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Updated 6/28/2016
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner
PLEASE: Write reviews of my works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF

Re: Gold Comet w/ fungal infection? More re Clariids       6/28/16
When I bought my Clarias Fuscus (about 2 yrs ago) it was around 10.25 inches, now it is 13.5 inches (its rate of growth has been pretty moderate IMO). I'm guessing its maximum size in aquaria may be around 14-16 inches... but probably not 24+ inches like its cousin Clarias Batrachus.
<Would seem about right. Few Clarias fuscus have been kept, so it's probably anyone's guess what their aquarium size might be. It's not a species I know from personal experience. Over here Clarias batrachus used to be very common, but I haven't seen them in years.>
As for Clariids having a "suck it and see" approach, it is actually my 8.75 inch Trinidad Pleco that sometimes gets angry or gets hungry and will suck on my Clarias.
<Hah! Reinforces my point that Loricariids are suitable counterparts for Clariids. Right level of robustness. The behaviour you describe is actually pretty common among the larger Loricariids (and a few of the smaller ones,
such as Otocinclus) and related to their grazing habits in the wild. It may well be your Plec is hungry: provide a continual supply of hefty plant foods to chew on, such as sweet potato, courgette, melon rind, etc. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Gold Comet w/ fungal infection?      6/28/16

I never saw any of the fish shops in my area sell Clarias Fuscus until about 1 year after I bought mine at an Asian fish market one of the fish shops I regularly go to sold some smaller specimens around 6 inches long for about 8 dollars... while I got mine for just 2 dollars at the fish market. That fish shop only had it in stock for about 2-3 months (this was
back in Fall 2014 or Spring 2015) and after that I never saw them in the store again. I have however found a small fish vendor in Chinatown that also sells them but at a smaller size, of around 5-6 inches, for 2 dollars as well.
<They're farmed in Hawaii.>
There is a famous fish vlogger on YouTube (probably the only notable fish vlogger in Hawaii) who during one of his outdoor excursions showed video of catching two 5-6 inch Clarias Fuscus in local Hawaiian streams.
<Very depressing.>
Too bad he usually doesn't disclose the locations of his outdoor excursions as he doesn't want too many people fishing in these secret fishing spots he's found for himself.
<Shame. Overfishing these catfish is precisely what's needed to exterminate them or at least reduce their numbers. Can you imagine the harm they're doing to the native fish and insect faunas?>
He also did a video showing herds of either Bronze or Emerald Corydoras in one of our local streams.
<Interesting. Cheers, Neale.>

transporting Corys      6/28/16
Good morning WWM crew!
Thanks for your helpful website and advice.
<Welcome Steph!>
I'm plotting the introduction of some Cory Trilineatus to my tank and have come across information about their ability to secrete poison during stress. Apparently this can sometimes kill them during transport to their new home? I will only need to take them a short distance so they'll only be in the car for about 20 minutes, then of course the floating/acclimation
period. Do you have any suggestions for minimizing the chances of this sort of poisoning?
<Ah yes; the addition, blending of your system water in small amounts (a quarter or so of the shipping volume) every ten minutes or so; then discarding the mixed water, moving the cats (by hand if it were me/mine; to prevent tangling pectoral and dorsal fin spines in a/the net>
Thanks!
SP
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Stocking help      6/28/16
Hello,
<Howdy>
I have a wish list for some fish I'd like to run by you before I make any executive decisions. Tank is 65 gal with 40 gal sump.
2x ocellaris clownfish
5x orchid Dottyback
<These will be tank-bred/reared I assume>
3x yellow Coris wrasse
Maybe a mandarin dragonette if I can culture a healthy colony of pods.
<Might be hard to make sure it gets fed; competition w/ the other fishes...>

Do you think this mix/stocking level is too ambitious? Thanks in advance
Nirav
<Looks fine to me. Bob Fenner>
re: Stocking help

Yes tank bred orchids
<Ahh, faves>
Thank you so much,
Nirav
<Certainly welcome. BobF>

