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FAQs About African Dwarf Frogs, Health-Disease 1

FAQs on African Dwarf Frog Disease: ADF Health/Disease 1, ADF Health 2, ADF Health 3, ADF Health 4,
FAQs on African Dwarf Frog Disease by Category: Diagnosis, Environmental, Nutritional, Social, Trauma, Infectious (Virus, Bacterial, Fungal), Parasitic, Treatments,

Related Articles: Keeping African Clawed Frogs and African Dwarf Frogs by Neale Monks, African Dwarf Frogs, Amphibians, Turtles

Related FAQs: Dwarf African Frogs 1, Dwarf African Frogs 2, ADF Identification, ADF Behavior, ADF Compatibility, ADF Selection, ADF Systems, ADF Feeding, ADF Reproduction, & FAQs on: Amphibians 1, Amphibians 2, Frogs Other Than African and Clawed, African Clawed Frogs, TurtlesAmphibian Identification, Amphibian Behavior, Amphibian Compatibility, Amphibian Selection, Amphibian Systems, Amphibian Feeding, Amphibian Disease, Amphibian Reproduction,

Fish med.s are almost all toxic to frogs. Do investigate thoroughly before exposure... No metal salts, Malachite Green, Salt/s,  Formalin/Formaldehyde, Organophosphates...

Multiple ADF Troubles   12/10/08 First of all, your site has been very helpful in finding information on these frogs, and I appreciate it. Keep up the good work! I have gone through a number of problems in the past few days, and I had been finding answers on your site but it seems to be a combination of things and I don't trust my own judgment anymore... First of all, I'm a college student, which has run me into multiple troubles with the frogs, but I've been doing what I can. I had two ADFs, one male and one female. I got them in the end of July this year, so they're still pretty young. I got them with a 4 gallon tank or so, not exactly sure on the size. I also have an air filter that uses Bio-Bags, I'm not sure of the name of the type of filter or anything though. It uses an air pump to move water up from the bottom and bubble it to the surface and through a gravel-like filter piece (the bio-bag) and pours it back out on the surface...And I feed them HBH Frog+Tadpole bites. The female seemed to eat a lot more than the male, and got a lot larger. I was having concerns about her eating his food and such, and tried to make sure I saw him eat every time just to be sure. Everything seemed fine until around thanksgiving or so. I had to take them home with me for the week or so, and when I do I have to take about 30% of their water out. I did this when I left on Tuesday, and filled it when I got home (about an hour or two later). I use API tap water conditioner (dechlorinator). Everything seemed fine, and I took them back on Sunday, again having to empty 30% of the tank again. Looking back now this may have caused some stress on the tank and the two frogs... This past Saturday (my first Saturday since returning to school with them) they both looked OK and I didn't really notice anything. The water was getting a little dirty since I hadn't really done a full clean of all the poop/food on the bottom for a while. Late Saturday night I saw the male frog floating at the top, sideways, up against the filter near the spout. I panicked when I found him like this and didn't know what to do. I don't have a net here, so I grabbed a clean spoon and grabbed him with it and pulled him back to another corner. He was moving around a little bit, but was not NEARLY as lively. He was very lazy and seemed out of it. I noticed on his back that he had what looked to me like pieces of food or something, which I now realize was the cottony fungus you've told other people about. I freaked out and took him out thinking there was something wrong with the water, and put him in a separate small container entirely with new water. (After reading through your site, I now realize this was probably terrible for him). I took out about 60% of the tank water, hoping to help get rid of whatever made him sick. At this point I jumped online, found your site and looked for answers. It seemed to me that taking him out was a bad idea, so I put him back. I didn't want to mess with the ecosystem in the tank anymore so I only put about 10% new water back in. At this point the filter wouldn't run because of the way it works (needs about 80% of the tank full or it just gurgles). I figured it was better than shocking him more with clean water, so I left it this way. He started going through phases where he wouldn't move at all, and I thought he was dead. He'd then move a tiny bit a while later so I didn't give up hope. I read your suggestions of Pimafix and Melafix. The next day I got my hands on some as soon as I could (about 10 hours after I discovered him this way) and decided I'd try it. After spending the night, he looked as though he was already dead, but I figured I'd try anyway. I added a little bit more water, and added the doses of Pimafix + Melafix. I came back a few hours later and he was in exactly the same position, but the infection looked much better. I had also noticed the night before that the water was starting to get cold (68ish) as the weather outside was starting to freeze, so I had purchased a heater as well. I left them both like this, trying to feed the other one, though she seemed very shy/afraid and wouldn't come out, so I'm not sure if she ate. The glimpses I caught of her, she seemed to be getting skinnier. I came back later that day and found the males infection almost entirely gone, but he was starting to grow that grey hairy fungus, so I considered him dead. I hoped for the best and left him for the night. In the morning I was sure he was dead, so I flushed him. That Sunday I finished filling the tank, installed the mini heater, applied another dose of pima/Mela fix to hopefully protect/help the female. I installed a new bio bag into the filter (I'm unsure now as to whether this was a good idea, but I had read that you should remove carbon when you're giving the medicines so I had left it out before). Still, the female looked more or less ok, but she still was not lively and would not come out of hiding inside the castles in the tank very often. I was worried, but I kept feeding as normal, hoping she'd be ok. Tuesday I came back to my room for the day, and didn't see her anywhere. Not even 5 minutes later I heard rocks kicking around so I ran over and found her with her back stuck in the suction of the input of the filter. I quickly pulled the air tube off the pump and she dropped. She played dead for a while, or was in shock, either way it scared me, especially after losing the other frog so recently. She eventually moved, but I noticed she looked different. After looking at her for a while, I've noticed her toes and fingers both curl in (almost bird talon looking). She used to have very open fins, but now they're all curled in. I've read this is a nutrient deficiency (thanks, again, to your site ;P) so I'm concerned about her. I haven't changed her food so I imagine she just isn't eating. I haven't really been able to tell if she eats or not since I never see her. Tonight I managed to land a couple pellets on her head and she would eat them, but other than that she doesn't seem to be eating anything. I tried to pull her out with a spoon/cup so I could put her in a different container for a while and watch her and see if I could get her to eat, but she kept hiding and I don't want to stress her out. After continuously examining her, I've also noticed that her armpit area seems to be redder. She's always had a slight pink spot there (I think that's normal for a female?) but it seems a little darker than usual, and she has a spot on her leg that is darker as well. She seems to be losing weight too... In addition to her skinny-ness, she seems almost weaker. On multiple occasions recently I've seen her appear to be struggling to get to the surface of the tank to "breathe". I'm partly concerned she's going to "drown", though I think they can breathe through their skin? I'm not sure, I still have always seen them dart to the top of the water and seem to take a breath. I then proceeded to do a nitrite test, and it tested between .5-1 ppm. I know this isn't normal, but there's a small mix of poop/food and other stuff floating around the bottom, especially since I didn't have the filter running for a few days. I also starting using a new filter, and have replaced a lot of water. I know nitrites should balance themselves back to 0, but I don't know if this is extreme. All of those things I did could be affecting it so I don't know what to do. Should I change all the water? 50%? or just wait it out and see if it comes back down? Also, should I continue doing pima/Melafix in hopes to help keep the female alive? Or is this not going to change anything? Is there anything else I can do to help her? I feel terrible about the death of the first frog, I've been very upset about it for the past few days, and I really don't want to lose this one too. If this one doesn't die, would I have any problems introducing a new ADF to the tank? Might it bother her? Is there any reason why I should or shouldn't? Please tell me anything I can do to help. Again, I apologize for any redundancy in the material you guys have already posted, but I'm very unsure of what's wrong, and it seems to be a mix of problems. I don't know exactly how to "diagnose" the problem, not to mention how to approach it. After the few mistakes I've made, I really don't trust my judgment and don't want to mess something else up. Thanks in advance for your help, I hope to hear back soon, -Dylan <Hi Dylan. The short answers are these: Firstly, what you're dealing with is some sort of opportunistic bacterial infection. Very common among amphibians not kept correctly. Poor water quality (implied by the non-zero nitrite level) and low temperature (should be around the 25 C/77 F mark) were likely the triggering factors. Next up, treatment. Frogs respond positively to antibiotics and antibacterial medications used carefully. However, Melafix and Pimafix are both rubbish, and instead you should be using something like Maracyn (in the US) or eSHa 2000 (in the EU). Treatment with these tea-tree oil products is rarely effective once the infection becomes established; at best, their like antiseptics you'd use to keep a wound clean, but once the wound is infected, you'd turn to penicillin or whatever. Just so with fish and frogs. While I'm doubtful of a positive outcome, what I would recommend is optimising water quality in the tank (zero ammonia and nitrite) by ensuring the biological filter is working properly. Don't waste time with nonsense like carbon. Ammonia remover (Zeolite) might be beneficial if you don't have time to establish a good filter, but bear in mind Zeolite needs replacing every few weeks, so it isn't particularly cheap to use (though it can be recharged using salt water). Also keep the frogs warm, and then apply the right medication. Once you're done with these issues, get back in touch and we can discuss the care and maintenance of Hymenochirus frogs in more depth. They're not especially difficult to keep, but they do need a reasonably big tank (I'd recommend not less than 8 US gallons, to be honest) and a proper filtration system and heater. Miniature aquaria -- though popular with students -- really aren't stable or easy to maintain. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Multiple ADF Troubles  12/10/08
Hello again, I think that the cold was probably part of it, but I had never seen problems with nitrites before this. I'm assuming the filter was preventing that before, and I hadn't changed that one in a while, which led me to the conclusion of changing it. I have never tested so soon after replacing the filter, and I had left the filter off for a while, and I'm wondering if that's what is leading to the high nitrites. Is it probable that now the filter has been replaced and running, that the nitrites will drop again? <You should never, ever switch off a filter for more than, say, half an hour. After a while the bacteria die from oxygen deprivation, and you end up with a "dead" filter that needs to re-matured all over again.> As for the treatment, I'm not sure I can get my hands on Maracyn for multiple reasons. I also don't believe her to be infected, she isn't showing any signs like the other frog. She is slightly reddish on one of her legs, which is worrying me about red leg, but is this something Maracyn would fix anyway? <Erythromycin (in Maracyn) will indeed fix Red Leg.> I thought it was more of a disease than an infection...I could try getting Maracyn when I go home in a week and a half, but until then I don't think it's an option. Until then, should I continue with Pima/Melafix? or is it not going to do anything or be harmful? <Pimafix/Melafix will have no effect either way. Will not cure Red-leg or other opportunistic bacterial infections, but won't make them worse either. The frog will simply die at whatever rate it's going to.> I also just realised that in addition to Pima and Melafix, I have some fish "Stress Coat" (by Aquarium Pharmaceuticals) that says it removes chlorine, neutralizes chloramines (neither of which I'm worried about), removes heavy metals, and replaces the slime coating on fish. It's recommended to be used when "fish are damaged by injury or disease". Is this worth a shot? <Not worth a shot, no. Just a fancy water conditioner. Would be akin to treating gangrene with a bar of soap.> You mentioned "optimising water quality in the tank". Should I change MORE water? How much of the tank? All of it? Half? It seemed best to leave it alone from what I read online. <Optimising water quality means using the right filter for the right sized tank, with the livestock receiving only the right amount of food. Water changes are part of the equation to be sure, but at the usual rate of, say, 25% weekly, or every couple of days if you detect nitrite/ammonia levels not equal to zero.> I also can't get my hands on other filters at the moment, but that may, again, be possible to look into in a couple weeks. Suggestions on what kinds? Zeolite seems to expensive... <Zeolite isn't expensive.> I am making sure the remaining frog is warm...The heater seems to make it a little warmer than seems comfortable, so I turn it off at times... How warm is too warm? <Anything within the range 23-26 degrees C would be safe; anything below or above, unsafe.> Thanks again for the help, Hope to hear back soon, Dylan <Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Multiple ADF Troubles  12/10/08
Hello, I went out and got some Maracyn, and reading through the directions, it says that it can raise nitrites and ammonia levels. My nitrite levels were concerning me already, I'm unsure of what to do. <Well, you don't have much choice: treat with frog, and hope ammonia settles down, which it will if you use Zeolite in the short term.> My main concerns about the remaining frog are these: She may catch or have caught the infection the other frog had Her toes/fingers are curling One of her legs is reddish, in addition to a reddish patch near one arm She seems skinnier I'm not sure if she's eating enough. <I doubt she'll "catch" anything, but she certainly could succumb (is succumbing) to the same environment-induced syndrome.> I'm going to keep up with 25% water changes every 2 days like you recommended to help with the nitrite levels. <Do remember not to do water changes if the medication says not to. Some medications need to be left in the tank for X number of days before the water is changed. Read the instructions! I haven't used Maracyn myself (not sold in the UK) so you'll have to figure this out yourself.> My main question is, would giving her Maracyn do more harm than good by raising the nitrites? Should I concentrate on trying to drop the nitrites or treating her with Maracyn? I can't really tell which is riskier/unhealthier for her. <No choice really; she'll die quickly if she isn't treated.> It also says that filters that are less than 6 days old should be removed. I know you said not to leave it off for more than half an hour. Should I take it out, put in the Maracyn and put the filter back in a half hour later or what? <Leave the filter running. Your filter is surely more than 6 days old? If it is that new, use Zeolite, which is safe to use with medications (widely used in "hospital tanks").> Sorry to keep asking you questions, I'm just really concerned about her and unsure of what to do. Thanks again, -Dylan <Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Multiple ADF Troubles  12/14/08
Hey, <Hi,> Thought I'd give you an update on how things are going, and what I'm doing. Let me know if you have any suggestions... The remaining female ADF is doing about the same. I tried the Maracyn, and noticed they have another formula (Maracyn Two) for things like internal infections. The one I got is mostly for external infections like the male frog had. <The difference between Maracyn and Maracyn 2 is nothing to do with "external" vs. "internal" infections. They each treat different classes of bacteria, the first gram-positive bacteria, the other gram-negative. In situations where Maracyn has no effect, Maracyn 2 may work, and vice versa.> Her fingers and toes are still curled in...I've managed to get her to eat by dropping food near her. I noticed if it falls by her she'll snap at it and eat it, but she doesn't seem to be looking around for food. Not that ADFs really do much anyway... I try to feed her about 6-10 pellets a day this way, and leave a few around. They're small pellets. I can usually tell when she's done because she'll start spitting them back out and go and hide somewhere. She usually perks up and starts waiting for food when I take the lid off and such... <Well, that's all positive. So long as they're feeding, you can have some hope.> I'm a little concerned of whether she'll start looking for food again, but I'm going to wait until she looks healthier. This curling may be a deficiency from the food itself, should I consider something else? Can I look for some sort of nutrient powder or something? <Variety is the key. Bloodworms, live daphnia, mosquito larvae, etc. The more foods you offer, the less chance of dietary problems.> Anyway, I have small rocks in the bottom of the tank and I'm kind of concerned this might make it harder for her to eat. If I chose to take out the rocks would having an empty tank like that be ok? <She'll be fine, provided you put some black paper or something under the glass so it isn't horribly bright and reflective.> I'm going to pick up some Maracyn two tomorrow and try that as well. It says it's for internal infections (signified by lack of eating and red streaks). Her red patches and streaks on her legs are coming and going, looking worse during certain parts of the day. I feel like it's better to be safe than sorry and I don't think it can hurt, can it? <It's fine. They're both safe medications used correctly.> She also seems to have grown a couple of small white patches on her back and knees, very small though. I think this is the same fungus that killed the other frog, but I'm hoping the Maracyn will pull through and help her kill it. It doesn't seem to be getting much worse... <Does sound like fungus. Maracyn may help, but proper fungal remedy will be better.> Let me know what you think and if you have any suggestions, Thanks AGAIN for all your help =D -Dylan <Good luck, Neale.>

