Please visit our Sponsors
FAQs About Newts & Salamanders, Amphibians with tails...: Axolotls, Neotenic Salamanders

Related Articles: Amphibians, Turtles

Related FAQs: Newts & Salamanders, Amphibians 1, Amphibians 2,

& FAQs by Groups/Species: Axolotls, Efts, Fire Belly Newts, Hellbenders, Tiger Salamanders, Water Dogs, & African Dwarf Frogs, African Clawed Frogs, Rubber Eels/CaeciliansAmphibian Identification, Amphibian Behavior, Amphibian Compatibility, Amphibian Selection, Amphibian Systems, Amphibian Feeding, Amphibian Disease, Amphibian Reproduction,

See also on WWM:
Tiger Salamanders, Water Dogs,

Please help my axolotl!!      2/2/16
Hi! You guys!
Yesterday my axolotl has eaten the fish (the catfish or the cleaning fish).
The fish has almost sharp spine.
The fish is still in his throat and my axolotl can't either swallow or take the fish away from his throat. I'm very stressed and don't know exactly what to do. Does somebody have any experience about it??? Are there possible to just remove it myself?
<Yes and yes! Do hold the Salamander in a wet towel and prize open its mouth with your thumb and first finger placed on either side of the angle of the jaw. Reach in with a blunt tweezers and depress the dorsal and possibly pectoral fin spines of the stuck fish and pull it out of the mouth. >
I hope to here from you guys ASAP.
Best Regards,
Sasimaporn Skarstad
<Please report back post operation. Bob Fenner>
Re: Please help my axolotl!!        2/3/16

Hi again!
My husband and I tried to do what you have told and it seem it was so helpful. My axolotl has some pain in his mouth while we tried to took the brockie catfish out. Now the fish has taken and we took my axolotl back to aquarium. We just keep an eye on him. and my husband put the special salt (credozon) for him. Do you have some tips after treatment?
<Really to just keep the water clean... sulfa drugs might be suggested if there was an obvious infection, but I would not use medication/s at this point>
We thank you and really appreciate your help!
Best Regards,
Sasimaporn Skarstad
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Please help my axolotl!!        2/3/16

Thank so much! We will do it. :)
<Ah good>
Have a nice day!
<And you, B>
Re: Please help my axolotl!!       2/4/16

Hi again! My axolotl not interested in foods. Han become very thin now. I am so stress that he gonna to dead if he eat nothing. Is it maybe normal after operated?
<Likely so; have you tried small (earth)worms?>

How i can do or just let him be that way?
Best regards,
<I urge patience; and for you to read here:
Bob Fenner>

Dechlor vs. Axolotls        9/10/15
I had super strong and healthy axolotls, still pretty young but about 6 inches long. I changed their water the other day and added DeChlor (removes chlorine and chloramine)
<Mmm; no; not if this is the olde Weco (company) product or its formulation. It was at least just sodium thiosulfate (hyposulfite) and water. ONLY removes chlorine, NOT chloramine/s... the latter of which are what we have almost everywhere in the US>

as I normally do (don't know if this is necessary but the pet stores advised it).
<A good idea; a better one to treat or not and store new water for a week or more...>
I usually wait a while to put them back in the tank but totally forgot to do that and when I put them back, they looked like they were choking. I took them out and put them in the water I kept them on while I was changing the tank and they called down. I did the tank all over again because I didn't know if the DeChlor hadn't neutralized yet or maybe I added too much. Either way, it's been about three days...the ax babies are still eating but they are not swimming or playing like they
normally do. They are only crawling around on the bottom of the tank and it seems like they can't make themselves buoyant. I'm so sad and scared that I may have caused permanent damage. Any suggestions?
<At this point/time, only to wait and hope... "the damage is done"... Going forward, DO read on WWM re Dechloramination, and means to prepare water.
Oh! And do know that municipalities at times "pulse" much more sanitizer into potable water.... Dangerous. Again, storing water to be used allows for dissipation, neutralization.
Bob Fenner>

Axolotl on the floor        2/19/15
Help Neale
My axolotl jumped out of the tank landed on floor and was there for don't know how long
When I discovered him he was all shriveled up
Not in good shape
Put him back in water but he is not looking good
<What will happen, will happen. Provided he's still alive now, and especially if he starts feeding, there's some scope for optimism. Axolotls can breathe air, and if secondary infections and serious physical damage are avoided, they can recover from this sort of accident. Optimise water quality, keep the tank cool and shady, and offer the best possible food.
Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Axolotl        2/28/15

Hi Neale
Just changed water of my surviving axol and now he seems not to be able to submerge. Looks like he has air in his tummy that makes him float to top
What do you think is wrong?
<Impossible to say. Constipation is a common problem, but so is swallowing gravel (if present, which I don't recommend). The Epsom salt treatment (1-3 teaspoons per 5 gallons/20 litres) can be used, alongside lowering the temperature (15-18 C is ideal). Lowering the temperature reduces their food requirements, which gives time for any blockages to clear the gut without causing the Axolotl to starve. Lowering the water level to a floating Axolotl can touch the ground with his feet will reduce stress. Provided the Axolotl is otherwise healthy, and especially if it is still feeding, the chances of recovery are good. But it does take time, even 2-3 weeks.
Cheers, Neale.>

