FAQs About African Dwarf Frogs, Disease Treatments
FAQs on African Dwarf Frog Disease:
ADF Health/Disease 1,
ADF Health 2,
ADF Health 3,
ADF Health 4,
FAQs on African Dwarf Frog Disease by Category:
Bacterial, Fungal), Parasitic,
Keeping African Clawed Frogs and African
Dwarf Frogs by Neale Monks,
African Dwarf Frogs, Amphibians,
Related FAQs: Dwarf African Frogs
African Frogs 2, ADF
Identification, ADF Behavior,
Systems, ADF Feeding,
ADF Reproduction, & FAQs on:
Frogs Other Than African and Clawed,
African Clawed Frogs,
NOT: Organophosphates, salt/s, metals nor most dye solutions.
Sulfa, furan drugs can be efficacious.
As always, phony non-med's like Mela, Pima... non Fix s/b avoided.
New sick dwarf frog 6/14/16
My daughter and husband brought home a new African Dwarf Frog yesterday and
added it to the small tank with another one (whose mate died two days ago).
I later find out that the woman at Petco told them that all the other frogs
there had died and there was a dead frog in the tank. Yes, it was a horrible
idea to buy this frog but now I am stuck trying to heal it while keeping the
other alive. I don't know what is wrong with this frog (if anything- though he
just floats at the top most of the time). What can I use as a basic antibiotic
type solution that can help them?
<Unfortunately medicating frogs is very difficult. Oxytetracycline has been used
with success, though Tetracycline and Minocycline might both make acceptable
substitutes. In the US these are sold in some aquarium shops, but in most other
countries they can only be obtained via a vet. There are some useful websites
out there aimed at professionals maintaining Xenopus.
While your Dwarf Frogs need warmer (tropical) water compared with room
temperature Xenopus, in all other regards they are very similar in terms of
I'm afraid it's contaminating the tank and I will lose them both.
<Agreed. But to some extent stress and poor environment seem to trigger problems
with bacterial infections otherwise latent in frogs. So in good conditions these
frogs are actually pretty hearty.>
Also, should I do a water change at this point to remove any toxins from the new
frog or recently deceased frog?
<I would change as much water as practical immediately, and thereafter as
indicated by the manufacturer of the medication used. Once the course of
medication is done, you can switch to the usual weekly 25% water change.>
Thank you very much
<Most welcome. Neale.>
Red Feet/Safe Plants... for...?
I have three African Dwarf frogs that I keep in
well-water only in a medium-sized terrarium jar.
<Very far from ideal.>
Typically I am very adamant about changing their water as soon as it
begins to appear cloudy, but this week I was stupid and lazy and didn't
until it was really icky.
<A good reason why an aquarium with a simple filter, even one as small
as 5 gallons, would be an improvement. These little frogs are not messy
animals, and an air-powered filter does an excellent job keeping the
When I change them, I put them in a small vase with clean water to allow
them to swim and rinse themselves off. Usually it's only for
several hours, but I noticed one of my frogs were shedding so I left
them in there until it was done--this took two days. Tonight I was
letting them move around in our kitchen sink--we rinse it and put a
little well-water in the bottom--when I noticed one of them had red
So I picked him up and was holding him on a paper towel and saw his feet
are bleeding! :( What does this mean, and is there anything I can
Right now he's in the little vase in some clean water with a handful of
the river rocks we keep in the big jar.
<There's something called "Red Leg" in frogs that's often a death
It's an opportunistic infection that usually comes about when the frogs
have been physically damaged and/or kept in dirty water. There's an
excellent summary here:
Early on the infection can be treated, but once established it's very
difficult to cure.>
Also, we have an abundance of spider plants at our house, and we were
wondering if we could use one of those with the frogs. Are they
<Spider Plants (assuming you mean Chlorophytum comosum) aren't good
choices for aquatic frog habitats because Spider Plants do best in
free-draining soil, so don't like their roots being somewhere damp all
the time. Only a few houseplants really thrive in vivaria, mostly those
that like humidity.
Classic choices are Syngonium and Philodendron, which can be potted
above the waterline but will happily grow down to the water and may even
put a few leaves below the waterline without complaint. "Lucky Bamboo"
can do well with its roots in the water and the leaves above, but it's
very demanding about light, but brightly lit spots in the house may get
too hot for your frogs, so approach with caution. In any case, do an
online search references "vivaria" with "plants" and you'll find dozens
All this said, because Hymenochirus spp. frogs are fully aquatic, and
prefer floating plants best of all, a clump of Floating Indian Fern is
probably the best bet.>
Re: Red Feet/Safe Plants 5/16/13
I noticed today that the redness that was encompassing his feet has gone
down to mostly be in the webbing of the feet. I've noticed names
of various medicines that have been used or recommended, but for my
situation which would you recommend?
<Try a combination of Maracyn 1 and Maracyn 2; use as directed on the
Also, my mom and currently live with my grandparents--they do not like
animals, so I'm lucky to have my frogs and hermit crabs--and so our
current situation does not allow an aquarium for them since I already
have two for my crabs. We are working on getting our own house,
and we've already decided to get the frogs a nice, large aquarium with a
filter when that happens. And thank you for your plant advice.
We actually have a lot of spider plants that are in jars of water and
have been for months now, so that's why we were wondering if they could
be used for the frogs, but I'll certainly look into getting one of the
plants you recommended! :)
<Do start reading, planning:
…and follow the links. Cheers, Neale.>
"Red Leg" in ACFs 5/19/13
<Guten tag, Julia!>
this is not a question, but I´ve just read about the ADF with possible
"Red Leg" infection, so I wanted to share my own experiences with this
syndrome (if this is of interest; if not, feel free to ignore
this Email ;)).
<Ah, not our style.>
A few months ago, I wanted to get a few buddies for my two ACFs (an
adult pair, 42 gal tank, filtered, fully cycled, planted. No problems).
I was able to acquire three frogs from a lab (one male, two females),
which I moved into a 30 gal quarantine tank first. Smooth sand bottom,
two terracotta pots, floating plants, an adequately sized canister
filter. I checked the water daily (0 NO2, << 25 ppm NO3, pH 7.2, temp.
about 68 °C, moderately hard water).