Unexplained male dwarf frog deaths  11/30/08 Hi, I have been keeping African Dwarf Frogs for more than two years now. I first got a pair that turned out to be male and female. I named them Slim and Chance because I thought those were the odds of my being able to keep them alive. Anyway, they seemed to thrive under my care and even mated. The tadpoles hatched, and long story short, I kept two of the froglets and later bought another frog to make five frogs altogether. I had them in a five-gallon aquarium, so when they seemed to be doing so well, I bought them a ten-gallon tank and they acted happy to have a bigger home. Then a few days later, the only male frog (Slim) started making mating calls, or at least that's what I thought. And I was happy because I thought that meant they would breed again. Then later in the day Slim was suspended nose down in the middle of the tank, and when I touched him, I realized he was dead. Rigor mortis and all. Well, that was devastating for me since the females seemed fine, and I thought he was too until I found him dead. So a few days later I went to the pet store and bought another male frog. Of course he was much smaller than the females, but I figured he would grow. I had him about a week when just today he started with the mating calls, and I was so happy, thinking finally this would work out. Now this evening I found him dead. And still the females are fine. Can someone please tell me what is going on??? Why are the males dying and yet the females are OK? My water quality is fine. Now I'm afraid to try to purchase another male because I can't keep watching them die like this without knowing why. Please help me! Betty <Hello Betty. It's impossible to answer this question without some data about the tank, diet, temperature, etc. But let's review. Hymenochirus spp. frogs are tropical, and in an unheated or room temperature tank will die. Next up, they need excellent water quality. All amphibians are extremely sensitive to ammonia and nitrite, so you absolutely must provide good filtration. "Water quality is fine" doesn't help me much here: what I'm talking about is zero ammonia and zero nitrite. Finally, you need stable water chemistry. Precise values don't matter, provided you avoid the usual mistakes of using water from a domestic water softener (too much sodium) or water that is so soft the pH drops rapidly over time. I'd recommend moderately hard, neutral water. The diet should be varied; like it or not, "frog pellet" foods aren't a useful staple, and should be augmented with things like frozen or live bloodworms. Overfeeding is a very common problem too, and most frog keepers finding feeding every OTHER day works best. Males, being smaller, are much more sensitive to problems than females, and this explains the differences you're observing. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: unexplained male dwarf frog deaths  11/30/08
Thanks for your response, Neale. I rechecked the water, and both ammonia and nitrite levels were zero. The pH level is 6.4. The tank was unheated, so that could have been a factor. Their five-gallon tank was always unheated and they did fine in that for more than two years, but moving them to a ten-gallon unheated tank could have been a problem. They get frog and tadpole bites as well as frozen bloodworms to eat, and I feed them daily, so perhaps I was giving them too much food. I've now added a heater and I'm going to try feeding them every other day. I would like to look for another male frog but it isn't always easy to distinguish the males when they're so young at the pet store. I hope I now have the tank conditioned for success. It's so heartbreaking to lose one of these guys. Betty <Hello Betty. The pH is quite acidic, and that tends to go along with soft water, so do check your hardness, in particular the carbonate hardness (KH) as that's the thing that stabilises pH. All aquaria become acidic with time, but the rate varies depending on the carbonate hardness, which is specifically the ability of water to resist pH change. It's a really easy problem to slide into, because we don't always appreciate how suddenly pH can change. While your frogs will be fine between pH 6-8, they won't like sudden changes. Regular water changes are a great way to avoid pH disasters. As for temperature, these are tropical frogs, and there's really no getting around that. In summer you might be fine, but in winter things can get too cold for the frogs. I'd not let them get colder than 18 C (about 68 F). It sounds as if you're doing everything right, so fingers crossed! Cheers, Neale.>
Re: unexplained male dwarf frog deaths
Thanks, Neale, for all your advice. I just purchased another male so I'm hoping to get it right this time. Betty <Good luck! Neale.>

ADF Sick 11/10/08 Two weeks ago we set up a 5 gallon tank with a mini heater that stays at 78 degrees with a Tetra Micro Filter with Biobag cartridge. We started with 3 fancy tailed guppies and one ADF. The water levels were normal and the water was crystal clear. On Thursday we added another ADF and a mini algae eater (not sure what type but is not supposed to grow bigger than 1 1/2 inches). <You shouldn't mix fish with frogs. This "mini algae eater" is almost certainly an Otocinclus catfish. These fish CANNOT be kept in tanks as small as this. For a start, they are SCHOOLING fish, and keeping a single catfish of this type is just plain cruel. Next up, they're difficult to keep. They mostly only eat green algae, and after that, algae wafers. In small tanks they almost always starve to death. Thirdly, they're "cool" tropical fish from llanos of South America; water temperature should be around the 22-24 degrees C mark (that's 72-75 F). In other words, your tank is way too hot for them, and heat exhaustion is just around the corner. Finally, Otocinclus can be "parasitic" when hungry -- attacking other fish, scraping at the skin. They possibly only do this when half-starved, but even so, they're a silly risk to take with an animal with very delicate skin, like a frog. I have seen these catfish behave in this way, so this isn't rumour-mongering. A 5 gallon tank is a marginal environment for Hymenochirus frogs, and UTTERLY inadequate for Guppies. I know you don't want me to say this, but everything about this tank is wrong, and indicates to me that you did no research at all before buying these animals. Please read a book or visit this web site before buying animals -- you have the choice to buy or not buy a fish; the poor fish (or frog) has no choice at all, and that means it can't escape a probable death in a poorly set up aquarium.> Yesterday we noticed the tank was getting cloudy as we were getting ready to leave (I'm assuming it is from the algae eaters food tablet he didn't eat). This morning I got up and noticed one of the frogs has a white filmy coating and is staying at the top of the tank. I checked the water levels - ph 7.2, ammonia between 2 & 4, nitrates between 0 & 5, nitrite .25. <The tank is insanely dangerous to animals of all types. The ammonia level is beyond lethal, and I'm staggered anything is still alive. Let me be CRYSTAL CLEAR about something: unless you're an expert fishkeeper you shouldn't look at any tank below 20 gallons, and even the frogs shouldn't be kept in anything below 10 gallons.> I immediately did a partial water change of approximately 40% and added 1/2 tsp Tetra Aqua Safe. I have been reading through the site and trying to figure out the best way to take care of him. <Buy a bigger tank. Install an adequate filtration system. Try not to overfeed your livestock.> I went back up to check to see if the water change helped and found him floating on his back. <Doomed...> I moved him to a quarantine tank and a few minutes later he started to swim around and is now floating at the top of the tank right side up. Is there anything I can do to save him? <He'll be okay and likely recover if conditions improve. But be under no illusions: ammonia and nitrite levels should be ZERO all the time. If you're not getting that, you're doing something wrong. The Guppies and the Otocinclus have absolutely no business being in a tank this small. A 5 gallon tank is a bucket. It offers no margin for error, and male Guppies in particular are aggressive and will turn on one another in such small spaces. The Otocinclus will be dead soon anyway, simply because you simply don't have an environment where this very difficult to maintain catfish can survive.> What do I need to do to treat the regular tank to ensure the other fish and frog do not get sick too? Also how soon should I do another water change? Thanks for your help, Diane <Do please read over the articles on stocking and setting up new tanks. http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/fwlivestk.htm  Also review water quality. Buy yourself (your animals) an adequate habitat. Their ticket out of there is death, unless you do something to change that. Good luck, Neale.>
Re: ADF Sick (Hymenochirus sp.; 5 gallon tank; doom and gloom; quelle surprise) 11/10/08
Thanks for all of the information, apparently I should not have listened to the people at PetSmart. <Do always remember: Pet shops exist to sell stuff. While many retailers are well intentioned and even experts in a particular field, many junior staff members have no particular experience or knowledge. They're just doing a job. So while you certainly should talk with your retailer, it is always important to read a good book prior to purchasing an animal.> I will see if they will take the catfish back, I had questioned them specifically to see if these would all be ok together and they assured me I would not have any problems. <Otocinclus (if that is what you have; check) are widely sold to the wrong people for the wrong tanks. Easily 90% of these catfish die within months of purchase, and likely the majority within a few weeks. Many die in the aquarium shop even before they are sold.> I had also looked on Frog World and read that you need 1 gallon of water per frog so I thought a 5 gallon would be perfect for our daughters room. <You're confusing two issues. One is how much space per frog. Certainly a gallon or two is adequate. But then there's the question of how small a tank can you reliably maintain. The answer to that is that anything below 10 gallons is difficult to heat and filter properly. Very small tanks are prone to wild temperature changes and poor water quality. It's to do with dilution of toxins, volume to surface area ratio, thermal stability of water, and various other well understood issues in fish/frog-keeping. In other words, the correct answer to the question of choosing a tank for Hymenochirus frogs would be "One gallon per frog, with a minimum tank size of 10 gallons". Since the price difference between a 10 gallon tank and anything smaller will be trivial (especially compared to the maintenance of the frogs in the long term) there isn't any practical reason to try keeping a smaller tank.> The site also said guppies etc would be ok tank mates with the frogs. <The problem with mixing frogs and fish is that frogs have extremely delicate skins. They breathe through their skins. Anything that causes damage to the skin can quickly lead to death. Fish are liable to peck at anything tasty-looking, and that can include small frogs. Moreover fish are much faster swimmers than frogs, making it difficult to ensure the frogs get enough to eat. On the flip side, frogs should be fed extremely sparingly (typically every other day) and this isn't viable where fish are being kept. So you have either overfed frogs or underfed fish. Finally, frogs are extremely sensitive to poor water quality, perhaps more so than hardy fish. If you have an overstocked/overfed aquarium because it contains some fish as well as the frogs, you're making your hobby harder by increasing the risk of things like Red Leg.> I did do some research, apparently not enough or in the right places... We do have a ten gallon tank that is empty- would the guppies be ok if I moved them into there & left the frog in the 5 gallon until I can find another setup? <Under the circumstances, this would be the best solution. I'm not wild about Guppies in 10-gallon tanks because they tend to become aggressive, and the females especially generally get harassed by the males. But people certainly have kept a few Guppies in tanks this size and got away with it! Likewise, provided the 5-gallon tank was clean and properly heated, you should be successful with one or two frogs in there. It isn't the system I'd recommend, but at a pinch, and if you were extremely careful with water quality and temperature issues, you could just about get away with it. The advantages of 10-gallon tank shine through when things can't be managed: e.g., when you're on vacation or don't have the time to do water changes religiously. That's why I say for the average aquarist or frog-keeper, their hobby will be much more fun and easy with a slightly larger aquarium than they might expect.> I want to do everything I can to keep them healthy. <That's the aim!> Thanks <Hope this helps, Neale.>

African dwarf frog, hlth., no data or reading ahead of writing    8/20/08 Hi- last fall my frog lost her front leg, <?!> it kind of curled up on her and then it was gone, leaving a pinkish stump. <More to this...> She adapted well to the loss of the leg, but now the other front leg has done the same thing. We were hoping maybe it would grow back but neither have. We would just like to know if you have ever seen this before and what causes this. Thank you, Becca BTW she is 3 years old. <... Legs are not "just lost"... something missing... in the system, maintenance, water quality, nutrition, aggressive tankmates... You give no data re these... Read: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/dwfafdis.htm  and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>
Re: African dwarf frog, killing
   8/21/08 hello- I wasn't sure how detailed you wanted me to get. Okay, the frogs live in a glass vase with a lid on it that holds a plant, <... dismal... Totally inappropriate> the water used is regular tap water that is aerated for at least 24 hours before we replace 50% of the water once a week. They are fed frozen blood worms. <Ditto> Now, before you start thinking why are they living in a vase without filtration, heat lamps etc., I would like you to know that these frogs are 3 years old, they mate constantly and have laid eggs several times. <Animals, plants for that matter will attempt to reproduce in extremis... conditions that spell their doom... something about "survival of the species">  We have watched the eggs evolve to tadpole stage and have actually had 2 fully mature. The other frog is fine. So I don't think anything is wrong with the way we are raising our frogs, in fact I think we got it right, and they are actually quite spoiled, for frogs. Is there anything I can put in the water to help her? Will the legs grow back? Or do I need to start looking for a new frog? Thank you in advance for any information you provide me. <Please read where you were referred to... RMF>

