has had it for the past few days. What could that be? Thank you.
<Do start by reading here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/gldfshmalnut.htm
You might also have a peruse here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/nematodesfwf.htm
Without a photo hard to be sure what the issue is here. I'd certainly offer a high fibre diet (Daphnia probably most likely to be eaten) but treating for worms with Flubendazole or similar won't be a bad idea at all. Tateurndina ocellicauda are sensitive fish, so checking water chemistry as well as quality are important. Hard, alkaline water causes health problems, as you probably know -- they need neutral, reasonably soft water to thrive. Metronidazole is a useful medication where unknown gut parasites are concerned, and can be used alongside anti-worm medications if needed. Cheers, Neale.>

White growth on escaped crayfish     10/10/18
I moved my crayfish into a 10 gallon tank and she escaped.
I'm not sure how long she actually out of water; she was in the tank when I went to bed and when I got up the next morning had to look for her. She was still moving when I found her so I can't imagine that she was out of the tank through the night. I rinsed off dust and fuzz from her under the tap and then put her back in her new tank.
It's been a little over a week now and she has not wanted to come out of her hide. I flash the light in and I could see a peek of some white growths
under her tail I have no idea what they are, I've been looking around on the internet trying to find some answers and I found nothing helpful.
I'm really hoping you can help me, is it an injury from the fall that's been infected?
How do I treat her? Thank you for any help you can offer....
Um. Trying to get a photo just now she... also has eggs.. ok.. Maybe they are eggs that are rotting and gathering fungus?
Oh my.
<Going to ask you to go visit this collection of FAQs, here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/CrayDis5.htm
Epistylis is a common external 'growth' on crayfish. Doesn't really do any harm so far as I know. Difficult to control directly without putting the crayfish at risk. Will also remind you that besides calcium in some form such as unshelled shrimp, iodine is also needed for successful moulting.
Hope this helps, Neale.>

Treating a new Porcupine Puffer with Ich; rdg., using WWM     10/8/18
Hi all,
I have a new 3 1/2 inch Porcupine Puffer in my 29 gal quarantine tank. I bought him from my friend who owns a local fish store, and the fish had been there for about 3 weeks and was eating well. He's been in my QT tank for about 4 days now, is eating fairly well (clams on the half shell and spirulina brine shrimp thus far), but has come down with a bad case of marine white spot disease (Crypt, Ich, etc).
Being a scaleless fish, I'm wondering if Cupramine would be too harsh to treat the Ich, even at half a dose (which is the min recommended therapeutic level for treatment by the manufacturer).
<This is one of the better copper-based medications. Persistent, consistent in concentration>
Freshwater dips won't be effective if the fish is put back into QT with Ich still in the system.
<Correct; the fish would have to be serially moved to a sterilized system>
Would you use a half dose of copper and see how the fish responds?
<Mmm; no; only a physiological dose will work>
Would a full dose spread over 48 hours likely kill the puffer?
<Highly unlikely... if the fish is healthy otherwise>
Any help you could provide would be appreciated.
Thanks,
Dan
<DO read on WWM re treating Diodontids, puffers for Crypt, the use of chelated copper products. Bob Fenner>

