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by Robert (Bob) Fenner
| PLEASE: Write reviews of my works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF
Sterilizing a marine fish tank
Hello, with 25 years servicing under my belt I’m having problems with a
marine fish only tank that resides in a nursing home.
At first my suspicions were that the fish might have been stolen from this job
<Happens. I did aquarium maintenance for nineteen years>
After three starts at replacing fish slowly and using copper safe at 2.0 I just
was called and all livestock are dead once again.
So if it’s possible to have a parasite survive a sustained copper treatment,
I’ve thought of trying to sterilize the glass 90 gallon using Clorox but
I don’t think this would be a good idea in a nursing home setting.
<Mmm... chlorine/bleach is still my/a fave... could people be moved from the
room, windows opened for a day or so? Maybe moving all off-site would be better?
You could use concentrated H2O2, but it is not as effective... and can be
I’ve thought of draining, removing all and throwing away crushed coral at the
bottom and letting the tank completely dry out and install new crusher coral and
restarting the tank. Of course all decorations would go through a Clorox and hot
water rinse and soak at home.
Could you offer your comments or any idea’s on how to sterilize better in a
nursing home situation?
<As above Jim. Either isolating the space around the system, or moving it
Thank your for any ideas,
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Sterilizing a marine fish tank 10/21/16
Thanks for writing so quickly Bob,
Chlorine/Bleach concentrations, 1 part bleach to 10 parts water??
<Thereabouts, yes... for browsers, there's no need to increase concentration
here; and one can use a "household" product, though folks in the trade often
utilize "swimming pool" (hypochlorous acid)... At times we lower the water a
bit, and after removing any desirable biota, leave the system running with the
added bleach for an hour or more... TAKE CARE NOT to spill the bleach on
anything you don't want discolored>
And for how long would you leave this solution?
<Oh; as above. Till all appears "bleached">
Job is also in an Alzheimer's unit so I'd hate to leave this solution too long
in the tank.
<Understood. You can/could increase the dosage... to about twice... and all will
be done in a few tens of minutes>
Would you remove crushed coral as I thought?
<I'd leave in, esp. if I was going to re-use. AND vacuum it as part of the
rinse, re-rinse process>
Or leave in place and let the Chorine/ Bleach do it's job.
Of course problems like this always seem to come up at jobs that are hardest to
reach in buildings!
<Am sure you have gear to drain waste water to toilets...>
Seen you at a couple of Macna events.
You sure are help to so many!!!
<A pleasure and honor to share with others Jim. As you know. Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Re: Sterilizing a marine fish tank 10/21/16
Bob thanks again, this tank is a 90 gallon. I cant imagine putting 9 gallons of
bleach into this unit. The smell would be over powering for a nursing home unit.
<Yes.... IF the system can be left for a day or so... I'd just use a quart or
so... IF it has to be done in under an hour, a gallon or two>
Opening a window is out of the question because of a fatality years ago.
<.... do they have good ventilation?>
One last question, to avoid removing this unit. Since there are no fish in the
tank presently, what would you think of a crazy high copper level with water
changes after a week or so to remove the copper?
<Could be done...>
Thanks again for your super quick response.
Re: Black bugs from hell.
Thanks, Bob. I saw your response and agree. Heeee - it's a cyclopepod!
Take care, Lynn
<Heeee! Thank you Lynn. BobF>
<<A pleasure, as always! Lynn>>
Re: Restarting an Emperor 400
I wanted to follow up on this. I reached out to Marineland for some help
and they sent me a new impeller. This worked a bit better but what
ultimately resolved my issue was a second prime after the filters were
It took another pitcher to finally create the seal that allowed the
impeller to work. Thank you for your help on this one. I am feeling a
bit derpy because I should have tried more water sooner. But in the end,
<Glad to hear there was a good resolution!>
Re: WEIRD CRAYFISH BEHAVIOUR
I do have a UP aqua filter that provides him with oxygen as well.
I observed that his new shell is really apparent now, and it may be
having a delayed moult. Also, whenever I flip him over, a few of his
legs seem to be in pain whenever it touches the floor. I don't have any
marine iodine (i don't think i have the time to buy marine iodine
because of exams)
<Mail order perhaps? Delayed moults are a common sign of insufficient
iodine in the diet.>
Am really worried, he is always upside down. Can being upside down kill
<Not in itself, no. But if he can't move about and feed, he'll starve.>
Also, how much length do they need to walk and. Im thinking of getting
the 10G tank from buceplant and the length of the tank is 45 instead of
the usual 60..
<An adult Crayfish needs an aquarium a good 50 cm/20 inches in length.
Anything less and he's really cooped up. Cheers, Neale.>
Hi there, you have a broken link...
I was looking on your page (
and notice the first link was broken. I just thought
I'd let you know!
<The "first" link? Tried a few... that do work. Which is it please.
Fwd: WEIRD CRAYFISH BEHAVIOUR 10/20/16
my water temp is definitely arnd 25-27C cuz I live in Singapore.
<They don't overstock; also ensure good water movement, whether by filter or
I have not tested the ammonia and nitrates level before but all I can tell you
is I am very very diligent with the water changes.
<Water changes are good, but unless you're changing 100% daily, not a substitute
for water changes. A filter is a more economical, sensible approach.>
As for iodine, I don't think he's receiving much but he has received a lot of
calcium from the pills I feed him.
<Iodine =/= calcium; you need to provide BOTH; I would recommend marine aquarium
iodine food, or failing that, Nori and other seaweed foods.>
The funmy thing is, my previous crayfish (Cherax destructor) survived well over
2 years in the same tank and he lasted without a filter.
>Luck and genetics come into play; your Electric Blue Crayfish is an
artificially produced, inbred variety -- unlikely to be particularly hardy.>
I don't quite understand why this p.clarkii is experiencing this if my previous
<Life is complicated; living things especially so.>
Hopefully he moults sometime soon, it hurts my heart to see him every time I
walk past the tank :(
<Iodine and filtration are what matter, not intentions and affection.
Building horseshoe crab tanks
I can't seem to find consolidated information on ideal horseshoe crab
tanks, just random spattering of information. What are ideal tanks for
horseshoe crabs? Will you critique the tank I would like to build?