Re: Gold Comet w/ fungal infection?       6/27/16
Hi Neale,
Actually, I think Clarias Fuscus doesn't get as big.
<Easy 20 cm/8 inches. Plenty big enough to cause harm to fish below two-thirds their size. The problem with clariids is that they have a "suck it and see" approach to foraging, trying their powerful jaws on anything organic their long whiskers touch. I'd be leery about combining with, for example, Kissing Gouramis. On the other hand, no real issues alongside Loricariids or Doradids of similar size.>
It is the smaller cousin of Clarias Batrachus, the Walking Catfish, that can grow to about 2 feet. Clarias Batrachus is legal to sell at pet shops or keep at home in most
Asian countries but is illegal here in Hawaii and in a fair number of other U.S. States.
<Quite so. We used to keep/breed them at university, and I'm well acquainted with them. Nice fish, but keep adults (or even large juveniles) singly. So hardy they don't need a massive amount of space.>
However, the smaller Clarias Fuscus, also called the Hong Kong Catfish, is legal in most if not all U.S. states. But like Clarias Batrachus, Clarias Fuscus also seems to harass (at night mostly) certain tankmates more than others.
<Correct; see above.>
It harassed my Albino Oscar for 6-9 months until the Oscar got fin rot while recently it occasionally chases around my Tilapia, but not nearly as bad as it did my Albino Oscar. It seems to harass/is more adept at harassing Cichlids and other deep/thick bodied fish a lot more than long bodied fish like Iridescent Sharks.
<Yes, probably a fair observation. Given space, larger and faster midwater fish might be fine. But honestly, I'd only combine them with armoured catfish of similar or greater size. Clariids just aren't community fish.
Interesting fish, yes; companionable, not so much.>
Thanks, Jason
<Most welcome. Neale.>

Cat shark with serpent star       6/27/16
Hello, and thanks for reading my e-mail.
<Thanks for sending it on>
I hatched a banded cat shark 4 weeks ago and he's eating like a pig and growing like a horse.
<Good>
Today I moved him into a larger tank and am intrigued/concerned about the situation I'm observing: the shark and a
serpent star are sharing the same cave, and since it's a tight cave, they are literally on top of each other.
<Mmm; what species of Ophiuroid is this? Some are piscivorous>
I'm not sure who was there first but I never expected them to both stay - I assumed one of them would have moved by
now. Is there any danger in this?
<Could be; to either one>
I thought they would be decent tank-mates and, if anything, the starfish would eventually get eaten, but now I'm worrying about the shark. The star has a tentacle under him, over him, etc. and the shark isn't moving away. Do I need to remove the starfish from that tank? Thanks in advance. Sue
<Search, read on WWM re. Bob Fenner>
Re: Cat shark with serpent star       6/27/16

Hello, and thanks for reading my e-mail.
<Thanks for sending it on>
I hatched a banded cat shark 4 weeks ago and he's eating like a pig and growing like a horse.
<Good>
Today I moved him into a larger tank and am intrigued/concerned about the situation I'm observing: the shark and a serpent star are sharing the same cave, and since it's a tight cave, they are literally on top of each other.
<Mmm; what species of Ophiuroid is this? (Ophioderma appressum) Some are piscivorous>
<<Mmm; well this one is generally "just" a scavenger>>
I'm not sure who was there first but I never expected them to both stay - I assumed one of them would have moved by
now. Is there any danger in this?
<Could be; to either one> (The shark has finally moved on and found another cave, at least for now.)
<<Good>>

I thought they would be decent tank-mates and, if anything, the starfish would eventually get eaten, but now I'm worrying about the shark. The star has a tentacle under him, over him, etc. and the shark isn't moving away. Do I need to remove the starfish from that tank? Thanks in advance. Sue <Search, read on WWM re. Bob Fenner> (I have tried searching on WWM and other sites, haven't found anything related to compatibility of these two.)
<<I'd keep an eye on the star; if you find marks on the sharks body...

BobF>>

Spiny box puffer with sunken stomach       6/27/16
Hello, I have had my puffer for a few months now he is about 3 inches big.
he is eating good and loves food but his stomach has slowly been getting smaller and smaller.
<... What are you feeding this fish? Is the food, water supplemented?>
tonight I noticed a long white string coming from his face. I took him out and the white thing came off Idk what it was.
<Well-resolved photo please>
I put him into a QT with Prazi pro cause I thought he might have an internal parasite that is making him skinny. Any advise is greatly appreciated Idk what else to do for him.
<The usual reading on WWM: http://wetwebmedia.com/FishInd3.htm
scroll down....
Bob Fenner>
Thanks