Possible fungus/bacteria infection? dwarf frog... Ridiculous lack of care  6/1/08 Hi - <Hello> I was given two dwarf frogs and had them in just a little 1 1/2 gallon tank. <Too small to be stable... unhealthy> No filter, heater etc. <...> This was the only thing I had to put them in and they seemed to do fine. I then got a 29 gallon fish tank and after letting the tank cycle for about a month with some Danios I put the frogs in. They were doing fine and then I gradually added some more fish. I have three Mollies and a few guppies. Surprisingly, one of the Mollies had babies which I put in an isolation area inside the tank. They are doing fine. I've lost a few fish along the way which I've attributed to it being a new tank, etc. I've had my water tested at PetSmart several times and have been told that it's fine. But one of my frogs eyes started looking cloudy and then he started floating up at the top. I put him back in the original 1 1/2 gallon tank to isolate him and noticed his back foot has the white cottony/thready looking stuff on it. In talking with a local pet store, they suggested using Fungus Clear (Nitrofurazone, Furazolidone, potassium dichromate). So I put a little bit of that in there with him. He's not floating at the top as much but the white stuff is still there and his eyes are not normal. He also seems pretty weak. In looking at other sites, I see so much conflicting information, some talk about adding salt, some say not to. For a newbie like myself, I'd sure appreciate any information you can give me. Thanks, Lori <Have just skipped down... Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/hymenochirus.htm  the linked files. Bob Fenner>

Dwarf African Frog-Broken wrist?   4/30/08 Hi there <Hello> We have recently moved our DAF to a new tank. Before we moved I noticed that his wrist was bent back on itself. It has been suggested that I will need to take him to a vet and get it removed in case it goes gangrenous but I just don't know of a vet that could/would do something that delicate. Do you have any other potential diagnoses or cures? <Mmm, no need to remove the limb... will either "cure" of its own accord, or be of use as is. Bob Fenner>

Aquatic Frog Red Sore on Finger  4/19/08 Hi WWM, Hello; I have an aquatic frog named Freddie who is almost a year old now. He is in a 10 gallon tank and all readings are perfect. I maintain the tank once a week. Freddie is eating well and swimming a lot. But, I noticed for over two weeks now he has a red sore on his finger that will not go away. I started to treat him with aquarium salt and Melafix. Please give advice if this is the proper care. Thanks ahead of time, Jean <Hello Jean. This is a secondary bacterial infection, likely caused by poor water quality and/or physical damage. Melafix and salt are useless for treating bacterial infections; both are primarily used as preventatives rather than cures, and many of us here at WWM doubt their value even then. Instead, use a suitable antibiotic or antibacterial medication safe for use with amphibians. A pet store that specializes in reptiles and amphibians will be able to provide such medication, as will a vet. Bear in mind that fish-safe medications (such as eSHa 2000 and Maracyn) could harm the frog, so shouldn't be used before confirming that they are safe. Red sores are likely caused by Aeromonas bacteria, and untreated lead to Red Leg, a deadly disease. While dealing with the infection, establish what caused the problem in the first place. Water quality is usually the problem, but if you mix frogs with fish (something you shouldn't do) the fish can attack the frog making it vulnerable to infections. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: African dwarf frog
-- 04/19/08 Yikes! Why does PetSmart give such crappy information! <No idea. Not all branches give bad information or misleading sales pitches. But some appear to do so.> I'll keep Ferdinand where he is, and maybe I'll buy him a new froggie to visit with. <Sounds like a plan!> I will also take my black skirts and tigers back to PetSmart and give them up for adoption! <These species are only problematic if you choose to keep them with slow or long finned fish. Also tend to be "bad" when kept in too-small a group, i.e., less than six. They're fine fish mixed with other barbs and tetras though.> I'll add some angels or ghost shrimp instead. <Hold out for Cherry Shrimps if you can -- although not so big as Ghost Shrimp, they're nicer colours and happily breed in well-run aquaria. I have quite a colony in 10 gallon tank, and they're more fun to watch than the fish!> If I get rid of them, would it be safe then to add Ferdinand to the mix? <Frogs are safe ONLY with completely peaceful, non-nippy fish. Angels would be a bad choice. Shrimps should be fine, as are things like Corydoras and surface-living things like Danios and Halfbeaks.> Also, is there any way to keep Neons alive? I still have 2 of my original 8, and I would love to have about a dozen of them. <Neons are plagued by a problem known as Neon Tetra Disease (or Pleistophora). In a nutshell, if one gets sick and it dies in the tank, it will infect the others. There is no cure except breaking the cycle by removing sick fish on sight. Neons also need soft, acid water. They also need lower than normal temperatures: around 22-24 C (that's about 72-75 F in old money). Kept at high temperatures they just won't thrive. Because Neons are mass-produced to be cheap rather than decent quality, you "get what you pay for" -- so anywhere you're seeing Neons at a buck a throw, you have to ask yourself just how good are these fish that they've managed to sell them at under 50% what they went for even a few years ago. Oddly enough, Cardinals tend to be (in my experience) altogether easier to keep, though they *definitely* need soft water to do well.> Thanks for the great advice. <Happy to help, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frog question, hlth.   4/6/08 WWM Crew, I love your site by the way, I am a new fish owner and I enjoy reading your site and getting lots of really useful information. But here is the issue. I have a decent size 5 gallon tank where I have just a single ADF named Sal. <Hmm... "decent" isn't really how I'd define 5 gallon tanks. The problem is that they're very difficult to keep stable in terms of pH, water quality, etc. Even for very small beasts, you're a lot better off with a 10 gallon tank unless you're an expert fishkeeper.> He seems to be fine, is always playing and floating towards the top of the tank. I had him for about a month before I purchased a mystery snail. About 3 days after I introduced the snail into the tank with the frog the snail developed a fungus. <Snails don't normally develop fungus. They're either alive or dead. Are you sure this just wasn't algae on the shell?> As soon as I recognized what it was the snail was immediately put into isolation. After changing the water in the tank with the ADF and cleaning everything. I've noticed that Sal has developed a single red bump under each of his front arms its doesn't seem to be bothering him or anything, I'm just trying to figure out if he has something that I need to treat. <Yes; find an amphibian-safe antibacterial or antibiotic. Your local reptile pet store will be able to help here. Fish-grade medications may be safe, but often aren't. Once bacterial infections get established, these little frogs die very quickly.> I don't want him getting sick and making his happy little life uncomfortable. All the levels in the tank are fine, he doesn't have red leg or cloudy eyes or any other symptoms. Any advice would be great or am I being overly paranoid? Thanks. Paranoid ADF lady <Hope this helps. Neale.>

ADF floating and now with red feet... new water, hlth.  -- 03/18/08 First, Thank you for being a superior source of information. I have read about the ADF and diseases and found one that seems to match what is going on, but I need to know what to do next . . . My daughter (11 1/2 years old) has had her hex 5 tank for 2 1/2 years and has done a pretty good job of keeping it clean and the 3 fish & 1 ADF frog cared for. Over this time she has lost three fish and one frog, but all has been well for about 10 months. Until now . . . Paige did a water and filter change last month <Mmm, I'd do smaller, more frequent change-outs... 10-20% a week... with treated, pre-stored water> and the water again last week. On Friday I noticed that there seemed to be gunk floating in the tank (like shedding skin and algae from scraping- this is not normal for her tank) Then Sat. her ADF was floating at the top of the tank (also not normal and not a Zen pose). I took him out, took a sample of the water to the pet store and did a 1/2 exchange of the water. <Careful here... It is dangerous to change too much of a system too soon with amphibians... whatever is in their water, gets into their bodies... almost immediately. Hence the statement above> When I helped with the water exchange I found that the filter had not been pushed all the way down and wasn't filtering properly. It's working now and the pet store said that the water was "fine". <Fine...> We put the ADF in a 1/2 gallon bowl with a mix of old and new water until the Sunday afternoon (if he died, I didn't want to leave him in the tank with the other fish while we were gone a few hours). We put the frog back in the tank, but this morning his hands and feet looked red. <More evidence of "new water poisoning"> This afternoon his legs are red and he is floating at the bottom of the tank up-side-down, <Bad...> but when we tap him with the net he moves around. I found a reference to "red leg" that stated that red leg or foot is due to water quality - and lack there of. But I didn't see what to do about it. Our situation seems fatal. What do you suggest we do next? The pet suggested that we use Melafix. <No... worthless... See WWM re> What do you think? Thank you for your help! Joanie and Paige <Really, only time, patience... I do hope your daughter's Hymenochirus recovers... Do please read here re water changes: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/fwh2ochgs.htm  and the linked files above. Bob Fenner>
Re: ADF floating and now with red feet
Bob, <Joanie, Paige> Thank you for your speedy reply. I feel very badly that I could have made the situation worse by putting too much new water into their environment. <Is a very common situation... Nowadays, our tap/source water is not very "consistent"... and much of the treatment (e.g. sanitizer addition) is quite toxic to aquatic life> It looks like you were giving me another link about the Melafix or another med. but it didn't show up on the email. Would you resend the link and/or give me more insight on the medication issue for this situation? <Do just peruse WWM through the term and our search tool here: http://wetwebmedia.com/WWMAdminSubWebIndex/question_page.htm  reading the cached views... highlighted...> By the way, the little frog is still at the bottom, but is moving occasionally on his own. Thanks again, Joanie and Paige <Am hoping for the best... Cheers, BobF>

Floating ADF, what treatment options? Poor environment, no reading    3/17/08 Crew, I bought 2 African Dwarf Frogs a week ago. I have them in an unheated/unfiltered, but treated, 1 gallon tank. <Umm, this is the trouble... Need heated (they're tropical), filtered environment... of larger (more stable) size> Initially I also had 3 Ghost Shrimp, but those died within 24 hours (I think due to the stress of extensive travel and adjustment, and probably due to the cramped quarters of having 5 animals in a fairly small bowl). Their deaths, I don't believe is related to this problem. As soon as the shrimp died they were removed from the tank and they water was changed and re-treated. After about 5 days of having the frogs they started to act a bit strange. They started to just float at the top of the bowl without any movement. They have also stopped eating (they have been on a strict frozen brine shrimp diet in the store and in my home). According to my research on this site and on others, it appears that they do not have red leg, fin rot, extreme bloating, or a fungus related infection. One site I research mentioned that there is a bacterial infection that can afflict these frogs. The symptoms, floating at the surface and not eating. This site did not give any treatment options. I know there are certain types of salts and medicines that could possibly be used to help, but I didn't want to use anything that would not treat this problem. What treatments would you recommend? I really don't want to lose these critters, but I fear that they may be a casualty of my novice status. Please send me any advice you have that might remedy this problem. Thank you. Dan <Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/hymenochirus.htm  The linked files on the page. Bob Fenner>

African Dwarf Frogs - Twitching, lethargic  3/2/08 Hi guys, <Hello,> Thanks to your wonderful site my husband and I have had 2-3 aquariums up and running for several years with no problems at all in at least a year. We have 2 adult African Dwarf Frogs that had lots of little froglets a few months ago. We couldn't possibly keep them all (21 total) but were waiting for them to grow up to be strong healthy frogs before selling them to our local Ma and Pa fish store. They were in a tank that's way too small to support all of them (5 gallons, but lots of the frogs are still very small), but we did frequent water changes and kept a very close eye on all water parameters. The tank was completely cycled, we'd never see any ammonia or nitrites, and the water changes took care of nitrates fast. We're moving and things have been hectic, the tank went a few days without a partial water change and my husband tested the water - Ammonia had spiked off the chart! The frogs were all on the bottom, lethargic, and a few of them were lying on their backs and twitching. We immediately did a 50% water change and retested. Ammonia was still WAY too high, so we waited a few hours and then did another 75% change. Still too high, so we moved some fish around, completely cleaned our 20 gallon tank and moved them into it last night. <Doesn't sound promising. A good rule during times of chaos is to STOP feeding livestock. Anyway, if you see an ammonia spike in an otherwise stable aquarium, do check for overfeeding and/or dead livestock. It may be that one frog died, decayed, and that was what overwhelmed the existing filter.> This morning I checked on them and 5 out of 21 are on their backs twitching, the rest are very lethargic, and a few of them have their legs twisted around their other leg. It's not looking good... Water parameters are fine in this brand new tank. We've added some gravel from our very old cycled tank to assist the cycle in this new one and will be picking up some BioSpira when the pet store opens later today. <Hmm... gravel (unless part of an undergravel filter) doesn't do all that much to speed up cycling, so don't rely on it. Much better to divide the media in the existing filter into two, put one portion in the new filter, and then let things recover. A mature filter can easily tolerate a 50% loss of media without any serious water quality problems.> Our frogs are our babies, we feel terrible that we let this happen to them. We were planning on giving some of the babies to the LFS today but are terrified that they'll just put them down since they look so bad. We'll keep them for as long as we feel that we can do some good to help them. <Good. Sometimes time helps. Additional aeration plus regular water changes will also help.> To further compound the problems, we MUST move their tank to our new place today which is sure to traumatize them. Is there anything that we can do to help them other than make sure that this new tank cycles fast, being vigilant to water quality issues? <Transporting the frogs, providing they are parceled out into spacious containers, a few per container, shouldn't really cause major problems. Keeping them warm and dark during transit will help, as will being quick. But compared to ammonia spikes, simply being moved about for a couple hours is neither here nor there.> Thank you so much, you guys are great. Heather <Hope this helps, Neale.>