Axolotl Sys.       2/10/15
I just read your answer as to amount of water needed for just one axolotl as well as goldfish. 75 liters.
<Round about, yes.>
Wow. Standard aquariums don't even come that big where I come from. 35 liters the most. This means I have to have one specially made for just one fish.
<Yikes. What about a pond? Surely in Mozambique an outdoor pond for Goldfish would work pretty well. But just make sure there's NO chance of the fish getting into local water bodies, e.g., after heavy rain.>
Did I get the calculations right?
Also, can I give them fish fillets thawed from supermarket box bought?
<Well, yes, but not the only thing. Goldfish are herbivores more than anything else. Cooked vegetables (peas, spinach, squashes of all sorts, courgette/zucchini) and even cooked rice make useful staples, and they'll also nibble on things like lettuce leaves given the chance. Small amounts of meaty foods can be added; white fish fillet and prawns, for example, but
in very small amounts. If at all possible (perhaps mail order?) Koi pellets will make the best and cheapest staple. But mostly green foods, as mentioned above, work great. Axolotls are predators, and generally need meaty foods. Earthworms are excellent foods, if you can get them. But otherwise small pieces of white fish fillet (tilapia is ideal) and occasional seafood (squid, prawns mussels, cockles). Prawns and mussels contain Thiaminase, which causes health problems, so despite being
convenient, shouldn't be used more than, say, 20% of their diet.>
Thank you
<Most welcome. Neale.>
Re: Axolotl Sys.       2/10/15
Thank you Neale
My goldfish are Ok as far as food.
The axolotls are another story.
I was given pellets for koi fish and told they like it
<Uh, no. Would lions eat grass? Koi is basically salad in a pellet, ideal for herbivores.>
Mine don't seem to want to eat them
<Indeed not.>
Will try the tilapia
<Good call. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Axolotl Sys.       2/10/15
Thanks Neale
Makes sense but I want to tell you a story not related to fish. When I arrived in Mozambique early 90s I joined a group of people that wanted to look after animals in the zoo. There weren't that many. 6 lions all bred in captivity and during their civil war. They were feed grass and scraps of waste and had survived for 20 odd years
<Crikey! Doesn't really sound the ideal diet for Lions... Have just read (online) an article called "Vegetarian Lions and a Smoking Chimpanzee" and wow!>
Meat was new to them. But they got into it as if they had known what it was. Last night I gave shrimp and tilapia. Its still standing there.
<The Axolotl? They're pretty hardy. Should do well given the right food and cool water.>
Don't know when last they eat but am hopeful
<Cheers, Neale>

Axolotl mouth problem     10/30/14
Hi, i have an axolotl that is about 6 inches long. Lately, his mouth stays open all the time like he is smiling a small smile. He seems fine otherwise but his mouth never used to stay open. Any suggestions?
<Persistent "gaping" behaviour in Axolotls is not normal and in some cases can indicate incipient issues such as swelling of the jaws and fluid retention (dropsy) caused by internal organ problems. A vet may be able to pinpoint the problem, but before you call your local vet, let's review their basic needs. Axolotls need a varied diet (but not too many mealworms, and never, ever store-bought feeder fish). A variety that includes earthworms, small pieces of fish fillet and seafood, and frozen invertebrates such as bloodworms and krill should be good, ideally supplemented with amphibian pellet foods from time to time. Some foods are rich in calcium, such as krill, and these are an essential part of their diet. You can add calcium supplements to any foods offered, and this is an extremely good idea. They need hard, alkaline water chemistry (soft water
can cause problems in the long term, as will high sodium levels, so don't use water from a domestic water softener or add things like aquarium salt unless you've been told to do so by a vet). Axolotls need good water quality, so the aquarium must have a filter and regular water changes. The tank shouldn't be too small either, 20 gallons for a single adult is about right, but the water level lowered to about two-thirds the way up the tank, so there's plenty of warm air above the waterline (breathing cold, dry air from your room wouldn't do your Axolotl any favours). Finally, they need to be kept relatively cool, room temperature is usually ideal, i.e., around 18 C/64 F. Any warmer than that can/will cause problems, and these amphibians do better kept cooler than that for part of the year if possible, so don't keep your Axolotl in a centrally heated room but in a cooler basement or at least somewhere well away from sources of heat and direct sunlight. Review this list, and anything you're not doing right may be a cause of stress, and so fixing that problem might improve the health of your Axolotl. Finally, I'd direct you towards Caudata.org, an excellent forum for discussion of amphibian healthcare. While similar to fishes in some ways, healthcare of Axolotls isn't identical, and some medications suitable for fishes are hazardous to amphibians. Sign up, ask your question, post some photos, and give detailed information about things like diet, water chemistry, filtration and aquarium set-up for more detailed help and commentary than I can offer here on the basis of what you've told me (which isn't much). Cheers, Neale.> <<Excellent Neale. RMF>>
Re: Axolotl mouth problem      10/30/14

Thank you for your quick response. I appreciate the help. If the problem is caused by diet, is it reversible?
<Sure, but the foods you're offering sound fine. The main thing is to avoid feeder fish completely (not an issue here in the UK, but still used in some countries, despite all the evidence against their use) and to use mealworms
only sparingly (while Axolotls like them, their tough exoskeletons don't seem to be easily digested).>
I feed her with frozen bloodworms, a frozen carnivore fish food (with fish and shrimp), brine shrimp and axolotl pellets. Also, she is in a 20 gallon tank filled about only two-thirds full with a filter and chiller which keeps her tank about 67 degrees Fahrenheit.
<That's fine.>
Your notes below says it should be more like 64, so I will lower that.<Well within their tolerance. The main thing is not to keep them "tropical" as that shortens their lives. Room temperature, though away from room
heaters or sunny windows, is usually fine.>
Nitrates and ammonia are at zero.
I don't know about the hardness, but I will pick up a test kit today.
<In short, do kettles etc. fur up with limescale quickly? Do you need to de-scale kettles and other appliances? If you do, you probably have hard water, so no need to test. But if you have soft/softened water, that isn't ideal for Axolotls.>
There is not a vet locally that will treat axolotls, so I am unsure what to try next.
<Depending on where you live, simply using Google, Bing or similar to search for "vets" and "herptiles" or "vets" and "exotics" may reveal some local vets who treat reptiles and amphibians. You can also visit the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians website to do a search by state, here:
Mostly US vets, but some elsewhere are listed too. Most vets are able to treat reptiles and amphibians, they're taught such stuff at university, though some may choose not to for a variety of reasons. Expense shouldn't
be a major concern though, since treating reptiles and amphibians is nothing like as expensive as treating cats and dogs. Again, and I stress this, Caudata.org is a very helpful place, as is herpetofauna.co.uk, another excellent forum dedicates to non-mammalian pet healthcare. Since I'm a fish "expert" rather than an amphibian specialist, I really would encourage you to visit these forums.>
Again, I appreciate any help you can give. Thank you for your time.
<You're most welcome. Cheers, Neale.>

