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FAQs About African Dwarf Frogs, Behavior

Related Articles: Keeping African Clawed Frogs and African Dwarf Frogs by Neale Monks, African Dwarf Frogs, Amphibians, Turtles

Related FAQs: Dwarf African Frogs 1, Dwarf African Frogs 2, ADF Identification, ADF Compatibility, ADF Selection, ADF Systems, ADF Feeding, ADF Disease, ADF Reproduction, & FAQs on: Amphibians 1, Amphibians 2, Frogs Other Than African and Clawed, African Clawed Frogs, TurtlesAmphibian Identification, Amphibian Behavior, Amphibian Compatibility, Amphibian Selection, Amphibian Systems, Amphibian Feeding, Amphibian Disease, Amphibian Reproduction,

 

ADF not swimming properly       10/25/27
Hello!
I have had 2 ADFs for about 6 weeks and one seems to be doing very well (eating, active, growing) and the other is not. The other seems to have a hard time swimming (flips around erratically, struggles to maintain direction and seems to even struggle with crawling along the bottom) it almost seems as if she is partially parylized, but in different limbs at some times and sometimes she just falls on her back at the bottom. She seems to be interested in food but is struggling to find it.
Nitrates, nitrites and ammonia are all 0 according to my test strips. I can't find any info on what might be causing this issue. She is very thin as well. I have separated her into a smaller tank so its easier to reach the top and so I can monitor her food intake.
Is there anything else I need to be doing? Does she maybe have an injury?
She doesn't seem to have any physical signs of injury or infection.
Thank you so much!
-Kelsey
<Hello Kelsey. African Dwarf Frogs are not fond of deep water or strong water currents, so your first thing to check is that neither apply here.
The fact your frog is underweight would tend to suggest the lack of stability is more weakness than anything else. Optimising diet will help here: live or frozen bloodworms and brine shrimps are good starting points, and if necessary, separate the two frogs, as you're doing -- though do ensure the second tank has water quality at least as good as the main tank. Isolating frogs and fish in 'hospital tanks' that aren't properly heated and filtered will only make things worse. African Dwarf Frogs are fairly hardy animals, but they are prone to starvation, so I will direct you to
some reading, here:
http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/FrogsArtNeale.htm
Medicating or treating sick frogs is difficult, but there are a few options. But first, get the frog feeding! Cheers, Neale.>

Help please for my African Dwarf Frogs     10/12/17
Hi - Just so you know, I am one of those people that Google everything and anything and am usually pretty successful in finding answers to my questions. Well I have been searching for a couple days (at least) to try and figure out what is going on with my ADFs...well one ADF in particular.
I haven't had any luck and it may be that it is an issue that is hard to word in a Google search. I don't have much faith in the knowledge of the staff at my local pet store so I am writing you. I'm sure you are inundated with emails but I figured I'd see if you could help.
<Sure thing!>
I have a 5 gallon, heated and filtered tank and in it are 4 guppies, one mystery snail and now 2 ADF's. I had just one ADF for a few months and then decided she (I assume she is a she as I never hear singing like I have in the past with males) may like to have another ADF to interact with.
<Understood. But like most frogs, they're not really social as such...>
Prior to my adding the 2nd ADF (Ginger), my 1st ADF (MaryAnn) seemed like a happy active frog. She would always come when I tapped on the glass, would follow my finger and dance around for me, and would eat heartily Frozen Bloodworms and/or Brine Shrimp.
<Sounds neat!>
After adding Ginger to the tank, MaryAnn is a different frog. She hides out of sight most of the time, barely eats and seems to want to run from me versus being happy to see me. The new frog (Ginger) is acting normal. Is active and eats heartily.
<Odd.>
What happened to MaryAnn?? Could she be upset that I added another frog?
<Bullying is certainly a possibility, the solution for which, oddly enough, can be adding more -- it's harder for a bully to harass two frogs than just one. On the other hand, a useful trick is to remove the bully, rearrange the tank enough it looks different, then after an hour or so, return the bully. With a bit of luck, this has a "reset button" effect because the bully is now the newcomer again, and the original frog has a chance to assert itself better.>
Ironically, I hesitated at first to get a 2nd frog as I really enjoyed the "special" one on one time I had with MaryAnn. I only got the 2nd thinking it would make her happier to have a little friend.
<Always dangerous imagining animals are people. They're not. Their minds are very different, and animals that aren't gregarious, like frogs, really don't notice or interact with other frogs outside of breeding. Since you're offering the food, you are actually more "interesting" to them than other frogs!>
I don't know if it is my imagination but she does appear to be a tad bloated. That could be due to the fact that I fed her often....not sure.
<Possibly, so do try cutting back the food a bit, or using something with a laxative effect, like Daphnia or Brine Shrimp, to see if it helps.>
Either way, do you have any idea what could be wrong??
Let me know please when you have a chance.
Thanks in advance
Lisa
<Hope this helps, Neale.>
Re: Help please for my African Dwarf Frogs       10/14/17