Deceased frog.  2/14/08 Dear Bob, <Neale here today!> About a year ago I decided I wanted a fish, so I went and bought two Jack Dempseys. The employee at the big box pet store told me they would be fine in a ten gallon tank. <Nope; and indeed getting two JDs to share any sized tank is pushing your luck unless they're a mated pair.> Needless to say, I hadn't done my research and neither had he. After doing my own research and learning more about them they're now in a 55 gallon tank with a few other fish and seem to be doing fine, but my boyfriend and I wanted a peaceful community tank as well. <Doesn't everyone!> I did some research on that and found that (hopefully this is all correct) an ADF would be fine with some small Corys and a peaceful Gourami or two. <Actually, no; I don't believe that frogs of any kind make particularly good additions to aquaria. They are best kept alone, or possibly in tanks with ultra-peaceful species that can be guaranteed to ignore them (say, Hatchetfish or Kuhli loaches). Otherwise, frogs are too easily damaged, too sensitive to poor water quality, too easily killed by fish medications, and too difficult to feed properly. While some people manage to mix frogs and fish fine, the majority don't.> We set up a 30 gallon tank (about a foot deep) and had it running for a few days before we went down to the specialty fish store that we now shop at. We bought one ADF, three small panda Corys, and a honey dwarf Gourami. We brought them all home and put them in together yesterday. The frog was extremely active. He swam around a lot and seemed to be enjoying himself. They seemed fine when we went to bed last night, but when we woke up this morning (gasp) my new frog friend was dead! <Not really surprised. Almost certainly killed by water quality problems. Running a tank for a few days EMPTY does nothing at all to cycle it. Maturing a tank depends on the bacteria getting established in the filter, and that requires a source of ammonia for the bacteria to "eat". An empty tank is just a big bucket of water, and there's nothing biological going on in there. You then add a bunch of fish, they produce ammonia, and the ammonia stresses/kills the livestock. Do read the WWM articles re: starting a new aquarium.> The water has a strange cloudy quality to it. The fish are still alive, but the frog was done for in less than 24 hours and I'm really not sure what happened. We tested the PH again and it was fine. <The pH is irrelevant, and most inexperienced aquarists have no idea what it actually means. For a new tank, you need *at minimum* a NITRITE test kit. This gives you a measurement of how the second stage of the two-stage biological filtration process is doing. Under normal circumstances a tropical tank takes 6 weeks to complete the cycling process. That's six weeks from when the first ammonia source is added -- whether a few hardy fish (like Danios) or an inorganic source (ammonia from a bottle). The pH is about the acidity of the aquarium, and there is no such reading as "fine". A low pH (i.e., 6 to 7) is good for Angelfish and tetras but bad for livebearers and Goldfish; conversely, a high pH (i.e., 7.5 to 8) is essential for livebearers and Goldfish, but not appreciated by soft water tetras and dwarf cichlids. Please do read the WWM articles re: water chemistry to understand this topic.> The temp is at 78. The light was on for about 4 hours yesterday. Any ideas? <Lots, but mostly you need to sit down, read, and understand how an aquarium works. In particular focus on water quality and water chemistry. Getting these wrong surely account for 99.99999999% of aquarium fish (and frog!) deaths.> Thanks in advance, Shelley <Cheers, Neale.>

African Dwarf Frog acting strangely/manic... and non-heated, non-cycled Betta... systems   12/2/07 I purchased an African Dwarf Frog along with a male Betta about two weeks ago. <Mmm, these don't always get along> These are my first aquatic pets I have had the pleasure of having, and I'm already quite attached! I have done a lot of research but I am still learning... Well today, I decided to do some water changes for the first time, having been a little over a week since the frog and Betta were settled in. I originally was planning to have them in the same tank, but after I placed them together my Betta started to get aggressive, and then I learned that 1 gallon is too small to keep two creatures together in. <Yes> So, for a while I had Robyn (my ADF) in my 1 gallon tank and Reno (Betta fish) in a "Betta planter" that I bought. I felt bad for Reno because he didn't have much water to swim around in (probably less than 1/2 gallon), so this weekend I bought him a 1 gallon tank also. I did a 25% water change for Robyn's tank, and introduced my Betta to his new tank. <Mmm, both these animals are tropical... need steady, high temperature> I am concerned because ever since the water change, Robyn has been swimming up and down like crazy, and keeps pressing her nose up against the side of the tank, it seems like she wants to escape. <Maybe> Is there something wrong with the water? <Could be> I made sure to buy it at Petco and it's called "Beta Water", but it says it's suitable for frogs as well and has a neutral pH, etc. <... am not so sure. What are the ingredients? I would change a good deal of this water out for just dechloraminated tap> Reno, on the other hand, is going crazy in his tank as well, and I think it's because the plastic creates a mirror effect and he can see himself and thinks it's another fish. <Likely so> Will seeing this constantly stress him out too much, or is it just normal for him to swim around that much in a new tank? <Likely will be okay in time... a few days> What about Robyn? Before I did the partial water change she just liked to hang out in the little cave I got her, and poke her head out occasionally. I am really concerned, I don't want them to die :( Also, as a note: The 1 gallon tanks I bought both come with an undergravel filter and an air stone that has a little plastic tube around it (I guess to minimize current?)? I have heard a ton of conflicting information on whether or not this air pump is safe/good to use in my tank with my Betta or my ADF. <Are fine... but... what re cycling?> I would really like to use them because I like how they look and I think they will keep the water cleaner, but I don't want to endanger my frog or make my Betta unhappy.? Any suggestions? Please help, and thank you! -Valerie <Yes... for you to read... Which you were directed to do before writing... Start here for Bettas: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/bettasysart.htm  and the linked files above, particularly on Nitrogen Cycling... Bob Fenner>
Re: African Dwarf Frog acting strangely/manic, Betta bubblenests 12/5/07
Dear Bob, <Valerie> Thank you so much for the prompt reply, sorry I couldn't get back sooner! (Final Exams).? I have read a lot of the articles on your site, but I wasn't able to find the specific link on nitrogen cycling... and I am still sort of confused on what tank 'cycling' involves exactly, though I understand the general idea.? <Yes... and I've seen your response further on, where you state you have read re> Reno the Betta seems much more like his normal self these past two days, although he started spitting his food back out when I gave it to him, then re- swallowing. It stayed down for a couple more minutes before he spit all of the pellets back out. I watched a while and he eventually ate them and kept them down. Not sure what that's about... I bought some frozen bloodworms today, am going to try varying his diet with those, but I am confused as to how to serve them and the portion amount? <Just a few at a setting, defrosted... held near the surface to get his attention> My ADF freaked me out a lot yesterday because I saw transparent, filmy stuff clinging to her underside, but after looking it up online it seems she was just shedding her skin. <Likely so> In a few more minutes it was off completely so I didn't worry anymore about it. She's learned to come to her food plate to eat, and is now eating consistently. Her weird behavior also seems to have subsided, but her tank looks cloudy... I am going to do another 25% water change today, even though I just did one on Saturday. If I turn on the air stones now (all of the sudden) will it alarm/stress my animals? <Should be fine to do so> Should I perhaps move them to a separate tank, turn them on, and then reintroduce them? <Mmm, I'd leave all in place> I want to get my undergravel filter system working, as I feel this will help with the tank changes. I am leaving their lights on about 12 hours a day, in order to keep the water warm enough, but I am going to get a thermometer tomorrow so I can see what the temp actually is... I am afraid it is dropping too much at night even though I keep my apartment around 75 degrees F. Now the problem... today I just got home from school and I see my ADF is missing his right foot entirely!?!? He still has his leg, with a stump. <Happens... perhaps the Betta...> I have no idea how this happened... he seems to be swimming alright without it but I am so worried it will get infected. <Possibly> It doesn't look like there's anything on it right now but what are the procedures I need to take in order to get him to grow it back? (I heard they can do that..)? <Mmm, a possibility, but not likely> Also, what might of caused this to happen? I am afraid his little plastic coral reef may of caused him to catch his foot and tear it.. but the thing said it was approved for aquariums and when I felt around the edges prior to buying none of them seemed excessively sharp. <What other life is present?> Please let me know ASAP what treatment I should apply for Robyn, as many of the different FAQ's prescribe different things and I am unsure where to start. Thank you! -Valerie <No specific treatment is suggested... as your system is not established... this will very likely cause more trouble than fix...> P.S.? What does a Betta "bubblenest" look like? <Like a floating mass of small bubbles...> I Googled it without much success on an actual picture. His tank has a large accumulation of bubbles all concentrated on one area on the side of the tank, I was wondering if this was a bubblenest, or an indicator of some type of water quality problem. it looks crystal clear the moment... I will try purchasing some of those test stripes for nitrogen, ammonia, etc.. anyway if you could provide a picture or a verbal description of what a bubblenest looks like, that would be great, thanks! <Do try to set some time aside to visit a local library and check to see if they have books on Bettas... these will have photos... Bob Fenner>

Meds and Frogs -- 11/20/07 My name is Banjo, I have 2 tanks. 1) 2 gallon with one male Betta (Mitch) and his plant. I have had him for 1.5 years. He is right next door to the larger tank so he gets to see and occasional girlfriend that swims by. 2) 10 gallon with 7 small to med sized plants, 6 fancy guppies (2 males, 4 females), 2 female Bettas (which do great with everyone including each other. I do put them in a floating cup at feeding time so the frogs don't starve. What pigs!) <Heee, good technique> , 1 Albino Pleco, and 3 DAF's (I have now had for just under 2 months (I'm still crossing my fingers, hoping that fungus doesn't show up). So far things have been going great except for one thing (of course!). I noticed on my Betta's, a light outline on the gills, two rows on each side. Everyone likes to rub against the decorations pretty often (not obsessively but often enough to know they have an itch they cant get rid of), and it seems like they are rubbing their gills. On the guppies I cant see any other visible signs of disease besides flashing. When I installed my heater, it was my first time working with a heater, so the temp took a 10 degree jump in one day! Oops! I now have the hang of adjusting the temp by only a few degrees at a time. I lost one guppy a few days later (the one that was most pregnant), she then developed inflamed and red gills and hung around in one spot, and her color was slightly cloudy on the front half of her body. I put her to sleep. I figure I have a parasite, b/c of the itching and the lines on the gills of the Bettas. It seems to only kill a fish if they are stressed (i.e. being ready to give birth and then a 10 degree jump in temp). I'm sure if left unattended it will eventually kill my fish one by one. Water parameters are normal Ammonia and nitrites are 0 and nitrates hover between .05 and .15. I always treat and let tap water sit for at least 3 days before water changes. <Good> My ph hovers between 7.7 and 8.0, is that ok? <Mmm, a bit high... but not likely worth "fooling with"... Mainly an issue here (with high pH) IF you have any ammonia or nitrite present. MUCH more toxic at elevated pH> and my water is about as hard as it gets. So here is my question. I have Jungle parasite clear. Ingredients: Praziquantel, Diflubenzuron, Metronidazole, and Acriflavine. Is that safe for the frogs? Will it stress them? <Is "pretty" safe in terms of the first three, not much stress> Unfortunately I don't have a QT tank at the moment, but I can put them in with my Betta if I have to (It is only a 2gal). <I would do this> Are the parasites something that will bother the frogs? <Am not so sure there are parasites present here... Could be residual stress from the heater incident, or the high pH alone...> I also have a total of 4 teaspoons of aquarium salt in there to help the fish. <Not a good idea to expose the frogs to> Will the frogs be ok with that? <Not likely> I have heard mixed opinions Also how does the stocking sound? Do you think I am over-stocked? <Getting there> I will be getting a 20gal long within the next 5 months for everyone so I can let some guppy fry make it to adult hood by adding more plants with more room. For now all the guppy fry will be live food for everybody. Thank you for your time. I appreciate it. Banjo <I would move the frogs now. Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Sick African Dwarf Frog - 10/07/2007 Hello Crew, I have a sick African dwarf frog. I'm desperately looking online for his illness but none of the other websites have as much information. <Hmm... general advice: before worrying about what a disease is, think about the causative factors. Nine times out of ten, it's water quality. So whip out your Nitrite test kit, and see what the water quality is like. There should be zero nitrite. If not, if there's even a trace of nitrite, that means water quality is inadequate, and the basic cause of illness is the immune system of the frog being compromised by the environment. Frogs (and amphibians in general) are extremely sensitive to pollution, both in captivity and the wild. This is why they're often considered "early warning" species for signs of damage to wild habitats. It almost goes without saying that the last few decades have seen a catastrophic decline in amphibian diversity and abundance, thanks to Man's stupidity. But that same holds for your vivarium: if the frogs are sick, then it's likely the aquarium conditions that need fixing.> I have 2 African dwarf frogs in a 2 gallon octagonal tank. <Tank too small. Two gallons is smaller than a bucket. Ten gallons would be nearer the mark for this species.> I have had these frogs for about a month and a half. I recently cleaned out the whole tank (About a week and a half ago) because I read that you had to clean the tank frequently online. <Nope. You need to change the water frequently, yes, but cleaning the tank is usually redundant in a properly maintained aquarium. Your basic maintenance schedule is this: every weekend, take out 50% of the water, and replace with new, dechlorinated water. If you live in an area where Chloramine is used in the water supply, treat the water with a dechlorinator that removes Chloramine as well. Most, but not all, do anyway. Finally, never, ever use "softened" water from a domestic water softener.> (Oops!) I took out a under-gravel air rock also because I also read that those can lead to diseases. <What are you reading? Obviously web sites. Please please please buy a book. Books are edited for factual accuracy. Anyone can throw together a web site saying anything they want. I could create one saying Dwarf Frogs like to live in molten lava, should be fed marshmallows, and breed by shedding their toes, which become new froglets. If I tried to write that for a book publisher, I'd lose my contract and the editor would find someone else to write the book. Most of us here at WWM write for books and magazines, so you can have confidence that what we say is sound. But for the most part, treat stuff published online "cum grano salis", as the Romans would say.> I did so and the little froggies where very happy! Within two days, both of the frogs got cloudy eyes. <What a surprise. You removed the sole source of biological filtration, the Undergravel filter. So after a couple days the ammonia had built up to toxic levels. Ergo, the frogs got sick.> I read online though, that this is because of skin shedding. I think they both shed their skin because there was some loose film around the tank. And both of the frogs' didn't have cloudy eyes anymore. For about 5 days though one of the frogs has been staying at the top of the tank. I just thought he was lazy frog that liked to hang out. <Not "hanging out". These frogs are benthic animals that like to stay close to the sand, preferably hidden among plants or leaf litter. When they rise to the surface, it's a sure sign they aren't happy.> He hasn't been eating from what I can see for these 5 days. <Dying animals tend to lose interest in food.> Then today when I looked at my frog, he was struggling to get to the surface and his legs and feet didn't look right. I panicked and got him out into a holding container immediately so my other frog wouldn't get sick. Here are his symptoms: Floating at the top of the tank. Not eating. Listless. His arms and legs seem to have muscle degeneration. Both of his feet are curled. He has a sore at the back of his head that is reddish pink. What does he have?? <What these frogs have is a keeper who didn't research them beforehand. Pets are 100% dependent on you for survival, and that means any mistakes you make causes them suffering. So, you need to go buy a book on African Dwarf Frogs. There are many, many books on pet amphibians out there. In the meantime, buy a proper aquarium and install a proper filtration system. The tank you have is too small for a decent undergravel filter to work. An undergravel filter needs a depth of about 5-8 cm gravel to work. A two-gallon tank will be a real squeeze with that much gravel! Anyway, once they are transferred to an aquarium that has a chance of keeping them alive, you can then treat using an anti-fungal/anti-Finrot remedy used for tropical fish. That might help cure the symptoms, though frankly I suspect you have the dreaded "Red Leg" already in which case the frog will die.> And is it treatable? <Don't bank on it, and certainly not without you providing them better living quarters.> Is my other ADF going to get it? <Long term, no, not unless you change how you keep these poor animals that totally depend on you.> Thanks so much, Sarah <Please understand that loving your pets isn't enough if you don't spend the time and money on their needs. Often, this means buying/borrowing a good book on the subject before even getting the animals. Once you're up to speed in terms of theory, practice becomes so much easier. These are basically hardy, easy to keep animals, so once you fix things, you should be able to keep this species without problems. Good luck, Neale>