Flint the Axolotl; fdg        11/14/13
Hello, i saw you had an axolotl section in this website and i wanted to ask you a question. I have a 6 inch male axolotl that i have gotten recently.
I've been feeding him 1 3 inch worm everyday since i got him and he is mobile and happy as normal. Is this a suitable amount of food? Do i have to feed him more or less or is that ok for my axolotl?
<It's probably a bit much, three meals a week is the usual recommendation, but provided water quality is good (use a nitrite test kit) I wouldn't worry too much about it. Just make sure the Axolotl doesn't get fat and isn't regurgitating food. On the other hand, *just* earthworms isn't a good enough diet; vary the diet with strips of white fish fillet (such as pollack or tilapia) and bite-size pieces of seafood (cockles being especially good, while prawns and mussels are useful, but vitamin-deficient, so to be used sparingly). Most Axolotls take good quality pellets as well, and these make an excellent staple diet. I'd go with something aimed at carnivorous fish (like Hikari Sinking Carnivore Pellets). Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Flint the Axolotl       11/14/13

Thank you!
<Glad to help.>
I'm feeding him some of the pellets now. He likes them a lot! :)
<Good! Just take care not to overfeed. Cheers, Neale.>

Axolotl with blood blister   10/6.5/11
My Axolotl has what appears to be a blood blister at the base of his dorsal fin as joins the top of his body. He is feeding fine and does not appear distressed. I panicked and did a complete water change and he has been back in for two days now. A friend of mine showed a pic to London Zoo and they said it was most likely to be an infected blood blister and suggested Baytril; the anti-biotic. Two things is it safe to purchase this on the Internet to save me vast expense of Vets and secondly is Baytril safe for Axolotl's and what is the process?
Thank so much, really fretting about Lotl
<Hello Julia. I'd definitely go with the opinion of the guys and gals at the London Zoo! Now here's the thing: dosing antibiotics isn't easy. You need a certain concentration in the water, and preferably, a dosage worked out for the weight of the animal being treated. So, as a first pass, I'd actually try a fish-safe antibacterial. I like something called eSHa 2000, which treats external bacterial infections rather well. By guess here is that this blister is a bacterial infection of a small wound on the skin. eSHa 2000 should take care of that nicely. If this doesn't work within a week or two, then contacting a vet makes a lot of sense. That'll likely cost around £20 for the consultation itself, and then the cost of the antibiotic if needed. Yes, more expensive than the £5 for a bottle of eSHa 2000, but this time the medication will be tailored for the animal in question, so the odds of success are better. Your local branch of the RSPCA may be able to help get you in touch with a reliable, inexpensive vet somewhere near home. Hope this helps, Neale.>

Re: Axolotl with blood blister   10/11/11

Thank you so much for your time and help; I will get hold of the eSHa 2000
<Good luck! Neale.>

Ambystoma mexicanum; care, rearing
I am curious about Axolotls.
<Nice animals.>
I have the option to purchase a few eggs and am interested in learning about care and rearing.
The eggs were specified as being "black eggs" - Does this mean purely 'wild type' or the dark coloration with pink gills?
<Hard to know. Ask the breeder. All the colour of the eggs tells you is if the Axolotl is an albino (white eggs) or not (black eggs).>
Once they hatch, what is the best diet for them?
<Initially, brine shrimp nauplii are best, as you'd do with newborn egg-laying fish. Very small daphnia might work too. After a couple of weeks they'll take a wide variety of live and frozen foods including live daphnia and brine shrimp, live or frozen bloodworms, live glassworms, and so on. Once around 4 cm long they should be slowly weaned onto whatever staple pellet food you intend to use.>
As for rearing tank set up, what depth should the water be,
<10 cm/4 inches is fine initially, but as they become stronger swimmers, you can deepen the water a bit. Axolotls don't gulp air very much, and rely mostly on their gills. Provided you have a clump of floating plants in the tank, e.g., hornwort, they'll use that as a place to rest should they want to stay close to the surface.>
what temperature,
<Very slightly above room temperature is ideal for newly hatched ones, 18-22 C, if you want them to grow at maximum speed. But room temperature is fine, anything from 10-25 C being tolerated well by adults, and the cooler end of the range actually being healthier for them during the winter.>
and should there be a low out put aerator in the tank?
<An air-powered sponge or corner filter is certainly essential in the breeding tank. Scale this upwards as the Axolotls mature, either to a bigger sponge filter, or to something like an undergravel filter or external canister filter for adults.>
I have read that in overcrowded tanks, newly morphing axolotls will cannibalize.
If there are 10 or less developing in a ten gallon rearing tank, is this considered a crowded environment?
<Depends on how big they are. If 1-2 cm long, perhaps not; but you'll soon see evidence of missing toes or nipped gills as they get larger. Lots of floating plants will minimise problems by offering hiding places, and obviously if they're well fed on alternative foods, they'll be less likely to eat each other. The flip side to generous feeding is poor water quality, so filtration needs to be even more robust, and water changes even more frequent. You pays your money and you takes your choice'¦>
For the full grown axolotls, are ten gallon tanks each acceptable?
<Nope. These are very big, carnivorous, territorial animals that produce a lot of waste. If you want your Axolotl to look good, you want the longest tank you can find, even if that means only half-filling it with water. I'd be looking at a tank around 1 m/3.3 ft in length. Depth isn't critical, but you want at least 20 cm/8 inches for adults simply so they aren't half-exposed to the air as they clamber about the plants, rocks and bogwood. So realistically, you're after a tank around 110 l/30 US gallons in size if you want to house a couple of adults safely without too much risk of fighting or cannibalism.>
Thank you!
<Glad to help. Cheers, Neale.>