I would like to build a tank that is 4x4 wide and long, and 2.5 ft tall,
made from non-porous cement. I'd like to line the bottom with a fine
sand substrate, and keep two horseshoe crabs in it with no other fish. I
plan to culture black worms and phytoplankton and feed them to the
crabs, and feed them snails as well. Is this an ideal diet or is there a
better way to feed them?
<Issa, that tank is definitely sufficient if you are only doing the
The fine sand will do wonders for the crabs. The crabs will sift through
the sand for food, but you do need to feed occasionally. The foods you
listed will work, but I would as some other meaty food to the diet as
Read on WetWeb re Horseshoe Crabs. Let us know if you have any further
questions. Cheers, Gabe.>
Re: Golden dwarf moray issue - pics
I just emailed you regarding a problem with one of my two golden dwarf
morays. I just managed to get a couple pics for your examination.
<Yes; did you (not) see MarcoL's resp? Is archived on WWM; here on the
Otherwise; I believe Gabe was also going to respond. Bob Fenner>
Re: Black bugs from hell.
Thanks, Bob. I saw your response and agree. Heeee - it's a cyclopepod!
Take care, Lynn
<Heeee! Thank you Lynn. BobF>
Golden Dwarf Moray issue 10/19/16
I have a pair of golden dwarf moray eels recently added to my 55 gallon reef
tank. PH 8.3, Salinity 1.026, Nitrites 0, Ammonia 0, Nitrates 0, Phosphates >.5
ppm. There are no other aggressive fish in the tank. Today I noticed something
wrong with the larger of the two eels that I have not seen before. One side of
his head seems slightly distended and there is some sort of protrusion near the
lower left corner of his mouth. The color of this protrusion is whitish. Around
the protrusion is a small area of redness. I have tried desperately to get a
clear image but have failed utterly. Could I be dealing with worms? He has yet
to eat like his younger tankmate but I know that morays can go for protracted
time without eating.
<Can't tell from the pictures in your other email what the moray is dealing
with. I know it's hard to get proper pics, these pics are quite blurry and I'm
not sure this is a parasite. If it occurred suddenly, could it be a flap of skin
from a wound, maybe a bite from the other eel? Dwarf moray eels don't always
tolerate conspecifics and can start fighting for
territory. If it developed with time it is more likely a bacterial infection.>
My suspicion is that they may be linked. Any input you could provide will be
invaluable. These are my absolute favorite fishes in the trade and would hate to
lose one to parasites. Thanks, Sam Porter
<Check if the protrusion could be a wound and if hostilities occur. If it's a
bacterial infection and grows you might need antibiotics. Let's hope the latter
is not the case. Good luck. Marco.>
Thank you for your support of WWM
Cheri, much appreciated.
Robert (Bob) Fenner
Black bugs from hell
Hope things are well with you all.
<Yes; thank you>
I'm hoping to get an I.d plus possibly some advice on treating these little
buggers (pun intended).
I have included some pictures that I took, you can see how small they are on
the rocks, and I was able to capture some and look at them under a
microscope at my university.
They run around quite fast on the rocks, in random patterns, especially when
a flashlight has been shone on them.
These bugs tend to target lps corals, and are leaving my sps alone. They
seem to hit one or two coral at a time, rather than to infect all of them at
once. For example I would see slow recession on one or two frags at a time.
<Mmm... infect? Nah... not even infest... >
Dipping frags in iodine had no effect. Dipping them in coral cleaner
"revive" had no effect.
After much reading online, I found out that the drug interceptor, with
active ingredient Melbemycine oxime seems to have worked for others in the
past with similar pests.
<Yes... this appears to be a copepod/ite... the single eye....>
One large tablet of interceptor is meant to treat 380 gallons. My aquarium
is roughly 85-95 gallons of water, therefore the first treatment consisted
of .25 of a full tablet. This had no affect on the bugs and they were still
running around on the live rock.
Then I treated the aquarium (without water change or carbon to remove the
first treatment) with 1 full tablet, knowing that overdosing is not known to
cause any major issues. This yielded no ill effect on the bugs.
Finally, I got very annoyed and used all my remaining interceptor; 2.5
tablets, which came out to roughly 10x the suggested treatment strength.
This, finally, caused the bugs to seemingly die, as I no longer saw them
running around on the rock.
The affected lps also looked much puffier and happier after the final
treatment, with receding seeming to stop.
That was a week ago, and today I noticed that 2-3 bugs were running around
on the rocks again (compared to seeing about 20 on the same spot of rock
originally). I'm assuming that some eggs may have hatched or something.
These bugs have cost me a small fortune in coral frags
<Really? As in eating them?>
and treatment costs, and any advice with a possible i.d would be much
appreciated. Any thoughts on alternative treatment options?
<A few... I'd use a predator...>
Is interceptor my best bet at this point? It's bizarre that they need such a
<Something/s absorbing the arthrocide here... Happens all too often...
Chemical filtrants, "bio mass"... detritus>
Thank you for your time, enjoy your day.
<Let's have you read here:
and the linked files at the bottom. Bob Fenner>
WEIRD CRAYFISH BEHAVIOUR 10/19/16
It's me again and my p. clarkii ghost seems to have a big problem because he
can't walk properly like other crayfish, he kinda stumbles every time he walks
and has a difficulty getting where he wants to. And I have found him flipped
onto his back many times and I have to help him get up a lot.
My tank is a 4 gallon(getting an upgrade to 10gallon in a few weeks when my
exams are over)with a up-aqua slim HOB filter(the shop owner said it was good so
i bought it) and I change the water completely every week. As for his diet, I
bought these crusta-pills that contain high amounts of calcium to promote shell
growth so I don't think he has any shell deformities. I also feed him one pellet
a day, so I don't think he has a lack of food.
I'm so desperate for help because I just bought him(yep he's a male) and I
really do not want him to die as he cost me 90 bucks from my own hard earned
savings(My parents would never let me buy a crayfish that costs over 20 bucks so
I kept it a secret, told them it costs 15).
Pls help I would really appreciate :( Hopefully it isn't any disease that's
plaguing him and causing this difficulty)
<This is tricky to answer without some environment and feeding details.
Let's recap. Procambarus clarkii is a warm-temperate to subtropical beast that
needs water at about room temperature. Excessively high temperatures, above
25C/77F, will cause stress, especially in the absence of supplemental oxygen.
Water quality should be as good for them as any fish; i.e., 0 ammonia and
nitrite. They do not handle low pH well; the optimum is between pH 7 and 8.