ADF... hlth.   9/23/07 I had two African Dwarf Frogs in a tank with a Pleco and two Danios. About two weeks ago one of the ADFs developed a white chalk-like ring on its body near to where its right front leg connects <Don't see this in your pic> (the Pleco has had similar white chalky spots on its snout since I inherited it about six months ago). Within a few days, it died. Soon after, I noticed that the other ADF has developed a very red bump between its right eye and snout. Its behavior is still normal. No trauma that I'm aware of. Any idea what it could be? <Mmm, something environmental perhaps... Your system, water look very clean... perhaps too much so> How should I treat it? <What water quality tests do you have data for? What are your nitrate readings?> (It's a little hard to see, but I've attached a picture that shows the red bump.) Any suggestions on the Pleco? Thanks for your help. <What sort of filtration is employed here? Foods, feeding? You have read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/dwfafdis.htm  and the linked files above? Bob Fenner>

Re: ADF Health -- 09/23/07 Bob, <Jules> Thanks so much for answering. Here is information on my water quality: Nitrate: 40 <Way too high... needs to be reduced by at least half> Nitrite: .5 <Deadly toxic... needs to be zip, zero, nada> Hardness: 300 Chlorine: 0 KH: 300 pH: 8.4 Ammonia: 0 Temp: 82 I have had the two ADFs with one Pleco and two Danios in a five-gallon tank with a filter pump with bio-wheel and an aerator. I inherited the tank with the Pleco and Danios, and I obviously didn't do my research (don't yell). I just recently found out that the Pleco needs a much bigger tank, so I'm in the process of rehoming him. Meanwhile, I removed the surviving ADF and put him back in his original 2-gallon non-filtered bowl until I can figure out what's going on with him. I feed the ADF HBH Frog and Tadpole bites (I know you don't like these, but he's really always eaten them with no problems) -- about four to six pellets once a day. He's now had the red spot on his head for a few days, and today I noticed that it had a little white cottony piece sticking up from it. I thought "fungus," but when he moved, the white part came off. I've never seen a fungus, so I'm not sure that's really what it was. I have Maracyn2 and Maroxy on hand if I need to use either of those. I did read all the information I could find, but I can't seem to find anything like the round red spot that he has. Is it possible that he received an injury from the Pleco? I've never seen it be aggressive, and I also didn't see the ADF sustain an injury, but the red spot does resemble an open sore at this point. I've attached another picture (he has a piece of food balanced on his head, so ignore that). I'd love to hear any advice you have. Thanks!!! <Need to fix this environment... pronto. See WWM re NO3, NO2... BobF>

African dwarf frogs, hlth.   9/20/07 WE HAVE 2 ADF; ONE HAS SUDDENLY DEVELOPED WHAT LOOKS LIKE GROWTHS OR WARTS ON HIS BACK AND ON HIS SIDE RIGHT BEHIND LEFT FRONT LEG. THEY ARE NOT COTTONY LOOKING. ONE IS A CIRCLE, THE ONE ON HIS BACK IS A LONG OVAL ON THE RIGHT SIDE. I HAVE RESEARCHED THIS EXTENSIVELY ON LINE AND IN THE LIBRARY AND FIND NOTHING. PLEASE HELP?! THANK YOU, ANN JENNINGS <Ann, please, next time type like regular people instead of all-capitals. All-capitals is a pain to read, and messages written this get left in the in-box because no-one wants to plough through them. OK, scolding over. Hymenochirus spp. frogs are generally very hardy, but they are easily damaged allowing secondary infections to develop, which is one (or many) reasons why they should never be kept with fish. Similarly, if water quality isn't good the skin breaks and infections set in. There are a number of possibilities here, and without a photo it is impossible to say what's going on. But first check your water quality and chemistry: you're aiming for around neutral pH, moderate hardness, a temperature of about 25 C, and regular water changes (50% per week) to keep the nitrates low. The tank must be filtered, and the nitrites and ammonia levels must be zero. A shallow bed of soft sand, not gravel, is helpful because it prevents scratched skin. And, as I said before, no fishes. Chances are the infection is fungal, in which case a suitable amphibian-friendly anti-fungal medication will do the trick. If it's something more serious, such as the dreaded "Red Leg", then an antibiotic or anti-bacterial will be needed, and this normally involves help from the vet. It has to be stressed that these sicknesses don't come out of thin air, but follow directly from poor environmental conditions. So while you need to cure the symptoms immediately, you also need to do some detective work to establish what went wrong. Hope this helps, Neale>

African dwarf frogs -- 09/19/07 I have a feeling you are going to tell me to get a dog... however can I touch the frog at all? <No.> maybe gently rub his/her belly or the top? <No. For an amphibian, the skin is sort of like the lungs, because they breathe through them. So, imagine how much fun it would be I decided to stick my fingers up your nose and down your throat just to show I cared. Yuk. There is a very real chance you petting a frog will damage its skin, partly through friction, and partly through using too much force.> Or should I just leave them alone and let them do their thing? <Yes. Animals become *your* friend when you treat them well. Animals love routine, so habituate your pets to seeing you at the same time, being fed at the same time, being given food in the same corner of the tank. Eventually they will learn that you are A Good Thing and will respond accordingly. Trying to force things we like, such as being touched, onto animals that aren't tactile, like frogs, is counter-productive. As far as the frog is concerned, you're a huge predator that grabs hold of it.> I'm asking because I think mine are so cute I always want to play with them. <Resist the urge! There are some amphibians that learn to be hand fed (ideally with tweezers or else wet fingers), and those you might consider getting. Tiger Salamanders are a good example. But for the most part, amphibians are "look but don't touch" pets. This largely holds for reptiles, too, though I've known tortoises that liked sitting on people's feet to keep warm!> Sorry for asking so many questions. And thanks for your help. Claire <Good luck with your pets, and keep asking questions! People go wrong when they think they know it all -- there's plenty for everyone to learn about keeping pets. Read, learn, and enjoy. Cheers, Neale>
Re: African dwarf frogs -- 09/19/07
Thanks for replying!!! I'll tell him. I've decided to have a solely only frog tank so I will probably be contacting you in the future. Have a wonderful day Claire <Cool. Good luck with your pet(s). Cheers, Neale>

Fluke Tabs and African Dwarf Frogs.  8/14/07 I have spent the last three days searching the Internet for any information regarding fluke tabs and ADF's. I've mailed veterinarians, with no reply back. You're my last hope! I would like to eradicate hydra in my frog aquarium by using fluke tabs. I've discovered that fluke tabs are safe for turtles, most fish and their fry, not safe for invertebrates and scaleless fish. But I can't find a thing about whether or not they are safe for my frogs! So my question is: Are Fluke Tabs, when used for eradicating Hydra, safe for my African Dwarf Frogs? <I vote not... Please peruse: http://www.google.com/search?q=use+of+organophosphates+and+amphibians&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-Address&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7PCTA > Sincerely, Melissa <I'd remove the ADFs during the use of organophosphates. Bob Fenner>
Re: Fluke Tabs and African Dwarf Frogs.   8/15/07
Thank you so much for your reply! I wish your answer had been "fluke tabs are perfectly safe for ADF's"! But at least now I know not to use it with them in there. Again, Thank you! Melissa <Ahh, from the Latin, small "sweetness", even "honeybee"... Shades of A.A. Milne! Cheers, BobF>

Sick Frog Floating Around  7/28/07 Hello. I have a few tanks, and the one I am writing to you about is a 5 gallon filtered heated tank with a Betta, 3 ghost shrimp, and until recently, 2 dwarf females. < Frogs?> About two weeks ago, I saw one floating downward towards the bottom, nose first. She landed on her back and stayed there. I scooped her out and placed her in a one gallon heated tank with about 2 inches of water and enough gravel so she could sit on it and still be immersed, but not have to reach to breathe. I checked the water and found it to have nitrites, about 2 ppm. I did an emergency 50% water change, then another 2 days later. I also added Amquel, and the other occupants (including the other frog) seemed to do fine. The sick frog (which I assumed was from the bad water) seemed to recover her wits and ate a little, so I returned her to the tank, which now was nitrite free. She died a couple days later, after another floating spell. Today, while doing a water change, the other frog did the same floating thing. I have her in the hospital tank, set up much as the first one was. I use spring water treated with a few drops of cycle. Have you heard of this? < The frogs have food in their gut that is not being properly digested. The bacteria in their gut is breaking down the undigested food and causing gas problems. This is why they float.> Is there some treatment that I am not doing? <I would recommend that you change their diet. Keep the water clean. Try a food with softer body parts like worms.-Chuck> any advice you can give will be greatly appreciated. Thanks very much, Cory
Re: Dwarf Frog Swimming Erratically  7/28/07
Chuck, thank you very much for the reply. The frogs are skinny when this happens, and there is no bloating of any kind. Is gas from bad food still a possibility? < They could still have an internal infection that blocks them up.> They eat live bloodworms and frozen brine shrimp. < Forget the frozen brine and add well washed Tubifex/black worms instead. It is OK if some get lost in the gravel because they will find them later.> This morning, I found her floating on her back at the top of the hospital tank. She is still alive, and I flipped her onto her stomach (and she did not seem to want to leave my hand). She is half out of the water now, and every few minutes, I drip some water on her back to make sure she isn't dehydrating. She does not want to be in the water. Two last questions: I know nitrites are bad for fish, but your site says nitrates are worse for frogs, is that correct? < Nitrites are more toxic that nitrates, but nitrites are usually quickly converted to nitrates by bacteria. Usually you have no nitrite readings and a rather larger nitrate reading. Large nitrate readings usually lead to diseases.> Also, do you recommend other foods than what I am feeding? < Once again, skip the frozen brine and add some live food to their diet.-Chuck> Thanks again, Cory
<<Chuck... the spring water... B>>

Filter blues, ADF... Sys., hlth.    6/13/07 Hi <Ave.> I bought an ADF a couple of weeks ago from the local PetSmart and named him Lego. <OK.> I set up the tank, researched what he needed, took out the filter the tank came with since it produced a tank wide strong current, bought some frog and tadpole bites, and put in plants and a pot for him to hide in. <You bought the frog before researching the pet? Not good.> Everything seemed to be going good except I wasn't sure he was eating the bites. <No surprise there. These animals really aren't wild about dried foods. Sure, they'll eat them eventually, but not with much enthusiasm, and in the case of small animals like African Dwarf Frogs the damage through starvation may well be done by then. Almost without exception, new reptiles and amphibians (and oddball fish) do best given live or "wet" frozen foods first. Once eating, wean them onto dry alternatives.> After looking it up online, I went to the petstore and bought freeze dried bloodworms. <Never yet met an animal that ate freeze dried anything. I'm told some people have good luck with them, but honestly, in 20+ years of fishkeeping they've always been a waste of money in my experience.> They floated which I read that ADF's don't go to the surface for food and sure enough he didn't eat a single one. <Quelle surprise.> The pet store didn't have frozen any type of food, so I went back to the bites. One day I did catch him eating some and after that the bites I put in would disappear so I didn't worry to much about it. <Well, OK, that's promising I suppose.> After seeing on various websites that a whisper filter would be the best for him, I went back to the store yesterday and picked one up. I installed the pump and added some water to the tank that I already had prepared a while ago so that the water level was high enough for the pump. When I first came home from the store, Lego was laying on a leaf at the surface but he had done this before so I didn't think twice about it. However, after putting in the pump he started going up for air over and over again. <This usually means the water quality has plummeted. Tell me, did you mature the filter in any way before adding the frog? Are you measuring the nitrite or ammonia levels? How much and how often are you performing water changes? What about temperature? These are tropical animals, and need a heated tank. If it's too cold, they're digestive enzymes won't work, and they'll starve to death however much they eat.> Then he would swim around and start all over. Sometimes he managed to stay floating at the surface with no support. <A dying frog...> Worried, when he kept this up the rest of the evening, I turned off the filter and went to bed. When I woke up this morning the poor thing had died in the night. <Again, quelle surprise.> Did the new filter kill my frog? <No.> He did seem kind of skinny so did he starve to death? <In part, yes. But also you almost certainly dumped too much food in hoping to tempt him, but most wasn't eaten, rotted, raised the ammonia, and poisoned the frog.> Should I have gotten him a buddy for the tank? <Definitely not. All you would have had is two dead frogs instead of one.> (the tank is a little less then 3 gallons since I live in a dorm during the school year) <Three gallons!!!! That's a bucket, not an aquarium. To quote someone on a forum I visit, don't put animals in this, cut some flowers and put them in it instead. Much prettier, and they'll last longer.> please help! <I'm trying to help. But please understand this: looking after animals isn't easy, and you absolutely have to "do it by the numbers" if you're coming to this new. Go buy or borrow a book about keeping these frogs. There are lots of them around. Sit, read, learn. Once you're up to speed on the theory, reflect on what you might have done wrong. Having pets while you're at college is great fun. I did, and in the end that experience is how I ended up an aquarium writer. But sometimes time, money, and space just aren't going to accommodate an animal in your life. So think carefully before gambling on another animal's life. I would love to have another frog but don't want to kill that one as well <Provided you read and learn about these animals, certainly, there's no real difficulty in keeping them as pets. And they are fun and fascinating animals. But yes, you'll end up killing it if you try and "make it up as you go along". Advice from most chain pet stores is either useless or downright dangerous, so take anything the sales clerk says with a pinch (bucket) of salt. Good books are priceless here. So please please please do some some reading first.> Jessica <Good luck, Neale>

