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Related FAQs: Anabantoids/Gouramis & Relatives Anabantoids 2, Gourami Identification, Gourami Behavior, Gourami Compatibility, Gourami Selection, Gourami Systems, Gourami Feeding, Gourami Disease, Gourami Disease 2, Gourami Reproduction,

Related Articles: Genera Ctenopoma & MicroctenopomaBetta splendens/Siamese Fighting Fish, Freshwater Fishes

Anabantoids/Gouramis & Relatives


By Bob Fenner


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by Robert (Bob) Fenner


A prominent group of fishes historically, in the realms of ornamental aquatics as well as human consumption, the Goramis/Gouramis and kin are an eminently desirable group of Asian and African fishes united by their possession of a "suprabranchial organ"... A specialization of anatomy, located up and behind their gills that allows them to live in waters lacking oxygen. Indeed, some members of the "Walking Perches" spend more time out of the water than in it!

    Most of the hobbyist literature identifies these fishes suprabranchial organ as a "Labyrinth", an apt designation as it shape implies. Aerial respiration is accomplished by gulping in atmospheric air, passing it back to the labyrinth organ which is suffused with capillary beds. 

    Another common name for most of these fishes is "Bubble Nest Builders", alluding to their mode of male nest building of floating bubbles and mucus, spawning and parental care.

Geographic Range: 

    Good parts of sub-Saharan Africa and most of Southeast Asia and the Malay Archipelago, Indonesia. 


    Some species top out at barely an inch in total length... the true Gouramis (from which the most common name for the group is derived) exceed two feet in length in the wild. 


Classification, Relation to Other Groups & Favorite/Example Species:

 Depending on who's scheme you favor (I'll stick as usual with Joe Nelson's), the monotypic Pikehead is included or not with the Gouramis... If so, there are some five families all total of Anabantoids, two sub-families, eighteen genera, about 81 species. See his most recent "Fishes of the World" for discerning the various higher taxa of Anabantoids by morphological characters.


Family Luciocephalidae: the Pikehead. Sometimes offered in the trade as a pet-fish. Found in a few places along the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. One species.

Luciocephalus pulcher (Gray 1830), the Pikehead. Unmistakably protrusible jaws... unfold about 1/3 the head  length. To seven inches in length. Conds: pH 6-7.5, dH 15, temp. 22-26 C.   

Family Anabantidae: Climbing Gouramis/Perches, Africa, India to the Philippines. Three genera (Anabas, Ctenopoma, Sandelia) with about thirty species. Take care in netting, handling these spiny-finned fishes. Also, beware of placing small enough to fit in their mouths fishes with the anabantids... they will. Reciprocally, no large, fast-moving tankmates either, as these will easily outcompete these fishes for food.

Anabas testudineus (Bloch 1792), the Climbing Perch. Asia; India to China. Lives in many marginal environments (and out of them!) with ease... walks on land. Important food fish in Asia. To ten inches in length in the wild. Conds: freshwater to brackish, temp. 22-30 C. No broodcare is exhibited by this species. Eggs float at the surface till hatching in one or two days.

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Genus Ctenopoma: 21 species found throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Some in softer, acidic water, others in hard alkaline Great Lakes conditions. Some are social, others solitary. These are nocturnal animals that require dark spaces to conceal in by day. 


Ctenopoma acutirostre Pellegrin 1899, the Spotted Ctenopoma. Central Africa; the Congo Basin. To six inches in length. Conds: pH 6-8, dH 5-12, temp. 20-25 C. One of my favorite freshwater fishes... very hardy when received in good condition and their minimum care requirements met. Bubblenest builders, brooders.

Ctenopoma ocellatum Pellegrin 1899, the Eyespot Ctenopoma. Central Africa in the Congo Basin. To nearly six inches in length. Cond.s: pH 6-7.5, dH 5-12, temp. 24-28 C. Aquarium image. 

Genus Sandellia: 2 species found in southern Africa. To eight and ten inches in length. Almost never imported, seen in the trade. 