Heavy metals like copper are toxic to them; water conditioner that neutralises
heavy metals are important. So far as diet goes, iodine is often lacking, so
unless seaweed is fed to them (Nori, for example) the use of marine aquarium
iodine, at about half dose, works well. Most health problems come down to faulty
moulting, and this in turn seems to be related to iodine deficiency. Review, and
act accordingly. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Passer Angel & Noxious Soft Corals 10/18/16
Thank you Bob!
<Glad to share John. BobF>
Re: Substrate Vacuuming 36 Inch Deep Aquarium
Thank you for your assistance.
<Glad to help you Richard. BobF>
Re: Candy Basslet Stocking ?
Sorry, to bother you again. But when you mentioned wrasses, are you speaking of
Flasher and Fairy wrasses?
<Yes; these are excellent species to get along w/ Liopropoma. Bob Fenner>
I don't know... puzzled. Mollies; mysterious passings
Hi, Neale! Got a mystery for you! (maybe)...
This isn't a question about a specific fish, but rather about a
trend. We've had three male molly fish,
including the latest one (a sailfin silver), that have done the same
thing: they'll be doing well, then they start getting listless, hanging
in the water, then they start hanging vertically either head up or head
down. The fish wants to be left alone, chasing others away. Then starts
kind of drifting, unable to fight the current much, twisting and turning
with the water movement. They get skinny, then weak and then
<Does sound like one of the 'wasting diseases' whatever they might be.
Sadly all too common with farmed fish these days. Usually put
down to bacterial infection (Mycobacteria) but who knows? In practise it
often comes down to buying livebearers from a variety of sources,
euthanise any sickly ones, and breed your own generation of healthy
specimens from the survivors. I know that isn't much of a plan, but I
have found home-bred livebearers to be a lot tougher than the ones sold
in pet stores. The problem is that the wasting disease bacteria are
prevalent on fish farms, and little/no attempt is made by farmers to
improve the health of their fish.>
It's just the males. The females are doing great.
<Which is the important bit. They'll be pregnant, almost certainly, so
ensure at least some of their progeny survive, and job done!>
They've done it with fresh water and with brackish water, coolish (78°F)
and warmish (82°F).
<Quite so; while Mycobacteria infections do seem to be exacerbated by
environmental stress, once the fish is actually ailing, the simple
tweaks, like adding salt, don't usually help. On the other hand,
brackish conditions will improve the health of the survivors, making
cross-infection less of a worry, and hopefully when you're a generation
or two in, your Molly collection will be fighting-fit. To give you an
example, the big Guppy and Limia tank in my classroom go through summer
holidays (six weeks!) without food or water changes, surviving purely on
the algae in the tank (it's on a sunny windowsill, so there's a lot of
algae). These are big, hardy, active and colourful Guppies just like
they used to be. They're also a couple generations in from their
store-bought parents. I think that's the solution here: see your
store-bought Mollies as the parents of the ones you're going to keep and
Again, just the males. The sailfin silver is the third one to do this,
and he started after we salted the water and warmed it up to treat that
one female with a bump (she's fine by the way and we're getting rid of
some of the salt). I don't get it. If sail dies, that'll be it for male
<See above... yes, I agree, but once you start getting fry, keep some of
the males, and I think you'll be fine.>
Have you seen anything like this?
<Many, many times. The tragedy of the tropical fish trade is that
farmers, especially in Asia, breed to a price rather than quality.
Antibiotics and hormones are used liberally, often without anything like
veterinarian control. There's also a focus on bizarre colours and body
shapes that means there's a lot of genetic inbreeding. The result is
that many species that used to be very tough are now flimsy. Guppies,
Mollies, indeed, pretty much all the common livebearers suffer from
this. But you could just as easily mention Angelfish, Dwarf Gouramis and
Ram Cichlids. The list goes on.>
Hope you and yours are well!
<And likewise yours, Neale.>
Blackwater for Featherfin catfish?
Hi WWM experts! I'd like to thank you in advance for any information you
may be able to provide.
Quickly I will state that about 18 months ago I started my first tank.
Unfortunately, I was stricken very quickly with MTS (I guess Multiple
Tank Syndrome and Malaysian Trumpet Snails would both be relevant in the
context of that statement).
Anyhow, at one point I had 15 medium to large tanks operating all with
different water chemistry/biotopes/species etc. in my (very small) home.
Needless to say, it was like a full time job.
<Understood. Some folks have "fish rooms" and I'm totally blown away by
their dedication and hard work. But for me, two tanks is about right.
One for a general community, and one for something special. After that,
extra tanks always seem to be a chore!>
I have made many mistakes and more recently enjoyed some great
Through careful and conscientious rehoming, I have since reduced my tank
collection from 15 to 5 tanks but will soon be aiming for only 1.
My question is this... I would like to take my 2 Featherfin catfish out
of the 75 gallon rift lake tank that they are in and place them in a 125
gallon tank with a juvenile Oscar. These will be the only tank
inhabitants and it will be filtered using 4 x canisters which are rated
at 280 gph.
<Slightly confused here. The Featherfin Catfish, Synodontis eupterus, is
a soft water fish. While it certainly will live in hard water, it
doesn't need it. On the other hand, there are Rift Valley Synodontis
species, such as Synodontis multipunctatus, that need hard water
conditions. If this catfish is Synodontis eupterus, then yes, it'll be
absolutely fine in
whatever conditions your Oscar is kept in. They have very similar
requirements, and Synodontis eupterus is peaceful enough but big enough
to cohabit with Oscars. They get along very well, both being
(comparatively speaking) gentle giants. Just ensure they have enough
space and in particular caves they can call home without squabbling.>
I would very much like to set this up as a very dark blackwater tank.
<Nice. Just not *too* soft. I'd not go below, say, 2-3 degrees dH
because the pH often becomes unstable in very soft water.>
I have well water with moderate hardness and pH (I'm sorry I don't have
the exact numbers currently, but it is not extremely hard and the pH out
of the tap is about 7.4). I have consistently used a small amount of
salts and ph
buffers in the rift tank, bit nothing dramatic.