Hi Neale -
Thank you so much for your response.
<Most welcome.>
I am not sure why but I originally drafted this to you in September but, for some reason, it didn't go through until October 10th. Possibly because I was on a different computer. Anyway, MaryAnn passed a couple weeks ago.
:(
<Oh dear; sorry to hear that.>
I will not be getting another frog to keep Ginger company based on your response below. As long as one frog is happy without another, I am happy with just the one!
<Indeed, this is the case. Good luck with your remaining batrachian buddy!
Cheers, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frog shedding or diseased?      9/27/17
Hi,
<Miranda,>
This morning, I noticed my ADF (I've had him for 8 months) covered in a semi-transparent film. It's barely 1/16th of an inch thick and seems to cover his whole body. It's very difficult to see unless I'm very close to the tank.
<Quite normal for sheets of skin to be shed periodically, sometimes in alarming amounts. Generally safe to ignore, so long as the frog is otherwise normal, and there's no evidence of fungus (such as threads) or bacterial infection (such as red-white patches).>
I can't figure out if this could be a fungal infection or if it's a normal pre-shedding thing. The forums are all over on this. Do you have any diagnosing suggestions?
<See above.>
How long should I wait before attempting treatment? Do you have any suggestions on treatment options?
<Sit and wait for now! If the skin doesn't come away cleanly over the next couple weeks, then certainly think about what might be done, and anti-fungal or anti-bacterial as the case may be. But a happy, hungry frog is probably a healthy frog.>
He lives in a 5.5 gallon tank, fully cycled, with 1/2 tank water changes weekly (using RO DI water). His appetite is really good, I just can't figure out what to do about this weird film.
<Indeed.>
Thank you very much.
<Welcome.>
Miranda
<Cheers, Neale.>
Re: African Dwarf Frog shedding or diseased?        9/28/17
Thank you so much for replying to me so quickly. You have no idea how much I appreciate this.
<Most welcome.>
I was hoping you'd say it was normal shedding - I just never saw it look like that before (then again, I have to be practically nose-pressed-to-the-glass to see this transparent film all around his body). If it does turn out to be serious, which meds do you recommend? I'd like to have them on-hand just in case.
<In all honesty, have a quick read here...
http://www.xenopus.com/disease.htm
They give examples of the most common diseases, and describe some suitable products easily obtained (in the US) by aquarists. Elsewhere, when it comes to anti-bacterial medications, you either get them through a vet, who'll
choose the right one for you, or else switch to an alternative type of medication, like eSHa 2000.>
I do have another question, if that's alright with you.
<Sure!>
I just finished dealing with chytrid fungus with my other ADF. (both frogs were never in the same tank/room as each other, chytrid frog is at home and filmy-frog is at work.). I always use fresh gloves when touching anything
frog-related and am pretty confident that the fungus has not spread from the sick frog to my other one (I've had the chytrid frog for about 2.5 months now).
<Understood.>
I bought this one at PetSmart as a companion for my first and didn't realize until too late that he very likely had the fungus - judging from the tattered skin shreds all over his body.
<Yikes!>
I've been extremely careful in my treatment (gloved hands, new container after every round of lamsil baths) and (fingers crossed) I think I've finally beaten it (after 3 rounds of treatment - it's been exhausting).
It's been about 3 weeks with no further tattered shedding and he finally has a really good appetite.
<A really good sign with amphibians generally.>
I'd like to know how long should I keep him in isolation prior to him being considered "safe" to live with another frog? Do I have to worry about the fungus still transferring over to the new frog when I bring the two together?
<Chytrid fungus is a serious threat, and I'd be super-conservative here.
I'd be waiting at least 6 weeks before combining the two frogs. Since frogs don't get lonely, there's no overwhelming reason to combine them anyways, and you may decide to keep your formerly Batrachochytrium-infected frog in
its own tank indefinitely, or at least for a good few months yet.>
I plan to buy one of those test-kits for the chytrid fungus just to make sure he still doesn't have it but I think the fungus might still be in the water?
<Indeed possible, which is why I'd sterilise, as far as possible, anything exposed to the Batrachochytrium fungus. Chuck out anything difficult to clean but easily replaced (sand, bogwood, plants) and thoroughly clean with hot soapy water anything that can be properly cleaned (rocks, gravel, ornaments). You can't do much about filter media without killing the bacteria, but you might decide whether deep cleaning the filter and replacing the media with mature media from another tank is the way to go. It's what I'd do, anyway. Obviously change all the water, scrub the glass, heater, etc. Fungal spores will tend to lurk in crevices, which is why soft and porous things, like sponges, wood and plants, are especially bad. The ideal situation is to move your "cured" Chytrid frog into an entirely new aquarium that you know is Batrachochytrium-free, and take if from there. In this situation, the only way Batrachochytrium would carry across would be on the frog (which we hope is clear) and any minute drops of water on the frog (hopefully a very small risk). Moving healthy frogs into a system that once had Batrachochytrium fungus in it is more risky because of all the places the Batrachochytrium fungus might still lurk, unless we thoroughly
cleaned the system so well it was practically sterile. It's a toughie!
There are aquarium products out there for sterilising aquaria, but you'd need somewhere to house the frogs during the process, and of course some mature filter media you can take from a clean tank afterwards, to jump start the filter once the sterilised tank is reassembled.>
He lives in a cycled 2.5 gallon tank with a little plant, 3 gallon filter and several hidey-holes. Once a week I conduct 1/2 tank water changes.
---Miranda
<All sounds great. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: African Dwarf Frog shedding or diseased?        9/28/17

Wow. Your responses are above and beyond. Thank you so much. There is so much information and nothing is consistent on the internet.
<You're assuming I'm right, of course...!>
The website you sent...the film looks kind of like how it does on the fungus frog, only more transparent and there's an even coat of it all across my frog. That leads me to think that somehow my little guy managed to catch a different fungus. Should I wait for the chytrid test kit or start treating him with Methylene blue? (I tried to find Mardel Maroxy but it wasn't available online).
<Regular, generic fungus is easily cured with clean water, good food, and aquarium anti-fungus medicine (remembering to remove carbon from the filter, if used). So you could use this, prophylactically even, to eliminate the possibility of regular fungus. As/when the chytrid test kit turns up, you can of course use it.>
Also, I know this is kind of silly to ask, but if I do a whole tank treatment should I still sterilize everything or could the medicine treat the tank as it is helping my frog?
<Hard to know. In theory the medicine should eliminate the fungus from both frog and aquarium, but it's hard to say. Hospital tanks tend to be clean and empty of decorations so that the medicine can get everywhere. Display
tanks have more sand, plants, etc., so while the medicine might work through the frog, you can't be sure about the decor. A conservative approach is justified here. By all means hope the tank is chytrid-free, but keep a close eye, and don't assume it's chytrid-free, at least not until you've had a good few months of success.>
I ask because right now I don't have any extra media. When I got the chytrid frog, I didn't know at the time how serious the disease was so I wasn't as careful as I should be when handling my other tanks. At this point, it's safe to assume that all tanks at home are infected.
<A wise assumption.>
I've seen some websites that talk about beating chytrid with heat and salt.
Do you know how true that is?
<There has been some research into the use of salt, with some positive outcomes. But it seems unlikely salt concentrations strong enough to kill the fungus are safe for a freshwater frog across the long term. Definitely
need some further evidence before I'd recommend this approach. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: African Dwarf Frog shedding or diseased?        9/28/17
Once again, thank you.
<Welcome.>
One last question and I'll be out of your hair. Do you know what happened to the Mardel Maroxy or the Maracyn Brand? I remember ordering it from Amazon about a year ago for my fish tanks but I can't seem to find that
brand anymore.
<Hmm... just looked and found both on Amazon.com. So not really sure what to say here! To be fair, neither would be my first choice for treating bacterial infections in frogs. Tetracycline-based antibiotics perhaps a bit better. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: African Dwarf Frog shedding or diseased?
       9/29/17
Oh. My bad. I originally clicked a couple of discontinued links. Anyway, thank you once again. You are a lifesaver.
<The candy or the inflatable jacket? Cheers, Neale.>