Anubias Melt      10/6/18
Hi Guys,
<Hello Ted,>
I have followed you for a long time. I wanted to ask about Anubias melt. It seems that searching on the internet there are very few hard leads to the cause. I have noticed it mostly in plants that were grown emersed in fiber glass.
<Which may be a clue. Not all Anubias species grow well, if at all, underwater. They are, after all, amphibious plants rather than true aquatics, often with their roots attached to wood or rocks that are
underwater some of the time, but the stems and leaves well above the waterline. Your standard issue Anubias barteri and its various varieties should adapt well though, and have been among the best aquarium plants for years, but other species seem a bit hit-and-miss. I'd also make the point that similar looking, but definitely not aquatic, plant species might be substituted by some retailers and eBay sellers. When I was a kid, it was fairly common for houseplants such as Spathiphyllum 'peace lilies' to be
offered as aquatics, and while some might last a few weeks or months, inevitably the leaves would soften and rot, and then the plant would die.>
There are few major outward signs which plants that suddenly turn to mush.
A few very green leaves might drop but little else. The plants are shaded by a large piece of drift wood and placed between rocks.
<Good; Anubias seem to dislike directly overhead lighting.>
The melt occurs in the first 2 weeks of being in the tank.
<This does sound like typical plant 'shock' rather than some specific disease. If possible, remove the dead leaves carefully, but leave the stolon in place. Do ensure the stolon is absolutely clear of the substrate or any sort of fibre glass wool. It should be placed on a rock or bogwood root somewhere that it is able to get some light so it can photosynthesise (that's why it's green) and after a few weeks you should see some new leaves. I find Anubias recover from damage rather well, all else being equal. Do review water chemistry, though Anubias barteri at least will adapt to a very broad range, from blackwater conditions through to slightly brackish. Other species might be more picky. Finally, do try removing one of the plants (or a cutting from a stolon) to another tank if possible.
Why? Because if you have some sort of allelopathy between plant species, you might find that the separated plant thrives, while the ones left in the tank do not.>
No other additions melt or lose leaves including my crypts.
<Anubias do enjoy similar conditions, and I've not observed allelopathy between Cryptocoryne and Anubias. Usually, they thrive when grown together.
Of course, that assumes the Cryptocoryne are placed in the substrate while the Anubias are not.>
Where else would you have me look to discover an answer?
<There are a number of good aquatic plant forums out there, such as ukaps.org, and these might be able to offer some extra help.>
Thanks
Ted
<Hope this helps. Neale.>

Request suggestion on water conditioners       10/5/18
Dear Bob/Neale, I hope you guys are doing well. My question is regards to the water conditioners that one gets and those who claim to remove heavy metals from tap water. Now I know; that dechlorinator is something that everyone needs to add in tap water .
<Actually; I don't add unless am changing out more than a quarter or so volume of water for new. Sanitizers et al. in new/mains water appear to be "complexed" with materials/biota in the system>
now we have municipal water and we dont use RO systems or distilled water.
I have read that even though municipal water is well filtered but at times because it comes through cemented and copper pipes it may get leeched with metals like iron And copper which are deadly for fishes. so do u recommend use of the above mentioned water conditioners or maybe activated carbon ?
<Either, both can be useful>
Also over here fish shop guys have huge turn over of water and they dont use any water conditioners other than dechlorinator neither do they have any RO units so should I assume that its okay not to use water conditioners other then dechlorinators?
<In many places in the world this appears to be the case. Storing water for a week ahead of use will allow most chlorine based biocides and metals to dissipate. Short term water use is better done with the use of dechlorinator/dechloraminator, and/or activated carbon use.>
Kindly advise Thanking you Raj
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Better Fin Rot Swim Bladder Eating & Not Constipated       10/5/18
Thanks Bob, after 7 days of clean water should I try another round of Kanaplex with furan 2?
<I would not treat this fish further; no>
I do not understand where to find "WWM trouble” in your search box and not Google's search box.
<"Our" search box IS Google's... they provide the plug-in. They are the same>
So, what should to help him now?
Thanks!
<Return to once weekly water changes, and eliminated the bloodworms from the diet. BobF>
Fwd: Better Fin Rot Swim Bladder Eating & Not Constipated       10/5/18

Hi Bob, Again, when I put TROUBLE in your search box I get this page but I don’t see anything about how to help him today: <http://www.wetwebmedia.com/before/index.htm?h=trouble>
Other than clean water for 7 days (in-progress), should I do another round of Kanaplex with furan2? And you are saying NO blood worms … can I feed him just the garlic food now? He has fasted for 3 days.
<Not the garlic food alone. Some staple (pellets are best) and frozen/defrosted brine shrimp is what I'd use>
Thanks a million.
<As many welcomes>
Re: Better Fin Rot Swim Bladder Eating & Not Constipated       10/5/18