<More than likely mixing your tap water 50/50 with RO or rainwater will
produce something that'd be perfect for these two fish, around 10
degrees dH, pH 7.>
Other than poor stocking mistakes (Mbuna with peacocks and haps mostly),
the tank seems to run well (minus my evil blue dolphin moorii), I even
had 3 successful zebra fry make it to juvenile stage and are free
Anyway, I would like to keep my two Featherfins (they are my favorite
fish) and I am rehoming the rest of the inhabitants. I would very slowly
and carefully acclimate them into the 125 which would be a new (fully
cycled) setup. I want to recreate a very dark blackwater look without
causing pH fluctuations.
<Do read up on this. I'd have you start off here...
But much else on the topic on WWM and the Internet/books. While soft
water is often seen as the ideal, it actually isn't necessarily the
optimum for easy fishkeeping, and few fish need genuinely very soft
water. Often slightly soft to medium hard, around neutral water works
perfectly well, and the dark colour can be added to the tank using
without dramatically affecting pH.>
I know that because my water is not soft, that there are products
(blackwater extract) and/or methods (peat or Indian almond leaves) than
can get me the look and have the natural carbonates in the water cancel
out the acidifying and softening effect.
<In very hard water, none of these (blackwater, peat, or leaves) will
have much impact on hardness without using them in MASSIVE quantities.>
But which method(s) is the best to keep the water stable but give me the
<See above. Use blackwater extract for cosmetic colouring of the water,
but mix the well water with RO or rainwater to lower the hardness as
There will be plenty of driftwood in the tank as well, but it is all
pretty much cured at this point so won't be adding many tannins. Also, I
know that this is not the "natural" environment for my Featherfins but I
feel like they would enjoy the darkness and from what I have read, they
come from somewhat dirty and muddy environments in relatively varied
areas of the same region. Would leaf litter on top of soil help in this
tank (or disrupt the pH or be too messy?) or would just a sand substrate
and a tannin mixture be better?
<Oscars are shovellers, and will make a complete mess of any soil in the
tank. Better to go with gravel or slate chippings that they can't move
about too easily. Decorate with your bogwood and rocks, and a few
plastic plants if you want. Floating plants are a plus, and the Oscar
will even eat some of them if it gets hungry (they're a bit more
omnivorous than often supposed).>
Lastly, and most importantly, do you think that this would be a
comfortable and enjoyable environment for them?
<Yes; Oscars and large, docile Synodontis work very well.>
I apologize if any or all of this seems scattered or unfocused. Since
this will be my only tank, I want to take all that I have learned and
make it the best environment I can for these 3 fish (unless I decide to
get a couple more Featherfins to add). Thanks again, I look forward to
<Good luck, Neale.>
Re: Blackwater for Featherfin catfish?
Thank you Neale for the quick and informative reply.
The reason I have the Featherfins in harder water is only because they
are currently in a rift lake setup. I'm glad to know that they will
thrive in softer water.
You brought up a great point that I overlooked regarding the Oscar,
because this will be my last remaining tank, I really would like to have
a beautiful display without the constant destruction which would be
caused by the Oscar.
<Not destructive if kept with things they cannot move. Big rocks for
example. Can look very attractive in such settings.>
So as most of us do on a regular basis, I hit the web trying to glean
the absolute best and most interesting stocking list for this setup.
Many many hours later I think I have settled on a large shoal of Exodon.
I find that their presence in the tank as well as the spectacle they
create at feeding time will definitely not keep me bored and allow for
an impressive shoal in a 125 gal. I know that they are nearly as vicious
as it gets, so I wouldn't want to subject my Featherfins to torture or
<Indeed. A non-starter combining them. Exodon paradoxus will strip the
fins away in no time.>
I have read many accounts of people saying that they absolutely cannot
have any tank mates and have read a lot of testimonials saying that
since they are scale eaters, any fish in the tank that aren't shiny and
have no scales they will ignore.
<Possibly... but not worth risking. Since these fish are aggressive
towards each other, you want to keep as many as practical, at least 12,
and the more you keep, the better the chances they'll live together
happily. If by some chance your aquarium has space for a tankmate, then
you are MUCH wiser using that extra space for MORE of the Exodon
Obviously the Featherfins fit the latter description perfectly.
<Still live food for these characins.>
I do however don't want them to stay in hiding either, as in the rift
tank they are out of their caves a good percentage of the day. I would
also be keeping the Exodon extremely well fed with market shrimp, fish
flesh, earthworms, possibly gut loaded guppies, etc.
<Not Guppies. That'll only train them to see "fish as food", which 99%
of the time will be other Exodon. Shrimp and mussel used sparingly (rich
in thiaminase). Good staples include quality flake food, carnivore
pellets as they grow bigger, and insects of various kinds, such as
So what are your thoughts about these potential tank mates?
Also, since I will have the 4 canisters with approx. 1100gph on the
tank, do you think a shoal of 60 would be too much (or too little) in
the 125 gal?
<I'd allow at least six gallons per Exodon, given their adult size (15
cm/6 inches potentially, though usually around half that under aquarium
conditions). So something around 20-25 specimens in 125 gallons is
nearer the mark.>
Thanks again in advance!
<Most welcome. Neale.>
Painted Turtle with growth on front foot
<Hiya Darrel here>
I have recently acquired an adult (I believe female) painted turtle who
has a huge growth on one of her front feet. It is the size of a golf
ball on the under side of the foot and a small marble sized second
growth coming off the top of the foot.
<That’s huge for a turtle that size>
These seem to be under the skin, as the skin is still stretched around
the top one, and most of the underside growth, but that one seems to
have split and what is inside looks like a porous yellow sponge.
<A cyst of some sort>
The poor turtle has zero use of this foot, and it interferes with it
being able to climb in and out of water without difficulty...she also
seems to have sat sedentary for some time with minimal movement in her
environment as she had a serious growth of algae (the long stringy bad
kind) all over her shell almost appearing like a weeping willow when
lifted out of the water.
<At this point, water can be her enemy. Time to treat the growths and
I have scrubbed most of the algae off using online recommended methods
(from this site actually), and now am wondering what I might be able to
do in terms of treating this growth. Might it need surgical removal?
<It would seem no other option at this point>
If so, where does one go for such things?
<Typically this is performed by a veterinarian. While most vets don’t
specialize in reptiles, most have had basic exposure and training and
would be capable of examining and excising these growths. After care
involves keeping her warm and dry with a course of IM Baytril (or
Can I clean it with peroxide and treat it with topical antibiotic
ointment? And if so, HOW does one clean and treat (and keep clean) such
a sore when the turtle obviously needs to be in water so they don’t get
shell rot and such???