Re: African Dwarf Frog shedding or diseased?      9/30/17
Hi again,
Your website is incredibly helpful when it comes to my questions and general information. Thank you for that.
<Most welcome.>
In the last couple of days, the fuzzy outline went from barely there to very visible. I tried capturing it on camera but my phone had a difficult time focusing on him (blurry outline from the fuzz). He's in a bare-bottom tank right now (for ease of treatment) and as you can see, there's a lot of reflections.
<Indeed, but not a problem. This frog is looking healthy from what I can see. A little extra weight might be nice, but if he's eating well, then I think he'll be okay. There's no obvious damage to the skin that I can see, and if there are loose 'sheets', that may be normal shedding.>
I'm starting with Maracyn 2 for bacteria infection (internal/external according to the box), along with a Methylene blue dip once a day...because whatever it is, it's getting aggressive. From there, I plan to go with a Maroxy treatment for general fungal infections and possibly I'll add Methylene blue to the tank if nothing else seems to work.
<Don't overdo the medication! Medicate when you identify the problem, rather than randomly. If the frog is making progress under its own steam, then complete the current course of medications and then step back.
Interactions between medications can cause problems in themselves.>
Have you or anyone you known ever seen something like this? Any suggestions for treatment?
---Miranda
<Cheers, Neale.>

Re: African Dwarf Frog shedding or diseased?      9/30/17
I may have panicked a bit...
<Oh?>
What started as a faint outline of fuzz, spread and thickened significantly on the frog's skin in the last few days, it's about 1/8 inch thick now. He looks like a little fuzz-ball. I've had this species for 8 months now, so I know this can't be shedding.
<Understood.>
So, I figured I'd find the safest medications for frogs and try them one after another and see if anything can bring the skin back to normal. I'd rather not wait until his appetite diminishes - cause with ADFs, I've learned that once their appetite goes, then they die within a couple of days.
<Does depend rather on their starting body weight, but yes, I agree.>
Thank you for your advice and I will be more careful with the medication. I will not mix them, and be more careful with them.
<If the frog is suddenly getting mucous-y, I'd be wondering if something (like copper) is irritating the frog's skin. I'd suggest also looking to see if the filter is removing all the silt, because when this gets stuck on the mucous, it can make things look a lot worse. In any event, medicating as per a bacterial infection is likely the first thing to do, but thereafter, I'd do substantial water changes, and leave a few days, before starting anything new. Do bear in mind that sometimes a second course of an antibiotic is necessary, so it's not always that the antibiotic was 'wrong' it's more that it needs a second pass. Cheers, Neale>

ADF Odd Behavior     6/10/17
My daughter is working in Alaska for the season and asked me to care for a Betta and an ADF.
<Understood.>
They have been here for almost 3 months and she had them for a month before that. The aquarium with lights and filter seem to work fine. My ADF (Mr. Kite) likes to hide behind the filter with his nose up to water top. He is
active and the Betta doesn't ever bite him just snoops around him from time to time.
<While I'm not wild about combining African Dwarf Frogs with fish of any kind, Bettas do get along better with them than most other fish. Both require warm, relatively still water, and both prefer a diet based around
small meaty foods as well as good quality micro-pellets. Still, there remains the challenge of ensuring the ADFs get enough to eat, so do keep any eye on them at feeding time.>
This behavior seems odd although he has always done it. Is the water too high?
<ADFs will struggle to swim up to the top if the current is too strong, but assuming gentle air-powered filtration, they should be fine. Having floating plants helps enormously, as ADFs enjoy basking at the surface, just under the lights. Something like floating Indian Fern will do the job nicely.>
it's about 9 to 10 inches deep. I am new to aquatic pets but they sure do grow on you.
<Yes indeed!>
Has anyone else noticed this type of behavior? Thanks, Nancy
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frog; beh., repro.      6/10/17
Hello! First of all, great site and great information.
<Thanks!>
I have 2 adfs in a 5 gallon filtered tank with 1 male Betta. Jet (the Betta) seems to be fine with them and they with him. We are still trying to determine the sex of each frog.
<Agreed, difficult to do, but you can find photos online. Males do tend to be smaller and more angular, while females are bigger and chubbier, and have a tail-like thing between their legs out of which the eggs emerge.>
The frogs were purchased together, and the pet store was a local mom and pop shop that had just received their shipment of adfs that morning. One adf is very active. Rarely hides, loves his reflection, loves to float, swim to Top but mostly hangs at bottom and be active. The other loves to be lazy, hide in its cave and be by itself but does come out sometimes. Note: they were separated for first night before placed together. They both seemed to be inactive and just adjusting.
<I wouldn't worry about variation in behaviour too much, provided all are feeding. Like humans, some frogs are shy, some are more outgoing.>
Once they were together in Betta tank, the active one came to life personality/behavior wise, the other stayed less active. The two do interact on occasion, and they do ear together. The Betta will swim at top and bottom. He will swim by them or peek and see what they are doing but doesn't aggress on them and they don't seem to interact with him either.
They will freeze him out or just keep doing what they are doing. All seems well.
<Indeed. Had a question about Bettas and frogs yesterday, and what I'll say is this: while they can work, and are a better combo than most frog/fish match-ups, it's still important to ensure the frogs can feed easily. Both Bettas and frogs dislike strong water currents and need warmth, so a gently-filtered, heated aquarium suits them both. On the other hand, the frogs are slower feeders, and because they're air breathers, they do need a clear run up to the surface or they'll drown. Bettas sometimes become hostile to them, so floating plants are useful for providing shade and shelter, making it easier for the frogs to clamber to the top, rest a while, and then slip down to the bottom without attracting too much attention. Indian Fern is a good choice for this.>
However , yesterday I noticed that the frog that is less active likes to hang out near top of tank, up near filter, with half his body out of water, half in water.
<Not unusual. Contrary to what many suppose, ADFs will bask at the surface, even half-clambering out on top of floating plants if they can.>
One leg balanced against filter, one in water. He seems to go there somewhat often. I found him a short bit ago actually hiding between heater and filter Cover, under the water then head out of water...but at top and head out of the water a lot none the less.
<They are air-breathers, and as I said before, need an easy way to get to the top and rest awhile. If the current is too strong, or the depth of the tank is too much, they'll find ways to "perch" closer to the surface. Bear in mind they're happiest where the water is no more than 20 cm/8 inches deep, and air-powered filtration is a much better bet than all but the smallest internal electric filters.>
As I work during the day I can't tell you how long he stayed/stays there but I saw him there this morning. He went to the bottom before I left and at some point in 12 hours went back up. I thought they stayed in water for long hours. Water test results from 6 in 1 test strips are listed below.
we test water with strips weekly as we have the Betta (he's high maintenance believe it or not) and he only seems to do well with water between 78 and 80). Water temp. as of this email is 78. we have an aquarium heater. we live in new England, our weather is bi polar to say the least so we decided to be prepared as this our first attempt at fish
parenthood.
<Understood.>
Right now due to filter I do water changes roughly every three to four weeks provided tests read ok but wonder if now that I have frogs (they only moved in a week ago) if I should change it more often. Water test results as of this email:
Nitrate: safe (20-40) Nitrite: 0 (none)
<All good.>
Total hardness: borderline (50-150) water stays on line...
<Fine.>
Total chlorine: 0 (none) Total alkalinity : 40-80 low to moderate PH: 7.4 to 7.8 (neutral to alkaline) - the color/line is very difficult to distinguish the cross over but its definitely on the line of the 7.2 to 7.8 range
<Fine.>
They are eating well too. Once I put the food in front of them they eat immediately. One on each side of cube. They go nuts for their food. We will worm on hand feeding later once I know frogs are OK on normal feeding schedule, and we get thru this bump. We also make sure that the Betta is in a breeding net so that they can eat in peace, the Betta can stay in his tank and then the Betta gets a treat as reward in hopes this will train him to get accustomed to this routine. Right now I use kabob sticks to put the tube flex worms On, hold in front of the frogs and they immediately eat. Its the only food they have eaten quickly and responded to at all. I feed them once every other day
<Provided they're feeding, and they're able to rest at the top of the tank in comfort, chances are your African Dwarf Frogs are fine. Warning signs of trouble include loss of weight (i.e., not getting enough to eat) and the
appearance of red or pink patches on the skin (bacterial infections).>
I'm sorry I could not provide more information but any thoughts or knowledge you have would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you in advance.
Sincerely
Victoria
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>