<All sounds good. But do read this excellent summary by the RSPCA on the
care of Xenopus spp in labs, here:
Among other things, a somewhat warmer temperature is recommended, around
22 C. I mention temperature because many tropical animals are sensitive
to opportunistic infections when chilled, and even if otherwise tolerant
of cool conditions, warming them up can get their immune systems working
They settled in just fine and for the first few days, everything was ok;
they were active and always hungry just like my other frogs. But after
six days, the new male suddenly became listless and had two tiny red
spots on his feet as well as slightly swollen hind legs. I had a bad
feeling about that and immediately separated him from the females before
doing a large water change in the 30 gal tank. The next morning, he was
barely moving and had several severe hemorrhages (he spent the night in
a clean tank without any decor, so an injury is out of question). I took
him to a vet, but it was too late and he died in the evening of the same
Because of the very fast progression of this infection (36 hours from a
perfectly healthy frog to death), the vet gave me some Baytril to treat
the females which didn´t show any symptoms yet preventatively. Luckily,
this was successful and I could move them to the display tank four weeks
after the end of the treatment.
In this case, I can rule out environmental problems as a cause. The
frogs have lived under stressful conditions in the lab and I know of
some deaths due to Aeromonas hydrophila in the colony before; I think
the inevitable stress from being moved was just too much for this frog.
<Could well have been, particularly if they were handled a bit roughly
when moved. Capturing frogs can damage their skin as they rub against
the gravel, net or your hands.>
I just wanted to show that this is a very dangerous disease which
requires a prompt reaction. The photo shows the frog shortly after its
<Thanks for sharing. Hope your other frogs do better. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Red Feet/Safe Plants 5/21/13
I just wanted to let you know that we did get the medicine, and are on the
third day of the treatment. I have been putting both types of Maracyn
in the water, which is how I understood what you said previously. But
ever since I started it, a white fuzz has been gathering on my frog.
Is this just from the medicine or is there something else wrong?
<If the threads are fluffy, like cotton wool, then it's fungus. Quite common
alongside bacterial infections. Methylene Blue and other anti-fungal
remedies may help.>
Also, does the Maracyn cause the frogs pain?
<Should not do so, no; it's merely an antibiotic.>
Because when I sprinkle it in the water, I notice he twitches around and
seems like he's trying to escape from it or rub it off on the rocks in the
<Most welcome, Neale.>
African Dwarf Frogs and Epsom Salt 5/2/12
Hello! I wrote about a year and a half ago for advice on setting
up a first aquarium for a pair of ADFs. Thanks to Neale's help, I
now have a thriving community of 10 frogs (the 2 originals, plus 8 of
their offspring who were raised from eggs). The 10 frogs are
spread out among three aquariums, each with a river sand substrate.
All water parameters seem good (ammonia/nitrite 0, nitrate < 5, temp. 78
degrees F, ph 7.7). The froggies are fed a rotating diet of frozen
foods (thawed before serving)--bloodworms, Mysis shrimp, glassworms,
brine shrimp, and Tubifex worms.
<All sounds good.>
Everybody seemed healthy and happy until last week, when one of the
females started to get a raised hump on her back, just in front of where
her tail used to be. It got pointier and pointier, until it almost
looked like a tent pole. It appeared that the point was actually
the tip of her spine, and that something underneath was pushing the
spine up. The whole back end of the frog actually seemed very
"full," but it did not resemble any pictures of dropsy or other common
diseases I found online. At first, the growing hump didn't seem to
bother the frog at all, but within a couple days she started hiding and
At that point, I was worried about an intestinal blockage. In
desperation, I decided to add Epsom Salt (1 teaspoon/10 gallons of
water). The next day, nothing had changed so I repeated the dose.
The next day, froggy was out and about, and the hump seemed to be a bit
smaller. Today, the hump is almost gone, and is now really just a
small localized bump about 1/4 inch in diameter. The frog seems to
be acting pretty much normal and seems to have her usual voracious
appetite back. I've tried to restrict her food intake, and actually
gave her some frozen daphnia I had on hand for the tadpoles (kind of small
but she ate it).
Now for the questions. First, does this sound like an intestinal
blockage, and if so do you have any idea what might've caused it?
<I have seen this from time to time, and I'm to be honest I'm not sure
what the problem is. Often it happens in frogs in less than perfect
conditions, but that doesn't seem likely here. If all the others are
fine, I'd put it down to "one of those things".>
Second, since the "hump" is not quite gone, I was wondering if another
dose of Epsom Salt might be warranted. Is there a limit to how much is
safe for ADFs?
<Should be fine.>
Finally, do you recommend adding this periodically to all of my tanks as
a preventative measure?
<If your water is very soft, then yes, you could use Epsom salt to
harden it up a bit. But if your water is already moderately hard to
hard, there's no real point making it even harder.>
Thanks so much for all of your past help, and for any assistance you can
provide with my latest challenge.
<Most welcome, Neale.>
ADF - "Froggy" Help please?
Hello, I've had an ADF for a bit over a year now. His home (Errrm,
I think it's a him?) is a 'cute' round 4 gallon tank, with
one of the LED lights that change colors in the middle. It's has a
basic pump filter, with bubbler in the middle tube, so frogs/pets
aren't "close" to the bubbles unless they go to the top.
Temp is set at 76. I KNOW not a super set up,
but, I didn't want to get really involved in more upkeep.
When we first purchased the tank, I was told that the 'basic'
rule for fish was one fish per gallon of water,
<Uh, no. Imagine one Great White Shark in a gallon of water! There
is a guideline that suggests one inch of small fish per gallon of
water, so a school of six fish each an inch long will need at least 6
gallons. It's a crummy rule, and leads to all sorts of
misconceptions, but it's a start.>
So we purchased 2 ADFs and a BeTta. I'm sure you know that
didn't last long.
<Actually, this combination can work.>
Although I had the water tested, and was told it was good, 2 beta's
passed away, as did one of the frogs (the beta's were purchased at
separate times, never more then 3 animals in the tank at once).
I do pretty normal tank changes. 1/4 change if it's been 2 weeks,
and I've done 1/2 changes when it had been a month. I am sure to
add "Aqua Safe Plus" to each water change.
Diet consists of frozen blood worms, and yes, sometimes freeze dried
worms or tadpole/frog pellets.
Trying to find 'live' feed anything that's small enough is
difficult around here, or I just don't know where to look
Down to my issue, "Frog frog" has been a bachelor for about 8
or 9 months now.
He does his quirky swimming about, lays on his back, floats, etc.
He's ALWAYS seemed rather on the thin side.