Red eared sliders with bumpy shells; plus nutr. f'      6/26/16
Dear WWM crew,
<Hiya - Darrel here>
I have two red eared sliders both two and a half years old. They are in a 50 gallon tank about three quarters full, they have access to basking area, water heater, canister filter, uva and uvb lamps. Sometimes I take them out for direct sunlight.
<so far, so good>
I am feeding them every day with 3 - 4 pellets (either ReptoMin or zoo med growth formula) and red leaf lettuce or romaine lettuce in the size of half their shells. Occasionally also carrots, fruits like blueberry, strawberry, banana, papaya and grapes, and dried shrimps.
<almost none of which would be anything they'd ever run into in the wild.
And only the ReptoMin & Zoo Med pellets have any nutritional value>

However, they are not growing very fast, they are still a bit under 3 inches SCL. They also have retained scutes and quite bumpy shells (one is worse than the other), slightly curling upwards.
<Well, the damage is done, to a certain extent. A lot of what has happened can't be completely undone. That said, we can fix their diet and the shell problem will start to sort itself out>
So I am in a dilemma, I want to feed them more food to make them grow, but I am afraid that this will make their shells worse. I am also worried that if I am not feeding enough, their growth will be stunted.
<Feed them all the ReptoMin pellets they'll eat in 5 minutes ... 6 days a week in summer. 3 days in winter. No dried shrimp, berries or pork chops.
Once a month, for a treat, put in an earthworm (found as "nightcrawlers" at your local bait shop) or a small piece of beef or chicken liver. If you choose liver, place them in a small bowl or pan of shallow water, give them a few minutes to settle down and then place the liver. It gives off oils that will foul the tank really fast. No one who feeds liver makes the mistake of feeding them in their normal tank ... more that once.>
I have friends also with sliders and they are feeding heaps of protein but their sliders are bigger than dinner plates with beautiful smooth shells.
<Shell envy. Fix the diet and the problem will solve itself>
I would appreciate it if you could give me some advice as to how to help my turtles.
Thank you and best regards,
<Back atcha!>
Karen

Albino red eared sliders in the sun     6/26/16
Hello,
<Hiya Darrel here>
first of all, my compliments, you people do awesome work, i red a lot on the turtles part of the website and it is very informative!
<thanks. When you hit the lottery, please donate some>
I was however searching for an answer to a question i have which i did not find on this site nor anywhere else.
Here it is; albino red eared sliders like to bask in the sun , but most animals that have albinism are experiencing all sorts of troubles with sunlight.
<sunburn>
Is an albino turtle able to sunbathe like every other turtle?
<In the wild they'd be picked off by predators not long after they've hatched>
Are their eyes and skin not in danger of sun damage?
<yes they are>
In advance i want to thank you for the answer already!
<Albinos of all species are usually kept in much more controlled enclosures. In your case invest in a good UV-B lamp and a basking lamp and keep the albinos out of the sun>
English is not my native languages, i hope there aren t too much mistakes in my writing .
<you are doing well!>
I am waiting for your answer,
Have a very nice day.
Patrick Hempe

Re: Gold Comet w/ fungal infection?     6/26/16
My 55 gallon tank has the Convict hybrid I mentioned, a Tilapia, as well as a Butterfly Koi. As for my Gold Comet, it died about a month ago. There are also two Kissing Gourami's, Clarias Fuscus, a Trinidad Pleco, and Yoyo Loach.
<Well, obviously the tank is massively overstocked and your selection of species is, well, bad. Interesting fish, but they don't belong together.

Clarias for example are huge, and notoriously damaging to tankmates.
Kissing Gouramis are fish from soft and acidic Asian habitats that feed on plankton, hard to see how they'd be happy in a tank with aggressive hard water cichlids. Please, don't write; READ! The problems with your aquarium aren't to do with magical parasites that flew into your house one summer's eve, but from a profound lack of planning. Read; review; rehome. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Gold Comet w/ fungal infection?     6/26/16