African dwarf frog - bloated belly  5/30/07 Hi - I have two ADF's in a 5 gallon tank with live plants and undergravel filter. They share the tank with one Otocinclus. This morning I noticed one of them floating on the top of the tank and having trouble diving. Her belly is swollen, one side is dark and the other one looks gas filled. Her eyes are clear and she looks alert - trying to dive down every now and then...but she just floats back up. The water parameters are normal - Ammonia 0, Nitrite 0, Nitrate 20 ppm, pH 6.4. The water temperature is ca. 77 F I feed them frozen bloodworms every second day, the last time yesterday night. I tried to find information on WWM or on the net, but found nothing conclusive. I does not look like that fully blown up frog you see with the dropsy pictures, so I am thinking it may be constipation or  something intestinal...in one of your posts I think you recommended  Epsom salt (???) but I thought salt is not good for frogs. Please help - my little froggy looks really uncomfortable Petra < This condition is caused by bacteria breaking down the food in the frog's gut and not the frogs natural acids in its stomach. In may be caused from too much food or the food began to rot before the frog ate it. If it in the stomach the frog can hopefully "burp" it out. If it is in the intestines then it may be a little more difficult problem. In fish we would treat this with Metronidazole. Clean the tank and add the medication as recommended on the package if things look worse.-Chuck>

Frogs Jump Out Of Aquarium   5/18/07 Hello~ I was reading through your website and found SOME reassuring answers, but I still wanted to write to you to make sure my frogs were okay: I woke up this morning to find my African Dwarf Frogs' tank in the floor, and my cat looming over the contents. I thought for sure the cat had eaten my two frogs, but was shocked to find both of them a few feet away on the carpet. I scooped them up as quickly as possible and put them in a bowl full of bottled spring water. (this is what the pet store clerk told me to do). My poor frogs were covered in carpet fuzz and cat hair, and I tried to get as much of it off as I could. So my question to you is: 1. Is the cat hair/carpet fuzz going to hurt/infect my once sterile frog environment? < The  fuzz will come off in time once the little frog rehydrates. Then you can truly evaluate the trauma that he has endured.> 2. ALSO, I just noticed one of my frogs has a missing foot! Now I'm sure my cat ate it! So, is he going to be alright? Should I worry about infection? There are some cat hairs stuck in the wound that I have tried to carefully pull out, but they are stuck. I'm scared of hurting the little guy. Should I do anything at all? <Keep the water very clean and watch for infection. This would include a white cottony appearance on the wounds. Frogs really don't like dyes as medicine, so if an infection does occur then I would try antibiotics like Nitrofurazone.-Chuck> Thanks in advance for you time. Allison
Re: Frogs Jump Out Of The Aquarium II   5/18/07
One other question-I still have the frogs in the bowl of spring water while I'm cleaning the gavel and tank. The frog with no foot is desperately trying to swim out of the bowl. (The other is just floating at the bottom.) Well, the foot-less frog has made it to the edge of the bowl (out of the water), many times, but he just sits there. Like he just wants air. But I thought they only needed to come up for air only a second and only every now and then. SO, should I let him sit there or put him back in the water? (which is what I have been doing) Thanks again, Allison < Your frogs may also have internal injuries that you are not aware of like fractured ribs or a punctured lung. I would let them decide where they want to be for now and see what happens.-Chuck>

ADF death  5/17/07 Hi there!  I've been reading your website and have found it very helpful. Recently, I bought a male Betta fish and what was labeled as an African Clawed Frog (which, after doing some research, I'm pretty sure it was an African Dwarf Frog). <Ah, yes... VERY different>   Anyway, the two got along great and it was fun to see them play what appeared to tag (the Betta never nipped at the frog, even when he got kicked in the face by the frog). <Mmmm> About a month after we got them (just long enough for me to get attached), my froggy died and I can't figure out why.  I think it might be because we only fed him/her bloodworms, <Maybe> but he wouldn't eat the flakes <No...> we tried to feed him, only the worms.  I really want to get another frog, because they're so darn cute, but I don't want to risk killing another one!  Can I feed them those little reptile sticks?  Please help! Cyndi <Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/dwfaffdg.htm Bob Fenner>

Dwarf African Frog With Bulge In The Belly   3/27/07 Hello again. Your site has been so helpful in the past...I can only HOPE you can help me with this one.  I have an African dwarf frog named Waldo.  This morning he was floating at the top (Which is rare for him...I've had him 2 1/2 years) but looked okay for the most part.  I got home this afternoon... he was belly up...dead. :-(   Or so I thought.  I went to scoop him out and when his little body was in the net, he flipped over and I flipped out.  Scared the heck outta me. So, as I got to looking at him... he has a little bump in his belly.  What can I do, if anything to help him??  Is he dying on me?  I know you give salt to sick fish...but what do you give a sick or dying froggie? Thanks for your help.  Both in the present and in the past <You little frog has lived a long time and may be coming to the end of his natural life. The bulge in the belly may be an internal infection or undigested food that has begun to rot in his stomach. Do a water change and treat with Metronidazole. This works with anaerobic Protozoans.-Chuck>

Dwarf Frog, floating on back... -- 03/17/07 I have 2 dwarf frogs that are about 4 years old. Today, I went to feed them and one of them was floating on it's back. I flipped him back over and he has been floating at the top since, occasionally ending belly up again. I have moved him out of the tank so he is separate from the other. I have read that they usually sink to the bottom of the tank when they die. <Mmm, no... depends on cause, how long they've been dead...> There is definitely something wrong. Could it be a disease, or is it his time to go? Any advice would be great! <Perhaps just a bit of trapped gas... I would not give up hope here. Try other foods... bloodworms, blackworms... Bob Fenner>

African Frog Death  3/6/07 Hi there, our little frog was found lying on the bottom of the tank when we got home from a 2 day holiday. I found out my son had not give him his usual bloodworms but rather placed an algae tab as well as a few frog pellets in the 20 gallon tank (which the frog shares with an Albino Cory and 2 Killi fish) the day we left. The last time the frog had bloodworms was 4 days ago when we dropped them right in front of him. There is no proof that he ate any of the pellets or algae - as he usually can't find them. Is it possible he starved to death? < Frogs do best with live prey items like washed worms and insects. Frogs are carnivorous and do not eat algae. A long diet of algae pellets would probably starve him to death.> We have had him for 2 months. The fish all seem fine so I'm not sure it's a water quality issue - the water was checked a couple of weeks ago and everything was normal. The bloodworms were still semi-frozen and I don't know if that might be a problem. Thanks for any help as we are so sad to lose our little guy and don't want to make any mistakes if we get another one.  His colouring looked fine except for the white film around him (fungal growth). < Next time try washed earthworms, brine shrimp, or mealworms.-Chuck> <<...? Too big for an African Dwarf Frog... are you thinking this is Xenopus? RMF>>

HELP!!! Sick maybe injured ADF  2/5/07 I have 4 ADFs in my tank along with 6 platys, 2 mystery snails, 2 ghost shrimp and a Pleco. I have 1 teaspoon of salt per 5 gallons of water. <... frogs, the snails... don't "like" salt...> I originally had one frog and it seemed to do ok with the salt and everything else, so I decided to get the other three. I have had the others now for about 2 or 3 months. We just noticed yesterday that one of the newer ones looked like he was shedding. <Mmm, Hymenochirus do this...> We have seen them shed before so we didn't think anything of it, except that it wasn't trying to get it off of himself like they normally do. Then he started swimming up and we noticed that he has some kind of injury on the underside of him. Almost the whole right side (left side to us when we are looking at it) is sunken in. Almost like he was crushed. We had to run some errands and when we got back we could see the stuff that looked like his shedding skin was gone, but it looks like he has a fungus growing on his back. It looks kind of lumpy, too. I searched your site and found some stuff dealing with the fungus, though I'm not sure if that's even what is on my frog, but I didn't find anything like the injury so please if you could help I would appreciate it. Also, if I have to I would like to know of a good humane way to euthanize him if I can't nurse him back to health. Thank you in advance. <I would start to dilute the salt/s in the water... and look into "Sulfa" drugs (see WWM re this term... the search tool)... 250 mg./ten gallons... Bob Fenner>

Fungusy Frog  10/10/06 Hey there, I'm writing again! I just wanted to say thanks for all your help first--this website is great. <Thanks, Jess!  Pufferpunk here> My question is concerning one of my African Dwarf Frogs. I bought 2 of them about a month ago, & they've been doing extremely well in my tank (active, eating well, clear eyes, etc.). However, about a week ago I noticed that the color of one of my frogs was lightening. When I bought it, it was brown & speckled, but now it's a light, grayish speckled color. It's still eating normally, & it's still pretty active, but I've also noticed about 2 days ago that there's 1 or 2 little cotton-like & cloudy growths coming from its lower abdomen/leg area. I'm not really sure if the frog's just shedding or something, but I'm worried because its eyes are slightly cloudy (though I wasn't sure if that has something to do with it changing colors). Should I treat the tank (which also contains livebearers, tetra, & a Gold Inca Snail) with some kind of anti-fungal or anti-bacterial treatment? & if it does have some kind of bacterial infection, does that have something to do with its transformation of color over the last week or so? (It started transforming colors well before the cotton-like growth appeared.) & one last question: My other frog remains completely normal at this point. Is it going to be okay if something is wrong with frog #1? <Frogs can change from light to dark & they do shed.  It couldn't hurt to try using some Melafix in his water, just to be sure.  It's totally natural.  ~PP> Thanks a lot & hope to hear from you guys soon! --Jess

Frog Problems 8/2/05 Hope You can help us we are trying to start a African dwarf frog tank, with no luck. we have a small 5 gallon acrylic bow front tank with a corner bubbler type canister filter, all the water conditions are fine i.e. ammonia, nitrates, ph.... it is NOT heated , the water stays around 72 degrees, the tank has been running for about a month ,MT,  we have tried twice to add frogs (4 young about 1 inch each time) but both times they all died with in a week or two. We are feeding them HBH frog and tadpole bites. We have no problems with our other 3 tanks (thanks to your GREAT help) , 55 Gallon Cichlids tank , 30 gallon GSP tank (soon to upgrade) and a 25 gallon community tank. We have read your forums and seen to have the tank set up right, Caves to hide in, Low water movement, i.e. the canister filter, broad leaf plastic plants (no live plants)  HELP why are we always committing Frogicide? Thank You, Mike < Many frogs are held at wholesalers and retail stores and never seem to get enough to eat. If would recommend that you get a few frogs and feed them Calif. black worms. Just throw them in the tank and the frogs will find them and fatten up. Once they are eating then you will be on your way.-Chuck><<These animals won't live indefinitely on only dried diets. RMF>>

Frogs with Salt Hello, you're website has been a great help to me in many regards. I have one question that I haven't found an answer for yet. I have 2 African dwarf frogs in a 29 gallon tank along with some mollies, guppies, platies and some neon tetras. My water levels are all good. I have read that ADF's can handle some aquarium salt in the water but not much, but can't seem to find any specifics on exactly how much salt per gallon they can tolerate. Would you happen to know how much salt per gallon is acceptable for ADF's? Thanks. <Frogs really don't like any salt at all in their water. Frogs breath through their skin. There is a point in which salt will actually outright kill your frog and then there is a little amount that will weaken your frog and he will die from a disease before the salt actually kills him. I would try to limit the salt. I know your livebearers love it but the Neons and frog really doesn't. Start at a teaspoon per 10 gallons and what the reaction from your fish and frog. While the livebearers may thrive the others may come down with other problems down the road.-Chuck

Frog with cloudy eye 7/7/05 Hello, I have been gone for a couple of weeks and have had a friend caring for my fish and other pets, but today when I returned home I discovered that one of my African dwarf frog's eyes were clouded over, I'm not sure what I should do about this and would greatly appreciate your opinion. Thanks. <Check your water quality, change some water... make sure it is feeding and all should be well in time. Bob Fenner>
Re: frog w/ clouded eyes 7/13/05
Hi Bob,      you were the one who responded last time so I'm writing to you by name , plus it feels better to write to someone in particular. Any way, My African dwarf frog's eyes have not cleared up  yet and he is spending all day at the very corner of the tank. His skin is looking very odd as well. I put him in an isolation tank away from all of my other fish. Also I tested the water and it was fine. PH. a little high but that's it. what do you think is wrong? Any suggestions? <Yes... I'd administer 250 mg. per ten gallons of system water with a mix of Sulfa drugs... "Triple Sulfa" if you can find it. Bob Fenner>

Frog missing foot I have two African dwarf frogs in a 2 and a half gallon tank. One is a female and one male. At least that is what I think. I noticed today that my male is missing his foot. Upon searching the tank to figure out what might have happened, I noticed that my thermometer was broken on the top. I have no idea how this happened. My main concern is that he will be okay and is not suffering. I was worried that he will get infected. Please tell me what to do. Thanks. < Years ago I had a newt in which my cichlids chewed off one of the feet. Keep the area clean so it doesn't fungus. Furanace is a good drug to use if you notice any cottony growth developing on it. It should soon heal up in a few days.-Chuck.