Axolotl, beh., sys.  -- 10/20/10
I purchased an Axolotl about 3 months ago from a reptile store. She has been going great, eats heaps and seems quite happy. The only problem that I have found, and after doing much research before and after purchasing her, is that her external feather like gills have not really grown, nor were they there when I first purchased her. I did think that they had started to grow but they have not gotten any longer than about half a centimeter.
Should I be worried? I was also wondering if it is normal for them to have quite 'old' looking, wrinkly skin? She was black when I purchased her but her colour seems to have faded to a grayish colour on her underside.
Kind Regards,
<Hello Louisa. Yes, Axolotls do have wrinkly skin. So provided the skin isn't bloody or has odd white patches, and assuming the Axolotl is adequately fed (no feeder fish!) on earthworms and other safe foods, the texture of the skin shouldn't be a major source of concern. Colour does vary, and you do need to be sure that the paleness is simply the animal changing colour rather than unusual amounts of mucous, this latter being a sign of irritation, for example non-zero levels of ammonia and nitrite, or non-dechlorinated tap water, or rapid changes in pH and hardness. As with any other aquatic animals Axolotls will be darkest when kept in shady tanks with a dark substrate and floating plants, and become paler if there are no floating plants, strong lighting, and/or the use of non-natural coloured gravels or sand. Note also that these animals have eyes that are damaged by bright lights, so if you don't have floating plants, e.g., Indian Fern, don't use aquarium lights at all. As for the length of the gills, these do vary in length. They should be at least as long as the distance between the shoulder and elbow, and may be as long as the distance between the shoulder and wrist. To some degree the size of the gills varies with water temperature: because warm water contains less oxygen, Axolotls have evolved the ability to grow larger gills when exposed to warmer temperatures. However, the gills are easily damaged, particularly by other Axolotls, fish or turtles pecking at them. Good advice is to keep Axolotls singly unless the tank is very large and never alongside fish or turtles. By the same token, handling Axolotls can cause damage to the delicate gill filaments, so that should be avoided too. Potentially, sharp sand, gravel and rocks can also cause damage, so these shouldn't be placed in the tank either. Otherwise, provided you stick with the ground rules for keeping Axolotls, you should find them very hardy; in other words, i.e., 20 gallons for a singleton and 30 gallons for a pair; a good air-powered undergravel or sponge filter; hard, alkaline water chemistry; 0 ammonia and 0 nitrite; and room temperature rather than tropical temperatures. Earthworms, strips of
tilapia fillet, and chopped seafood all make good foods, and as stated earlier, don't use feeder fish, partly because of the risk of introducing disease, and partly because fish that aren't eaten can damage the Axolotl
itself. Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Axolotl... fdg.
Thank you, this information has helped put my mind at ease.
<Glad to help.>
I do usually feed her cut up seafood and occasionally add some small fish (not feeders though as she doesn't seem to like them, usually neon tetras)
<No! Don't do this. Really, incredibly unwise. Live fish are single easiest way to make your predator sick. Even ones from the pet shop. In fact, *especially* ones from the pet shop. Strips of tilapia will make excellent meaty supplements to the diet of your Axolotl. Earthworms should be the staple food as these are extremely well balanced in terms of vitamins.
Seafood is good, but make sure to limit things like prawns and mussels, as these contain thiaminase that creates problems in the long term. Cockles are okay, as is tilapia, which is cheap as well, and well worth using. http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_6/volume_6_1/thiaminase.htm
Many reptiles and amphibians die long, slow deaths from poor diet.>
for her to eat if she wants. she has left some of them and they have stayed in the tank.
<Would rehome them ASAP; they don't belong here. At best, they're tropical fish in a coldwater tank, so bound to die for one reason or another. At worst their little disease incubators. Keeping exotic pets is hard enough without throwing needless variables into the equation.>
I do have a pH testing kit that I have been using, but have never checked the ammonia or nitrate levels. I am assuming that a similar testing kit would be used to test these levels also.
<Sure. Assuming you have a biological filter, you only need the nitrite with an "I" test kit. Ammonite test kits are nice, but not essential. Nitrate -- with an "a" not an "I" -- is not essential at all. Weekly water
changes of 20-25% should take care of nitrate automatically, assuming you're not overfeeding. As I hope you realise, Axolotls do not need daily feeding.>
Would you be able to suggest to me where I would be able to get a testing kit for ammonia and nitrate levels so that I can test these for myself at home?
<Any aquarium shop should have a nitrite with an "I" test kit. The liquid ones are generally more accurate and better value than the paper strip ones.>
Thank you,
<Cheers, Neale.>
Axolotl - 11/01/10

I took your advice and all seemed to be well until a couple of days ago.
Due to the hot and cold weather last week I thought that Alex being a little off colour wasn't too bad and that she would be back to normal in no time. However a couple of days ago she stopped eating and seemed to have no interest in food what so ever.
<Does sometimes happen, and Axolotls certainly shouldn't be fed daily. If your specimen isn't eating -- don't feed it, check the water quality, check the temperature, and wait 3-4 days before offering some more food.>
I didn't think much of it the first time it happened. But when it happened two days in a row, I began to become worried.
<I see.>
Then as well as not eating, she began to float on the top of the tank and couldn't seem to stay on the bottom.
<That isn't normal.>
At this stage she was still quite active. I checked the pH levels in the tank and they seemed to be fine.
<pH isn't really important, provided it's between 7 and 8. What about water quality? In other words, either ammonia or nitrite?>
She seemed to get worse through the day so I took a water sample down to my local aquarium where they tested it and told me that all the levels were fine.
<What's "fine"? Pet shops are notoriously unreliable when it comes to being clear about water quality values. So until you give me the actual numbers, the fact your pet store said the water is "fine" means nothing at all to me. If you have a biological filter, but your own NITRITE test kit, test the water, then tell me the number. If it isn't zero, then that's very likely why your Axolotl is stressed.>
I explained to them what had been happening and they suggested that she could have a digestive parasite for which they sold me some tablets to add to her water.
<Note how the pet store sold you something. Always the way. It's crucial to understand that pet shop staff range in quality from the excellent to the hopeless, with the majority somewhere between the two extremes. You MUST be able to test the water yourself, so you can use the results to diagnose problems. For an Axolotl, assuming you have a filter in the aquarium, and the aquarium is at least 20 gallons/80 litres in size, then a nitrite (with an "I") test kit and a pH test kit are essential.>
She did however die later on tonight. I was wondering if maybe I had done something wrong or something to make her so sick so quickly.
<Hard to say without further data.>
I would like to get another axolotl in the next few weeks but want to know if there was any more I could have done for her or if in your opinion I did something wrong. I don't want the same thing to happen to my next pet. I was also wondering if in your opinion, the diagnosis from the aquarium was the correct one from the information I have given you as I told them the same thing.
<Honestly, I doubt parasites were the issue, so forget about that. Most Axolotls die because of a poor environment, a poor diet, or a combination of the two factors. Let me recommend you buy or borrow a book called "Keeping Amphibians: A Practical Guide to Caring for Frogs, Toads, Newts, and Salamanders". This is a very inexpensive, nicely produced book that you can buy used at Amazon.com for one whole cent. It covers Axolotls in depth, including their housing and diet. In the meantime, review environmental conditions in the tank, change the water, stir the gravel, but remember to keep filter bacteria alive by adding a pinch of fish food every 2-3 days or a small chunk of fish fillet once a week. These will decay, produce ammonia, and keep the bacteria happy. Obviously if you let the bacteria die then the filter won't be ready for the next Axolotl you buy.>
Kind Regards,
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Axolotl - 11/01/10
Hi Neil,
<Hello again Louisa>
Your emails have always been helpful, so I thank you for that.
<You're most welcome.>
As for the nitrite and ammonia levels, the guy at the aquarium told me that they both were at zero.
<Good. Numbers are what we need!>
My pH levels were around 7.5 which was the same as I had tested earlier that afternoon.
<Again, good. Axolotls need hard, basic water similar to that you'd use for Central American fish like guppies and Platies.>
I will most certainly take a look at that book before buying my next pet. I think it will be useful, even though I did do quite a bit of research before I bought Alex, pet shops and aquariums were useless at answering questions.
<As I say, varies from shop to shop. Some stores are run by real experts, and I know lots of aquarium book writers who worked in aquarium shops. But some stores are less useful, and it's hard to tell if your pet shop is one of the good ones or the less good ones. So having a book that allows you to double check facts is very helpful. For what it's worth, shops specialising in reptiles and amphibians tend to be rather better for advice that aquarium shops that happen to sell a few frogs or axolotls.>
Thank you, Louisa.
<Cheers, Neale.>