<It’s the other way around. When a turtle spends TOO much time in the
water or doesn’t get enough exposure to sunlight (UVA & B) is when
you’ll see shell rot and other fungus. At this point, she needs to be
warm and DRY and get a 5 – 10 minute bath each day.>
Any insight you could give would be greatly appreciated. Also, what is
the likelihood that I would be able to cut away this growth myself, as
it is not bleeding, oozing nor displays as an “open” wound...just where
the split is there is a “hole” of sorts, but again, it displays as a
<I wouldn’t try it yourself – but if you find a Turtle & Tortoise Club
in your area you may run into an experienced ‘old hand’ at such things
that could do it for you.>
Thanks again!- Briana
Passer Angel & Noxious Soft Corals
My set-up in question here. I have a 220 gallon reef tank,
50 gallon sump, a 3200 gph return pump, oversized protein skimmer, and
two internal power
heads (4500 gph each),
plus two 72 inch LED strip lights. I am considering the addition of a
Passer Angel. I've extensively read about them.
My main concern and question is that I have some noxious soft corals,
i.e.; various types of mushroom species and a toadstool leather. Would
these soft corals be destroyed or OK?
<Mmm; I've collected, had several Passers... and know of others; For
Holacanthus sp. they're generally (more than 80%) usually "okay" with
such noxious Cnidarians. I therefore give you good odds>
I am considering a 2 inch Passer to purchase.
<And even better likelihood of all getting along if started small>
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Substrate Vacuuming 36 Inch Deep Aquarium
I have a 350 gallon marine acrylic aquarium. It measures 3 feet top to
bottom. I need a substrate vacuum that is long enough to reach the
bottom and strong enough to do the job and not pull the live sand out.
What product do you recommend?
<Mmm; If you don't have the time/inclination to make one of your own,
the fine folks at Python Products make MUCH longer ones in varying
lengths. See here:
Richard M. Jevack
Q re: Tang behaviour, compatibility. Incl. Achilles f'
Hello crew. Firstly, thank you so much for existing! You guys do a
fantastic job for our community. Truly invaluable.
<We're so glad/fulfilled to find our efforts of use to you, fellow
To the point. I've been reefin' for about 14 years. At present I have a
180g (6'x2'x2') reef with about a 2" sand bed and about 150lb of live
The inhabitants thus far include an assortment of small fish (4 - BG
Chromis, 3 - lyretail Anthias, 2 - yellow watchmen, 2 - clownfish, 1 -
mandarin dragonette), a one-spot foxface and a yellow tang. I recently
lost a Naso I had had for about six years and, after what felt like an
appropriate mourning period and approval through my domestic
I decided to get a tang I'd always wanted - an achilles. I decided to
purchase it from LiveAquaria in hopes of procuring a genuinely healthy
specimen. My question is about compatibility and 'normal behaviour'
twixt surgeon fish genera.
<Ah yes; a concern with these and their related (the Foxface/Siganids)
families of fishes. >
You see, my yellow tang was perfectly content living with the foxface
and the Naso, but with the similarly size/shaped achilles it seems to
have something to prove. I'm confused though; anytime I've seen fish
dislike each other, it has been abundantly obvious and relentless. With
these two it actually feels like they are just... sorting out a pecking
<Yes... to degrees...>
Is that a real thing amongst tangs?
<Indeed it is... they are constantly looking, testing, challenging what
they consider competitors... for feeding area>
They swim together, and they can eat in relatively close proximity to
one another with no issues. But they also have intermittent spats of
posturing and the occasional light crossing of tails. They, along with
the foxface are in an extended time-out in my 80g bare bottom QT with
some copper to knock back some ich I saw after Styx was introduced to
the main display. They have several lengths of 3" PVC (they stinking
love that stuff, swim in and out for hours - I like watching them in the
QT as much as in the main display...) and seem to be doing fine with the
near constant exposure to
In your near-infinite experience, is this a situation that would be best
ended now by trading my yellow tang for something less confrontational,
or is establishing a hierarchy likely?
<Mmm; if it were me/mine, I'd try introducing the new/Achilles with all
present. DO select for a small specimen.... 3-4" overall length if
possible... Such that it will be subdominant to the current
I had also thought to re-introduce the foxface back to the main display
first (in about 2 more weeks), then the achilles a day or so after, and
then the YT to kind of take the YT down a peg. I thought that Zebrasoma
and Acanthurus would differ enough to tolerate each other, but now I'm
not so sure. Advice?
<As stated. You will see more "jousting", but as long as there's not
physical damage, I would not be concerned>
Thank you so much,
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Ammonia/ CP and Puffers
Thank you Bob
And yes I agree large bio load. I'm the first to admit that I have an impulse
buying issue. Originally the 6 ft tank was just going to be home for the moray.
<Too small even for just this>
But a 16" dragon looked lonely( I know he won't be arhat diazepam for long) and
the puffer was a rescue from another friends tank. Big regrets. I do enjoy the
trigger for now at 5" but am expecting a monster in the future. Have you seen
them cause major issues with morays?
<Oh yes; Some individuals are not overtly aggressive; some others will tolerate
NOTHING else living in their system>
I plan on thinning the herd to just those two individuals in the near future (
as soon as puffer is healthy and I can find a responsible owner to take them).
One more thing I had a hermit crab that disappeared shortly after the Ich Shield
dose. Maybe rotting away hidden causing ammonia spike.
And to clarify I'm using an API test kit with a reading of 0.25.
<I'd get, use a better test kit brand>
Thank you again for all of your help.
Re: Questions about Sumps and glass tank seams and chips
I still have one little bit of confusion. Could you please clarify what
you mean in your answer regarding option two: “IF the sump, fuge can't
be easily fit in the stand as one piece, better to use two.”
<Fit one (the larger) in the stand first, the other (smaller) on top of
Re: Questions about Sumps and glass tank seams and chips
By building a shelf for the smaller one to sit on or by putting it right
on top of the other one? It could hold the weight of the sand and the
<It should be; yes>
My stand’s front/center 2x4 is removable.
I can get a container or aquarium in there that is up to 39” X 16” or
even longer if it is less than 12” wide. So if I can fit a 29 or 30
gallon tank in there, it would be better to go with one?