For the Nitrite test that I have from Tetra (one of the most popular companies in the aquarium hobby in America) the yellow color on the color chart is the lowest reading you can get, and it says it means the Nitrite is <0.3 mg/l. I don't know why Tetra's test doesn't have a color that means exactly 0 mg/l. Maybe there is another brand out there that would give a reading of exactly 0 mg/l? If so, do you know which brand?
<API, for example.>
As I just mentioned, the Comet died. Even if my Koi also likes hard water I don't think the water softener pillow will lower the pH too drastically as this one pillow's maximum capacity is only for 20 gallons. I just want to soften the water enough so that the cloudiness goes away
<Why do you think these two factors are related? I don't.>
and so that the pH of 8 and KH of 8 (I measured them again last night and the readings are the same as back on 6/18/16) can maybe go down to pH of 7.5 and KH of 5-6. Some people online (comments on Amazon.com) and working at fish shop(s) in my area have said that the water softener pillow is better/safer than the pH up and down solutions. 12 hours and 50 minutes have passed since I added the water softener pillow and my Convict hybrid
is now a bit more active and the water has gotten a little clearer.
<The stocking list you supplied in your other email explains the situation perfectly. This tank is overstocked, and stocked badly. You're looking for cheap, easy solutions that will make any inconvenient science vanish. Good luck on that! In all seriousness, your approach to water chemistry is haphazard and reflects no more research than looking at the back of packages that contain products you can afford. That's a terrible way to do research. GET a book on aquarium fish and read the chapter on water chemistry, or READ a magazine article on water chemistry if there's one in print this month. LEARN how pH and hardness are related but not the same, REFLECT on the importance of stability, and UNDERSTAND that there isn't a target water chemistry to aim for, but a need to choose fish that all tolerate the ambient water chemistry your tap water provides. THINK about stocking and filtration, and REVIEW the huge number of jumbo fish you've bought. Even in a tank twice the size of yours you'd have problems. Good luck, Neale.>

Type of fish?       6/25/16
<Seven megs of uncropped pix? WHY?>
Hiii there,
I am just wondering what type of fish this is? Any ideas?
<Brachydanio rerio, w/ clipped on jellyfish DNA. Bob Fenner>
Chante Herbst

Re: Type of fish?. Child; sexing mollies       6/25/16
Thanks A LOT!!!! Another question, I have a few marble molly fish, how do I tell if one of the females are pregnant? Coz they have loads of black spots.
Read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/mollyreprofaqs.htm
Chante Herbst

Giant Trevally in FW/Brackish Aquaria       6/25/16
Greetings Bob, I really feel you to be an expert in FW/SW aquaria. I'm in a heated debate on another forum in the regard to keeping GT(Giant Trevally) in home aquaria. Given they regularly reach 100lbs and our state record is 190lbs and highly migratory. What are your thoughts on the matter? Thanks
<Well; have seen some Ulua spp. kept in public aquarium size systems; but don't recall seeing adults in anything but straight seawater in the wild.
Need room and high specific gravity water as far as I'm aware. Cheers. Bob Fenner>

Re: Gold Comet w/ fungal infection?       6/25/16
I also noticed my male half Convict and half Red-point Honduran Cichlid hybrid has been sitting on his belly a lot for the past 24 hours...
probably a signal that he's not too happy about the hard water.
<Eh? Central American cichlids are hard water fish. Anywhere between 10-25 degrees dH, pH 7-8 is ideal for all species. Of course they won't be happy if water chemistry isn't stable, but that applies to all fish outside of brackish waters. Please, DO some reading on the fish in your charge; DO review our previous messages; DO use test kits to review conditions in the aquarium and make gradual, appropriate changes as suggested.>
I'll be measuring my pH and maybe KH again as well to see if the pH and KH are actually higher b/c the water is cloudy compared to when I measured the pH at 8.5 and KH at 8 on 6/18/16 when the water was clear.
<Do the Goldfish and the cichlids inhabit the same tank? Not going to work.
Cheers, Neale.>

