|Daily Questions & Answers (FAQs)
All "framed" images are linked to desktop sizes.
We ask that, before submitting, you refer to...
Tips on Asking Questions, Ask the WWM Crew a Question,
Query Corrections Referral
Page, FAQs on FAQs. EDFP, TBPFAQs,
SWPOTD, Last Few Days Accrued FAQs,
Subscribe to the Daily Pics
Gardinoseris planulata (Dana 1846). Massive
to encrusting. Corallites separated by high walls, columellae present,
septa-costae fine, even. S. Leyte 2013
size download & Link to Archived Marine Daily Pix
Other Specialized Daily FAQs Blogs: Freshwater,
Brackish, Last Few Days
Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Nate Guerette, Rick Novy, Bobby
Rudro, Jordan Stari, Sue Garrett, Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Sabrina Sharp, James Gasta, Eric Russell, Chris Perivolidis,
Lynn Zurik, Chuck Rambo, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved
about, re-organized daily
Current Crew Bios., Not so current Crew Bios
Small Marine Aquariums
eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums
Book 2: Fishes
eBook on Amazon: by Robert (Bob) Fenner
Small Marine Aquariums Book 3: Systems
eBook on Amazon:
by Robert (Bob) Fenner
| PLEASE: Write reviews of my works on Amazon! I need your input. BobF
Re: platy foods and plants
Thanks again Neale. Yes, it is all hierarchical...very Lord of the Flies...for
platys and for us.
<Indeed. Kill the pig, and all that.>
So, so far, I believe all's well in Neptune's Tavern. I believe she's in good
health. While it's probably a good thing that many of the hobby fish are aquaria
raised as opposed to culling from the deepy deeps, no doubt their genetic
fortitude has been influenced and compromised.
But, as a new hobbyist, I take my charges seriously and intend to do the best by
them. Thanks for immediate responses, clear insights and recommendations all
around. I suppose if we were to do the very best by them, we wouldn't hobby them
at all. !
<Certainly a lot of pleasure comes from finding out how to keep certain fishes,
and to develop your skills/habits accordingly.>
Re: platy foods and plants
The dulse is a big hit and brought the shy girl out...defending her dulse!
<Cool. Nice to know they like the stuff.>
I note you have an opinion with regard to freeze dried foods. What is your
thought? It's dehydrated *and* frozen = too many nutrients removed and overly
processed? or another insight into it...
<Freeze-dried foods can be useful, but their big drawback is cost. For what
you're getting, you pay a lot. On the plus side, they're easy to store and less
messy than (wet) frozen foods you keep in the freezer. For Platies and most
other community fish, sticking with a good flake or pellet food (Hikari, Tetra,
New Life, etc.) will ensure all the vitamins and minerals, and you can use
either freeze-dried or regular frozen foods as treats.
There's no real benefit to using either when you're keeping small community
fish, but it's often fun for the fishkeeper to vary their diet. But in all
cases, flake or pellet foods from a good manufacturer will provide a properly
rounded diet with all the nutrients they need, whereas doing the same thing with
fresh, freeze-dried or frozen foods is much harder. In the wild small fish will
eat all sorts of different insects, worms, etc. getting different nutrients from
each species they eat. But if you just use two or three different kinds of
frozen foods (bloodworms and brine shrimps, for example) you cannot be sure
you're providing all the nutrients they need. Hence, even if you do offer
bloodworms in one for or another (live, frozen, dried) they're a treat, not a
Re: Two female Turquoise
I got a female and a male Boesemanni Rainbow so that brings it to three
females and the one male. These fish are lightening fast.
I hope that doesn't bother the angelfish who is very laid back
<Shouldn't do. The Angel/Rainbowfish combo is an established one,
generally works well. Male Rainbows can be mutually aggressive, but
rarely harass other fishes kept with them. Increasing numbers (esp. of
females, so males outnumbered) is a good way to minimise problems.>
Thanks always for the advice and apologies if I missed this in the
archives. I am trying to decide if a 20 gallon reef is
acceptable for a pair of clowns (Percula).
<Mmm; yes; but barely... should they reproduce, there may be trouble for
any other fishes present>
I know WetWebMedia recommends against keeping nanos, but this tank is
inline with several larger tanks (250 g reef, 90 g reef, 100 g sump, 30
g fuge), so water stability is not (hopefully!) an issue.