African dwarf frog help      8/8/16
I have Googled and read for hours and cant find my answer anywhere so I thot I would ask.
<Fire away!>
I have 2 ADF I believe male and female he gets on her back often but she never swims around except what looks like her trying to get him off and usually last about 30 min.
<It could easily be she doesn't want to mate. Do listen out for the quiet croaking these frogs make when mating. That's often a good sign that the male is serious about reproduction. As for the female, you may see her swell up with eggs and then almost overnight seem like all that body mass has gone. In reality though what tends to happen is African Dwarf Frogs mate freely, but the eggs are lost to the filter or the tadpoles fail to thrive through lack of food. In other words, you can reasonably expect mixed sex groups to be laying eggs, the tricky part is finding the eggs and removing them for careful rearing. The tadpoles are small, need suitably small foods, and run the risk of being consumed by other frogs (or fish) in the aquarium with them.>
She never goes to the top is this considered mating. I have never seen eggs and wasn't sure if she is just not mature yet or what was going on with them?
<African Dwarf Frogs are usually sold at more-or-less adult sizes, so assuming they're eating well and putting on weight, you can assume they'll reproduce within months if not weeks of introduction if environmental conditions are appropriate.>
Will she deffinatly swim to surface to lay the eggs if so why had she not layer any eggs or moved to the surface?
<"Definitely" is a bit adamant for this sort of question! While some frogs do like to bask at the surface, others do not. Spawning normally happens among floating plants or bushy plants (such as Java moss) at the bottom.>
How do I know when she has reached maturity? Thank u for your time.
<Hope this helps, Neale.>

ADF Question; beh.       2/19/15
I have an ADF that seems to get violent spurts of energy after eating, he'll dive and rise really hard, hit the sides of the tank, and make me think he's been suddenly poisoned! Without any idea of what to do to help him, I find that he's still living after several more hours... He eats freeze dried blood worms, do you know if I could be doing something wrong that's making him freak out? My other ADF in a different tank, eating the same food, is docile after eating... If that helps.
<First off, let me direct you here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/FrogsArtNeale.htm
Keeping ADFs isn't especially difficult, but there are some common errors.
Making the tank too deep is one. 20 cm/8 inches of water is probably the limit. They find it difficult to swim upwards more than that, and act a bit loopy if they have to. Next up, dried foods aren't the safest/best food for them. Imagine if you were fed just freeze-dried foods all the time. Once inside the gut they expand, and that can cause problems if they've eaten too much. Regular frozen or even live foods make most sense, alongside dried pellet foods designed for them. My guess would be a combination of difficulty swimming and some type of chronic constipation is causing what you're seeing, and fixing diet and/or environment will help a lot. Cheers, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frog Question      9/18/14
Hello, Bob & Company!
<Susan,>
I’ve written you before about my marine aquarium (which is doing wonderfully, with happy fish and growing corals) but today I’ve got a question about an inherited frog. My son recently inherited a Betta and an African Dwarf Frog (webbed front feet, ID confirmed). The person he got them from had housed them together but we immediately separated them for their own good. Both are doing well - in separate tanks.
<Okay.>
I’ve taken custody of the frog (as my son is in college “with the Betta” and had only room for one tank in his apartment). I used your site to establish the frog's tank and water parameters (I already had an appropriately-sized, cycled, FW tank running and growing live plants, so fortunately that wasn’t an issue) and feeding schedule (thank you for the wonderful resources - I’d have been lost without you).
<Glad of use.>
Here’s the question: Clyde (the frog) eats well and is really fun to watch. She’s quite active, especially in the evenings, and she loves creeping around through the plants. Periodically, though, she seems to “stand up” on her hind legs and stand there, frozen, for almost a minute. (She does this maybe once every few hours.) At the end of that time, she falls backward (almost like a person doing a “trust fall”) and right before she hits the substrate, she flips back right side up and goes back about her business. Is this a normal behaviour?
<Pretty much, yes. Often they "stand up" before swimming up to gulp air, I guess to minimise the distance they travel and/or look out for predators. They aren't strong swimmers and are likely easy prey once in open/mid water. In the wild they inhabit very shallow pools, and offering some floating plants so they can rest before doing the return journey seems appreciated.>
She doesn’t seem stressed, she’s eating (and pooping) well, and her activity level is high, but not frenzied. I couldn’t find anything about this on your FAQ pages (I read them first) and wondered if this is a “frog thing” or just Clyde being odd. She’s about a year old, if that makes any difference. And yes, my son named her Clyde before we realized she was female.
Thanks in advance for the help!
<Most welcome.>
Susan
<Cheers, Neale.>
Susan Spann