Dwarf African frog with fungus  8/19/04 Bob and crew, <Hi, Pufferpunk here> I am currently having a problem with a fungus affecting one of my dwarf African frogs.  I have a 2 gallon acrylic tank with a BioWheel power filter that houses two dwarf African frogs and one immature guppy.  Life has been good for a while and the guppy has been growing pretty fast (had him since he was about 3/16" long.  For the past couple of days, the female frog has been hanging out at the surface of the water, using a plastic plant to keep the front half of her body out of the water.  Normally both frogs stay on the bottom except when feeding or getting air.  I was concerned, but had no other symptoms to go off of, so I let it go.  Yesterday, I found that her right hind leg is covered in a white fuzz (a fungus obviously) and she was not moving it.  She also is not eating.  I did an immediate 50% water change with distilled water, and replaced the filter (with carbon) just in case there was something in it affecting the water quality.  It's been 24 hours now and while it doesn't appear any worse, it also doesn't appear better.  The male frog and guppy are unaffected, but I don't have a quarantine tank to put the female in.  Assuming that the fungal outbreak was caused by bad water conditions, how long should I watch for improvement before resorting to medication of the tank?  Otherwise, if I should medicate now, what would you recommend for frogs? <She may have scraped her foot (any sharp rocks?), leaving it open to infection.  I have had success with Melafix for this problem with aquatic frogs. You can also use Pimafix in unison with Melafix, for a 1-2 punch.  These products are ok to use without quarantine, but remove the carbon.  A water change is a good idea.  These should be done weekly.  Distilled water isn't necessary, just use lukewarm tap water (same temp as tank) & dechlorinator, for water changes.>   Thanks for any help, David <I hope she gets better soon!  ~PP>

Injured Dwarf African Frog  10/24/04 Hello, <hi, Pufferpunk here> I have had an African dwarf frog for about four years.  Tonight it seemed that he may be stuck under a rock so I tried to lift it slightly (which I shouldn't have done) and then it fell on one arm.  The arm is now curled up, especially the digits. He swims with some trouble now. I read that frogs repair themselves very quickly. What is your opinion on this situation? <I'm sorry your froggy is hurt.  You're not the 1st one to injure your own frog though.  I once closed the lid on one of my tree frogs legs & cut it off it's arm. Not only did his arm grow back, but every one of his suction cupped fingers too!  I think your frog will be fine, but I suggest adding Melafix for bacterial infection preventative & fast healing.> Thank you, Christie Bredenbeck <I hope your frog is hopping again soon!  ~PP>

African dwarf frog or clawed injury? <Hi, MikeD here> today my female Betta who had been living in a 1/2 gallon bowl (no filtration) died.<Sorry> I'm not sure how yet but I am taking the water into an aquarium store to have it tested. she was maybe 3 mo.s old so it was really sudden...but anyway I cleaned out the tank with hot water and all that good stuff. also in the tank (I know its too small but she was lonely)<No. She was happy and YOU thought she was lonely.> was a tiny African dwarf frog (or clawed-not sure). they were happy together.<Unusual. Often Bettas will kill or maim small dwarf clawed frogs, attempting to eat them.> but I decide that I didn't want ANY of the old water back in the new tank so I picked him up (clean hands) and tried to move him into another clean bowl temporarily. he escaped my grasp and jumped off the kitchen counter onto the floor. in his confused pace I managed to scoop him up and return him to the bowl.<Good> before that happened though he was searching around for the Betta, but now he looks for her and seems to have like the hiccups...but he shed like 4 days ago. he doesn't appear to be physically injured. is my frog broken?<Possible, but not likely. The shedding of the cuticle is a good sign> also if this is any help he may have something wrong with his foot; there was another frog in the tank and the other frog bit about 1/3 of his foot off and I've been looking after that.<Often it's the Betta that bites the foot off.> I don't know if this affects his weirdness.<NO, amphibians can be tough and heal amazingly.> I moved the frog into another bowl with a male Betta but they get along and the male has never even tried to hurt the frog at all...even when the frog kicked him in the face... but can you please help my fallen frog?!?!?<I can't help him, but if you quit putting him in with Bettas, YOU might. As a rule they are just too tempting a tidbit, particularly in a small container. Not what you want to hear, I'm sure, but it's the truth as I know it.>

Frogs The letter below was posted by me to you. I have been trying to follow what you told me in your response. I was able to get another 10 gallon tank as I have no place for a larger one. I was moving the Dwarf Frogs and one jumped out of the tank and was on the floor for about 5 - 10 minutes. I am not exactly sure. I was so upset and put him in the tank quickly when I found him and he seemed ok. Now he has something of a red bulge coming out of his bottom. I've never seen this before. Will he be ok? Also. The two long skinny algae eaters passed away. I think the other Gold fish ate the small Rosey Red. The fish have been acting so aggressive over the last two days. The Black Moor seemed to try to bite the Frog and the frog lunged at the Black Moor and the today I saw the Black Moor with a mark on his side. I do not know what is going on. The long skinny Algae eater was acting crazy so I took him out and isolated him in a fish bowl over night and he was swimming so fast and then about 20  minutes later he was dead. I am moving the goldfish to a colder spot and putting the Frogs and Shrimp in the warmer area. Do you think this will be ok? Thanks, any help will be appreciated. I am new at this. I've only ever had goldfish. but I do love these frogs. >>Hello Yolanda; Have you tested your water for ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate? I am new to the crew, but Sabrina gave you some good advice, so I will try to follow up on it. The fallen frog sounds like he has some internal injuries, you will have to wait and see how he does. He may not make it if the injuries are severe. I agree that all the animals should be separated, move the frogs away from the goldfish, algae eaters too, and the shrimp and Rosy reds also. This is quite the problem! I hope you are doing frequent partial water changes to keep all the animals in good health. -Gwen<<

Dwarf frog and Ich meds! Hi there!   <Hi! Ananda here tonight...> I have two Dwarf frogs, and I had them in a tank with a goldfish and a black moor.  The black moor came down with Ich and died.  So, I moved my goldfish (Herbie) to a quarantine tank w/meds.  Then, I cleaned out the other tank, removed all the decor, to remove the Ich from it, and put meds in that water as well.  After putting my frogs in the water, about half hour later, I realized one of my frogs turned pale!!!  Can you tell me what is wrong?  Or am I just freaking out over nothing?   <It is entirely possible that your frogs cannot tolerate the medication at the strength you're using it. I would quarantine the frogs in their own bare tank, with no medication.> I really appreciate your help!! <You're welcome.... --Ananda>

Bloodworm Infestation (HELP!!) Hi, your site's really great! I really hope you can answer my question I'm at my wit's end! ). My question is ( I admit ) a bit off the subject BUT still is related to external/internal parasites. OK, my fish ( guppies, silver hatchets, loach, emerald cat, iridescent shark ) and one of my African Dwarf frogs are infested with bloodworms. I am POSITIVE they are bloodworms (thin, red, protrude from vent, and aquarium has no other parasitic contact). Anyway, my frogs NEED the bloodworms to eat (they won't eat anything else. <Have you tried "Glassworms"? (actually chironomid/midge fly larvae), small frozen/defrosted marine crustaceans? There are quite a few of these offered by the pet-fish trade. Look for the Gamma brand...> I feed them frozen ones, never live. ). I now know a feeding method that prevents the fish from getting infested, but, now one of my frogs is "wormy". Whenever my fish got wormy, it always died in the end. I try to halt parasitic invasion by plucking the worms out of their ventral areas ( it's really gross and I'm rather  squeamish. ). It seems to help, but my fish still die. Is there any medication or wormer that I can use? <There are... a few worth trying. Piperazine and Praziquantel may be had through your veterinarian... you are looking for a vermifuge (as in "flee worm") medication that won't harm fishes, frogs...> I have no invertebrates in my tank, and all of the plants are fake yup, plastic. ). I really don't want to hurt my fish and frogs. It'd be great if there is a medication available. Please help me! - "Worm Picker-Outer"( that's really grossed out ) <Do keep us informed of your progress. Bob Fenner>
Re: Bloodworm Infestation (HELP!!)
Whoa, that was quick! I didn't get the stuff yet ( It's Sunday night ), but I was hoping for a bit more information ( the info you sent me was great! ). I think the frogs would like the glassworms, but if the glassworms hatch...? <This won't happen... or you can just try them as frozen/defrosted...> There is a small chance that they will grow into flies, right? And if they're flies, they aren't parasitic...? <No my friend... the world is comprised of much more than hosts and parasites... these are "free-living" organisms> Or do they just swim around? <The do wiggle quite a bit> If given the chance, do they multiply rapidly? <Mmm, no... please use your search engine and the words "glassworm" or "chironomid"... The adults lay eggs, which hatch into larvae... You won't have adults> Do they smell (like brine shrimp)? Will they carry disease/irritate fish? <None of the above> Or will fish enjoy them as well? <Likely very much so> Please answer as many as you can ( don't feel pressed; I'm just a kid ). Also, about Pip. and Prazi. We don't have a regular vet (but we can find one). How is the medication administered? Are there needles (shudder)? <As powders in the food. 10 mg of Piperazine sulfate/kg for three days... the equivalent of 0.10% Piperazine at a rate of 1% body weight/day. Praziquantel can be administered via baths of differing strengths, durations or orally at 50 mg/kg of fish... or 0.50% fed at a rate of 1% body weight per day> Is it a dissolvent? Will I have to force feed the frog ( their mouths just won't open! )? <It is necessary that the animals ingest the food-laced with chemical, or that they be immersed (about 2 mg Praziquantel/l or 7.6 mg/gallon for 24 hours> And last, what should I ask for ( kid at counter, embarrassed, doesn't know which medication out of dozens to choose )? <Please consult with your parents/guardians here (do show them our correspondence). It will likely be necessary to purchase one or both of these compounds from a veterinarian source> Again, don't feel pressed. Thank you sooo much for your help and time!!! <You are certainly welcome. Bob Fenner> "Worm Picker-Outer"( that might be SAVED!! )

Problem: Substantial amount of film extending outward several millimeters with an almost halo-like translucence, not cottony at all, on African Dwarf Frogs lower bodies, <... mycete... on body of at least one Malaysian Trumpet snail, <Odd... same on shells of apple snails and also covering plants, driftwood and filter <This, likely something else Water test results: Ammonia= 0, nitrate= 0, nitrites= 0, PH= 7.2, Temp= 74F, current alkalinity =<40, water hardness=150. Setup: 10 gallon with Aqua Clear filter for 20 gallon, 2 African Dwarf Frogs, several small Malaysian Trumpet Snails, 1 Ramshorn snail, 2 mystery snails, approx 20 live plants/moss. I was unfortunately locked out of my apartment for about three days. During this time a new addition African Dwarf Frog, who had been quarantined before introduction into my tank, died. I removed the corpse <Likely the source of the opportunistic fungus, stress, diminished environmental quality here and did a 100% water change. <Best to avoid such wholesale changes if possible, practical At the same time I changed my silica sand substrate, which had been accumulating a black mold and put in a thin, 1/3 inch, layer of calcium carbonate and well placed pebble piles to hold down the plants. After all of the disruption my filter became clogged and was working less than adequately for 1-2 days until fixed. A nearly invisible thread-like algae sprung up throughout the aquarium almost overnight but disappeared once the filter was working properly. <Is/was a mix of microbes... from the loss of biological stability, "cycling" Ammonia/Nitrite levels stayed at zero. I noticed the algae like substance remained on and was covering the lower bodies of both frogs and one may have had slight pop-eye (could be my imagination). They started and have continued to shed their skins. There may also be a difference in their dropping, possibly longer and stringier. Also noticed today that long stringy dropping was sticking to the tail of the female. I removed the carbon from my filter, added 1tsp of salt <Good and started and completed the five day treatment with Maracyn 2 adding another tsp of salt on the third day. The filmy clear beard-halo went away for a day and came back. I began today the five day treatment for Maracyn as well as the first of two (dosage as recommended on packaging for scaleless fish) treatments of APPLUS Anti-Fungus (active ingredients Malachite Green and Acriflavine Hydrochloride) <... I would not use this here I am confused whether this is Columnaris because it is all over the tank and is not white. <What? Stop! You're going to kill off your livestock with this hypochondriac behavior I do not think it is algae since it is harming the frogs and at least one snail.  Bacterial, Parasitic or Fungal? What should I do/stop doing immediately? THANK YOU SO MUCH!!! <Mmm, actually, locking yourself out for a number of days... don't do "anything" more chemical-wise other than finish the Mardel product use, partial water changes, replenish the salt removed from same. Bob Fenner> 

Dwarf Frog Diseases  - 03/13/2006 I can't seem to find any info on the diseases dwarf frogs suffer from.  I have read that they are very sensitive to the medicine in Ich remedies: does this mean they can't get Ich?  If not, do I still need to be quarantining them? < Frogs are sensitive to the dyes like malachite green and Methylene blue, but they can handle antibiotics used for fish. The frogs may not have Ich but the tank water from the store may have the Ich parasites in it. I would still quarantine to be safe.-Chuck

Injured ADF's    5/2/06 Hi, I recently brought 3 more frogs after my male died suddenly, & my female became lonely. Well, the runt (stumpy) of the 3 has no foot on one leg, and a small, deformed foot on the other. could this be infected as the stump looks slightly ragged & what treatments could be used. <... I'd be very careful here. Please read: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/amphibdisfaqs.htm and the linked files above> stumpy can swim fine & come up for air & moves around a lot. Also, on 1 of the other new ones, I noticed a red patch, which I read could be red leg. However, I can't see it now, but they are moving a lot. what can be done about this. I'm a bit unsure about illnesses as the first 2 had never been ill, & the male died as it was old. Luckily, my original frog & the other new one seem to be perfectly fine. Any help much appreciated. Edith <Bob Fenner>

African Dwarf Frogs and fish medications    7/13/06 Hello, my name is Robin. I have a 45 gallon tank that houses one African Dwarf Frog, 4 Ghost Shrimp, and 12 Bronze Cory Catfish.   Yesterday I noticed that some of the baby (I say baby, my original three bred successfully in my aquarium about four months ago) Corys have fuzzy fungus   growth. I have Applus+  Anti-Fungus Fungus and Fin Rot Treatment, whose  main ingredients are Malachite Green and Hydrochloride. <Toxic to your Frogs and Shrimp> I wanted to check before I add anything to the tank, because I'm concerned about the frog and the shrimp. Will I have to move them to a different tank while treating the catfish? <Yes... and do check your water quality... The Corydoras would not "get" a fungal/bacterial infection if all was well here> Is there a more "frog friendly" treatment for the catfish? I know that the Anti-Fungus treatment is potentially harmful to scaleless fish, and frogs absorb things through theirs, so I don't want to  poison the frog.   Thank you very much. Robin <You need to separate the non-fish. Bob Fenner>