Family Belontiidae (Polyacanthidae): Gouramis. Pakistan, India, the Malay Archipelago and Korea. Twelve genera of about 46 species. Three subfamilies:

Subfamily Belontinae: Combtail Gouramis. One genus (Belontia) with two species. Tough, mid-size (to five inches) fishes that display wide ranges of tolerance to thermal and chemical conditions. 


Subfamily Macropodinae: Siamese Fighting Fish and Paradisefishes. Seven Genera (Betta, Ctenops, Macropodus, Malpulatta, Parosphromenus, Pseudosphronemus, and Trichopsis) of about 32 species (Betta with 20). Most oral brooders, others bubble nest builders. 

Betta splendens Regan 1910, the Siamese Fighting Fish. A perennial favorite of aquarists, needing only warm water (not cold!), an occasional meaty feeding (not just dried!), and no mean tank-mates. Originally found in just Thailand and Cambodia. Males to about four inches in length, females to half that. Many sport mutations. Live for about two years. 

New Print and eBook on Amazon

Betta Success
Doing what it takes to keep Bettas healthy long-term

by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Betta falx. Tan & Kottelat 1998. http://www.ibcbettas.org/smp/species/falx.html

Betta macrostoma Regan 1910, Spotfin Betta. Indonesia. To 11 cm. Sabrina Fullhart's fish and pic. http://fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?ID=12039&genusname=Betta&speciesname=macrostoma


Macropodus concolor, the Black or Brown Paradisefish. Couldn't locate on fishbase.org...

Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758), the Paradise Fish, was the original "tropical fish (in France 1869, Germany 1876), imported via ship in "milk cans" and such onboard steamers in the nineteenth century. To about four inches in length. Growing males will fight with each other. Cond.s: pH 6-8, dH 5-19, temp. 16-26 C. Here are a female and male in captivity.

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Genus Parosphromenus: The Licorice Gouramis. 12 species. Gorgeous small (about an inch and a half) Gouramis, native to Malaysia, Indonesia. Unfortunately delicate as the group goes, requiring softer acidic water. 

Subfamily Trichogastrinae: Gouramis. Four genera (Colisa, Parasphaerichthys, Sphaerichthys, Trichogaster), twelve species. 

Genus Colisa: Two species.

Colisa fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801), the Thick Lipped Gourami. Asia; Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Upper Myanmar. To four and a half inches in length in the wild. Cond.s: pH 6-7.5, dH 4-15, temp. 22-28 C. A larger fish that is peaceful enough to be called community species.
Colisa lalia (Hamilton 1822), the Dwarf Gourami (and other common names for its many sport mutations). Asia; Pakistan, India, Bangladesh. To a little over three inches maximum length. Cond.s: pH 6-8, dH 5-19, temp. 25-28 C. 

One at right, a male Honey Dwarf Gourami (or "Sunburst") in captivity. Below, males of a wild-type, Neon Blue, xanthic variety, and a "Honey" type.

Excerpted from: Five Almost Perfect Fishes; Great fish for the community aquarium, except for one little thing by Neale Monks   

2                     Dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia 

The good:            Friendly, colourful, and just the right size for the community tank

The bad:              Peculiarly sensitive to bacterial infections 

Few aquarists haven't tried keeping these fish at some point, and they remain staples of the hobby thanks to their wide availability, bright colours, sweet dispositions, and willingness to take a range of foods including flake and pellets. Numerous artificial forms exist, such as the 'red dwarf gourami' that lacks the blue strips typical of the wild morph. However, being widely sold doesn't mean that are easy to keep, and these fish all too frequently sicken and die within a few months of being purchased. Dwarf gouramis appear to be among the fish most likely to contract bacterial infections if water quality or water chemistry isn't exactly right. The symptoms are bloody sores on the body and a loss of appetite, and short of veterinarian help (i.e., antibiotics), nothing much seems to help. 