Brown Ghost (A. leptorhynchus) update!      6/24/16
Hello! Since I have bombarded you guys with questions about my Brown ghost knife the past few months, I thought I'd give you a quick update. He was in a different hiding place this morning so I was able to get a good look at him. Wow! He has definitely grown longer over the past two months and has actually gotten a bit plump. I guess that means he has adjusted to his new life and is doing well.
<Certainly does. But the trick with Apteronotus is to keep aquarium size and filtration scaling upwards as the fish grows. Recall that volume is a cube of length. So if a fish doubles in length, it will actually be 8 times bigger in terms of bulk. For sure it probably doesn't require exactly eight times as much space or filtration, but it will certainly need a lot more space. Problems with Apteronotus usually happen when people get complacent.
The fish grows and all seems well. But as it grows it's becoming more demanding, and if you don't make allowances for that, sooner or later things suddenly go wrong. Make sense?>
He was in the hollow log shelter and facing the front of the tank. When I would look at him, he would swim forward a little, then back up. If I was out of his view, he seemed to just stay still so I'm pretty sure he was reacting to being observed, maybe hoping for some food to follow. So I'm going to do a little experiment with some target feeding to see if he will become a little more outgoing. You know, the way you would with a shy dog or cat... throw a little treat into their "comfort zone", once the treat is eaten throw another treat just a little closer to you, etc etc until they are comfortable coming up to you for the treat. Betcha this will work!
<Agreed; these are intelligent fish, meaning they're both sensitive to things that scare them, but also ready to learn as well.>
Oh yes, I keep saying "he" but I'm starting to think it is a female due to the length and shape of the face. I'm not sure how big they need to be for this to be accurate though. What do you think? At a guess, my fish is about 6 or 7 inches long right now.
<I'd be wary about sexing a fish before it's, say, half adult length.>
Thanks again!
Joanne
<Most welcome and well done. Neale.>

Re: Fish getting sick      6/24/16
Hi, We have been using the treatment for white spot for 6 days now and yesterday the fish appear to have more spots than previously. Is this because the treatment is not working or that the parasite was too small to see earlier?
<Hmm... let's clarify. Whitespot medication works only on the free-living stages.
So the white "spots" (= cysts) have to mature and then burst. Only then will the next stage of the life cycle be in the water where the medication can poison them. In other words, you see the spots, add the medicine, the spots get bigger, but then suddenly the fish is cured because the second half of the Whitespot life cycle can't happen. Fish aren't re-infected, and all is well. However, the only caution here is that Whitespot medication can be absorbed by things like carbon in the filter, or might not be dosed/used correctly. In this case the Whitespot just gets worse and worse until the fish dies.>
I have tested the water daily and carried out 50% water changes daily too.
<Do water changes before adding each daily measure of medicine, so the medicine has ~24 hours at least to work. Ideally, you wouldn't change the water at all during the period you're adding medicine. But that's not an option if you have non-zero ammonia or nitrite.>
pH is now 8, Ammonia 0.25 ppm, Nitrite 0.5 ppm, Nitrate colour is between the 20 and 40 colour so I would say approximately 30 ppm. I tested my tap water and the pH is 8 and Ammonia 0.25 ppm. Water conditioner, biological
enhancer and white spot treatment are added every water change. The fish still haven't been fed. Is it safe to carry on not feeding them. We have not lost any more fish. Thanks Sammie
<Fish can go some weeks without food, and will nibble on algae if they're really hungry. Focus on filtration and Whitespot. Then food. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Duncan coral flash damage      6/24/16
Thanks again for the quick response and for the tip on using a dark bucket because I over thought the process and specifically purchased clear containers to do the dip in so that I could watch for stress but using the dark color certainly makes sense and you are right I have many empty salt buckets.
Thanks again for your help and thanks for all the great advise that you guys offer on your site, wet wet web is my go to for information and at times entertainment as many if the responses you guys give make me LOL��
< NP, glad to know it's helpful. Having clear containers handy will surely be useful as well (the dark sided containers just have a calming effect and feel "safer", same idea as having cover/shelter in general). Definitely keep close watch but it's a routine process, really. >