Medications With Snails And Frogs  9/9/06 Dear WWM Crew, Want to first say what a great site you guys have, and the patience you have for all the numerous questions you guys answer! I have tried looking through the Google search and forums regarding my  question, and wasn't able to find my answer, so I am asking you. My first question is regarding my black mystery snail.  I recently  gave it a soft leaf vegetable (Chinese vegetable called Xiao bai cai  which literally means small white veggie) and it is consuming the  entire thing.  I was wondering if you can actually overfeed a  snail, or will they stop eating once they are full? < They are exposed to all kinds of veggies in the wild and I am sure they quit eating when they are full.> My second  question is regarding the medication I have been applying to my fish  tank for fin rot.  I checked the Applesnail.net site, but their  link to fish pharmaceuticals led to a dead link.  I am using  Melafix (active ingredient is Melaleuca) from Aquarium Pharmaceutical  Inc., and was wondering if it will affect either my black mystery snail  or my African dwarf frog? Thanks a bunch!  And keep up with the awesome work! Anson < Invertebrates and amphibians really don't like medications. Melafix would not be my first choice to treat fin rot. Stronger medications may harm them. I would treat the sick fish in a hospital tank with Nitrofuranace of Kanamycin.-Chuck> I have a male Bristlenose catfish, two years old he is four and half inches long. He is in a 300 litre tank, he used to be kept with Neons, Glowlights and platies. He was very happy, I fed him on catfish pellets, algae wafers, bloodworms, brine shrimps and daphnia. Now he is living with tinfoil barbs. he's not as happy and hides under the filter, he is only getting the catfish pellets and algae wafers, as the tinfoil barbs eat everything else first, I have noticed that he is not cleaning the tank as well for the past week. And he has a lump on his snout in front of one eye, I have telephoned all my local aquatic shops, no one seems to have heard of this before, I'm very worried, to me is looks like a cyst, apart from this his colouring and general condition is very good. I hope you can help me, as the children are very fond of catty! Wait to hear from you, Sue < As your Pleco roots around for food he probably injured himself on a piece of wood or rock. The area may be infected. I would recommend treating him in a hospital tank with Nitrofuranace or Kanamycin as per the directions on the package.-Chuck>

Fungused Frog  9/7/06 I am incredibly irritated with Petco right now.  After going through the archives on your site (your suggestion was correct, nearly all of my questions had been answered and more) I discovered that not only can my African Dwarf frogs not tolerate aquarium salt (which I specifically asked the attendant at Petco about--not wanting to hurt either my Betta, Chester, or the frogs) they can also not really be around my Betta.  Which was very confusing as several Betta enthusiasts have suggested this type of frog as a good bottom feeder to compliment Betta fish. <I have had good success keeping these together.  As long as they are the DWARF species & not the CLAWED species.> Chester is in general much more passive than my other male Betta (obviously in another tank) and snapped a little at them but seems to get along well with them right now.   I noticed a cottony growth on one of my ADFs (Bender) right before searching on ways to fix this.  Promptly afterwards I found out he couldn't handle salt so I did an immediate water change and then came back to look at more things for fixing this.  I planned on getting a quarantine tank soon.  I don't want to do so many changes because stressing him out won't help any, but are there medicines that are safe for other fish and can he be by himself?   <Melafix> Will he spread this infection to Fry (the other frog) or Chester? <It's possible.> I don't want him to be lonely in a quarantine tank (even if he doesn't seem to really give a flying hoot about Fry).  Would you suggest getting a one gallon or so to move them both into permanently? <Not necessary, if they are OK with the Betta.> You are one of the most knowledgeable sites I've come across for pets of any kind and if anyone can help me out, I hope it's the team at Wet Web Media. <Awwww,... shucks, happy to help!  PP> Thank you, Meghan R.
Re: Fungused Frog  9/8/06 I'm positive they're Dwarf Frogs but thank you for clearing up the confusion.   <Sure> Shortly after I sent you an email, I went back to look at Bender again and discovered that it seemed like the whole cottony growth had come off of him, it was floating around the tank before I sucked it up and got it out.  Is it possible he was shedding his skin?  What does that look like? <It's possible the shedding skin could've fungused but it looks like shedding skin, not fungus.> And thank you so much again, your response was quick and the answers helped a lot! <I'd still add the Melafix.  ~PP> --Meghan R.

Problem with Snails Taking Over  1/6/07 Hello.....help!   <Hi Ginger, Pufferpunk here to try!> I am exhausted from hours of seemingly endless research and am now turning to you. Here's the deal:   20g. tank, 7 ADF's <African Dwarf Frogs... RMF> , 1 male Betta and a golden mystery snail.  I had a live plant in with them and apparently there were snail eggs.  Now, my tank is becoming infested with baby snails.   <No surprise there.  Always inspect live plants for snails & rinse well, to remove any eggs.> I've talked to all the pet and aquarium stores and no one has any solid suggestions or even entertainable ideas.  I can't use chemicals such as "Had-A-Snail", etc. because these cannot be used with the frogs.  Can't get a loach because of the Betta.  There has to be a way to be free of these snails once and for all! In the meantime....I continue netting and picking them out.  Thank you in advance for any assistance you can offer. <You've got it--this is pretty much all you can do.  Inspect the glass/decor/filter daily, for eggs & remove promptly, along with the adults. Otherwise, take everything out, replace filter material, clean with hot water & OxyClean & recycle with Bio-Spira. ~PP> Sincerely, with Wrinkled and Cramped Fingers, Ginger <<RMF would remove the Betta and Frogs... use copper or a Loach or two for a while...>>
Re: ADF's & Snail Issue. Snails & Frogs  1/7/07
Thanks so much for responding!    ("Pufferpunk"???  ROFL)    <Hey now... :P> After reading your response, I went back to your web site to see what snail eggs look like, as I'm clueless to what I'm to look for.  I saw my letter and your response posted with the end comment that if it were you, you'd remove the Betta and frogs and "use copper or a Loach or two for a while".   <I wrote that???  I said to clean out with OxyClean & hot water.  maybe another Crewmember added comments?  Ah, I see it now, that comment was by the great, Bob Fenner--he knows all!> <<Heeeeee! Am adding this to my resume! RMF>> Arg, I'm so concerned about stressing these dudes out.  When I moved them into the bigger 20g. tank, the frogs acted like they were being killed.  Although dramatic in that ADF kind of way, it was hard for me to watch their stress.   <Did you dechlorinate the water?  You'd think they'd love a bigger tank.> Now that I've finally got the temperature, pH and all the other intricate details balanced for these guys, the thought of temporarily moving them in order to "cure" their current home seems overwhelming.  So, I must follow-up to ask...do/will the invading snails ultimately cause harm or damage to the ADF's or the Betta?  Or their home?   <Nope> Or are they just perpetual nuisances?   <Yup> If I were to get the loaches to "clean up", what do I do with the loaches afterwards?  Lastly, if I moved them out and did the copper treatment, how long should I wait to return everyone back into their home?  (concerned about the fragility of the ADF's skin) <I do not suggest copper myself personally but if Bob does...   See if your LFS will let you "borrow" some loaches, if that is the course you wish to go.> For such little fellows, ADF's sure require a lot of attention and care in order to make their tiny lives happy! <But they're so cute & well worth it!> Thank you again for assisting with your response, it is greatly appreciated.    <No problem.  ~PP> Still Pickin'.... Ginger

African Frogs Died 11/01/06 Hi, I had three African Dwarf Frogs, they just died. They were fine last night and when I returned from work today they were are all the bottom of the tank covered in some sort of grey mold. < This is a fungus that feeds on dead tissue.> I checked the pH of the water and it was neutral. About a month ago, I introduced a fourth frog and two weeks ago, I noticed it was missing. I still haven't found the fourth frog. I was just curious if you had any idea as to what this could be or why they may have died. Thanks, Clio < The fourth frog probably jumped out on is dried up on the floor somewhere. The others probably died from poor water quality. Frogs don't really care about pH, but the are sensitive to poor water quality such as water with high nitrogenous waste. Check the ammonia, nitrites and especially the nitrates.-Chuck>

Fungusy Frog  10/10/06 Hey there, I'm writing again! I just wanted to say thanks for all your help first--this website is great. <Thanks, Jess!  Pufferpunk here> My question is concerning one of my African Dwarf Frogs. I bought 2 of them about a month ago, & they've been doing extremely well in my tank (active, eating well, clear eyes, etc.). However, about a week ago I noticed that the color of one of my frogs was lightening. When I bought it, it was brown & speckled, but now it's a light, grayish speckled color. It's still eating normally, & it's still pretty active, but I've also noticed about 2 days ago that there's 1 or 2 little cotton-like & cloudy growths coming from its lower abdomen/leg area. I'm not really sure if the frog's just shedding or something, but I'm worried because its eyes are slightly cloudy (though I wasn't sure if that has something to do with it changing colors). Should I treat the tank (which also contains livebearers, tetra, & a Gold Inca Snail) with some kind of anti-fungal or anti-bacterial treatment? & if it does have some kind of bacterial infection, does that have something to do with its transformation of color over the last week or so? (It started transforming colors well before the cotton-like growth appeared.) & one last question: My other frog remains completely normal at this point. Is it going to be okay if something is wrong with frog #1? <Frogs can change from light to dark & they do shed.  It couldn't hurt to try using some Melafix in his water, just to be sure.  It's totally natural.  ~PP> Thanks a lot & hope to hear from you guys soon! --Jess

Help- African dwarf frog with curled toes. Nutritional deficiency likely    10/3/06 I am very impressed with your site.  I would appreciate some help if you can.  I've had my African dwarf frog for about a year.  It's fingers and toes have been slowly but severely curling. <Interesting...>   It looks as if it is holding a small ball in both hands. The back feet look as if they were holding a pencil.  The frog can still swim just fine, but it can't straighten it's fingers or toes at all anymore. <Am wondering what would cause such a "clubbing" of feet?> It lives in a 5 gallon tank with goldfish. <Oh...>   I feed it tadpole bites <...> and it also eats the fish's flake food.  Wouldn't want to have an uncomfortable frog-any ideas?   Thank you, Jennifer <Likely a nutritional deficiency at play here... need more (animal source, Tryptophan, Lysine, Threonine...) source protein, and vitamins than the foods you've supplied. Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/amphibfdgfaqs.htm Bob Fenner>

Damaged ADF  1/10/07 Hello, <Hi, Pufferpunk here> Your website is very helpful :) <Thank you, we try!> I recently got a dwarf African clawed frog. He was fine when I bought him but I think I might have somehow injured him when I moved him into the tank or something. He is missing most of one of his front feet. It looks a little red...and there are small pieces of the fingers left. I  read that frogs will often repair themselves but I wanted to make sure this didn't sound like a bacterial infection. <Yes, should grow back.  Treat with Melafix in the water & keep the tank clean.> Also, I don't know if he is behaving normally. He floats around a lot on the top...and then swims back down to the bottom for a bit...is it normal for them to hang out at the top so much? I had a couple frogs in the past and they liked to stay at the bottom and then come up for air every once in a while. Do you think something may be wrong? <Could be difficult to swim, due to the hurt foot.  It should be fine after treatment.  ~PP> Thanks SO much for your help :)

Can African Dwarf Frogs Get Ich?  1/29/07 <Hi Betty, Pufferpunk here> I'm a beginner with aquatic pets, so I need all the help I can get.  It all started when my little terrier got hit and killed by a car last March.   <Awww... that's so sad.  #1 cause of doggie death is getting run over.> That left me pet-less for the first time in 16 years.  So for my birthday last June, my co-worker gave me a male Betta (named Flash) which I keep in a 2 1/2 gallon aquarium with some gravel and a few live plants.  A few weeks later, I was in the pet store asking what I could put in the tank with Flash to keep him company and the store worker suggested the ADFs.  That sounded good to me, especially since I have a particular affection for reptiles and amphibians.   <Not really enough room for more animals in there.> So I bought a couple of tiny ADFs (named Slim and Chance, because that's what I thought the odds were of them staying alive under my care).  But when I put them in Flash's tank, he started nipping at them, so I quickly removed them and put them in their own tank. <Good> They now reside in a five-gallon aquarium with a Whisper filter, a few plants, a couple of "houses" and a smooth pebble substrate. <Perfect size for just the 2 frogs & nothing else.> But I couldn't leave well enough alone, so a few weeks ago, I purchased a couple of Serpae tetras to try with Flash, with the same results, so I put them in with the frogs.   <Opps!> One of the tetras started bullying the other tetra, so I sent the bully back to the pet store.  Anyway, that's when I saw the neon tetras, and they looked so pretty, I ended up getting two of those and putting them in with the frogs and the Serpae tetra.  As it ended up, I think one of the Neons was sick when I got him, so I removed the two tetras from the frog tank and put them in a bowl.  The next morning I had a dead neon but the other neon looked OK, so I went to a different store and bought a replacement neon.  Then the second neon started looking like it had Ich (based on what I was able to learn about it from the Internet) so I put it in its own bowl and started treating it with Quick Cure.  I also took the Serpae tetra and the latest neon and put them in a separate bowl.  Both the Neons ended up dying, which left the Serpae tetra, who now looks like he's got Ich too.  I've started treating him but I don't hold out much hope of curing him the way my luck is running.  I can handle losing the tetra but I'm really attached to Flash, Slim and Chance.  Flash appears to be doing fine, especially since I've stopped trying to find buddies for him and so far Slim and Chance look OK but I'm scared to death they'll get Ich and die.   <They don't get Ich but can be affected by Ich meds.> They've been doing great for months, and I've discovered Slim is male and Chance is female, so that's kind of neat, although if they mate, I hope they eat their babies before they leave the egg stage.  I hope that doesn't make me sound cold; I just don't want more frogs.   <I don't blame you.  My girlfriend's did spawn & they eventually ate all the tadpoles.> So please let me know if Slim and Chance could get Ich.  I do frequent water changes like I'm supposed to.  I don't know what else to do besides worry and pray that they make it. <Sounds like they'll do fine.  Just don't add anymore fish to that small tank, especially Neons.  They are a difficult fish to care for.  ~PP> Betty Williams

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