Even with antibiotics, the prognosis isn't particularly good, and you should definitely never buy dwarf gouramis from a tank containing specimens showing any signs of this type of infection. But even starting off with healthy fish might not help, as some aquarists believe that virtually all commercially-bred dwarf gouramis (and probably other gouramis as well) carry the bacteria, so the issue isn't keeping the bacteria out of the tank but making sure it doesn't become a problem. The best approach is to quarantine dwarf gouramis for a few weeks before being adding them to a tank that already contains other, hardier, gouramis. 

It is just as important to make sure that water conditions and filtration are optimal. For the dwarf gourami that means soft, acidic water conditions, preferably filtered through peat and zero levels of nitrite and ammonium. Frequent water changes to keep the nitrates down is a good idea, and using a hood or cover glass at the top of the tank to keep the humidity of the air just above the water level high is also to be recommended. Feeding presents few problems, but what you don't want to do is introduce anything that might make the fish sick, such as live Tubifex worms. In short, these are quite demanding fish that need a lot of care if they are to succeed in a community tank.

Genus Sphaerichthys: Four species; one used in the ornamental interest. Difficult to keep without close attention to water chemistry, live foods... A challenge to breed, rear the young. Mouthbrooders.

Sphaerichthys osphromenoides Canestrini 1860, the Chocolate Gourami. Asia; Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo) and Malaysia. To two inches in length. Cond.s: pH 4-6, dH 0-6, temp. 24-27 C. The listed conditions tell a good part of the difficulty with this species husbandry... It requires high quality water of low pH and hardness, within a narrow thermal range... A beautiful mouthbrooder, but hard to keep. Nice pic by Sabrina Fullhart.

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Genus Trichogaster: Seven species, all wonderful aquarium fishes. 


Trichogaster chuna (Hamilton 1822), the Honey Dwarf Gourami. Asia; India and Bangladesh. To two and a half inches in length in the wild. Cond.s: pH 6-8, dH 5-19, temp. 22-28 C. A favorite of mine for many decades. Formerly placed in the genus Colisa. Below: A wild type female, a "Red" male variety  and a hybrid male at right.
Trichogaster labiosus Day 1877, the Banded Gourami. Asia; South Myanmar. To three and a half inches in length in the wild. Cond.s: pH 6-7.5, dH 4-10, temp. 22-28 C. Another larger fish that is peaceful enough to be called community species.  
Trichogaster leeri (Bleeker 1852), the Pearl Gourami. Found naturally on the Malay Peninsula,; Thailand and Indonesia. To nearly five inches in length. Cond.s: pH 6-8, dH 5-19, temp. 24-28 C. Aquarium photograph of a male (longer unpaired fins, much more colorful).

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Trichogaster microlepis (Gunther 1861), the Moonlight Gourami. Asia; Thailand. To six inches in length in the wild. Cond.s: pH 6-7, dH 2-25, temp. 26-30 C. An even larger fish that is peaceful enough to be called community species.

Trichogaster pectoralis (Regan 1910), the Snakeskin Gourami. Asia; Thailand to Vietnam to the Malay Peninsula. To ten inches in length in the wild. Cond.s: pH 6-8.3, dH 2-3, temp. 23-28 C. A largest of the  fishes called Gouramis that is peaceful enough to be called community species.  
Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas, 1770), the Blue, Opaline (marbled), Gold, Three Spot Gourami, and other common names for its many sports. Asia: Mekong and Xe Bangfai Basins, Indonesia and Malaysia. To six inches maximum length. Conds: pH 6-8, dH 5-19, temp. 22-28 C. Female Three Spot, male Gold varieties shown.

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Genus Trichopsis: Pygmy Gouramis. Three species. All Southeast Asian, Indonesian in distribution, all used in the aquarium interest. Mid-water bubble nest builders.

Trichopsis pumila (Arnold 1936), T. schalleri (Ladiges 1962), T. vittata (Cuvier 1831), the last called the Talking/Croaking Pygmy Gourami. All to about 1 1/2"-2" in length, about the same Cond.s: pH 6-8, dH 5-19, temp. 22-28. 