<The bigger the better. T'were it me/mine, I'd be making the sump...
from glass/Silastic or acrylic. Not hard to do; and w/ a bit of
shopping, not expensive. B>
Water chemistry. Too high pH, Ca, Alk.... SW
I have an 85 gallon reef tank with a 25 gallon refugium. I
started the tank about 6 years ago and really had things going
well with coral growing and algae under control. At the suggestion of
WWM I switched from all frozen food to all
dry food (Ocean Nutrition formula One Pellets). I believe the switch
solved my hairy algae problem. However, I now have a water chemistry
issue and I cannot determine the cause. The pH, carbonate and calcium
are all high.
The carbonate is off the chart above 214.8ppm KH, the pH
8.4-8.5, Ca 460mg/L (ppm).
<Unusual... and I take it you have checked your test gear. If not; I
I use RO water(filters about 8 mo old still only half colored) to make
my tank water, let it sit for several days before mixing in
Ocean Reef salt crystals and perform frequent(weekly) water changes
of 13-17 gallons generally alternate weeks.
<Have you tested the just-made salt mix? Some brands, batches have had
issues in recent years>
I generally use SeaChem Marine Buffer with each water change and a cap
full of Voogle.
"Voogle First Aid for Fish. Made with a special mixture of vitamins,
minerals, natural plant extracts and synthetic concentrates...">>
A few weeks ago I stopped the Marine Buffer as I
thought I might be adding too much carbonate to the tank but the
chemistry readings did not change.
Unfortunately, 2 weeks ago my auto top off malfunctioned and the
salinity went from 25 to nearly 0 (what a mess in my basement)!
<Am a HUGE fan of having such automated top off devices have a very
LIMITED reservoir to feed from>
I quickly corrected most of the salt deficit over a 12 hour period and
then the remainder over the next 24 hrs. I lost most of my coral snails
and hermit crabs but the fish survived. Interestingly, the chemistry
normalized with the massive
dilution that occurred, but within about a week it was all abnormal
again, same as stated above.
So, should I worry about this abnormal chemistry?
<Worry? No; look into and fix? Yes. What are the other sources
of carbonate and calcium here? Either the salt mix, and/or substrate,
"rock"/gravel.... I'd test both; the latter by removing a
sample and boiling in some RO water for several minutes>
Can I put new coral and inverts into it? Fish?
<I'd wait on both for now... a good month. To allow all to
re-settle AND give you time for the testing/experiments>
Should I restart the Marine Buffer?
<Not just yet. I strongly suggest waiting till the stated values drift
into more normal ranges>
Do you recommend removing all the empty shells left by the deceased
snails and hermits?
What about frag plugs?
<I'd test these last as well.... could be that they are
comprised of uncured high-alkaline cement>
Thanks in advance for your advice.
Robert L. Block, MD
<Thank you for sharing. Rest assured, we can/will discuss and rationally
seek out cures for the chemistry issues here, and solve them. Bob
Titan Trigger Care
Hello to whom ever finds my email. I spend a lot of time on your site
researching my various ideas, thank you for all the knowledge you share.
So I may have recently acquired a 4 inch Titan trigger? It was being
sold as a pineapple trigger but from the from the few pictures I have
been able to find of juveniles, I'm guessing Titan. I also might have
known this prior to purchasing it, but that is in the past. It is
currently residing in a 280 gallon aquarium but I am building a 1600
(ish) gallon aquarium, of
which I was hoping the Titan would grow into. The very few personal
accounts I can find of people keeping them implies that Titans are
extremely slow growers and might never reach their adult size or
coloring in an aquarium.
<Best to just feed... not cause to grow more quickly>
Also, due to the lack of titan specific information I can find, I am
caring for him the same manor I would any other trigger fish,
<Yes; as gone over, archived on WWM>
shellfish mmm. Any information you can provide specific to keeping a
Titan would be great and should I alter my plans of him being the king
of the new aquarium?
<Would plan on this being the alpha animal; NOT place any other
This fish CAN become belligerent... not on the same scale as the Clown
Trigger, Queen... but some individuals are terrors at some point. The
usual price of freedom here: constant vigilance.>
OH! almost forgot, what are your feelings on keeping a goat fish as a
clean up crew for triggers?
<I REALLY like goatfishes... for this purpose and for general stocking
in large-enough systems. Bob Fenner>
Re: Titan Trigger Care
Wow that was quick! Thank you so much!
<Ah, welcome Michael>
I completely intend for him to be the alpha, he's already got the
personality, just needs to grow into it.
Thank you again.
<Do keep us informed of your ongoing adventures! Bob Fenner>
Question about WetWebMedia
I was doing some research about pet and animal care when I stumbled upon
your website, which I find to be a comprehensive source for readers to
find relevant information.
I also notice that you link to a number of resources about pets/animals
and I was wondering if you could include these links as well.
I am requesting your good person to check the links out and I am hoping
that you would consider placing them on any part of your website.
I hope we can help each other out and I would love to be able to support
Thanks for your time and I hope you have a great day!
All the best,
Trainer & Assessor
<Will upload on the morrow. Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Candy Basslet Stocking ?
Firstly, thank you for providing this service, and the fantastic info
<A pleasure, honor to serve, share>
Secondly, I recently purchased a Candy Basslet, and I had written to you
before regarding an issue with the Candy and a Tanaka's Pygmy Wrasse. I
have since removed the wrasse, and re-homed him with a friend of mine. I
am basically down to the Candy and a Photon Clown in a 75G with a lot of
live rock, various zoas, ricordea, and rock anemones.
I was hoping you could give me a short list of fish that would be most
compatible with the Candy? I have been looking at dartfish, small
blennies, and gobies. However, I didn't know if there were other
suitable tank mates that I could choose from...
<There are a bunch of fishes, non-fishes that should get along w/ this
little bass. The families you list should be fine, as well as most all
small/er, easygoing species... Cardinalfishes, Anthiines, little
wrasses... 75 gallons should suffice for quite a number of tankmates
Thanks again for your help!
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Ammonia/ CP and Puffers
I have a situation that I'm hoping you can assist with. Tank is a
125 gal fowlr with Dogface puffer, clown trigger, Harlequin Wrasse and
Dragon Moray (E. pardalis)
<Trouble in future... first w/ the Clown Trigger... be on guard, alert
for bite marks>
30 gallon sump
Media reactor with GFO ( not running right now )
Ok so here's my situation. Trigger and wrasse can down with ich. Treated
with Ich Sheild (CP%?)