adf's always hiding      9/26/13
I have a 15 gal tank: water temp always between 77-80: Established tank with 4 guppies: Water PH perfect,
<Meaning what? The perfect pH for frogs isn't necessarily the perfect pH for Guppies.>
Nitrite and nitrate levels are correct.
<Zero for the nitrite, and nitrate less than 20 mg/l?>
I purchased 2 ADF” from the pet store. They were active, swimming all over the place about a week ago. As soon as I put them in my tank, they found a hiding place in the silk plants and except for going to the top for air, I rarely see them or even find them. I have a difficult time feeding the frogs because of the guppies, even with a turkey baster. I have no idea if they eat or not. Can you explain why they were so incredible active and funny in the store, and now you wouldn’t even know they are in the tank...
Thanking you in advance
Betty
<These little frogs don't really like being kept with fish, and prefer the company of their own kind. Certainly add some more frogs, and if it's an option, remove the fish. Simple. Do also bear in mind these frogs are somewhat nocturnal in the wild, so appreciate a shady tank with lots of plants. Weird coloured substrates and brightly coloured fake plants won't help. They will come out for the right food (mine certainly do) for example frozen bloodworms but they are indifferent to dried foods and pellets. It's a good idea to add a block of frozen bloodworms to the tank every 2-3 days during the evening, and you should find the frogs come out and feed, even if the lights are on, if the tank is nice and shady (floating plants are ideal). Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: adf's always hiding     9/26/13

Thanks Neale.
<Welcome.>
I guess you can already tell I've only had fish and 55 gallon tanks before.
I'm downsized now that I'm retired and I believed what Petco told me about the frogs. I guess that means a new small tank for the frogs. I was seeking info about frogs and found your site and I'm so appreciative for all the information.
<Not necessarily; my African Dwarf Frogs live with Cherry Barbs, Otocinclus and Featherfin Rainbows, and as soon as I add frozen bloodworms or brine shrimps, the frogs come out. The tank is not especially fancy; internal canister filter, some Anubias, and a bunch of floating Amazon Frogbit.>
With that said...I'd like to add more guppies to this 15 gallon tank. Local stock at the Pet stores in the are limited in the variety of guppies available with the larger pretty tails. Do you know of a reputable online site where I can purchase a better selection of guppies?
<Afraid not; certainly, from my vantage point in the UK, I'd usually recommend either attending auctions (many cities have fish clubs where pedigree Guppies sell for next to nothing) or else get hold of a less inbred variety (even "feeders") and simply quarantine them before use.
Farmed Guppies are, sadly, less robust than they were in the past. Endler's aren't so bad, but doubtless they'll get weaker over time as people breed them (and in-breed them) to get specific varieties.>
Many thanks!
Betty
<Cheers, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frogs; one missing     9/24/13
Hello, I cleaned the aquarium gravel with a vac today. I have 2 frogs. I can always find them, but now I can only find one! If he got buried in the gravel, will he find his way out? I have exhausted everything I know to find the other one.
Thanking you in advance,
Betty P.
<Yikes; am hoping the missing frog didn't get vac 'ed out... And that it somehow is "just hiding". DO look on the floor; as they can stay out of water for quite a while; and move a good distance. Hymenochirus spp. don't "dig in gravel" (though can in mud, leaves). Bob Fenner>
Re: African Dwarf Frogs    9/24/13
Hi again, and thanks so much for a quick response. The vac is a nice one with a nice screen in place that won't allow any critters to be inhaled. I didn't "dig" in the gravel, but did stir it around gently with my fingers.
yes, they surely can jump..LOL.  Yes I've checked everywhere on the floor, etc. down the hallway, just everywhere, short of going inch-by-inch. I'm alone during the day, so no interruptions with children or pets. The gravel is about an inch deep, and I just fear he's under it somewhere. that's why I asked if he could "dig his way" out of it..Hope you're right and he's just
hiding somewhere.  They were fun watching them together, so cross your fingers he's in the tank somewhere...
<Ah yes; I might go ahead and re-run my fingers through the gravel. BobF>

ADF Strange mating behavior 8/22/13
I have two ADF's in a 2.5gallon heated, filtered tank. I have had them since May.
They both sing
<?! Are these Hymenochirus? Males do hum/buzz to attract females; but are rarely heard by aquarists>
every night and have what appear to be white pimples in their armpits, which led me to believe they were both males.
For about a week the have been "mating" constantly but for short periods of time. There have been no eggs as a result. a couple of nights ago I saw them "mating" and the "female" seemed to be doing all she could to remove the other frog. I left them alone because I figured she would dislodge him as she usually seems to. When I awoke that next morning, they had not eaten any of the food from their bowl (this is weird for them). Last night the same thing happened and when I woke up, one pellet out of 4 was gone (so SOMEONE ate) and they are STILL attached (they usually seemed to always detach during the day which gave me peace of mind that the "female" could get some rest).
Should I leave this alone or should I do something?
<I'd leave alone>
I'm still pretty sure both of the frogs are male, there has been no eggs and they both sang like crazy until lately :( . I'm afraid the "female" is eating but stressed and I'm afraid the horny male is simply not eating (and also not going to the surface enough, it seems like only the "female" gets her snout out of the water.  Advice please!! :(
Thanks
Beth
<Mmm, I'd ask that you peruse our postings re the genus/species:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/hymenochirus.htm
the linked files above; and keep us posted re your observations, speculations. Bob Fenner>