Axolotl farm! 5/14/10
<Hello Michiko,>
I am trying to raise 100+ baby axolotls.
<Good luck with that...>
At first there were a few deaths each day, then went for a week with no deaths.
<Cannibalism is an issue, as is water quality.>
I have them in separate trays and I am hand feeding them newly hatched brine shrimp via pipette.
<OK. But brine shrimp is useful only up to a point, and you will need to switch them to a wider range of foods quickly.>
I had a set of twins which had made it all the way to having front legs and looked to be doing really well. This morning I found one of the twins dead, as they are see through, it looked as if he had a bubble in his gut.
<The bubble is likely not the cause of death, but merely a sign of decay within the animal.>
There was also another death in one of the other colonies. I'm trying to figure out what killed them.
<With tadpoles, other than cannibalism, usually the killers are starvation and water quality problems. Remember, even if they fill their bellies with brine shrimps, if vitamins are lacking, they'll still starve. That's why offering a variety of foods is important.>
I know that there will be deaths for many reasons, but was a bit alarmed that one of the "well cared for" twins died. now they can't grow up together :(
<Not that they'd care. These animals are not at all social.>
So here are my questions: 1. how big an enclosure will each axolotl need minimum?
<If you want a permanent home, and don't want to be constantly cleaning the tank, then allow 130 litres for a male/female pair of adults. Under lab conditions single adults can be kept in as little as 40 litres, but that will require daily water changes otherwise the water will get foul pretty fast.>
1.5 what are the risks of using small enclosures?
<The same as with fish: sudden changes in water chemistry/quality; insufficient oxygen; insufficient dilution of CO2 and waste products;
nitrate concentration between water changes. These animals are "grumpy" as well, and if they're overcrowded they will bite at each other.>
2. what is your recommended amount in each enclosure?
<See above. As pets, I wouldn't keep more than a male/female pair together in 130 litres. If you're prepared to clean the tank daily, then you could keep more 4-5 adult specimens in 130 litres.>
3. when should I move them into more individual enclosures?
<As soon as you can. Cannibalism and aggression are both problems.>
4. how long does it take on average for them to sprout all four legs?
<Depends on water temperature. At tropical temperatures, they should have
all four legs within a month.>
5. should I be changing their water every day, or will this stress the
<As with rearing baby fish, the more water changes the better. Provided you dechlorinate the water before use, daily 10-25% water changes are fine.>
6. when can I shift them to dead food/pellets
<As soon as possible. Try suitable small foods, such as daphnia and microworms, immediately. As they mature you will switch them to bigger foods such as earthworms. Once 2-3 cm long they should take pellets and other foods they can detect by smell -- supposedly, tadpoles only find food by detecting movement, which is why they ignore pellets.>
7. what are the associated dangers?
<Cannibalism and water quality issues.>
I have spent weeks reading everything on the web I could find, and most cases people only elect to raise 6-10 of the 100+ eggs.
<Correct. Selling 100 juvenile axolotls is difficult, and housing them together would require an enormous aquarium.>
I wasn't sure which eggs would hatch and once they did I wasn't sure which ones would survive, and once many of them seemed to stabilize, I had problems killing them off!
Is death by bubble in stomach quite common, or an indicator of something seriously wrong?
<No idea.>
I don't want to lose the entire colony!
<Unlikely to do so. But make notes of what you are doing. Fish/amphibian breeding is ALL about trying things out until you find a protocol that works for YOU.>
I appreciate any help I can get, and suggestions to other resources on raising axolotls that I may not have found!
<Cheers, Neale.>