Thanks Bob, He’s dying today. Appreciate your help.
<Ahh; thank you. BobF>

Re: Please help AGAIN       10/4/18
Thank you for getting back to me, he is in a box I called hospital tank, a Interpet mini filter, without carbon foam, in operation, nothing inside, Nitrate and nitrite higher than normal,
<? What are the levels, values?>
can’t change much water as JUST finished Interpet anti internal bacterial 7 days course treatment, a little bit complicated, treatments as follow
About one week after the rescued, found this poor guy slightly bloat with white waste, so I set up a hospital tank and start with:
Treatment 1. API General Cure- Not success and condition stay the same.
Treatment 2. Interpet Anti internal bacterial - Not success and bloat a bit more.
Treatment 3. Waterlife (Hole in the head and bloat) tablets - Not success
Treatment 4. Repeat Waterlife medicine, nearly kill her, health condition much worsen (I blamed myself for listening to the Reviews from customer suggested 5 times more dosage.) now, whole body covered with black marks.
Treatment 5. Back to Treatment no.2, (Interpet) this time better, 80% marks gone as seen in previous photo I sent you, but his tail bends.
I think it is Malawi Bloat not Dropsy because he bloat with white waste, swims well and eat normal, but once again, I do not have any experience, I really rely on Google search.
Please help this poor soul, I just rescued him from an extremely poor water quality pond
<THIS is the cause of this fish's troubles. NEED good care, water quality, nutrition for weeks, months to recover, NOT treatments/medicines>
and the rescuing process broken my heart although I don’t really a fish person, I beg god he deserves a better life after all.
Kind regards
Natalie
<Need data, useful information... as previously requested. BobF>
Re: Please help AGAIN... 13 megs of pix....        10/4/18

Sorry but what is nutrition? I really don’t know.
<Foods, feeding Nat. What are you using?>
Tank water is 35 litre, water depth about 6 inches.
I am going to change 100 %water as the NO 2 is at 1 and NO 3 at 5 according to API Test stripe result.
<I would skip feeding period if ammonia or nitrite are present>
Could you kindly tell me how to add nutrition in the tank?
<A low protein staple is best here. Pellets or sticks of small size. You can/could read about this on WWM>
As you can see there is another one behind it, it has black marks and cotton mouth, been treating with API PIMAFIX AND MELAFIX together for a month already, symptoms still exist.
Regarding to the tank, it has 50 litres water, I change 25% water every other day.
Also for both tanks, I put Interpret first aid salt + and API Stress Coat in the water.
Apart from the one being murdered by the heron that are the only two trouble ones amongst 60 of them.
Kind regards
Natalie
<This fish simply needs good conditions, no treatments. I'd return it to the system the other goldfish are in. Being kept in a small volume, too much water changing... is not helping. Bob Fenner>

Better Fin Rot Swim Bladder Eating & Not Constipated. Betta        10/4/18
Hi Bob,
<Kristy>
Hope you are doing really well! I’ve missed talking with you … but luckily, haven’t had any issues with my Betta who is now 4 years old up until now.
<This IS an olde specimen>
He has developed bad fin rot and swim bladder although he eats everything and is not constipated. Fin rot caused by a month of 100% water changes every 4-5 days instead of my normal 100% water changes every 3-4 days. 2.5 gallon tank, sponge filtration, tap water/prime, heater (78 degrees) and aerator. I apologize I’ve read your website for 2 days now and can never find any specific cases that apply to my scenario although common. I simply do not understand your web search feature!
<It's not ours but Google's... but GIGO; the arrangement of files is mine... key word/search terms should bring up all/anything that is relevant though>
The longer water changes caused the fin rot which advanced very quickly and to swim bladder because his tail is really short now.
<? Don't know re the water change influence here. Shouldn't be a factor>
Treatment over last month: 100% water changes 2X’s/week, 1/2 teaspoon aquarium salt (per gallon), Kanaplex (2 rounds per directions), seachem Paraguard dips during water changes, and Paraguard in tank during non-Kanaplex times, eats like a horse (frozen bloodworms
<Cut these out entirely. DO search on WWM re. Trouble>
alternated with spectrum A+ with garlic and never constipated. Current Treatment this week: 100% daily water changes no medication to give him a 7-day break. Stopped food for 3 days even though he’s not constipated which resulted in very slight improvement on swim bladder. What do you recommend I do now?
<As stated, drop the sewer fly larvae>
I felt that he was overmedicated/oversalted. Nothing is working so I opted for clean water only. Can I start feeding him the garlic food again? We are doomed. Thanks so much, Kristy
<... Bob Fenner>