African dwarf frog, stkg./sel, beh.     3/4/13
I have had my African dwarf frog for at least 7 years and I always worry that he/she is lonely?  Do they get lonely if they are not w other frogs and should I get a friend for him/her ?  thankxxxx
Lisa Loyo
<I don't think that Hymenochirus "get lonely", but do find them more interesting in groups. Bob Fenner>

Please can you explain this! ADF Beh., repro.     4/28/14
Dear WWM
<Salve!>
I have had one female and one male ADF for over a year.  They have been getting on together no problems at all.  Mate all the time after a water change etc.  All of a sudden today, one of them is upside down not moving, with the other one holding on to it tightly with its head in the other ones belly.  It does look as if the one underneath is dead and may be the other one is eating it!   This has really shocked me! 
<I bet.>
Do you have an explanation at all.
<Of course it might be dead -- and you should know by now! But do be aware that during mating ("amplexus") frogs will cling in all sorts of odd positions. Sometimes so many males will climb on top of a female they drown her, but that's not common (obviously, or frogs would have died out by now!). In any case, prod the unmoving frog with something small but not sharp, like a pencil end, and see if it reacts. If not, either remove if you're sure it's dead, or else isolate in a net, away from the other frogs, in the water, for a few hours to see if anything happens. In the meantime, do read:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/FrogsArtNeale.htm
Check you're doing everything right, taking particular note to aquarium size, filtration and temperature.>
Thank you
Yasmin
<Cheers, Neale.

Frogs stuck together   11/1/11
I have 2 African dwarf frogs about 3 years old. The smaller one keeps getting his arms stuck in the gills of the larger one. It's like he's getting a piggy back but he's in to his elbows in the others gills. I have to pry them apart using the end of the fish net. I don't think they are mating, why is this happening every 2 weeks or so?
Libby
<Hello Libby. Adult frogs don't have gills, and tadpoles have feathery external gills. So whatever else is happening here, it's not a case of one frog's arms getting stuck in the other frog's gills. Amplexus, the mating grip, does sound more likely. Cheers, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frog Amplexus-Male at Wrong End! 10/29/11
My male frog sometimes mounted the female at her head end, and grasped her around the upper part of her body. They have sometimes mated properly, and produced many tadpoles, which I am raising. Last week he mounted her the wrong way, stayed on for hours at the bottom of the tank, and prevented her
from going up for air often enough. She struggled, but could not get free.
There was no way I could separate them; when he finally released her she may have been injured in some way, and died soon after. Is this behavior as odd as it seems?
Thanks,
Sheila
<Hello Sheila. Inept mating behaviours during amplexus are common among frogs. It isn't common for the female to be unable to throw off a misguided male, but I'm sure accidents like the one you saw here happen from time to time. If you ever watch wild frogs mating, it's insane! Not much advice I can give here, unfortunately. Good luck rearing the tadpoles. Cheers, Neale.>

Strange Frog & Snail Behavior   8/1/11
Hello, I have several questions regarding my aquarium and am really hoping you can help. I currently have an apple snail (I believe its a Pomacea diffusa),
<Apple Snails aren't compatible with Bettas; they have much different requirements.>
a crown-tailed beta,
<Total aside, it's pronounced "better", not "beater", from the native name, "bettah". Now you can show off to your friends!>
and two ADF in my 1 gallon tank.
<This tank is too small. Switch to a tank at least 5 gallons in size, with a heater and biological filter.>
The bottom is live gravel.
<What do you mean by "live" gravel? By itself gravel doesn't filter the water. An undergravel filter with a pump that draws water through the gravel can work, but do you have an undergravel filter? With a filter plate under the gravel and 2-3 inches of gravel on top?>
I recently added a small dracaena plant and am worried that it will rot if kept fully submerged underwater since its not a true aquatic plant. <Correct.>
I've also seen the snail crawling on it; does it have any chemicals / toxins that could harm anything in my tank? Should I remove it?
<Yes, and treat like a houseplant.>
I've also noticed one of my two frogs has begun to unwillingly float to the top, and has a lot of trouble staying down.
<Stressed, sick, maybe dying.>
I don't see any sign of fungus on him, or any bloating / swelling. I watched him eat at their last feeding and neither frog has any lack of appetite.
<Stressed. What's the water quality like? How did you cycle the filter before adding livestock? Do you measure ammonia or nitrite?>
What do you think this could be, and how could I treat it?
<Poor care and a too-small tank are the problems.>
And along with the frogs strange new behavior, I've noticed the apple snail acting unusually. He's always occasionally climbed all the way to the top to breath, but instead of crawling back down like he usually does; he's started un-sticking himself and drifting back down to the bottom. There's no discoloration of his shell or body, and there hasn't been any change in his diet. Is this dangerous in any way to the snail or any of the other tank inhabitants?
<Yes, dying snails quickly pollute small aquaria.>
Would it harm my frogs if it were to land on them? Well, thank you for your time; Id really appreciate any answers or advice you can give me. J
<Lots of work to do. First, buy a bigger tank. Two, install an adequate filter if you aren't using one. Do also read:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/fwset-up.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/FrogsArtNeale.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/bettasysart.htm
Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Strange Frog & Snail Behavior   8/2/11

Okay, thank you so much for all the information! I read the articles and they really helped. I'm going to take out the dracaena plant right away and put it in a vase or something.
<Will need soil, not too damp. Quite easy to grow, and can get very impressive. Dracaena sanderiana is typical.>
I'll consider giving the snail to my grandmother, whose tank is kept at a more suitable and stable temperature than my beta tank.
<Confused by this. Bettas need MORE stable temperatures than Apple Snails.
The thing about Apple Snails is they need to be kept cool some of the year, around 18 C/64 F, for maybe three months, and the rest of the time warmer, 25 C/77 F. Your Betta, by contrast, must be at 25-30 C/77-86 F all year around.>
And since the frogs need more space, I'll use my birthday money for a larger tank with the proper heating & filtration they need. Thanks again! :)
<Glad to help. Cheers, Neale.>