Axolotl not well 12/16/2009
<Hello Dani,>
Love your website is great!!!
Please help me I have 2 axolotl's one golden with pink gills and one is black. The golden one has begun to look sunburnt and has what appears to be blisters or peeling skin?
<On the whole Axolotls are very hardy, but poor water quality can cause them to become sick. Check the ammonia and/or nitrite levels. These should be zero. If they're not, then think about why that's the case. Make sure you aren't feeding them too much, that the biological filter is appropriately sized for the tank and the size of the animals, and that the tank is big enough for the two Axolotls. A good filter to use for Axolotls is the old fashioned undergravel filter. So long as the gravel on top of the filter plate is 5-8 cm deep, and there is a good strong water current, this should provide a low maintenance filtration system that works well. To keep clean, simply stir the gravel once a week and siphon away the dirt.>
I have gone to extremes and did a complete water change but I checked the water before emptying and the PH wasn't too high. We live in Rural Qld in Australia and temperature gets up to around 33 - 39c on any given day.
<These are coldwater animals, and anything above 25 C is going to stress them. Direct sunlight will also harm them, especially the albino specimen.>
I have them in a cool corner where there is no sun. I am getting very worried as the golden one hardly ever eats the black one lets me hand feed him any food bloodworms or pellets but the golden one just waits for it to drop to bottom, he sometimes will look for it and swallow it, (I have changed to big rocks as had a problem when the golden one ate gravel he had a blue belly)
<Gravel doesn't normally cause problems.>
I have tried a few different filters but the pet shop here is only small and is hard to find what I really need for them. How full should you have the tank?
<Almost to top, but leaving enough space that they can poke their noses out of the water should they want to. The water should be at least 30 cm deep, but deeper water than that is even better. A good aquarium for them would 75-100 cm long and 30-45 cm deep and broad. In smaller tanks they tend to fight, biting at one another's gills and feet. Bullying will prevent the weaker specimen from eating properly. They are best kept singly or in matched pairs; males have a swollen cloaca at the base of the tail, while females tend to have shorter and broader heads.>
The pet shop only had them in shallow water? Would they prefer that?
There names are doodle and noodle and they are my little boys pride and joy please help, we do love the little critters and are hoping that they will be ok.
Thanks for all your help.
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Axolotl not well  12/17/09
Thanks so much for speedy response, am on net now and trying to order online a new filter as my local pet shop doesn't have a big range and thinking they might not know a lot about axolotls...
<Maybe so. There are some good, cheap books out there about Axolotls and amphibians in general. One I happen to like is called "Keeping Amphibians" by Andrew Gray. It's a very easy read, but with lots of very practical
information as well as activities and facts that will expand your hobby.>
Again thank you have bought more tests kits today so hoping can keep water ok for them.
<Good luck. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Axolotl not well   12/18/09
Hi Neale
I am devastated my albino axolotl (doodle) just passed away. Will my other axolotl (noodle) die too? Am very worried checked water and all levels are neutral so they say? I can't believe noodle was laying on doodle
protecting him was very upsetting.
<Hello Danielle. I'm sorry to hear about this. It's always sad when a loved pet dies. I would certainly do a 50% water change just to be on the safe side, and I'd double check that there aren't any potential sources of poison in or around the tank (e.g., insect sprays, paint fumes, careless children dropping things into the tank). But assuming conditions are good for Axolotls, there's no reason why the healthy specimen should sicken and die. Just to recap, we're looking for 0 ammonia, 0 nitrite, a pH around 7.5, water that is "moderately hard" to "hard" (i.e., 10+ degrees dH), and a temperature between 15-25 degrees C. Bad things for Axolotls include very warm water, soft water, acidic water, and water that hasn't been dechlorinated. If you can, use a dechlorinator that doesn't just remove chlorine but also chloramine, ammonia, and copper, since all of these things can occur in some tap water supplies. A good tip is to test the pH of some water the moment it is put in a glass, and then again 24 hours
later. If the pH is about the same, that's good. But if the pH is very different, that can imply you have unstable water chemistry. This sometimes happens with water from wells. You'll need to leave such water for 24 hours before use, and ideally add some Rift Valley cichlid salt mix at about 50% the dose needed for cichlids. Note that this isn't "salt" salt, but a mix of minerals that raises the pH and stabilises the hardness levels.
Cheers, Neale.>

Help, my pet axolotl wont eat. 12/07/08 <Oh? Well, without a little more information, there's not much more I can say than "too bad". So help yourself but reviewing the environmental needs of these animals. Chances are, you're failing on one or more of them, and consequently your Axolotl is sick. Axolotls need clean, relatively cool water. The tank should certainly contain at least 30 gallons of water and be equipped with some type of filter, rated at not less than 6 times the volume of the tank in turnover per hour. In other words, if the tank contains 30 gallons of water, the filter should be rated at 6 x 30 = 180 gallons per hour. The tank and filter need to be so big because these are potentially large and messy animals. Keeping them in smaller tanks when young is possible but really a bit stupid, because if healthy they grow quickly and will either pollute the small tank (getting sick) or outgrow it so rapidly you've wasted a bunch of money on a small tank and filter of no further use. Next up, the water should be not too warm. Room temperature is usually fine; anything around 15-20 C will do. Make sure the tank isn't much warmer than this, and in particular take care not to put the tank in direct sunlight or near a room heater, warm air vent or whatever. Conversely, if the room gets very cold in winter, adding a fish tank heater set to its minimum setting (typically 18 C) should keep the water warm enough. It's a good idea to place a heater guard (a plastic mesh) around the outside of the heater to prevent burns; some heaters come with these anyway, otherwise buy one. Just as with any fish, water quality is critical. Amphibians generally are sensitive to ammonia and nitrite, and if the water isn't filtered and regularly replaced (50% weekly) they develop a variety of infections and diseases that are difficult and expensive to treat. So check (at minimum) the nitrite concentration if you have a filter, and if you've not yet installed a filter, check the ammonia instead. Nitrite tells you how well (or not) a filter is working, while ammonia tells you how poisonous the water is thanks to the waste the Axolotl has produced. When feeding Axolotls, take care to offer a variety of things, but sparingly. Don't overfeed, and don't use pellet foods day in, day out. Pellets are fine a couple times a week, but vary the diet with chopped seafood, earthworms, bloodworms, and so on. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: help... Axolotl fdg.   12/9/08 my pet axolotl (Wooper) has stopped eating, I fed him beef and sinking pellets. He used to happily munch down both, now he barely even eats his beef. Though he is metamorphosing, he is losing his gills and the webbing on his tail. I wonder if the metamorphosis could be affecting his eating. <Hmm... didn't I answer this question a day or two ago? Do look here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/fwdailyfaqs.htm Look at the question "help, my pet axolotl wont eat" and you'll see some comments. In any case, Axolotls do not metamorphose under normal, home aquarium conditions. If he is losing his gills and webbing, it is MUCH more likely you are seeing Finrot. As the bacteria destroy the skin, the gills and fin membranes erode. This is almost always caused by either [a] poor water quality; or [b] aggression between individuals, with poor water quality making things worse. Review water quality ensuring that you have ZERO ammonia/nitrite levels and a steady pH; check your filtration is adequate; ensure water temperature isn't too high; and if anything doesn't seem right, then act accordingly. Cheers, Neale.>