The tank has been empty of fish for years and has a well established
sand bed and live rock. It has a few colonies of flourishing zoos and a
few crabs. My question is if the space is psychologically too small for
fish assuming water stability?
<For tank produced individuals of this species; considering your
experience... I think you'll be mighty fine>
< Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Brain coral with a white patch
Thanks a lot for your reply. I didn't know if I'd get one let alone the
<We respond to all; ASAP>
It's kind of reassuring to know my coral is not in serious trouble.
I'd like to thank you for the website too, just about every search I do
on the web regarding my fish tank comes up with results from you guys,
such a wealth of knowledge. I have learnt a lot from you's, thanks
<And you, BobF>
Re: Purple Tang Issue
Do you perhaps think it could be flukes? And the fin
rot type infection is
<Mmm; many if not most wild-caught/captured reef fishes do have
Trematodes... but can only tell by sampling and looking under a 'scope>
I am dosing my reef tank with PraziPro to be on the safe side, a few
I have talked to think that it could be flukes and the fin rot is from
stress causing the lower immune response. I have friends who did this in
past with no ill effects.
I also plan to do a treatment of PraziPro to the tang in QT to rule that
<I'd be boosting the animals immune system... via foods, supplementing.
Re: Ongoing Blueberry Gorg Success - Update
Good Evening Bob,
<Fresh as a daisy this AM Steve>
14 month update on the Blueberry Gorg... Living strong and thriving here
in SD. The specimen hasn't seen directly "daylight" from my Ecoxotic
canons in almost 7 months. Once a week direct feeding to maintain...
twice a week to promote growth. Getting my H2O from Scripps
these days with no side
<The usual cautionary note to you, others, to store this fresh, real
seawater for a good week or two (in the dark preferably) or bleach,
dechlorinate it ahead of use. At times; real trouble.>
<And you. Thanks for the update. Bob Fenner>
Brackish Moray not eating... w/ non-brackish fishes
Hi my name is Hennie and I have a G tile eel my SG is 1.010
and pH 7.3 . I have my eel now for a week and it will not eat I
try every day with shrimp and nothing. He has lot of hiding places
and there is 2 Oscars 3 Malawi cichlids, rope fish tyre track
eel and 2 sharks. What could be the problem
<Umm; likely the other fishes present... Not compatible. You
need another system, or two, three... DO read re each of these species;
their compatibility, system needs... they can't live well or long
Please read here:
the linked files at top. Bob Fenner>
Re: Brackish Moray not eating... w/ non-brackish fishes
Thanks so much I have taken a look at the link and understand a lot now.
Thanks for your help
<Grateful to help you save the health and life your aquatic charges.
Sorry to ask now agen but I see him opening he's mouth wide open a few
times now sould I be worry or is it normal
<... Normal. B>
Great thanks much now I will not bug you with my beginner questions haha
<Do keep studying, learning... and sharing. B>
Brain coral with a white patch
Been reading many tips and advice on your website, thanks but was
wondering if you could help me out with my open brain coral.
I brought it 3 days ago, aclimatized it over for over 3 hrs before I
placed it in my tank.
The trouble is I have noticed a white patch on the fleshy part of the
brain, I'm not sure what it is or what to do about it but don't want
this animal to be distressed.
<Looks to be a physical injury...>
My water is within the safe parameters so don't think it is that.
My light is a 4 channel led unit, that I keep on 40% no more.
I'll try to attach a picture. The white bit on the top is a piece of
fish for its dinner.
Any help or advice would be appreciated.