Ich cleared up.
But my puffer came down with a spot on his side ( which we decided was
probably an injury from a hose syphon.
<Ah yes; VERY likely>
I was monitoring the water and doing 20 gallon water changes weekly. But
just yesterday I noticed the Moray breathing harder then normal and not
in his usual location. Water test reviled ammonia at .25
nitrite 0 and Nitrate 0
<How is NO3 rendered thus?>
Oh yeah so the puffers side wound that looked like a bacterial infection
spread to one of his eyes and until yesterday was hiding. The
puffer ate last night without any issues ( krill and squid).
<... see WWM re the nutrition of Tetraodontids. Want to avoid Vitamin B
I dosed heavy with Prime the first day I noticed the ammonia
<Won't solve the issue. You have too much life for this volume, your
filtration; use of treatments.... Need to "thin the herd" and/or add
redundant bio-filtration, circulation, aeration>
until I could do a water change that evening. All was good for a few
But today I have .25 again. Do you think the CP caused a die off in the
live rock hence elevating the ammonia?
<Quite likely; yes>
Or do you think what ever is effecting the puffer is causing it?
<Stress could be a factor here too>
I am going to do another water change tonight and add some beneficial
Unfortunately I do not have a quarantine tank available to remove the
Any other thoughts?
<The above... Bob Fenner>
Thank you Brad
RE: Questions about Sumps and glass tank seams and chips
Thank you so much for your answers. I’ve never done a drilled tank with a sump
before so I have no practical experience at all—just what I’ve read or seen
looking under display tanks at LFS’s.
<Better, best to read... than trial and many errors>
So, I’m kind of flying blind—especially when it comes to what happens when the
power goes out. As the expression goes, that’s why I asked. You said some things
I thought you would say, and some things I didn’t expect. Either way I’m
grateful, but I also have some confusion, some clarifications, and some more
First of all, I’m abandoning the 10 gallon sump idea. I don’t want to cut it too
close, which is why I asked in the first place. It seemed too small to me.
However, one thing that you said that confused me is that the sump has to hold
all the water above the overflow of the main tank PLUS the refugium.
<It does mate... think... what happens when the power goes out, or the main/sump
The 20 gallon tank I was thinking of using as the DSB/refugium has a one inch
drain in the side near the top (a couple of inches down). I hadn’t anticipated a
lot of back flow from it because if the power head supplying it was three or
four turns per hour (60 to 80 gallons per hour in this case), wouldn’t that keep
the water level pretty close to the level of the drain, and thus not add much to
<.... you can calculate this for all surface areas... or just try it in real
I have tried to find plastic containers online, but the problem is the listed
dimensions on the website for them are for the outside rim, not the area of the
bottom (usually a good bit smaller). Whether I’m looking for a sump or a
refugium I need to know the area of the bottom so that I can know whether I’ll
have room for my pumps and skimmer (in the case of the sump) and so that I can
have as large of a DSB as I can (in the case of the refugium). I want to be able
to see the container first hand so that I can put a tape measure to it and know
what I’m dealing with.
<Meh! Life's a series of compromises... the slope isn't all that great on such
containers. Set the ten sideways on top of the right of the twenty...>
You suggested using the 20 gallon as the sump. The problem that I see with this
is the 1” drain hole. This drain hole will limit the amount of water it can hold
as a sump, unless I plug it. How would I go about plugging it?
<Silicone and a bit of plastic sheet or glass>
I have another option for the sump that I didn’t mention before. I have an old
acrylic wet/dry that is 23.5” X 10” X16” (16 gallons or so). Would it be big
enough to be a sump?
<Maybe... if very slow flow>
If I use this W/D, I can’t use the 20 Gallon for the DSB/refugium too, because
it is a half inch too long (Don’t you just hate it when that happens!). If I go
with this option, I’ll probably try to find the biggest plastic container that I
can fit into the space and use it for the DSB/refugium. Regarding that possible
1. Option 1 would be drilling the W/D and gravity feeding into the DSB/refugium
and then putting the return pump in the DSB/refugium container (basically a
straight line—W/D with Skimmer, gravity feeding into DSB/refugium container,
flowing through it to the return pump—walled off with baffles or similar). That
wouldn’t leave a lot of space for the DSB.
2. Option 2 would be drilling the plastic container and going with a power head
in the sump to pump water into the DSB/refugium and then gravity feeding it back
into the sump. Question/concern with this option is can you drill a plastic
container and use a bulkhead fitting?
<Most, yes. NEED two gaskets, Silastic and tightening the nut just so>
The slanted sides and softer material would seem to make this difficult. I
prefer option 2, but I wasn’t sure about putting a bulkhead in a plastic
<Have done so many times>
I’m also confused in regard to what you said about the Mag 7 pump. Reason being,
when I was considering buying the used pump I emailed you with some questions
about it, and you OK’d me using it in the way I described. Here is the text of
that email (I highlighted the pertinent part).
-------- Original Message --------
Sent: Saturday, February 14, 2015 5:45 PM
Subject: Re: Pondmaster Mag Drive Pump
Thank you for your answer. I picked up some good stainless screws for the pump,
but now I have another question about it. In the last email I told you that the
pump was a Pondmaster Mag Drive 700. I wasn't 100% certain of that since the
label on the side was missing. The guy told me it was a Mag 7, but I wanted to
be sure. So I did a couple of tests, and now I'm confused. In the first test I
used a two foot section of 3/4" (ID) PVC with an elbow and a 6 inch section of
Loc-line at the top. With this set up I filled a 5 gallon bucket in about 40
By my calculations this is around 450 GPH. I'm a little new to figuring out head
pressure, but after reading a lot of plumbing FAQ's on WWM I think I had around
3 feet of head on this set up. For the second test I used a five foot section of
3/4" (ID) PVC with an elbow at the top (no loc-line this time). With this set up
I filled up a 5 gallon bucket in about 51 seconds. By my calculations this is
around 350 GPH. I think this set up had about 6 feet of head pressure. I
looked up the head/GPH chart for the Pondmaster series on the internet. At 3
feet of head it a Pondmaster 700 should get 500 GPH, but I only got 450 GPH.
<Aye ya; you're a sharp one... this is close>
At 6 feet of head pressure, it should have get 400, but I got only 350 GPH. Yet,
it cannot be a Pondmaster 500. They are the same physical size (according to the
specs I looked up), but at 3 feet of head a 500 gets about 375, and at 6 feet of
head it gets about 175 GPH. It's got to be a 700.
So, here are my questions . . .
1. Am I figuring the head pressure right?
2. Is it just not running at optimum level? Could this be because of age?
(It's used, but I'm not sure for how long)
I got this pump to use with my Aqua C EV-180. If it's not putting out a full 700
GPH though, I don't want to use it for that. I might instead use it for my
return pump. Let me give you a few details on my planned set up in that regard.
I have a 75 gallon tank (factory drilled with 1" drain & 3/4" return &
overflow). I'm not going to drill additional holes. After a
lot of research of WWM plumbing FAQ's, I had decided to use both of these holes
for drains and limit my flow to between 300 and 350 GPH (and make up for the
rest of what I need through power heads). I haven't figured out all
the plumbing details yet, because I'm still in the planning stages and haven't
gotten my stand finished yet, but I know I'll have about 5 to 5 1/2 feet of
vertical distance from the sump to the top of the tank for the (over the side)
return. I'll have a little bit more head than that because I'll have to move to
a little the side to get out from under the tank to go over
the side for the return. I'm not sure how much additional head that will be. If
I use this pump, I know that at 6 feet of head it does around 350 GPH. If I use
much more than 6 feet of head through my eventual plumbing set up, then it will
(likely) get down to or below 300 GPH. Would that be enough flow through a
<< More than enough>>
Would I be better off with a more powerful pump (say a new Mag 7) and use a
valve to throttle it down if need be?
<I'd stick with/use what you have>
I'm not trying to put the cart before the horse. I'm trying to figure out if I
want the pump or not. The guy gave it to me to test, but I haven't paid for it
yet. I can give it back to him. I'd like to use it, because it means
considerable savings over new one, but if I can't use it for the skimmer or the
return, then I might as well give it back to him.
Sorry about the length of this email. Thanks so much for all you do for us
in this hobby.
<You're fine w/ this pump. Bob Fenner>
I had read the article on the 1” drain before (and all the FAQs)—after I bought
the tank, of course—and that’s why I had decided to use the return hole as an
additional drain and make sure that I had around 300 GPH after figuring out the
head pressure. I’m going to have a ball valve above the return pump anyway (to
make it easier to remove it if necessary) and I will test the flow before
filling the aquarium. IF I am too much over 300 then I will throttle it down a
little bit. Is that plan feasible, because I really don’t want to buy another
pump at this point?
<<Depends on the sump/.... you do NOT want the transit volume to OVERFLOW the
So, counting the text of the previous email pasted in, this may be the longest
email I have ever sent WWM. Is there a length record?
<<Oh, you're WAAAAY short of this>>
Thanks so much for your help, and for clearing up all my confusion. Y’all are
Thanks so much,
<Do you understand here Eddie? BobF>
RE: Questions about Sumps and glass tank seams and chips
I have come to understanding (I think) thanks to your patient help. I guess I’ll
never REALLY understand until I see it “in action”, but I’m a lot closer than I
The more water you push with the pump (the more GPH), the more water you will
have above the level of the drain (and standpipe), and all that’s got to go
somewhere if the pump stops working (power outage),
so you need a big enough sump to catch it all (or to use a much smaller pump or
bigger drain). And having a longer return line (which lowers the GPH due to the
head pressure) ALSO means more water in those lines that will back flow.
So, based on that realization here are the options going forward:
1. Plug and use the 20 gallon tank for the sump. Then I will find as large of a
plastic container as I can for the DSB/refugium and put a drain in it & feed it
with a powerhead as before.
Would this be a large enough sump if I keep my flow near 300 GPH?
<Mmm; maybe... again, have to actually try out...>
2. Try to find an even bigger tank or container to use as an “all-in-one”
sump/DSB/Refugium. It’s hard to find a plastic container that is long enough and
still narrow enough, but if I can find a 29 or 30 gallon tank for a reasonable
price, then I will get it and divide it up into chambers. I would lose the
advantage of the completely separate refugium this way, but I would gain a good
bit of extra space to “catch” the falling water. Would this be a better option
<IF the sump, fuge can't be easily fit in the stand as one piece, better to use
If I go with option 2, I can still plug and use the 20 gallon as a quarantine
tank—so it won’t be a wasted purchase. To plug the hole should the glass/plastic
go on the inside or outside (I would think inside)? How much bigger than the
hole should it be?
<The inside; about twice the size of the hole>
Thanks for being so patient with me (and for correcting me again if I still
<Clarity is pleasurable for all of us. Cheers, BobF>
your "General Links to Aquatic/Aquarium Internet Sites" section
I would like to ask whether you would consider adding our site to your "General
Links to Aquatic/Aquarium Internet Sites" section at
Our site is
http://www.metric-conversions.org/length-conversion.htm - it is the
most popular unit conversion site in the world, its mobile friendly and we have
had it translated into 53 different languages so far.
Please let me know if you have any questions or comments regarding our site.
Thank you for your time,
<Will add on the morrow. Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Re: your "General Links to Aquatic/Aquarium Internet Sites" section
Many thanks Bob,
We hope our site proves to be a useful tool for visitors to your site.
We wish you and WetWebMedia every success yonder the morrow and thereafter.
<And you, Bob Fenner>
Turtle Shell Margin Question
<Hiya - Darrel here>
We just had to evacuate because of the hurricane. We live in Georgia. We
drove to stay with family in South Carolina about 7 hours. My Wife put
her RES in a plastic tub in blankets when we got to the house. We will
probably be here for a couple days. Will the turtle stay warm enough?
What special care does it need to not over stress?
<Not a thing! They are among the most resilient animals we know, If they
were reasonably healthy before the trip, then 10-14 days in a Tupperware
container at room temperature is not a problem at all>
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands,
Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
- Set-Up 2: Filtration of All
Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps,
Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
- About Livestock: Regional Accounts:,
Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths,
Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
- Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae,
Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges:
Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ
Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms,
Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
- Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes,
Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers,
Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine
Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving,
Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals,
Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control,
- Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms,
Treatments & Pests:
Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention,
Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health,
Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... &
- Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:,
References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography,
Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public
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