Primitive fish? ID... Axolotl likely    11/27/2007 Hi there, I was a sushi restaurant tonight and they have a tank (~50 gallons) with an eel-looking fish in it, but it has two feet (with little bitty toes) up front in place of fins, no fins in the back (one long caudal fin/back fin?) and it has external lungs (I think?) they look little flowers instead of ears. It has a flattened head with two nostrils on the underside also. No one at the restaurant knew what it was. One girl said it is a water salamander. I have done searches since I got home, and no luck yet. She said it also buries itself/wedges itself bc it seems to float otherwise? I saw it just sitting on the bottom. It was in a tank with some other fish (Arowanas-I think, and some angelfish -looking things). Just wondering if you could help me out. I know it is not a mudskipper, and the pictures you guys have of Ropefish and some bichirs and lungfish look a little bit like it, but no external lungs?? <Greetings. The feathery structures you are calling "lungs" would be external gills. Certain amphibians have gills throughout their life, the most famous of which is the Axolotl. Oddly enough, *baby* Bichirs do in fact have external gills, but they lose them once they are more a couple of cm long. It's almost certain this animal was an Axolotl. The varieties kept by hobbyists are usually either grey or pink. Axolotls have broad mouths and short stubby arms and legs. Typical size for an adult is around 20-30 cm. Axolotls are essentially salamander tadpoles that never metamorphose into adult terrestrial salamanders, and just stay being tadpoles, getting bigger and bigger but otherwise not losing their juvenile characteristics. This process -- neoteny -- is surprisingly common in the animal kingdom, and there's good reason to believe that humans are in fact neotenic apes, since in many ways we have the physical attributes of juvenile apes (lack of body hair, big head, flat face, constant learning ability etc.). I hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.> <<Great, Neale... RMF>>

Axolotl hlth., no useful info. -- 03/18/07 Hi   I have an axolotl  he has been vomiting all day no its more like dry reaching because nothing comes out All my water levels are fine <Data, not subjective evaluations> I have large rocks on the bottom but I'm thinking maybe he has swallowed one what are the changes that he has. <Possibly> He also goes up for air and then tries to vomit again I have owned axolotls before and I've never seen this. Any advice would be appreciated Therésè <You've presented no useful information... on system, maintenance, water quality, foods/feeding... Can't read minds (that well)... Bob Fenner>

Re: axolotl  3/19/07 My ph is sitting at 7.4 My ammonia levels are at 0 nitrate is at 0.05 <Good> He is feed every 2 days aqua master axolotl food about 5 pellets we had feeder fish in the tank <A very poor idea. Not suitable prey, and carry disease...> but he took no interest in them so they were removed my tank is 600mm by 300 by 400 just over half full  I'm using a crystal clear aquarium 380 filter  with 3 stage filtration at 100 litres an hour his water is changed at 1/3 every 10 days I'm using A.C.E ammonia chlorine eliminator <I would stop using this product (used to contain Formalin... toxic), and just let new water set about for a few days ahead of use> and aqua plus water conditioner all my rocks are the size of a 50c piece or bigger there are no plants in he tank he has one round barrel to hide in I don't use a light and I have no water temperature gauge hope that is enough information for you Therésè <Other than doing away with the "treatment" above, I would try more "lively" foods... Worms of appropriate size, and insect larvae... e.g. Blackworms (Ambystoma means "cup mouth"; they scoop up their food), earthworms, mealworms... Bob Fenner>

Axolotl - damaged limbs   1/6/07 Hello Crew at WWM. I have a sad but true story, and am hoping that you may have some advice to help. We have an adult female Axolotl which was attacked by an Australian Bass that was temporarily placed in her tank. <A mistake> Her hind feet are now gone, as are most of her front legs and a large part of her tail. She now remains in one spot in the tank, but on the very odd occasion will try and move (with difficulty), and her frilly gills still 'wave' every now and again. She hasn't eaten for 5 days now. I wasn't sure of the likelihood of her regenerating the limbs and tail given the extent of the damage and her age? <Mmm, one can only do their best, be patient, and hope> The damaged limbs and tail turned white and eventually the white part 'disintegrated' over the space of two days. Is this what usually happens to damaged limbs in water or could it have been some sort of bacteria? <Yes> I have done a water change and am monitoring the water to keep it as clean as possible to give her a better chance of recovery.  I have heard that salt baths can assist with some Axolotl infections, though wasn't sure if it would do much good given the extent of her injuries in this case? <I would be careful re the amount of salt administered here... Perhaps a level teaspoon per ten actual gallons of system water> My main concern is that she is not interested in her food. She is hand fed, usually frozen blood worms, and she normally loves her food. Since she was attacked, I have literally been holding food right up to her mouth, but she turns her head away. Is there something else I could feed her or place in the water at this time to help her eat? <Perhaps some live (other) insect larvae and/or freshwater worms (tubificids)... an occasional earthworm/nightcrawler of small size... I would administer a vitamin/food stimulant product (these are packaged/sold for aquarium use... either marine or freshwater, doesn't matter here... And I might consider adding a source of useful iodine/ide... to possibly aid repair, conversion...> If you have any other suggestions that would help in regards to her comfort or the healing process I'd be grateful. Thank you. <Life to you my friend. Bob Fenner>

Axolotl trouble - 4/20/6 This is the first time I have ever tried to contact any of your crew, but I really am in need of some advice.  Firstly I have a 4ft x 1ft x 2ft coldwater tank, how many gallons is it? <<It is a nominal 60-gallon, but holds a few gallons less than that.>> Secondly all my fish who cohabit with my two seven year old axolotls are fine except for one, which recently has presented what looks like a few scales missing on one side, but more worryingly doesn't seem to be able to open his mouth, what on earth could this problem be? <<Could be a myriad of things.  Do you mean the axolotl is experiencing this? Do the standard tests for ammonia, nitrite and nitrate, to be sure these aren't the culprit.  Make sure water quality is high, temp is in the low 60's.>> And how should I go about helping him? <<Read here: http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/4301/axolotlhealth.htm and browse through the topics on the left hand side menu.  You should find what you are looking for.>> Thank you very much for your trouble. <<No trouble at all, I'm glad to help. Lisa.>> Emily-Jane, Lancashire.