Is my ADF depressed?    3/28/11
I got 2 ADFs over a year ago from Brookstone,
<Yikes... I do wish they'd stick to inanimate gadgets>
and I learned so much on your site to give them a proper and happy habitat.
I had a male and a female, and they mated often. My male died a few weeks ago, and the female doesn't eat as much as she used to, and she hides a lot more. She actually buries herself under the river stones in
the aquarium. The water temperature is warm -- mid 70s, and nothing else has changed.
<Mmm, could be a/the issue here... I'd raise the temperature to the upper 70's, low 80's F. And the water pH? These need to be regulated... Do see Wiki, elsewhere re Hymenochirus husbandry>
Could she be depressed and in mourning?
<Doubtful>
I got a new juvenile last week, but haven't seen any change in her yet.
Am I giving her little frog brain too much credit??
Thank you!
<Anthropomorphising I identify w/ human-ness in the west. Bob Fenner>
Re: Is my ADF depressed?  3/28/11

haha - thank you, Bob!
I thought I might be personifying her too much.
I do test the pH, etc. regularly, and it's safe. I'll turn up the heat.
<Very well>
Thank you for the quick reply and very informative website.
<Certainly welcome. Am glad we are of service, help to others>
I hear ya on the Brookstone purchase. I know better now than to promote their business in frog sales.
Cheers!
<And you, BobF>

ADF, death, life-span   2/15/10
Thanks so much. I love to learn and learned a bunch. He died and will be buried in the backyard where our cats are buried when they were through with mortal life.
<Glad to have helped. But do reflect on why this frog died, and think about what you did wrong (if anything). If you can use the death of this frog to highlight problems with the aquarium more generally, then it won't have given up its little froggy life in vain! Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Re:
That's the way I always think!! How long do they usually live? I think he was at least 8 or 10 yrs old.
<A good age for Hymenochirus. The much bigger Xenopus (up to 15 cm/6 inches long) can live for twice that.>
We do have an underground filter and I think the dirty gravel that probably resulted from the overfeeding I felt my husband was doing, and the lack of fiber you mentioned must have been the cause.
<Both worthwhile thoughts.>
As the day went on, the patches became more in number all over his body.
Feeling that he should not be in such a chemical water (the water was pink from the solution we put hi in a sick tank) very long, I put him back into the aquarium. Sounds like this was a bad move.
<Possibly, but sounds like he was dying anyway.>
An hour or so later, he was more floating and less moving, and definitely on his way out. The water temperature was not mentioned. What should it have been? We keep it between 71--76 degrees, although it probably could have
gotten colder when I cleaned the tank, and then when we put him in a separate container with the Ick solution.
<Low temperatures, for short periods, a few days for example, won't harm Hymenochirus or indeed most tropical fish. But it does make them more sensitive to bacterial infections, and if they aren't returned to warm water conditions within a few days, serious problems will set in. In any case, the optimal temperature for Hymenochirus is something middling, 25 C/77 F being ideal. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Re:
thanks soooo very much for the education!! I have never known such help was available thru the internet and never did well in school. LOVE this education!!! :) :)
<Happy to help. Cheers, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frogs - Twitching, lethargic  3/2/08
 Hi guys, <Hello,> Thanks to your wonderful site my husband and I have had 2-3 aquariums up and running for several years with no problems at all in at least a year. We have 2 adult African Dwarf Frogs that had lots of little froglets a few months ago. We couldn't possibly keep them all (21 total) but were waiting for them to grow up to be strong healthy frogs before selling them to our local Ma and Pa fish store. They were in a tank that's way too small to support all of them (5 gallons, but lots of the frogs are still very small), but we did frequent water changes and kept a very close eye on all water parameters. The tank was completely cycled, we'd never see any ammonia or nitrites, and the water changes took care of nitrates fast. We're moving and things have been hectic, the tank went a few days without a partial water change and my husband tested the water - Ammonia had spiked off the chart! The frogs were all on the bottom, lethargic, and a few of them were lying on their backs and twitching. We immediately did a 50% water change and retested. Ammonia was still WAY too high, so we waited a few hours and then did another 75% change. Still too high, so we moved some fish around, completely cleaned our 20 gallon tank and moved them into it last night. <Doesn't sound promising. A good rule during times of chaos is to STOP feeding livestock. Anyway, if you see an ammonia spike in an otherwise stable aquarium, do check for overfeeding and/or dead livestock. It may be that one frog died, decayed, and that was what overwhelmed the existing filter.> This morning I checked on them and 5 out of 21 are on their backs twitching, the rest are very lethargic, and a few of them have their legs twisted around their other leg. It's not looking good... Water parameters are fine in this brand new tank. We've added some gravel from our very old cycled tank to assist the cycle in this new one and will be picking up some BioSpira when the pet store opens later today. <Hmm... gravel (unless part of an undergravel filter) doesn't do all that much to speed up cycling, so don't rely on it. Much better to divide the media in the existing filter into two, put one portion in the new filter, and then let things recover. A mature filter can easily tolerate a 50% loss of media without any serious water quality problems.> Our frogs are our babies, we feel terrible that we let this happen to them. We were planning on giving some of the babies to the LFS today but are terrified that they'll just put them down since they look so bad. We'll keep them for as long as we feel that we can do some good to help them. <Good. Sometimes time helps. Additional aeration plus regular water changes will also help.> To further compound the problems, we MUST move their tank to our new place today which is sure to traumatize them. Is there anything that we can do to help them other than make sure that this new tank cycles fast, being vigilant to water quality issues? <Transporting the frogs, providing they are parceled out into spacious containers, a few per container, shouldn't really cause major problems. Keeping them warm and dark during transit will help, as will being quick. But compared to ammonia spikes, simply being moved about for a couple hours is neither here nor there.> Thank you so much, you guys are great. Heather <Hope this helps, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frog acting strangely/manic... and non-heated, non-cycled Betta... systems   12/2/07
 I purchased an African Dwarf Frog along with a male Betta about two weeks ago. <Mmm, these don't always get along> These are my first aquatic pets I have had the pleasure of having, and I'm already quite attached! I have done a lot of research but I am still learning... Well today, I decided to do some water changes for the first time, having been a little over a week since the frog and Betta were settled in. I originally was planning to have them in the same tank, but after I placed them together my Betta started to get aggressive, and then I learned that 1 gallon is too small to keep two creatures together in. <Yes> So, for a while I had Robyn (my ADF) in my 1 gallon tank and Reno (Betta fish) in a "Betta planter" that I bought. I felt bad for Reno because he didn't have much water to swim around in (probably less than 1/2 gallon), so this weekend I bought him a 1 gallon tank also. I did a 25% water change for Robyn's tank, and introduced my Betta to his new tank. <Mmm, both these animals are tropical... need steady, high temperature> I am concerned because ever since the water change, Robyn has been swimming up and down like crazy, and keeps pressing her nose up against the side of the tank, it seems like she wants to escape. <Maybe> Is there something wrong with the water? <Could be> I made sure to buy it at Petco and it's called "Beta Water", but it says it's suitable for frogs as well and has a neutral pH, etc. <... am not so sure. What are the ingredients? I would change a good deal of this water out for just dechloraminated tap> Reno, on the other hand, is going crazy in his tank as well, and I think it's because the plastic creates a mirror effect and he can see himself and thinks it's another fish. <Likely so> Will seeing this constantly stress him out too much, or is it just normal for him to swim around that much in a new tank? <Likely will be okay in time... a few days> What about Robyn? Before I did the partial water change she just liked to hang out in the little cave I got her, and poke her head out occasionally. I am really concerned, I don't want them to die :( Also, as a note: The 1 gallon tanks I bought both come with an undergravel filter and an air stone that has a little plastic tube around it (I guess to minimize current?)? I have heard a ton of conflicting information on whether or not this air pump is safe/good to use in my tank with my Betta or my ADF. <Are fine... but... what re cycling?> I would really like to use them because I like how they look and I think they will keep the water cleaner, but I don't want to endanger my frog or make my Betta unhappy.? Any suggestions? Please help, and thank you! -Valerie <Yes... for you to read... Which you were directed to do before writing... Start here for Bettas: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/bettasysart.htm and the linked files above, particularly on Nitrogen Cycling... Bob Fenner>