<I'd most likely just double dose your system with iodide-ate and call
it a day. T'were you a retailer or closer to the supply side, I'd soak
in lowered spg (a thousandth or two) and administer a simple (hexose)
sugar as an immersed bath. Bob Fenner>
Any chance of survival? 8/18/14
<Hiya - Darrel here>
Many months ago rescued a turtle from the wild after being upside down
and buried in dirt. It looked awful. I invested a lot of obey into this
turtle. It never basked so i would take it outside daily. When i went to summer
camp my dad would be the one to take it outside. He left it out too long and it
<We're sorry for your loss, Greg>
Since i was so upset my parents were going to get me a new turtle. We only had a
20 gallon tank so it had to be a baby turtle because no other sized turtle would
fit. We went to Chinatown and bought 2 baby turtles. One is healthy and after
research i figured out that the other has a RI. My tank is very clean and i have
2 filters. I also put water conditioner in to make it healthy for turtles. Since
the turtle was in awful conditions but is now in better conditions, is there
chance of survival. (It has been wheezing, seems to be gasping on air, and puffs
up it’s neck while breathing). P.s. will the healthy turtle catch the RI if it
is in the same tank (80 degree water, 90 degree bask).
<A turtle will generally not catch a Respiratory Infection from another turtle
if he's otherwise healthy, but when I have a sick turtle I usually treat the
entire population. My thinking is "what it they all have the condition already
and it's just that only one is showing the symptom?">
<Also the treatment for an RI is a treatment that all turtles can endure easily.
Read here about how to treat a wheezy, bubbly nose:
<As far as general care goes, your 80 degree water is a bit too warm for normal
conditions. Room temperature water is that they should swim in. Also remember
that the UV-B light that they need can't penetrate glass -- and even regular
window screen blocks a lot of it. Read here, measure your care against the
standards given and correct anything that's not right:
Please help, sincerely Greg
Re: Purple Tang Issue 8/18/14
Here are a few pictures
<Thanks... the tail... looks more like a bite>
Water parameters are tested via a API titration test kit. I have a full
refugium , skimmer and macro algae for filtration with only bulk reef
supply matrix activated carbon. Would you suggest giving MelaFix
a try in QT?
<This stuff is a scam... worse than zip. No to using it period>
I have had some luck with it in the past for freshwater issues but have
not used it in marine. I really don't want to use antibiotics again as
he just went through two treatments, what are your thoughts?
<I'd go w/ the tried and true pH adjusted freshwater bath (a few
minutes), perhaps with concentrated Furan compound (250 mg/gal.) route.
Water quality for overpopulated tank of Red Eared Sliders
Thank you for your web site and resources. I have searched your site and others
and can't get exactly what I'm looking for. I'm hoping you can help me with a
First, let me explain that these turtles are not mine, they belong to a nearby
university , and I'm trying to improve their miserable situation.
There are four (2 adult, 2 younger) Red Eared Sliders in a 65 gallon tank which
is half full.
It's a bad situation.
<Doesn't sound ideal, no.>
I'm in the process of building a wet/dry filter, and combining it with a carbon
filter and a chemical filter.
<I wouldn't bother with carbon or zeolite. Both need to be replaced very
frequently (couple of weeks?) otherwise they don't do anything, so you may as
well focus on mechanical and biological filtration. I'd aim for a roughly 50/50
mix of coarse media (to filter out solid waste like faeces and decaying food)
and finer media (to process ammonia, positioned downstream of the mechanical
media). Do bear in mind you're unlikely to get zero levels of ammonia or nitrite
in a turtle aquarium, and often the best approach is to focus on water changes
rather than relying solely on biological filtration. For sure high ammonia
levels can irritate the eyes and skin, but unlike fish, turtles can clamber out
on the land when they need to, and swim only to cool down and to feed (at least,
if we're talking about Sliders; some more aquatic turtles are indeed more
Also, I'm getting some starter bacteria and to get the filter media started and
some bacteria to help with the high volume of waste.
<Assuming this aquarium isn't sterile (!) then it's probably very well supplied
with bacteria to start the filter maturing. Do remember the "good" bacteria live
on any solid surface with a good flow of water and oxygen, including rocks,
plastic plants, top 1 cm of gravel.>
What is the correct water chemistry for RES? pH, GH, and KH.
<Water chemistry isn't critical; the old "avoid extremes" mantra works here;
2-20 degrees dH, pH 6-8. So provided your water isn't strongly peaty and acidic,
or conversely, isn't brackish/saline, it's probably fine. The ideal is probably
slightly hard and alkaline primarily because this favours the best biological
bacteria growth (the "good" bacteria we want don't do well in soft/acid
Any advice would be greatly appreciated.