Re: Tetra stocking-too many choices       10/4/18
Hi Mr. Fenner,
So the update on the process is this: I have most of the shrimp moved over thanks to the help of my 11 year old daughter, who has taken the task on due to the $3 paycheck upon completion.
<Ah, the ole profit motive eh?>
And so most are doing well, I have lost a few, not sure why, maybe just the stress of the move since all parameters have remained steady.
I went to the fish farm and purchased 10 ember tetras and 10 gold tetras. They have been acclimated and are all doing well and tend to school as one big group. I was at first concerned about adding 20 fish at once however I am keepers by a close eye and parameters are holding steady.
So as I’m getting ready to leave the fish farm the owner approaches me to show me the fish he just got in and he shows me the most beautiful Galaxy Rasbora.
<Neat animals>
So my question is this: what are the chances I can add them to my tank?
<Likely very good; as long as they're not much smaller than the new Tetras>
If I bump the temp slowly down to 77? He says they are locally raised so that wouldn’t be an issue but if I bump the temp down to 77 will this mix work?
<Again; probably so>
Also if I that is a possibility is 6 enough or is more better?
<Six or more; yes>
Thanks again!!!!
Marya
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Re: Unknown roundworm in aquarium     10/3/18
Hi,
<Hey Cath>
Thanks for getting back to me so quickly.
<Sure>
Sorry for the broken link. The video was uploaded as private, rather than unlisted.
<Ahh!>
Here's the new link: https://youtu.be/wd_PdDDcxLA
Please let me know if there are any problems with it.
<Oh yes; this is a Leech (yeah, yuck); possibly parasitic on your livestock. Remove it (w/ extreme prejudice)>
Thanks,
Cat
<Welcome! BobF>
Re: Unknown roundworm in aquarium     10/3/18

Thank you for the id.
<Welcome>
So, if I'm looking at it correctly, the leech is moving backwards? It searches with the tapered end and uses the blunt end as an anchor.
<Hirudineans have "haptors" on both ends, and can move backwards and forwards using them and extending their bodies>
Thank you again.
<Certainly welcome. B>

Is Flex Seal safe for fish?     10/3/18
Hi
I've purchased an 8 ft. round galvanized steel stock tank to use as a fish pond. I want to coat the inside of the tank. Is it safe for fish to use Flex Seal rubberized paint? The product description says for use in
ponds and fountains, but doesn't say whether it's safe for fish!
<Mmm; they state so on their site:
https://www.flexsealproducts.com/product/liquid-gallon/
But I would make sure it's well-cured and try a few test fish for a couple weeks>
I had originally planned to spray the inside with Rust-Oleum, but it says that it's not for use on galvanized metal. Would another paint be better than Flex Seal? Maybe Krylon?
<Don't think Krylon would hold up... there are other CR paints, applications, but the Flex Seal looks to be the real thing>
Thanks for your help! I really enjoy this website.
Sue Solomon
<Ahh, thank you Sue. Bob Fenner>

Re: Please help... GF hlth, no data     10/3/18
Could you please tell me he still have chance.
[image1.jpeg]
His tail suddenly gone bend
Kind regards
Natalie
<... something/s wrong w/ this fish's world. What re water quality (tests) and nutrition?
Bob Fenner>

Re: Rosy tetra with hole in the belly     10/2/18
Hi,
I hope you're well. I'm just writing to thank you I've followed your advice of what medicine give to my fish and it looks like she is now healed.
<Great news!>
She's left with the scar in the area but other than that she's absolutely fine. We will look to move them in a bigger tank soon too.
Thank you so much.
Best regards, Anda
<Glad this worked out, and thanks for letting us know. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: de-worming puffers     10/2/18
Thanks Neale - I’ll give it a try!
<Good luck, Nathaniel!>

Please help. GF trauma     10/2/18
Can you tell me whether this is caused by disease or attacked by a heron?
My finned friend was fine and found him died suddenly.
<Mmm; appears to be a trauma caused by something... Perhaps a predatory bird or mammal. See WWM re guarding against such losses. Bob Fenner>

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