<Likely not enough food or the wrong sort. Healthy specimens should
look quite robust.>
I thought it was just how he was built? Over this last week or so,
I've noticed he hardly comes up for air, and seems rather inactive.
In the last couple days, I've been even more worried. I've
looked everywhere I can, Google, pet stores, forums, etc - and no one
seems to have an answer. He's not bloated at all, there's no
red, or fuzzy on him. I know they get inactive when they're getting
ready to molt,
<First I've heard.>
and just, well, because they can - but, he's been doing this odd
thing of acting like his back legs aren't working? He has them very
out-stretched straight, and they almost intertwine with each other, or,
he keeps them curled up very close to his body. He's not doing his
normal "push off" of the rocks at the bottom or anything like
that, nor hardly coming up for air at all, and no, I've not been
seeing him eating either.
<Not good. These animals do need a fair diet. and freeze-dried foods
alone may not be acceptable. Wet-frozen foods like bloodworms can be
better, or at least offer some taste variety. There are some good
frog-specific foods on sale, and these make a good staple. Live daphnia
is a good treat.>
I went ahead and did a 1/2 water change yesterday, then added the
recommended amount of "Mardel - CopperSafe", for ick, velvet
and other things, just in case.
<Ah, now, this wasn't good. Frogs are easily poisoned, and
"just in case" approaches in veterinarian healthcare are
exceedingly bad ideas. Always remember: every single medicine ever
created by man is a poison. We use them specifically because they kill
things -- bacteria, parasites, cancerous cells, whatever. With care, we
use just enough to kill the "bad
thing" while leaving the patient unharmed. But there's always
a downside to medicines, and if used at the wrong time or the wrong
amounts, they can do more harm than good.>
Late last night in my research, one site that I ran across last night
suggested doing 1 cap of Pedialyte with 10 caps of water, for a
'bath' - remaining in it for 1 to 2 hours, no more then that
though. That's currently where Frog frog is now - in a container in
front of me.
<Stop. Do not do this. But equally, don't suddenly expose your
frog to sudden changes in environment. Gradually change the water in
the container back to what it was in his aquarium, e.g., by replacing
10-20% every 20-30 minutes for the next couple hours.>
He normally swims around or away from the small net when I need to take
him out, however, this time when I went to transfer him, he stayed at
the very bottom of the tank - I was afraid of hurting him with the net,
so I ran my hands under very hot water for a few minutes to make sure
they were as clean as I could get them (no soap) then picked him up and
put him in this "Pedialyte" bath. His legs are still out
stretched, and honestly, I thought he was a goner because he didn't
move or respond at ALL when I took him out, but, I'm watching him
move his head and shoulders a bit, so I know he's still
alive. Am I just being completely over-worried?
<No, this is a serious situation, and sounds like a starving
Is this 'leg thing' normal at all?
Is there some kind of ADF frog disease I can't find information
<Almost all "frog disease" is environmental or at least
about care. In other words, it's not so much a germ or parasite,
but more what *you* have been doing or not doing.>
Right before I got to send this off, Frog frog opened his mouth REALLY
big, yawn? drowning? I thought he was gone again, so I took him out of
the "bath" and put him back in his water, just in case. Still
not moving at all, but, he's taken a breath at least. Help quick,
please - Although I know it's possibly a lost cause, I'm going
to miss Frog frog. No one can do the "Mr. Peanut stance"
quite like his can. Thank you in advance for your time, comments,
suggestions and energy it takes to read, and respond to this.
Look to see what you aren't doing/haven't done, and act
accordingly. Do also read here:
And follow the links at top to other FAQs of relevance,
Ich Quarantine 8/9/11
<Hi there Alyssa>
Last month, I decided I was going to upgrade fish tanks, going from a
Marineland 5 gallon to a Marineland 12 gallon. The 5 gallon housed my
three-year-old ADF, Simon. After setting up the 12
gallon, I let it run for two weeks before moving Simon into it,
<Along w/ some olde water, substrate, filter media I
and decided to keep the 5 gallon running.
I also decided to buy neon tetras for the new tank.
<Mmm, Characins/oids really don't like "new
It has been a week since I bought the fish, and the tetras have been
dying left and right. Now only two tetras remain, and I am fairly
certain one has Ich. I just noticed tonight the tetra has beige-colored
granules on his body. Depending on where the tetra is in the tank, the
granules are either noticeable or they aren't.
So here are my questions.
I have read ADF's are sensitive to Ich medication. Is it better to
relocate Simon to the 5 gallon, while I try to treat the Ich, or to
move the tetras into the 5 gallon?
<Yes I would>
Do I move both tetras, or only the infected one?
<Move the ADF, leave all else in the 12, treat>
If I move Simon, how can I make sure I am not somehow also transporting
the parasite to the quarantine tank?
<Yes, but will die off in a few weeks for lack of a suitable
Will Simon be all right in the bare 5 gallon for the amount of time it
takes to remove the Ich from the 12 gallon?
What is the best approach to removing the Ich?
<Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/FWSubWebIndex/fwich.htm
and the linked files above, particularly re "sensitive
fishes"... Likely a thermal approach alone will work here>
This is my first time dealing with Ich and I'm a little freaked,
thus all the questions.
Thanks so much for your help,
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
ADF's, no salt please 4/16/11
I recently lost about six ADF's in two separate tanks over the
course of a couple days.
The female Betta fish that were with them are doing fine. I had gotten
in the habit of adding a heaping tablespoon of salt per gallon of water
with the Betta's water changes .
<Why? Please read here:
and the linked files above... There is a persistent "wives'
tale" re salt use... in this case, toxic>
The frogs were added about a month ago. Today I read on the internet
that I might be using too much salt.
At any rate do you think that the salt might have killed my
I read on your site that they absorb through their skin. Most of them
looked normal but a few were bloated. The strange thing is that they
did fine for a month and then suddenly over the course of several days
they all died. Last week I bought some HBH frog and tadpole bits. They
are larger and sink. Before that I was feeding something smaller that
floated on the surface and the Betta girls were getting huge. Water,
food, or something else.
Thanks so much for your time,
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: ADF's 4/16/11
Thanks so much for your timely response. Very kind of you. I appreciate
the information. Have a great weekend. GOD bless.
<And you, BobF>
African Dwarf Frog/Betta safe medication?
One of my little African Dwarf Frogs has developed bloat.
<Mmm, a symptom... with a few/diverse etiologies/causes...>
He looks pretty bad off. He is not floating and seems to still be
eating (frozen bloodworms),
<I would discount to discontinue these larval insects as food. They
have been implicated in troubles in recent times>
but is super swollen. He is in a 5 gallon tank with one other ADF and a
Betta (they get along fine, basically ignore each other). I am looking
for something to treat the frog with that will also be safe for the
Betta since they are in the same tank. I adopted the frogs from someone
else in last December and the one was already puffy at that point, but
I just though he was fat. He has gotten much worse since then. Can you
please recommend something you think would be effective and yet safe
for my Betta too?
<There are some folks who endorse the use of broad-spectrum
antibiotic use, Epsom Salt for such... but I'd just switch foods...
Do read here:
and the linked files above, particularly "Feeding FAQs". Bob
Re: African Dwarf Frog/Betta safe medication? Using WWM
Thanks for the information. We tried your recommendation of switching
our ADF food to try to cure his bloat. We switched him to mysis shrimp,
but the little guy is still suffering from bloat. He is extremely
swollen. We contacted an exotic animal vet in our area that deals with
frogs. He told me this morning to put the frog in 1 liter of room
temperature water with 1 tsp of table salt and 1 tsp of sugar and leave
him there overnight.
I am confused because I thought exposure to high levels of salt for
long periods of time would kill an African dwarf frog. What are your
thoughts on this method of treatment? It breaks our heart to see him
suffering. Thank you!
<... Have you read, searched on WWM re? Start here:
White fuzz and ADF [Methylene blue vs. Malachite green]
I've read your site which is the only place I have been able to
find any information... so thanks for that... Alas, I don't think I
read far enough soon enough... Here is the saga and the question.
My ADF got a white cottony fungus on his foot about 2 months back. I
used the liquid fungus cure ( aquarium pharmaceuticals) which turns the
water green. I didn't save the ingredients and so I don't know
if it has something
the frog is sensitive to. His foot fell off complete with the cottony
fungus. I kept him in the hospital tank for a few more days just to be
certain he was okay. Once I was sure... I returned him to the tank with
the rest of his friends. (another frog, and some betas)
<Betta, as in "better", from the local name for these
after about a week or so the fungus came back. So I went back to the
store and then they sold me some fungus guard- which turns the water
blue- and now I find that it has the blue that frogs are sensitive to.
Okay, so I did another complete water change and am back to the green
liquid cure that doesn't seem to be working. My frog is clearly
VERY sturdy as he has been hanging in there through all of this... but
the fuzz is not clearing up.
Is the liquid fungus cure the same thing you have been recommending? My
pet store seemed to think so.. but again its not clearing up the
I'm sorry to ask the same question over again... but I'm very
worried about him.
Thanks so much!!
<Dawn, generally Methylene blue is deemed to be fairly non-toxic,
and can be used safely with even baby fish. So given the choice,
that's the medication I'd use. Malachite green is somewhat more
toxic, and can affect things like biological filtration as well, and
should be used with caution.
For what it's worth, Methylene blue is a reliable anti-fungal
It should be noted though that "amphibian medicine" is a very
unclear science, and fungal infections generally are known to cause
massive morality in the wild.
As ever, prevention is the name of the game here, which in the case of
aquatic frogs means providing good, clean water without copper or
ammonia, properly filtered, and with regular 25% water changes. Diet is
another key issue, with vitamin deficiencies likely reducing the
frog's own immune response to opportunistic infections. Cheers,
<<Neale, this product's active ingredient is Acriflavine:
Dwarf Frog Diseases - 03/13/2006 I can't seem to
find any info on the diseases dwarf frogs suffer from. I
have read that they are very sensitive to the medicine in Ich remedies:
does this mean they can't get Ich? If not, do I still
need to be quarantining them? < Frogs are sensitive to the dyes like
malachite green and Methylene blue, but they can handle antibiotics
used for fish. The frogs may not have Ich but the tank water from the
store may have the Ich parasites in it. I would still quarantine to be
Medications With Snails And Frogs 9/9/06 Dear WWM Crew,
Want to first say what a great site you guys have, and the patience you
have for all the numerous questions you guys answer! I have tried
looking through the Google search and forums regarding
my question, and wasn't able to find my answer, so I am
asking you. My first question is regarding my black mystery
snail. I recently gave it a soft leaf vegetable
(Chinese vegetable called Xiao bai cai which literally means
small white veggie) and it is consuming the entire
thing. I was wondering if you can actually overfeed
a snail, or will they stop eating once they are full? <
They are exposed to all kinds of veggies in the wild and I am sure they
quit eating when they are full.> My second question is
regarding the medication I have been applying to my
fish tank for fin rot. I checked the
Applesnail.net site, but their link to fish pharmaceuticals
led to a dead link. I am using Melafix (active
ingredient is Melaleuca) from Aquarium Pharmaceutical Inc.,
and was wondering if it will affect either my black mystery
snail or my African dwarf frog? Thanks a
bunch! And keep up with the awesome work! Anson <
Invertebrates and amphibians really don't like medications. Melafix
would not be my first choice to treat fin rot. Stronger medications may
harm them. I would treat the sick fish in a hospital tank with
Nitrofuranace of Kanamycin.-Chuck> I have a male Bristlenose
catfish, two years old he is four and half inches long. He is in a 300
litre tank, he used to be kept with Neons, Glowlights and platies. He
was very happy, I fed him on catfish pellets, algae wafers, bloodworms,
brine shrimps and daphnia. Now he is living with tinfoil barbs.
he's not as happy and hides under the filter, he is only getting
the catfish pellets and algae wafers, as the tinfoil barbs eat
everything else first, I have noticed that he is not cleaning the tank
as well for the past week. And he has a lump on his snout in front of
one eye, I have telephoned all my local aquatic shops, no one seems to
have heard of this before, I'm very worried, to me is looks like a
cyst, apart from this his colouring and general condition is very good.
I hope you can help me, as the children are very fond of catty! Wait to
hear from you, Sue < As your Pleco roots around for food he probably
injured himself on a piece of wood or rock. The area may be infected. I
would recommend treating him in a hospital tank with Nitrofuranace or
Kanamycin as per the directions on the package.-Chuck>
Dwarf frog and Ich meds! Hi there! <Hi! Ananda
here tonight...> I have two Dwarf frogs, and I had them in a tank
with a goldfish and a black moor. The black moor came down
with Ich and died. So, I moved my goldfish (Herbie) to a
quarantine tank w/meds. Then, I cleaned out the other tank,
removed all the decor, to remove the Ich from it, and put meds in that
water as well. After putting my frogs in the water, about
half hour later, I realized one of my frogs turned
pale!!! Can you tell me what is wrong? Or am I
just freaking out over nothing? <It is entirely possible
that your frogs cannot tolerate the medication at the strength
you're using it. I would quarantine the frogs in their own bare
tank, with no medication.> I really appreciate your help!!
<You're welcome.... --Ananda>
Frog with cloudy eye 7/7/05 Hello, I have been gone for a
couple of weeks and have had a friend caring for my fish and other
pets, but today when I returned home I discovered that one of my
African dwarf frog's eyes were clouded over, I'm not sure what
I should do about this and would greatly appreciate your opinion.
Thanks. <Check your water quality, change some water... make sure it
is feeding and all should be well in time. Bob Fenner>
Re: frog w/ clouded eyes 7/13/05 Hi Bob,
you were the one who responded last time
so I'm writing to you by name , plus it feels better to write to
someone in particular. Any way, My African dwarf frog's eyes have
not cleared up yet and he is spending all day at the very
corner of the tank. His skin is looking very odd as well. I put him in
an isolation tank away from all of my other fish. Also I tested the
water and it was fine. PH. a little high but that's it. what do you
think is wrong? Any suggestions? <Yes... I'd administer 250 mg.
per ten gallons of system water with a mix of Sulfa drugs...
"Triple Sulfa" if you can find it. Bob Fenner>
Frogs with Salt Hello, you're
website has been a great help to me in many regards. I have one
question that I haven't found an answer for yet. I have 2 African
dwarf frogs in a 29 gallon tank along with some mollies, guppies,
platies and some neon tetras. My water levels are all good. I have read
that ADF's can handle some aquarium salt in the water but not much,
but can't seem to find any specifics on exactly how much salt per
gallon they can tolerate. Would you happen to know how much salt per
gallon is acceptable for ADF's? Thanks. <Frogs really don't
like any salt at all in their water. Frogs breath through their skin.
There is a point in which salt will actually outright kill your frog
and then there is a little amount that will weaken your frog and he
will die from a disease before the salt actually kills him. I would try
to limit the salt. I know your livebearers love it but the Neons and
frog really doesn't. Start at a teaspoon per 10 gallons and what
the reaction from your fish and frog. While the livebearers may thrive
the others may come down with other problems down the road.-Chuck
HELP!!! Sick maybe injured ADF 2/5/07 I
have 4 ADFs in my tank along with 6 platys, 2 mystery snails, 2 ghost
shrimp and a Pleco. I have 1 teaspoon of salt per 5 gallons of water. <... frogs, the snails... don't "like" salt...> I
originally had one frog and it seemed to do ok with the salt and
everything else, so I decided to get the other three. I have had the
others now for about 2 or 3 months. We just noticed yesterday that one
of the newer ones looked like he was shedding. <Mmm, Hymenochirus do
this...> We have seen them shed before so we didn't think
anything of it, except that it wasn't trying to get it off of
himself like they normally do. Then he started swimming up and we
noticed that he has some kind of injury on the underside of him. Almost
the whole right side (left side to us when we are looking at it) is
sunken in. Almost like he was crushed. We had to run some errands and
when we got back we could see the stuff that looked like his shedding
skin was gone, but it looks like he has a fungus growing on his back.
It looks kind of lumpy, too. I searched your site and found some stuff
dealing with the fungus, though I'm not sure if that's even
what is on my frog, but I didn't find anything like the injury so
please if you could help I would appreciate it. Also, if I have to I
would like to know of a good humane way to euthanize him if I can't
nurse him back to health. Thank you in advance. <I would start to
dilute the salt/s in the water... and look into "Sulfa" drugs
(see WWM re this term... the search tool)... 250 mg./ten gallons... Bob
Fluke Tabs and African Dwarf Frogs. 8/14/07
I have spent the last three days searching the Internet for any
information regarding fluke tabs and ADF's. I've mailed
veterinarians, with no reply back. You're my last hope! I would
like to eradicate hydra in my frog aquarium by using fluke tabs.
I've discovered that fluke tabs are safe for turtles, most fish and
their fry, not safe for invertebrates and scaleless fish. But I
can't find a thing about whether or not they are safe for my frogs!
So my question is: Are Fluke Tabs, when used for eradicating Hydra,
safe for my African Dwarf Frogs? <I vote not... Please peruse:
Sincerely, Melissa <I'd remove the ADFs during the use of
organophosphates. Bob Fenner>
Re: Fluke Tabs and African Dwarf Frogs.
8/15/07 Thank you so much for your reply! I wish your answer had
been "fluke tabs are perfectly safe for ADF's"! But at
least now I know not to use it with them in there. Again, Thank you!
Melissa <Ahh, from the Latin, small "sweetness", even
"honeybee"... Shades of A.A. Milne! Cheers, BobF>
Aquatic Frog Red Sore on
Finger 4/19/08 Hi WWM, Hello; I have an aquatic frog
named Freddie who is almost a year old now. He is in a 10 gallon
tank and all readings are perfect. I maintain the tank once a
week. Freddie is eating well and swimming a lot. But, I noticed
for over two weeks now he has a red sore on his finger that will
not go away. I started to treat him with aquarium salt and
Melafix. Please give advice if this is the proper care. Thanks
ahead of time, Jean <Hello Jean. This is a secondary bacterial
infection, likely caused by poor water quality and/or physical
damage. Melafix and salt are useless for treating bacterial
infections; both are primarily used as preventatives rather than
cures, and many of us here at WWM doubt their value even then.
Instead, use a suitable antibiotic or antibacterial medication
safe for use with amphibians. A pet store that specializes in
reptiles and amphibians will be able to provide such medication,
as will a vet. Bear in mind that fish-safe medications (such as
eSHa 2000 and Maracyn) could harm the frog, so shouldn't be
used before confirming that they are safe. Red sores are likely
caused by Aeromonas bacteria, and untreated lead to Red Leg, a
deadly disease. While dealing with the infection, establish what
caused the problem in the first place. Water quality is usually
the problem, but if you mix frogs with fish (something you
shouldn't do) the fish can attack the frog making it
vulnerable to infections. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: African dwarf frog
-- 04/19/08 Yikes! Why does PetSmart give such crappy
information! <No idea. Not all branches give bad information
or misleading sales pitches. But some appear to do so.>
I'll keep Ferdinand where he is, and maybe I'll buy him a
new froggie to visit with. <Sounds like a plan!> I will
also take my black skirts and tigers back to PetSmart and give
them up for adoption! <These species are only problematic if
you choose to keep them with slow or long finned fish. Also tend
to be "bad" when kept in too-small a group, i.e., less
than six. They're fine fish mixed with other barbs and tetras
though.> I'll add some angels or ghost shrimp instead.
<Hold out for Cherry Shrimps if you can -- although not so big
as Ghost Shrimp, they're nicer colours and happily breed in
well-run aquaria. I have quite a colony in 10 gallon tank, and
they're more fun to watch than the fish!> If I get rid of
them, would it be safe then to add Ferdinand to the mix?
<Frogs are safe ONLY with completely peaceful, non-nippy fish.
Angels would be a bad choice. Shrimps should be fine, as are
things like Corydoras and surface-living things like Danios and
Halfbeaks.> Also, is there any way to keep Neons alive? I
still have 2 of my original 8, and I would love to have about a
dozen of them. <Neons are plagued by a problem known as Neon
Tetra Disease (or Pleistophora). In a nutshell, if one gets sick
and it dies in the tank, it will infect the others. There is no
cure except breaking the cycle by removing sick fish on sight.
Neons also need soft, acid water. They also need lower than
normal temperatures: around 22-24 C (that's about 72-75 F in
old money). Kept at high temperatures they just won't thrive.
Because Neons are mass-produced to be cheap rather than decent
quality, you "get what you pay for" -- so anywhere
you're seeing Neons at a buck a throw, you have to ask
yourself just how good are these fish that they've managed to
sell them at under 50% what they went for even a few years ago.
Oddly enough, Cardinals tend to be (in my experience) altogether
easier to keep, though they *definitely* need soft water to do
well.> Thanks for the great advice. <Happy to help,
Multiple ADF Troubles 12/10/08 First of
all, your site has been very helpful in finding information on these
frogs, and I appreciate it. Keep up the good work! I have gone through
a number of problems in the past few days, and I had been finding
answers on your site but it seems to be a combination of things and I
don't trust my own judgment anymore... First of all, I'm a
college student, which has run me into multiple troubles with the
frogs, but I've been doing what I can. I had two ADFs, one male and
one female. I got them in the end of July this year, so they're
still pretty young. I got them with a 4 gallon tank or so, not exactly
sure on the size. I also have an air filter that uses Bio-Bags, I'm
not sure of the name of the type of filter or anything though. It uses
an air pump to move water up from the bottom and bubble it to the
surface and through a gravel-like filter piece (the bio-bag) and pours
it back out on the surface...And I feed them HBH Frog+Tadpole bites.
The female seemed to eat a lot more than the male, and got a lot
larger. I was having concerns about her eating his food and such, and
tried to make sure I saw him eat every time just to be sure. Everything
seemed fine until around thanksgiving or so. I had to take them home
with me for the week or so, and when I do I have to take about 30% of
their water out. I did this when I left on Tuesday, and filled it when
I got home (about an hour or two later). I use API tap water
conditioner (dechlorinator). Everything seemed fine, and I took them
back on Sunday, again having to empty 30% of the tank again. Looking
back now this may have caused some stress on the tank and the two
frogs... This past Saturday (my first Saturday since returning to
school with them) they both looked OK and I didn't really notice
anything. The water was getting a little dirty since I hadn't
really done a full clean of all the poop/food on the bottom for a
while. Late Saturday night I saw the male frog floating at the top,
sideways, up against the filter near the spout. I panicked when I found
him like this and didn't know what to do. I don't have a net
here, so I grabbed a clean spoon and grabbed him with it and pulled him
back to another corner. He was moving around a little bit, but was not
NEARLY as lively. He was very lazy and seemed out of it. I noticed on
his back that he had what looked to me like pieces of food or
something, which I now realize was the cottony fungus you've told
other people about. I freaked out and took him out thinking there was
something wrong with the water, and put him in a separate small
container entirely with new water. (After reading through your site, I
now realize this was probably terrible for him). I took out about 60%
of the tank water, hoping to help get rid of whatever made him sick. At
this point I jumped online, found your site and looked for answers. It
seemed to me that taking him out was a bad idea, so I put him back. I
didn't want to mess with the ecosystem in the tank anymore so I
only put about 10% new water back in. At this point the filter
wouldn't run because of the way it works (needs about 80% of the
tank full or it just gurgles). I figured it was better than shocking
him more with clean water, so I left it this way. He started going
through phases where he wouldn't move at all, and I thought he was
dead. He'd then move a tiny bit a while later so I didn't give
up hope. I read your suggestions of Pimafix and Melafix. The next day I
got my hands on some as soon as I could (about 10 hours after I
discovered him this way) and decided I'd try it. After spending the
night, he looked as though he was already dead, but I figured I'd
try anyway. I added a little bit more water, and added the doses of
Pimafix + Melafix. I came back a few hours later and he was in exactly
the same position, but the infection looked much better. I had also
noticed the night before that the water was starting to get cold
(68ish) as the weather outside was starting to freeze, so I had
purchased a heater as well. I left them both like this, trying to feed
the other one, though she seemed very shy/afraid and wouldn't come
out, so I'm not sure if she ate. The glimpses I caught of her, she
seemed to be getting skinnier. I came back later that day and found the
males infection almost entirely gone, but he was starting to grow that
grey hairy fungus, so I considered him dead. I hoped for the best and
left him for the night. In the morning I was sure he was dead, so I
flushed him. That Sunday I finished filling the tank, installed the
mini heater, applied another dose of pima/Mela fix to hopefully
protect/help the female. I installed a new bio bag into the filter
(I'm unsure now as to whether this was a good idea, but I had read
that you should remove carbon when you're giving the medicines so I
had left it out before). Still, the female looked more or less ok, but
she still was not lively and would not come out of hiding inside the
castles in the tank very often. I was worried, but I kept feeding as
normal, hoping she'd be ok. Tuesday I came back to my room for the
day, and didn't see her anywhere. Not even 5 minutes later I heard
rocks kicking around so I ran over and found her with her back stuck in
the suction of the input of the filter. I quickly pulled the air tube
off the pump and she dropped. She played dead for a while, or was in
shock, either way it scared me, especially after losing the other frog
so recently. She eventually moved, but I noticed she looked different.
After looking at her for a while, I've noticed her toes and fingers
both curl in (almost bird talon looking). She used to have very open
fins, but now they're all curled in. I've read this is a
nutrient deficiency (thanks, again, to your site ;P) so I'm
concerned about her. I haven't changed her food so I imagine she
just isn't eating. I haven't really been able to tell if she
eats or not since I never see her. Tonight I managed to land a couple
pellets on her head and she would eat them, but other than that she
doesn't seem to be eating anything. I tried to pull her out with a
spoon/cup so I could put her in a different container for a while and
watch her and see if I could get her to eat, but she kept hiding and I
don't want to stress her out. After continuously examining her,
I've also noticed that her armpit area seems to be redder.
She's always had a slight pink spot there (I think that's
normal for a female?) but it seems a little darker than usual, and she
has a spot on her leg that is darker as well. She seems to be losing
weight too... In addition to her skinny-ness, she seems almost weaker.
On multiple occasions recently I've seen her appear to be
struggling to get to the surface of the tank to "breathe".
I'm partly concerned she's going to "drown", though I
think they can breathe through their skin? I'm not sure, I still
have always seen them dart to the top of the water and seem to take a
breath. I then proceeded to do a nitrite test, and it tested between
.5-1 ppm. I know this isn't normal, but there's a small mix of
poop/food and other stuff floating around the bottom, especially since
I didn't have the filter running for a few days. I also starting
using a new filter, and have replaced a lot of water. I know nitrites
should balance themselves back to 0, but I don't know if this is
extreme. All of those things I did could be affecting it so I don't
know what to do. Should I change all the water? 50%? or just wait it
out and see if it comes back down? Also, should I continue doing
pima/Melafix in hopes to help keep the female alive? Or is this not
going to change anything? Is there anything else I can do to help her?
I feel terrible about the death of the first frog, I've been very
upset about it for the past few days, and I really don't want to
lose this one too. If this one doesn't die, would I have any
problems introducing a new ADF to the tank? Might it bother her? Is
there any reason why I should or shouldn't? Please tell me anything
I can do to help. Again, I apologize for any redundancy in the material
you guys have already posted, but I'm very unsure of what's
wrong, and it seems to be a mix of problems. I don't know exactly
how to "diagnose" the problem, not to mention how to approach
it. After the few mistakes I've made, I really don't trust my
judgment and don't want to mess something else up. Thanks in
advance for your help, I hope to hear back soon, -Dylan <Hi Dylan.
The short answers are these: Firstly, what you're dealing with is
some sort of opportunistic bacterial infection. Very common among
amphibians not kept correctly. Poor water quality (implied by the
non-zero nitrite level) and low temperature (should be around the 25
C/77 F mark) were likely the triggering factors. Next up, treatment.
Frogs respond positively to antibiotics and antibacterial medications
used carefully. However, Melafix and Pimafix are both rubbish, and
instead you should be using something like Maracyn (in the US) or eSHa
2000 (in the EU). Treatment with these tea-tree oil products is rarely
effective once the infection becomes established; at best, their like
antiseptics you'd use to keep a wound clean, but once the wound is
infected, you'd turn to penicillin or whatever. Just so with fish
and frogs. While I'm doubtful of a positive outcome, what I would
recommend is optimising water quality in the tank (zero ammonia and
nitrite) by ensuring the biological filter is working properly.
Don't waste time with nonsense like carbon. Ammonia remover
(Zeolite) might be beneficial if you don't have time to establish a
good filter, but bear in mind Zeolite needs replacing every few weeks,
so it isn't particularly cheap to use (though it can be recharged
using salt water). Also keep the frogs warm, and then apply the right
medication. Once you're done with these issues, get back in touch
and we can discuss the care and maintenance of Hymenochirus frogs in
more depth. They're not especially difficult to keep, but they do
need a reasonably big tank (I'd recommend not less than 8 US
gallons, to be honest) and a proper filtration system and heater.
Miniature aquaria -- though popular with students -- really aren't
stable or easy to maintain. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Multiple ADF Troubles 12/10/08 Hello
again, I think that the cold was probably part of it, but I had never
seen problems with nitrites before this. I'm assuming the filter
was preventing that before, and I hadn't changed that one in a
while, which led me to the conclusion of changing it. I have never
tested so soon after replacing the filter, and I had left the filter
off for a while, and I'm wondering if that's what is leading to
the high nitrites. Is it probable that now the filter has been replaced
and running, that the nitrites will drop again? <You should never,
ever switch off a filter for more than, say, half an hour. After a
while the bacteria die from oxygen deprivation, and you end up with a
"dead" filter that needs to re-matured all over again.> As
for the treatment, I'm not sure I can get my hands on Maracyn for
multiple reasons. I also don't believe her to be infected, she
isn't showing any signs like the other frog. She is slightly
reddish on one of her legs, which is worrying me about red leg, but is
this something Maracyn would fix anyway? <Erythromycin (in Maracyn)
will indeed fix Red Leg.> I thought it was more of a disease than an
infection...I could try getting Maracyn when I go home in a week and a
half, but until then I don't think it's an option. Until then,
should I continue with Pima/Melafix? or is it not going to do anything
or be harmful? <Pimafix/Melafix will have no effect either way. Will
not cure Red-leg or other opportunistic bacterial infections, but
won't make them worse either. The frog will simply die at whatever
rate it's going to.> I also just realised that in addition to
Pima and Melafix, I have some fish "Stress Coat" (by Aquarium
Pharmaceuticals) that says it removes chlorine, neutralizes chloramines
(neither of which I'm worried about), removes heavy metals, and
replaces the slime coating on fish. It's recommended to be used
when "fish are damaged by injury or disease". Is this worth a
shot? <Not worth a shot, no. Just a fancy water conditioner. Would
be akin to treating gangrene with a bar of soap.> You mentioned
"optimising water quality in the tank". Should I change MORE
water? How much of the tank? All of it? Half? It seemed best to leave
it alone from what I read online. <Optimising water quality means
using the right filter for the right sized tank, with the livestock
receiving only the right amount of food. Water changes are part of the
equation to be sure, but at the usual rate of, say, 25% weekly, or
every couple of days if you detect nitrite/ammonia levels not equal to
zero.> I also can't get my hands on other filters at the moment,
but that may, again, be possible to look into in a couple weeks.
Suggestions on what kinds? Zeolite seems to expensive... <Zeolite
isn't expensive.> I am making sure the remaining frog is
warm...The heater seems to make it a little warmer than seems
comfortable, so I turn it off at times... How warm is too warm?
<Anything within the range 23-26 degrees C would be safe; anything
below or above, unsafe.> Thanks again for the help, Hope to hear
back soon, Dylan <Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Multiple ADF Troubles 12/10/08 Hello, I
went out and got some Maracyn, and reading through the directions, it
says that it can raise nitrites and ammonia levels. My nitrite levels
were concerning me already, I'm unsure of what to do. <Well, you
don't have much choice: treat with frog, and hope ammonia settles
down, which it will if you use Zeolite in the short term.> My main
concerns about the remaining frog are these: She may catch or have
caught the infection the other frog had Her toes/fingers are curling
One of her legs is reddish, in addition to a reddish patch near one arm
She seems skinnier I'm not sure if she's eating enough. <I
doubt she'll "catch" anything, but she certainly could
succumb (is succumbing) to the same environment-induced syndrome.>
I'm going to keep up with 25% water changes every 2 days like you
recommended to help with the nitrite levels. <Do remember not to do
water changes if the medication says not to. Some medications need to
be left in the tank for X number of days before the water is changed.
Read the instructions! I haven't used Maracyn myself (not sold in
the UK) so you'll have to figure this out yourself.> My main
question is, would giving her Maracyn do more harm than good by raising
the nitrites? Should I concentrate on trying to drop the nitrites or
treating her with Maracyn? I can't really tell which is
riskier/unhealthier for her. <No choice really; she'll die
quickly if she isn't treated.> It also says that filters that
are less than 6 days old should be removed. I know you said not to
leave it off for more than half an hour. Should I take it out, put in
the Maracyn and put the filter back in a half hour later or what?
<Leave the filter running. Your filter is surely more than 6 days
old? If it is that new, use Zeolite, which is safe to use with
medications (widely used in "hospital tanks").> Sorry to
keep asking you questions, I'm just really concerned about her and
unsure of what to do. Thanks again, -Dylan <Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Multiple ADF Troubles 12/14/08 Hey,
<Hi,> Thought I'd give you an update on how things are going,
and what I'm doing. Let me know if you have any suggestions... The
remaining female ADF is doing about the same. I tried the Maracyn, and
noticed they have another formula (Maracyn Two) for things like
internal infections. The one I got is mostly for external infections
like the male frog had. <The difference between Maracyn and Maracyn
2 is nothing to do with "external" vs. "internal"
infections. They each treat different classes of bacteria, the first
gram-positive bacteria, the other gram-negative. In situations where
Maracyn has no effect, Maracyn 2 may work, and vice versa.> Her
fingers and toes are still curled in...I've managed to get her to
eat by dropping food near her. I noticed if it falls by her she'll
snap at it and eat it, but she doesn't seem to be looking around
for food. Not that ADFs really do much anyway... I try to feed her
about 6-10 pellets a day this way, and leave a few around. They're
small pellets. I can usually tell when she's done because
she'll start spitting them back out and go and hide somewhere. She
usually perks up and starts waiting for food when I take the lid off
and such... <Well, that's all positive. So long as they're
feeding, you can have some hope.> I'm a little concerned of
whether she'll start looking for food again, but I'm going to
wait until she looks healthier. This curling may be a deficiency from
the food itself, should I consider something else? Can I look for some
sort of nutrient powder or something? <Variety is the key.
Bloodworms, live daphnia, mosquito larvae, etc. The more foods you
offer, the less chance of dietary problems.> Anyway, I have small
rocks in the bottom of the tank and I'm kind of concerned this
might make it harder for her to eat. If I chose to take out the rocks
would having an empty tank like that be ok? <She'll be fine,
provided you put some black paper or something under the glass so it
isn't horribly bright and reflective.> I'm going to pick up
some Maracyn two tomorrow and try that as well. It says it's for
internal infections (signified by lack of eating and red streaks). Her
red patches and streaks on her legs are coming and going, looking worse
during certain parts of the day. I feel like it's better to be safe
than sorry and I don't think it can hurt, can it? <It's
fine. They're both safe medications used correctly.> She also
seems to have grown a couple of small white patches on her back and
knees, very small though. I think this is the same fungus that killed
the other frog, but I'm hoping the Maracyn will pull through and
help her kill it. It doesn't seem to be getting much worse...
<Does sound like fungus. Maracyn may help, but proper fungal remedy
will be better.> Let me know what you think and if you have any
suggestions, Thanks AGAIN for all your help =D -Dylan <Good luck,
Bloodworm Infestation (HELP!!) Hi, your site's really
great! I really hope you can answer my question I'm at my wit's
end! ). My question is ( I admit ) a bit off the subject BUT still is
related to external/internal parasites. OK, my fish ( guppies, silver
hatchets, loach, emerald cat, iridescent shark ) and one of my African
Dwarf frogs are infested with bloodworms. I am POSITIVE they are
bloodworms (thin, red, protrude from vent, and aquarium has no other
parasitic contact). Anyway, my frogs NEED the bloodworms to eat (they
won't eat anything else. <Have you tried "Glassworms"?
(actually chironomid/midge fly larvae), small frozen/defrosted marine
crustaceans? There are quite a few of these offered by the pet-fish
trade. Look for the Gamma brand...> I feed them frozen ones, never
live. ). I now know a feeding method that prevents the fish from
getting infested, but, now one of my frogs is "wormy".
Whenever my fish got wormy, it always died in the end. I try to halt
parasitic invasion by plucking the worms out of their ventral areas (
it's really gross and I'm rather squeamish. ). It
seems to help, but my fish still die. Is there any medication or wormer
that I can use? <There are... a few worth trying. Piperazine and
Praziquantel may be had through your veterinarian... you are looking
for a vermifuge (as in "flee worm") medication that won't
harm fishes, frogs...> I have no invertebrates in my tank, and all
of the plants are fake yup, plastic. ). I really don't want to hurt
my fish and frogs. It'd be great if there is a medication
available. Please help me! - "Worm Picker-Outer"( that's
really grossed out ) <Do keep us informed of your progress. Bob