<Hope this helps.>
I need to make a good attempt at helping them, because I'm not sure the politics
will stay friendly to me for long.
<Sounds like you're making a valiant effort here; good luck! Neale.>
urgent help... Killing marines through NO2 poisoning...
Since speaking to you a few weeks ago, I think I have had my worst time with
fish keeping. Since restarting my tank using bacteria (I attempted to
treat fish in 100 gallon trough), I have lost 16 of 19 fish.
Last night I had 6 fish, however, sometime during the overnight, I lost a 7 inch
orange shoulder tang, 4 inch desjardini sailfin tang, as well as a fire clown
I immediately measured water quality (1.023 sg, 82 degrees Fahrenheit, 0 AMM,
<NitrItes? Incredibly high... WHY are you placing fishes in an uncycled system?>
) I understand the nitrites are high, but they have been high since I restarted
the tank after putting fish in it. On Friday I did a 50 gallon water change,
(1/3 water volume) and added more stability bacteria.
Do you believe in fact the elevated nitrites are what is killing these
<.... Robert; are you joking? IF so, this is NOT funny>
Upon inspection of fish prior to last night, I noticed a string, white substance
attached to the orange shoulder tang, as well as the clownfish.
The orange should also had blotches on him, it was not ich.
My lfs, upon similar description I am giving you, thinks its bacterial, and I
should use formalin or quick cure. If it is nitrites, I know letting it run will
eventually bring it down. If it is bacterial, when tank does cycle out,
when does one know it is safe to add fish?
<.... ? Disappointing. LEARN TO USE WWM>
Also, if bacterial, will flipping on uv light help any? I have left it off in
effort to help speed cycle tank, but I also understand where there is good
bacteria growing, there could also be bad bacteria.
I am beginning to think I had way to many fish in a tank before, and that was
the root of my issues. Going forward, if there is a such thing, I may just opt
for less fish, more of the eye catching fish. Eel, lionfish, etc.
and the linked files above. Yes; all of them. Bob Fenner>
RE: urgent help 8/18/14
Well, no this is not a joke. I attempted a quarantine/hospital environment, and
failed miserably keeping ammonia manageable. I simply had to
many fish. I attempted to eradicate the ich, restarting the tank. I felt, at the
time, by best interest was to get the bigger body of water (my tank) up and
running, use as much bacteria as I possibly could, and get them back in there
tank. This was not by design. I would never advocate doing this, but given I had
no where else to go with them, I had to do what I thought was right. My lfs
would NOT take them in, and I do not know anyone well enough in my area to spare
With that said, and again, I know it sucked, and wasn't ideal whatsoever, moving
forward, do these symptoms sound like velvet, brook, etc, or is that simply the
byproduct of high nitrites? (again no ammonia) For what its worth, and maybe
this is incorrect, according to an article by Randy Holmes Farley, nitrites in
saltwater are not nearly as toxic as freshwater, and some fish can live
in nitrites in the 100's.
<Not NitrItes; NitrAtes. KEEP READING>
My dilemma, or oncoming dilemma, is, is this a disease, that needs to be treated
again, or something that needs time to cycle out and stabilize.
The highest ammonia level I have seen, measuring once per day the last two
weeks, was .5, and it lasted 3 days, in which all of the remaining fish lived
thru. Again, I know I screwed up horrible, should have let the fish and the ich
be, and not attempt to keep that many fish in an uncycled environment. Moving
forward, how do I know if right now I am dealing disease or new tank syndrome?
Used 90 gallon, too much crazing for comfort?
I probably visit your site daily so thanks for providing such a great
source of information! On to my question which I think I know the answer
to, but wanted a second opinion.
So I just bought this tank off CL which is supposedly 2 years old. The
holds water fine and was being used until I bought it. Here is what I
noticed when I got home though (see pics).
I know some crazing isn't that uncommon with acrylic tanks, but does
this tank need support added or am I just being paranoid?
<I would not fill this tank w/o putting in internal corner supports. See
Tank specifics - standard rectangle SeaClear 90 gallon (reef ready) with
two openings on top (euro style?). Unfortunately the tank is 3/8
thickness, but when filled I didn't see any bowing anywhere.