Family Helostomatidae: the Kissing Gourami. Thailand to the Malay Archipelago. No teeth on primary bones of the mouth... Use numerous specialized gill rakers (extensions of  the structural supports of their gills) to filter feed along with rasping horny teeth on their lips. One species.

Helostoma temminckii Cuvier 1829, the Kissing Gourami. Asia: Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia. To one foot in length in the wild. Conds: pH 6-8, dH 5-19, temp. 22-28 C. Occurs in two color forms, Green and  Pink (shown). Not a nest builder. Lips and other buccal specializations for rasping algae. Can be a bully toward its own kind and other fishes with growth. 

Family Osphronemidae: Giant Gouramis. Southeast Asia. One genus of three species. Blue, Red-fin, and albino sports available. All eager eaters of plants, smaller tankmates... Suitable for species tanks and rough and tumble community settings only. 

Osphronemus goramy Lacepede 1801, the Giant Gourami. Southeast Asia; Sumatra, Borneo, Java, the Malay Archipelago, Thailand and the Mekong Basin. To twenty eight inches in length. Conds: pH 6.5-8, dH to 25, temp. 20-30 C. Shown below: Juvenile, subadult, and xanthic adult in captivity.
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Osphronemus exodon Roberts 1994, the Elephant Ear Giant Gourami. Asia; the Mekon and Xe Bangfai Basins. To two feet in length. Sometimes offered as the "Red Fin/ned Giant/Osphronemus Gourami" in the trade. The one distinguishing trait of the Elephant ear is its larger gill covers. 

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Subfamily Luciocephalinae:


Trichopodus pectoralis Regan 1910, the Snakeskin Gourami. Here in San Diego, Sea World 2014. 

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    Time on hand is a very important consideration when shopping for Gouramis and kin... not just the ones you're looking at, but ALL that are in the shops systems at the time... Unfortunately these fishes suffer from what are termed "total wipe-outs" from time to time, shipment to shipment, somewhat seasonally... Particularly the species of the genus Colisa (see below under "Disease")... with whole batches being lost, with few exceptions once they start to "break down"... Not to inspire paranoia here, but do check out the entire stock at the location... including other tanks if they are all on the same "system" of water-sharing.  The best specimens are ones that have "stood the test of time" at a dealers for a few weeks...

    Broken skin is a very bad sign with the Anabantoids, opening the fish to existing or new infectious and parasitic disease and/or evidence of rough handling. In any case, do not buy these fishes if there are any obvious markings, missing scales... ON ANY OF THEM. 

    Behavior, or lack thereof: Most Anabantoids are not terribly active... preferring to "hang out" during most all the time... but they should be aware of your presence, interacting, albeit slowly, with their tankmates and environment. Spaced-out whole-tank-fulls that are just sitting on the bottom (which some species do), or facing dead corners... and nothing else... are not good candidates for purchase. 

Excerpted from: Forgotten Fish; Old-timers with plenty to offer by Neale Monks   

Hardy gouramis 

Before cichlids were all the rage, the labyrinth fish, the gouramis, bettas, and their relatives, were often relied upon to bring personality to the aquarium. Intrinsically tough fish, labyrinth fish are able to breathe air, allowing them to survive in ponds and ditches other fish would find intolerable. This, incidentally, also made them perfect fish for aquaria: labyrinth fish bore the hardships of capture, transport, confinement in retailers' aquaria, and finally arrival in the home aquarium far better than most other fishes. No wonder then that the very first tropical fish in the hobby was a labyrinth fish, the paradise fish Macropodus opercularis. Aquarists in Europe began keeping paradisefish during the late 1860s -- in other words, next time you see these fish, you're looking at a species kept by aquarists since the time of Civil War! What made paradise fish so popular was their modest size (about 4"), bright colors (red and blue vertical stripes), and tolerance of low temperatures (paradise fish will do well at anything from the mid 60s to high 70s). As the years passed and aquarists got better at keeping more delicate species, the paradise fish dropped out of favor, and they're relatively hard to find these days. Partly, their mean disposition didn't help; male paradise fish fight as vigorously as Siamese fighting fish, and both sexes are apt to bully more gentle species of gourami or betta. On the other hand, kept with hardy barbs and tetras, these are attractive and entertaining fish. 