A behavior question, ADFs -11/14/07
 Hello, We have a tank with 4 Dwarf African frogs...so far they are doing great. But they do something that makes my son anxious because he thinks they are hurting one another. Basically, what we see is that one will clamp on to another one and squeeze for long periods of time. What do you think?? Thanks, Melanie <Probably fine. Frogs naturally cling to one another when spawning. It's called "amplexus". The male holds on tight, and as the female lays her egg, he sheds his sperm over them, fertilising them. In the wild, you'll see huge clumps of frogs, all except one being males, with the poor female in the middle of the bundle. Provided the frogs are otherwise happy and healthy, I wouldn't worry about it. Cheers, Neale.>

Dwarf Frog, floating on back... 03/17/07
I have 2 dwarf frogs that are about 4 years old. Today, I went to feed them and one of them was floating on it's back. I flipped him back over and he has been floating at the top since, occasionally ending belly up again. I have moved him out of the tank so he is separate from the other. I have read that they usually sink to the bottom of the tank when they die. <Mmm, no... depends on cause, how long they've been dead...> There is definitely something wrong. Could it be a disease, or is it his time to go? Any advice would be great! <Perhaps just a bit of trapped gas... I would not give up hope here. Try other foods... bloodworms, blackworms... Bob Fenner>

Frog Legs for Dinner?  Hymenochirus beh., sys. 2/22/07
 Thanks again, Pufferpunk.   <No problem> I'll return Jet this weekend so he can mix with his own kind.  Now I have a question about the frogs, Slim and Chance. They used to be so cute every evening, swimming and playing and crashing into things.  But lately they've become reclusive and sluggish.  I really don't think I feed them too much but they aren't as eager for their food anymore, which is those delicious Frog and Tadpole Bites.  I've given them frozen bloodworms a time or two, but not many at a time.  I shook them (gently) out of their hidey holes tonight so I could photograph them to show you how normal they look.  Do you think the light is too much for them? It's just your standard 150W bulb.   <Not if you plan on boiling them for dinner.  Sounds like an awful lot of light for that tank.  I would think a 60wt bulb would be enough to warm up a 5g tank.  What's the temp in there?> At one time I had some floating plants in there, and that diffused the light some.  But I took all the live plants out and replaced them with fake because the live ones were rotting and stinking up the water.  What do you think?  Am I just being a worrier (a general tendency of mine)? <Probably too hot for even the plants.  Check the temp--should be around 76-80.  ~PP>

Dead Frog Scam? - 02/10/2005
Hi I just bought 2 African Dwarf Frogs today. When I bought them, they were floating at the top of the tank and not doing much moving at all (if at all). I asked the worker at the store and he said that that's just what they do.  <Though they ARE somewhat sedate animals, I have never seen them too terribly inactive at stores.... Usually they're milling about at least somewhat.> On the ride home, they didn't move in the bag. When I got home, I emptied the bag into the water after letting it sit for a while and they simply floated to the bottom of the tank and didn't move.  <Not at all a good sign.> Eventually, one floated (not swam, floated) to the top with his nose near the surface and didn't move at all. The other simply stayed on the bottom on his back.  <Yeah, that's not at all normal.> After about an hour of not moving, I took both frogs out of the water (I have other fish and if the frogs are sick I don't want to get the fish sick) <I'm not sure many diseases can transfer from amphibians to fish - but if they were to die in the tank, it could severely foul your water and cause problems for the fish that way.> and put them into other containers. <Any response when they were removed from the water? Also, what were the temperature(s) of all of these tanks/containers? Any idea of water parameters, including at the store?> They both stayed in the exact same position, one with his nose near the top, the other on his back. I gently poked both and they appeared to move slightly (when I first placed them in the tank) but other than this I have seen no movement. Is it likely that I was sold dead frogs? <Well, it certainly doesn't sound too good. I would absolutely consider returning them to the store - if they're not dead, they're almost surely very unhealthy. Also, do keep in mind that cold temperatures can be harmful to the frogs - if the tank water is very cold, it would cause them to be quite inactive.... Definitely try to find a store that has more active froggies for you to look at, and do a bit of research as to their needs before you purchase more; it sounds to me like the store you visited might not know much (if anything) about them. Wishing you well, -Sabrina>

Dwarf African Frogs
 Hi, I need help. I need info. on Dwarf African Frogs. I seen u have a pic of one on your web site but no info. I want to know if we can take them out of the water and hold them for a few minutes?  <Yes. Though these species are capable of staying in the water continuously, they are aerial respirators, and can/do leave the water at times in the wild> How often do they have to come up for air?  <Hmm, "every few minutes"...> etc...... Please help i can not find anything on the internet that is helpful. I have 4 in my tank with guppies, tetras and live plants. <Do use the links on the page, and your computer's search engines... with the common and scientific names. Bob Fenner> sue

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