Re: Gold Comet w/ fungal infection?      6/24/16
Hi,
<Hello Jason,>
About 6 months ago one of your staff recommended to me the Cichlid Rift Valley Salt Mix. He gave me the link to the instructions on how to prepare it. Recently, I used it for maybe the 2nd time on my 55 gallon tank (I also used it once for my 29 gallon and never had cloudy water) and the water has been cloudy from 6/20/16 until today 6/23/16.
<Assuming you dissolved the ingredients properly, and at the dosages stated, the water shouldn't be cloudy. The quantities of the minerals used is very low indeed. However, if you use the wrong amount you might have trouble. More likely though is one of two things: silty water or a microbial bloom. The former indicates insufficient filtration. Clean the
fine media that traps silt, replace some if necessary, and do water changes regularly. The latter indicates an unstable set of water chemistry conditions, which often trigger algal or bacterial blooms. Review, and act accordingly, ensuring water chemistry stays steady between water changes. Randomly adding pH-up and pH-down products without understanding how water chemistry works can create precisely this sort of unstable set of conditions.>
I also had cloudy water for 7-10 days that started on 6/7/16. This may have been caused by me adding a little bit of Seachem Alkaline Buffer 2-3 times over a span of 4-6 weeks to slowly increase the pH and KH.
<See above.>
So it seems that the cloudy water may be related to using Seachem's Alkaline Buffer as well as the Cichlid Rift Valley Salt Mix. What can I do to make the cloudiness go away and what do you think is causing it? This website (http://aquariumfish.net/information/cloudy_water.htm) recommended I do add these chemicals: aquarium salt, water conditioner, and Quick Cure.
<Not a bad article at all. But to be clear: you're already adding salt via the Rift Valley salt mix, so adding more is NOT helpful. Water condition should be added with new water anyway, so not going to fix anything. Quick Cure is the one thing I'd skip. It's medicating for the sake of medicating.
No obvious reason at all why it'd somehow magically arrest the bloom of algae or bacteria. These two life forms are symptoms of a problem, not the problem itself. So nail down the water chemistry so it's relatively stable and they'll die back, all else being equal.>
btw- I measured tonight the Nitrite to be at the lowest level of 0.3 mg/l.
<Lethal in the long term.
Alongside possibly silty and/or unstable water chemistry, strongly suggestive of: too many fish, too little filtration, or immature filter media (this can include over-washing mature filter media).
Easiest option probably to add another filter if your aquarium isn't overstocked. If the tank is simply new, it may well be an immature filter and needs time to settle. "Blooms" of bacteria and/or algae is absolutely normal for new aquaria (or aquaria where conditions are changeable, whether water chemistry or something else, like direct sunlight at times of the
year). On the other hand, non-zero nitrite is NOT NORMAL and never acceptable. Focus on the nitrite first; the cloudy water genuinely doesn't matter that much. Fish certainly don't care.>
Couldn't get an accurate reading for Ammonia though b/c regent bottle#2 dried up On 6/18/16 I measured pH to be 8.5 and KH to be 8 thanks to the Cichlid Rift Valley Salt Mix (before that pH was 7 and KH 3.5)
Thanks,
Jason
<Welcome. Neale.>

Re: Duncan coral flesh damage; plus notes on dips f'       6/23/16
Hi Earl,
You were kind enough to help me with a problem I was have with my Duncan coral and I am happy to say it has fully recovered so thank you for that:)
<Good to hear and you're welcome.>
I have been reading on wet web the last 3 nights about dip/baths because I would like to do a freshwater/Methylene blue dip on some new fish that I got and I feel I completely understand the process other than the type of fresh water to use, I am confused about weather you would use RO/DI or dechlorinated tape water as the fresh water, I know that you should match the PH and temp but which of the two water sources is best.
<Full disclosure: first time I did a freshwater dip back in the day (decade+) I overlooked the pH bit and it was a bad experience, although the fish lived with us for 9 years. My point being, you're on target and have read carefully. I would just use whatever water you normally use. Match temp etc. to the destination environment not the transport/store water. Dechlorinated tapwater is what I use though RO/DI is fine. Oxygenation is also a big *must*...just a plain old "bubbler" airstone or powerhead aimed up top is plenty. Only other tip I can give you is that dips will sometimes freak the fish out and panic ensues, 911 and Homeland Security are called, possibly whoever it is they send to fight off Godzilla. Using a dark-sided container (or just the usual trusty empty salt mix bucket we all have a heap of with a dark towel wrapped around it) will calm things down a bit but sometimes they will try to jump right out so be ready just in case. If you see too much distress, end the process. EZ PZ!>
Thank you so much for your time.


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Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index

  • Set-Up 1: Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity, Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
  • Set-Up 2: Filtration of All Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
  • About Livestock: Regional Accounts:, Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths, Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
  • Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae, Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges: Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
  • Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall; Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
  • Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists, Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms, Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
  • Higher Invertebrate Life: Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs, Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms (Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
  • Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates; Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes, Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses & Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses and Parrotfishes,
  • Fishes, Index 2: Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips, Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks, Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes, Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
  • Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes, Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers, Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving, Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals, Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition,
  • Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms, Treatments & Pests: Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention, Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health, Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... & Their Control,
  • Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:, References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography, Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public Aquariums,

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