Looking For Aquatic Herps  - 2/21/2006 I'm interested in acquiring axolotls for a home aquarium as pets and hopefully breeders.  However; while I have found plenty of information about them and their care; I have had no luck in finding out how to actually obtain one as a pet.  I've only managed to find biological labs which will only sell to researchers.  Could you tell me where to find a dealer/breeder for axolotls, or perhaps a classified/auction site where they are likely to be available from private hobbyists?  Any information would be much appreciated. < Kingsnake.com is like eBay for snakes, lizards frogs, turtles and salamanders. You will find someone there to sell you one.-Chuck>

Amphibians in aquarium? and freshwater plenums, anemone questions I was skimming over your site again; this time the fresh water section and I saw the amphibian part. <Yikes... yes, another "section" started... to fit a few incoming FAQs... that needs/deserves serious/non-serious "skull sweat"... input, imagery...> There's only a little about aquatic frogs so I was wondering if you could help me with something else. Could you put Axolotls in an aquarium with fish? <Hmm, yes... have seen these neotenic salamanders placed, kept with peaceful fishes in private, public aquariums> I've got 2 in a 20g upright with no heater or anything for filtration, there are 3 Cory cats in there too they're doing great but I was wondering if I could set up my 180 as a freshwater-tropical and put them in? <Not so much tropical... Though my fave hobby sites for Ambystoma: http://www.fortunecity.com/Roswell/chupacabras/4/calixto.htm states they can/will live at 75F... I would use this as an "upper limit" temperature wise.> Is there an average temp that the fish and axolotls will tolerate together? I know cannibalism could be a problem with smaller tetras but I'm willing to take that risk. Also; have you ever heard of using a plenum in a fresh water system? <Yes, have even done this... for decades...> How well would/does it work? are there drawbacks?  <Same sort of arrangement as marine... an hypoxic water area on the bottom (good to have a drain arrangement for here...), a grade or two of media above separated by a screen (I put soil mix in under the screen with coarser gravel...). Downsides: some chance of anaerobiosis...> My saltwater plenum works great but there is quite a bit of Cyanobacteria lately (the tank's a year old), is that an issue in a fresh water tank? <A possibility... but with regular "good" maintenance, use of live plants... a calculated risk...> my last question is in regards to my anemone. I bought it as a "corn" anemone. It's Bright green with orange tips and it's bubbled (just like a bulb anemone) but I haven't seen any bulbs anemones with this coloration. It's scientific name started with R., so it definitely wasn't labeled as e. quadricolor.  <Mmm, maybe a "Radianthus" species, or one that is labeled as such... Please take a look through our general coverage of Anemones: http://wetwebmedia.com/anemones.htm ... You may see this species, and find that Clowns will pair up with ones that they don't do naturally in captivity...> My maroon lives in it too. And one more -sorry-. What's normal growth rate for anemones? This one's almost doubled its size in 2 months (I feed silver sides too) it's also got funny division around the tentacles; some are splitting up to 4 times on each one. Is that normal. <Normal under highly favorable conditions... or it may be this specimen was/is "just expanding"... get squeezed down for shipping...> Sorry for the length. Your advice is appreciated as always. Dustin <Thank you for writing. Bob Fenner>

Axolotl with a belly full of? Good morning!  I have a long question that might not have a very happy answer.  I recently purchased an axolotl at a local pet store, he seems to be in good condition and he acts normally. (He's really nearly the neatest thing I've had in my freshwater tank)  but he's got a large mass in his stomach, it's black.  I'm well aware that anything they can fit into their mouths, they will, but are they able to pass anything they can fit in?  The place that I bought him from admitted they didn't know a whole lot about him, just the basics, "They're freshwater....and I guess they'll eat just about anything"  And that was it.  I bought him and spent the evening doing research (I know I know!  that's the wrong order, but he was so cool!)  So in my reading I found out that they shouldn't be kept in gravel bottom tank because they have a tendency to swallow gravel, and therein lies my problem.  The tank at the LFS has a gravel bottom, as does my own tank, I quickly moved the gravel to only one side of the tank (the side that I don't put the food on) but I think he swallowed a fair amount of gravel regardless.  This particular axolotl is 4-5 inches long, he's been eating normally and I haven't really noticed anything weird except for that his belly looks like its full of something black.  I haven't seen any evidence that he's passed anything since I brought him home (god knows he's been eating though - two dozen white cloud and more brine pellets than I can imagine.) I'm not sure if I should just wait it out or what I should think.  Forgive me for my lack of preparation!  You're advice would do me wonders.  Thank you for your time.                                   Rachael <Not much to do at this point with this neotenic salamander. I would just keep up its maintenance and hope for the best. Bob Fenner>

He Put the "Otl" in Axolotl.. My axolotl's gills are badly damaged! What can I do?!?. <The best thing to do with any sort of amphibian/salamander/axolotl when they have body damage is to simply make sure that the animal has freshwater in which to live in.  They usually heal themselves quite quickly when given a bacteria free environment with nice freshwater.> Can the water's PH balance cause this? Can he repair himself? <The pH shouldn't have effected the animal in that way, unless the water levels are extremely acidic.  If his gills are damaged by tears then hi might have an aggressive tankmate that's hurting him.  Or perhaps he has some skin/gill parasites that are making him rub on things damaging his own gills.  There are some great sources online to learn more about axolotls.  here is one with some brief info. http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/4301/axolotlhealth.htm Hope that helps.-Magnus>

Axolotl Hi guys, Your site really helps heaps! Anyway, I got an axolotl a while ago and named him Chips. Chips is gold, and eats those frozen blood worm blocks, anyway, at the fish store they told me to hand feed him, otherwise he wouldn't eat much, so I went home and stuck my hand in the water with the food. He then tried to hide in the corner and his tail touched my hand, He then freaked out and started swimming round the tank like mad, he then hit his head on the glass and sat on the bottom of the tank for ten minutes hardly breathing. He recovered and I've decided not to hand feed him again until I find out how. <good plan, they will need to become comfortable with their surroundings first, then recognize you as the one who brings the food.  Even after that, getting your hands in the tank is a slow process.> I now try to push the block down into the water so it will sit on the bottom, in the hope that he would find it and eat it. But as you should know, The blocks start to disintegrate and the worms fly everywhere. He then spends ages trying to push his head between the river pebbles, in an effort to grab whatever he can. <Use finer gravel, and searching for them is part of the fun. Try different foods, formula one is good and meaty and sinks, beef heart, live Night crawlers, etc.> I'm worried that he's not eating what he should, and that I'm missing out on being an axolotl owner, how do I "train" him to trust me? <In the words of Otis Redding "Try a little tenderness".  It may be a while before he adjusts to hand feeding, just focus on the husbandry aspects at first, then once he gets used to you can move in for the hand feeding.  I found this site, you may find it of some use. http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/4301/axolotlfood.htm Best Regards, Gage> Thanks, It would really be appreciated Chip's Owner++

Become a Sponsor Features:
Daily FAQs FW Daily FAQs SW Pix of the Day FW Pix of the Day New On WWM
Helpful Links Hobbyist Forum Calendars Admin Index Cover Images
Featured Sponsors: