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Thalassoma rueppellii (Klunzinger 1871),
Klunzinger's Wrasses (2). One of the few "klunkers"
from the Red Sea. To eight inches maximum length. Formerly and
often still misidentified as T. klunzingeri. Gulf of Aqaba.|
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by Robert (Bob) Fenner
I'm back in the hobby! Query re stocking, mixing sand gobies
It's been a long time for me - but, I'm back in the hobby in a much
<Ahh! Welcome back to the fold>
Used to follow threads on your website faithfully.
I have a 45g AIO tank with a Rainford Goby. He's cute and active - but
really can't keep up with the sand sifting that needs to be done.
Question: Would it be wise to add a Golden Head Goby - or would there
likely be too much territorial fighting? I realize each tank (fish) is
different - but, in general is this a bad idea?
<They'd likely get along fine, but if it were me, mine in such a size,
shape system, I'd go with either two Rainford's or two Golden Head
gobies. More interesting behaviorally.>
<Welcome! Bob Fenner>
Re: I'm back in the hobby! 12/9/18
Thank you so much. That seems like a wise recommendation. I’ll get
<Cheers Gene. BobF>
Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca)
How are you?
I have come across and interesting and seemingly rare puffer for sale.
Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca).
<Does turn up very occasionally in the UK trade, mostly at the stores
specialising in oddballs; I've seen them at Wildwoods for example. A
second variety, known as the Golden Milk Spotted Puffer, is also traded,
which may or may not be a regional or colour morph of the same fish.>
I have a tank available in my fish room. I can't find much at all by way
of information about this fish?
<Very few people have kept it. I haven't, for a start!>
I saw you made brief reference to this fish in a PFK article.
Do you know much in terms of care requirements?
<Very similar to the standard issue GSP, though potentially much larger,
up to 30 cm. Much more peaceful towards its own kind though, but still a
fin-biter, so tankmates should be chosen with care. Might work okay in a
jumbo reef or FOWLR system alongside suitably punch, fast, and robust
fish such as Sergeant Majors and Damselfish that would hide among rocks
when resting. Otherwise very undemanding; hardy, euryhaline, eats all
the usual meaty foods. Wild fish probably consume a lot of algae, too,
so stuffing some Spirulina flake into, say, mussels would be a good way
to keep their vitamin levels topped up.>
Also is £140 an OK price?
<About right. It's never cheap, but is very beautiful.>
<Hope this helps. Neale.>
Musk turtle 12/8/18
Hi, I wonder if you can help me please? We have a musk turtle hatchling and we
have got to go away for a day and a half.
I have no one to turn the UVB light and the heat light on would it be better for
me to leave them both on?
<Leaving them both off would fine for a few days, assuming the house doesn't get
freezing cold. Alternatively, an inexpensive timer at the mains socket end of
the lamp's power cable can be used to switch such things on and off without
<Most welcome. Neale.>
Hairy crab in my refugium 12/7/18
I found this little hitch hiker crab in my HOB refugium today. I'm assuming he's
a "bad" crab since he's hairy, but I wasn't sure how bad...
<Hmm... depends on how you define "bad." Just about all crabs have at least some
capacity to be destructive, even if just by virtue of roaming about, knocking
things over. There are many, many species of crab which appear "hairy" and they
are not all of the same genus or even of the same family.>
moment he's about the size of a nickel. Can you ID it?
<I can ball park it. It looks like something in the Pilumnidae family and within
the pilumnus genus.>
If it helps, the live rock was from Florida.
<Oh!! In that case, I think it must/might be pilumnus sayi or "spineback hairy
crab." See here:
One forum member said it was a Xanthidae crab but that seems to cover a pretty
broad category of crabs.
<Xanthoidea is a "superfamily." Thus, such a label does not narrow the ID down
The display tank is a FOWLR with no fish yet, just cucumbers, hermits, snails,
and one sea urchin that hitch hiked in. It sounds like there's a few mantis or
snapping shrimp of some sort that hitch hiked in as well but I haven't been able
to catch any yet with my pest trap (only caught one hermit crab 2x in one night
when the trap wasn't even baited).
<Haha! Good luck!>
How much damage would this guy do in the display tank?
<Hard to say - depends on how big s/he gets!>
Is it safe to leave him in my HOB refugium, or would I risk him making it into
<If he gets hungry/restless, he might it out and into the display.>
If I left him in my refugium (or maybe moved him down to my sump), would he
wreck my pod population?
<I don't think so, but these sorts of crabs tend to be opportunistic
predators/scavengers. So, if there isn't anything else to eat...maybe.>
He's such a cool little dude I'd hate to get rid of him...
<So keep him - feed him. Or, set up a separate system for him.>
But since I have a goby, a few wrasses, and a mandarin on my eventual stock list
I need all the pod generation capability I can get!
<Cheers! - Sara/Sihaya>
Re: positive fish ID 12/6/18
thank you for your swift reply and coming from you sounds as good news...some
more pictures just in case you see something you dont like....
<Yes; mainly the downward tilt of the snout is what leads me to believe this is
a juv. Black Tang. BobF>
Re: positive fish ID 12/6/18
just have a more detailed picture maybe....are the markings a tell?
<Same resp. B>
Thanks, Neale! 10 gal. FW set up
This missive is for Neale, especially.
I have a 29g FW aquarium but wound up setting up a previously retired
10g as a nursery when my Albino BNP pair became prolific. More than 100
surviving fry later (!!!!) Laddie and Lassie were separated and their
progeny re-homed. Since it was already up and running, I decided to do
something with the smaller aquarium, and your article about 10g tank
stocking caught my eye
The 10g already had an Eheim Liberty 200 and prefilter, so I added 6
pounds of sand, moved a couple large Java fern over from the 29g, added
floating plants, and then 11 Galaxy Danios and 5 Salt & Pepper corys
purchased from a not-very-local LFS (6 hour round trip drive!). As per
your information I did reduce the water flow of the Liberty to a trickle
and all the fish seem to be relaxed, yet active. What fun they are to
<Nice to know. It's well worth toning down the flow rate of some filters
when using them in smaller tanks. Many of the fish we keep actually come
from ponds, ditches, creeks, and other places with minimal water flow.
So long as water quality is maintained, a gentle water flow can be just
the right thing for these fish.>
WWM is a place I return to frequently, not just to research problems,
but to educate myself about all aspects of aquarium and pond husbandry.
Thanks to you, Neale, and the Crew for all you do!
<And thank you for these very kind words.>
Re: Hi Bob. Below link to my question. any guidance welcome.
Algae resistant coating 12/6/18
I found an article claiming siloxane is toxic but I don't yet have full
article. I'll send you what I can get.
Siloxanes are in the glue that holds aquaria together, so I am a little
Newer technology involving "nanoparticles" may be more plausibly toxic.
More, later. Please let me know if you learn something ASAP because I
plan to set up my tank this week.
<I'd not use this product. BobF>
Re: help 12/5/18
my poor dwarf puffer died yesterday....I'm so sad. it is still a mystery how
he got injured.
<Indeed. Time to reflect, think about stocking options, compatibility
between species, etc. Use this as a learning experience.>
but he just couldn't heal
<Sad to hear.>
oh well, thought i would let you know.
<Thank you for sharing. Good luck with the remaining fish! Neale.>
Re: Red algae ? 12/5/18
Thanks Wil so grateful for this site.
Positive fish ID 12/5/18
Good evening Sir, This is Dirk from Pattaya Thailand
<Hey Dirk! Reminding me of the Dirt Hash there now!>
Hi guys just spend lots of money buying a Black Tang online from a supplier not
so local to me but local enough to get my stuff back if he swindled me....
Can anyone confirm that a black tang in juvenile stages can have that much white
in his from body or did he deliver me some sort of hybrid scopa? He claims he
contacted his supplier and they claim it will turn black in time?
<I do think this is a juvenile Z. rostratum; mainly from the bend in the snout.
You can see my pix here on WWM:
The white will go, and the rostratum will grow longer w/ time/size>
Please advise...Urgent as I would like to confront the supplier here with some
positive (or negative IDs) from experts in the field...
<Don't think this is a Scopas. Bob Fenner>
Re: Goldfish Urgent Help Needed 12/4/18
He died last night
What can I do to save his friend? He is ok now but I guess the water is bad.
<The same as previous sent, test kits, water changes... no flake food>
Should I take him out?
<The dead fish, yes; the live one, no; unless you have another established
system of size to place it in alternatively. BobF>
Pea Puffer Weight 12/4/18
Hola, Crew! Thanks in advance for your help and advice - y'all are
<Thanks for the kind words.>
Hope you can give me some advice re: my pea puffer (Carinotetraodon
First a little background. I have a three gallon Walstad-type tank,
heavily planted with Mayaca fluviatilis, with Pellia covering about 1/3
of the substrate. Floating plants are Salvinia, duckweed, and giant
Also lots of ramshorn snails. I originally set up the tank to grow out
the Mayaca for pea my other tanks. Once that was accomplished, here was
this well-cycled, heavily planted tank with no fish, kinda boring.
<So some might say!>
I love pea puffers, so after doing my research I concluded it would be
ok to keep one in this tank. Of course once I decided this, no one had
them in stock, despite the fact that they had been plentiful a few
Finally I found one at my LFS. It was extremely skinny (emaciated
really) but looked otherwise healthy so I brought her home. I *think*
it's a female, although it may just still be immature.
<Agreed, the blue squiggles around the face of the males can work, but
isn't always reliable.>
So, into the tank she went, along with a pea-puffer-sized portion of
live blackworms. This was about six weeks ago. In spite of the fact that
I have never seen this fish eat, she quickly became quite plump.
She has obviously been doing quite well chowing down on the blackworms
and snails. In fact I am wondering if she may be too plump, which would
be bad for her health.
<Not really. I mean, gross overfeeding puts a strain on the filter, and
if the food is protein-rich or fat-rich, then there's a risk of the same
sort of problems you'd get overfeed a cat or dog. But fish don't need
daily feeds, so skipping feeds is an easy way to slim down a plum little
She has definitely put a dent in the snail population, and it seems that
the blackworms have established a small yet thriving colony so she can
graze on them whenever she likes.
My question is, do I need to intervene here?
<Interesting question. On the one hand, if you stop adding food, and let
her graze naturally, she should be fine in terms of health. But on the
other hand, there's a definite problem with the tank if snail and worm
populations are burgeoning.>
Should I remove some of the snails, etc?
<Some periodic reduction of the population size might be healthy, yes.>
Or would it be ok to wait until she has decimated the snail and
blackworm population on her own, and then commence feeding her
<This, too, could work.>
And is this blackworm/snail combination a balanced diet for her?
I should mention that I have tried supplying other foods (soaked freeze
dried krill, etc) but it just winds up feeding the snails and
I do make sure to feed algae tablets to the snails to make sure they are
I want to do my best for this little gal, so your advice will be much
Oh, forgot to mention - I do an 80% water change every 5 - 7 days.
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>
Red algae? 12/4/18
Could you please help with an ID on this red algae it is a solid firm jelly mass
that showed up in my sump looks harmless just want to make sure. It floats
hasn't attached to anything doesn't seem to have branches at this stage, the
side on my hand is smooth the side you can see has little lumps.
It's growing slowly only noticed it a month ago when I moved things around and
it floated out.
<Looks like Botryocladia sp. Please read this link:
<Glad to help. Wil>
Flowerhorn not eating and kok is deflating
Hello crew and thank for any help you can offer me.(
Yesterday my Flowerhorn stopped eating and I noticed his kok was becoming soft
I had changed 75% of his water on 11/25 and when I noticed the problem yesterday
I changed 75% again.
<A good start.>
I also noticed that the area around his anus is reddish and it seems like he has
been rubbing it against decorations (I can see a little tissue damage to the
<Red tends to indicate at the least inflammation, and at worst, bacterial
infection. Medicate as per Finrot, using a reliable antibiotic rather than salt
or tea-tree oil.>
I feed him twice a day with cz help in the morning and xo ocean free starry at
night( he is a Thai silk). The water parameters are ph 7.8, ammonia 0, nitrites
0, nitrates 20, hard water 200ppm. I have well water and I treat it with prime
when I do water changes. The only thing different lately was that he ate a guppy
I fed him last week.
<Well, that was a mistake. Never feed live fish! Too risky. But that said, to
suddenly cause sickness this rapidly is unusual.>
Right now he is 6” and he is in a 20gal tank but I am setting up a 75gal tank
for him and I’m just waiting for the canister filter to be delivered.
<Move him to the bigger tank as soon as practical; better water quality will
help, and 20 gallons is much too small for an adult Flowerhorn.>
I almost forgot, I added 1 tablespoon per each 10gal of Epsom salts and I did
the first general cure treatment yesterday as it seems that it can be intestinal
related. Any help you can offer is much greatly appreciated.
<An antibiotic, alongside Metronidazole, would be the best move here. Ensure
optimal living conditions -- including more space and hard, alkaline water. Good
luck! Cheers, Neale.>
Hi Bob. Below link to my question. any guidance welcome.
Applying a chemical prep. to aquarium insides to avoid pest algae growth
Thanks for your time
<Got me; but I don't think this will work. Better by far to focus on
setting the system up correctly, doing regular/needed maintenance, and
strive to keep (pest algae) nutrients low by not over-feeding, adding
fertilizers, using competitors and algal predators. See WetWebMedia.com
re algae control for your type of set up. BobF?
Re: Hi Bob. Below link to my question. any guidance welcome.
Thanks. I'll let you know how it goes.
Okay. Please send all such petfish matters to me/us at
Goldfish Urgent Help Needed
Hi - I have a gold fish that has had swim bladder issues. I have a 40
gallon tank with 2 goldish who are about 7 inches each.
We went away for Thanksgiving and when I came back my ornamental
goldfish Superfish was super bloated and hanging on the bottom of the
<... Fed what?>
I went to the store and they said my ammonia is too high.
<What sort of filtration do you employ on your 40 gal.?>
I had changed the water and the filters when I got home and apparently
took out all of the good bacteria.
<Happens. Do see WWM re goldfish et al. system maintenance, water
Best to not change out more than abut 25% per week, WITH pre-stored
treated or not new water>
They gave me some bacteria to put in the tank - and I have also put
Epsom salt in the tank. I tried feeding them peas but he has not eaten
anything for days.
<Better to not feed when/if ammonia is present>
He is now on his side barely breathing and my heart is breaking. Is
there anything I can do?
<Do you have ammonia, nitrite, nitrate test kits? I would get and use
simple colorimetric ones. NOT feed flake foods...>
Thank you for your kindness,
<Very glad to try, help you and your ailing fish. Please read here:
and search on WWM (tool on every page) for "goldfish ammonia burn". Bob
Constipated turtle 12/1/18
Hey folks! I was hoping I could get your opinion on something.
My red eared slider has/had a bit of shell rot, which I treated with iodine and
an anti-fungal creme.
I took her to a vet, even though there are no herp vets here, I just took her in
because they have a lab, and I wanted her poop tested. Which they did, and they
told me she apparently has too much fiber and starch in her poop. They told me
nothing else useful, didn't give any kind of diagnoses, just told me that's bad
and that I should only feed her animal matter, no plants.
<This is, well, wrong. Red-Ear Sliders are omnivores in the wild, with adults
predominantly feeding on aquatic plants. They should indeed be producing lots of
faeces, which would indeed look quite fibrous. Of course starchy foods, such as
cereals, probably shouldn't be given too often, as these aren't a natural part
of their diet. Better to focus on cheap aquarium plants (such as Elodea) as sold
for Goldfish system, alongside pellets and small bits of seafood. ReptoMin isn't
bad at all, especially for hatchlings, though it is a bit protein rich, so as
the turtle gets older, it should be given less often. Koi pellets are a good,
They're plant-based and readily taken by hungry turtles.>
I tried doing that, and now she's constipated.
Probably this just layered over the fact that I was dry-docking her because of
the fungus and only put her in water for about an hour every day.
She hasn't pooped in over a week, and now she WON'T eat any plant matter.
I'm not sure what to do now.
<Turtles often can't defecate unless placed in room temperature to slightly warm
(i.e., not cold!) water, so that might be one factor. A protein-rich, fibre-poor
diet will cause problems too.>
Even if taking her to the vet again was in any way useful, which it probably
wouldn't be, it is now very cold, so taking her anywhere is very risky,
especially since I don't have a car.
Anything I can do?
<Placing the turtle in slightly warm (18-22 C) water should raise its metabolic
rate a bit, and with everything ticking over nicely, its gut muscles can push
the faeces out better. In cold conditions this doesn't happen because the
muscles become inactive. I would check the tank has no gravel in it -- very
occasionally turtles swallow gravel, and once inside them, it can cause serious
blockages. An x-ray is the only way to check for this, but "prevention is better
than cure", so don't combine turtles with gravel. Beyond these, simply
increasing the fibre content of the food, and scaling back anything likely to
cause constipation, such as dried shrimps, should be avoided.>
I've been keeping her in water mostly warmer than her usual temperature in hopes
that it'll relax her insides and she'll rehydrate, and I tried putting a bit of
olive oil on her food, though I'm not sure if she actually ingested any.
<Worth a shot, though!>
So far, no poop. Would human laxatives make a difference?
<Possibly, if you stuffed something like bran fibre into some small piece of
seafood the turtle would swallow whole.>
Though I'd be scared of trying to force-feed anything because of the risk of it
going in her lungs instead.
<Quite so. Force feeding animals is extremely risky, and shouldn't be attempted
unless you've been shown what to do by an expert. With cold blooded animals,
which have much lower food requirements than mammals, starvation will take many
weeks, even months, to become a life-threatening danger.>
Any help would be appreciated.
<Hope this helps, Neale.>
Article about Coral Reefs
<Hey Anna! Have read over, and will link. IF you have time, interest in a bit
more of the science, there is a book by J.E.N. Veron, A Reef In Time, publ. in
2009... and the editor in me would like to add that the plural of zooxanthella
is zooxanthellae. Thank you for your efforts. BobF>
Amazing job on your page
http://wetwebmedia.com/StressinLPSArt.htm you have on your site really great
stuff!. :) I've recently written an article Coral Reefs Around The World Are In
Grave Danger. Here's What's Happening and was wondering if you thought my
article could be a good addition to your page.
I have published it on this site, please take a look
I would like to hear your opinion on this article. Also, if you find it useful,
please consider linking to it from your page I mentioned earlier. Please let me
know what you think. :)
Thank you very much,
Re: Fahaka teeth problem 11/29/18
Re: help 11/29/18
thank you all for your reply and assistance.
I believe my puffer was somehow in the wrong place at the wrong time and
got nicked by activities from the catfish which is a fairly large (4-5"
long) and pretty lively in the tank.
<Possibly, but Ancistrus are very placid, and it's extremely unlikely
they'd "suck onto" the flanks of a healthy pufferfish. Otocinclus
sometimes do this, and occasionally common Plec varieties, particularly
Pterygoplichthys spp., will latch onto large slab sided fishes. But I've
never seen or heard of Ancistrus engaging in this behaviour. Their
ecological niche is quite different to either the Otocinclus or the
Pterygoplichthys. I'd keep a very open mind about this explanation.>
He likes to go under a log and move it around and makes the glass gravel
smack against the tank. So i believe Neale was right to say he was
accidentally a victim.
So you listed using some kind of antibiotic to help with the wound and
the puffer's healing properly.....do you recommend a brand and type? how
is it administered? Or do you think it will heal on its own?
<Something like KanaPlex is a good first choice, or the old Maracyn 1
and Maracyn 2 combo. Outside of the US, a reliable antibacterial, such
as eSHa 2000, could be used instead. Avoid bogus cures such as salt, tea
tree oil, or anything else that sounds like it cures everything. Follow
the instructions on the packaging, most being dosed per gallon, and used
across several days. Remove carbon from the filter. It's also a good
idea to up the aeration a bit.>
Emperor Angelfish with PopEye 11/29/18
I reaching out to you because my beloved emperor angelfish needs help.
In the last month he developed Popeye in his right eye, I believe it is
<Yes, a physical trauma>
Last week the swelling in eye was improving, about half way back in the
eye socket. But now over the past two days it has swelled up bigger than
before, and even worse there are three little air bubbles in his eye.
I’ve had this fish for 5 year and he’s between 9-10ins long.
<It is reaching its maximum size to swim freely in a 240gal tank and it
may be bumping with the rockwork or side panels of the aquarium>
I follow proper quarantine procedures and have parasites such as ich.
Also he is not stressed out, he's the dominant fish and still eating
well but has trouble lining up his food to his mouth.
<It is caused by a lack of complete peripheral vision>
What do you recommend I do?
<Read http://www.wetwebmedia.com/Popeyetrauma.htm and the related
240gal with 100gal sump
7 year old system
<You´re welcome Michael>
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
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Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
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