The only crazing is at the bottom seams and a little on the corner. The
top brace seams are fine all around. The pics included are the worst
spots and they were taken with the tank dry. The seam is completely
smooth on the outside and inside when I run my hand along it. So the
"frosty" spots are in the seam itself.
Rest of the tank looks great, just not sure what to make of the crazing.
<Structural weakness. Bob Fenner>
Re: Used 90 gallon, too much crazing for comfort?
Ok thanks for the reply. Kind of what I thought also. This might be a silly
question, but with the reinforced seams is that a very long term fix years)
or a short term (a year) assuming it is done correctly?
Many years (decades) of life to this system w/ the reinforcing square
doweling inserted (solvented) into the corners. I would definitely be doing
this job. BobF>
Marine Aquarium Articles and FAQs Master Index
- Set-Up 1:
Types of Systems:, Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands,
Covers:, Water, Seawater, Substrates, DSBs, Electricity,
Heating/Chilling, Aquascaping, Biotopes, Travelogues.
- Set-Up 2: Filtration of All
Sorts, Skimmers, Sumps, Refugiums, Plumbing, Circulation, Pumps,
Powerheads, Aeration & Light/Lighting:.
- About Livestock: Regional Accounts:,
Collection, Selection:, Stocking:, Disease Prevention: Dips/Baths,
Acclimation, Quarantine, Behavior:, Territoriality:, Reproduction:
- Non-Vertebrate Sea Life Identification, & Microbes, Algae,
Plants, Live Rock & Sand, Sponges:
Hitchhikers, IDs, Marine Microbes, Plankton, Live Rock & Sand, Marine
Algae, Marine Plants, Sponges, phylum Porifera,
- Cnidarians I. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 1: Cnidarians Overall;
Hydrozoans: Jellies, Hydroids, Anthozoans; Octocorals: Organ
Pipe, Blue Coral, Star Polyps, Sea Fans, Sea Pens and Soft Corals
- Cnidarians II. Corals to Hobbyists,
Stinging-Celled Animals 2: Anthozoans; Hexacorals: Mushrooms,
Zoanthids, Anemones, Stony Corals, Tube Anemones, Black Corals
- Higher Invertebrate Life:
Bryozoans, Worms of all kinds, Mollusks (Snails, Nudibranchs,
Octopodes), Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters...), Echinoderms
(Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Seastars, Brittlestars...), Sea Squirts,
- Fishes, Index 1: Sharks, Rays, Skates;
Marine Eels; Marine Catfishes; Squirrelfishes, Soldierfishes,
Lionfishes, Stonefishes, Gurnards, Sculpins; Anglerfishes, Seahorses &
Pipefishes, Blennioid & Gobioid Fishes, Mandarins, Clingfishes, Wrasses
- Fishes, Index 2:
Butterflyfishes, Cardinalfishes, Grammas, Grunts, Sweetlips,
Snappers, Goatfishes, Jawfishes, Big-Eyes, Basses, Anthias, Dottybacks,
Roundheads, Soapfishes, Damselfishes, Clownfishes, Monos, Hawkfishes,
Croakers, Emperors, Threadfins, Sandperches, Miscellaneous Percoids,
- Fishes Plus, Index 3: Marine Angelfishes,
Tangs/Surgeons/Doctorfishes, Scats, Batfishes, Rabbitfishes; Triggers,
Files, Puffers, Flounders, Halibuts, Soles, Really Old Fishes, Marine
Reptiles, Marine Mammals,
General Maintenance, Vacations, Moving,
Water Quality: Tests/Testing, Aquarium Repairs, Biominerals,
Supplementation, Marine Scavengers, Algae ID & Control,
- Diseases: Identification, Avoidance, Causes, Organisms,
Treatments & Pests:
Acclimation, Quarantine, Dips/Baths; Disease: Prevention,
Identification, Treatment, Pests/Control, Aquariums and Human Health,
Chemicals of Use/Dis- and Mis-use, Pest Flatworm/Anemones/Worms... &
- Marine Topics: Media Reviews:, Books:,
References, Sources, Writing, Diving, Travel Adventure, Photography,
Videography, Sources of Mortality on the Worlds Reefs, Schooling, Public
Site Navigation-The navigation through the site is designed to allow you to go
through the pages following the blue links to get to the information you