While the paradise fish has dropped off the radar somewhat, a good number of gouramis remain a fixture of the hobby. One ever-popular species is the dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia, but its reputation has been knocked by the prevalence of bacterial infections that lead to the untimely death of many specimens, seemingly however well they are kept. A fine alternative comes in the form of the thick-lipped gourami Colisa labiosa, a larger but far more durable species well worth keeping. One of the nicest things about this species is that even the female is attractively colored, even though she isn't quite as pretty as the male. So while female dwarf gouramis are rather drab and sometimes not even offered for sale, female thick-lipped gouramis are pleasant enough fish that will grace any aquarium. At about 4" in length, this species is about twice the size of the dwarf gourami and consequently cannot be recommended for very small aquaria, but beyond that, these are peaceful fish that will ignore their tankmates though as with other gouramis, the males can be aggressive towards one another.



    A bit variable as you might guess with such a large group of fishes, but all Anabantoids do better with habitat about them. Driftwood, live plants, shady areas to stalk, hide in... Do look about and study the areas your particular species hail from and the plant life from those geographies as well, and make the effort to match these. Ferns and mosses from Africa for instance, like Bolbitis heudelotti and Fontinelis antipyretica are regular offerings at serious livestock fish shops and e-tailers. For Asian varieties Cryptocoryne species are readily available, and for all the fast growing surface plants like Water Sprite (Ceratopteris spp.) Duckweeds, Riccia, and rooted Vallisnerias are great for providing shade.

    Barring investigation into their specific natural ranges of water conditions, most all species can be kept in near neutral pH water on the not too-hard side (dH of 15 or so), in the mid seventies F. temperature. What they do not care for, particularly when young are cool to cold air drafts above their aquarium water. A good fitting top will do fine for juveniles to adults. A close fitting cover must be utilized for developing fry. 



     Regular feedings, frequent partial water changes (with pre-conditioned water) on a regular (weekly) basis, along with gravel vacuuming... a regular light/dark period. This is about all the Anabantoids require for regular upkeep.


    Many of the popular Gouramis will accept any/all kinds of prepared foods; flake, small pellets, frozen/defrosted, fresh and meaty live foods... with exceptions like the anabantids (Climbing Perch, Ctenopomas...), Betta species,  and Giant Gouramis which must need have live foods (though they may be trained to take meaty non-live foods). Most Anabantoids require algae or plant material in their diets on a regular basis, some, like the Kisser (Helostoma) should have greens available on a continuous basis. 

    All prepared foods should be kept from exposure to air to retain food value (the better flake foods like Tetra's products are packaged in all-nitrogen environments, and Aquarian in a good vacuum)... and some live foods offered to all fishes at least periodically. 


    Wild caught Anabantoids and cultured ones that have been exposed to the same water are often infested with parasites... which may/not show symptoms unless/until sufficiently stressed otherwise. Of particular concern is the protozoan Trichodina which often manifests itself in a "rocking motion" of its fish hosts. Wholesaler/importers ought to routinely run new batches through a bath of formaldehyde (one ml.), ten drops of standard Malachite Solution, and five tablespoons of salt per ten gallons for about four hours, change 80% of the water, and repeat this process daily till there are no signs of disease. 


For hobbyists, all newly-bought species should be quarantined for two weeks to allow them to stabilize and give you a good long chance to assess their health. Don't count on the people before you to have excluded all parasitic and infectious agent problems. Chances are they haven't. There are strains of Pseudomonad and Aeromonad bacteria associated with some of these fishes in "breakdown" conditions of plague proportions.

Colisa in trouble. Evidence of bacterial infection (cut marks, raised red areas) that resist many antibiotic efforts.


The popular Gouramis are all too susceptible to common fish parasites like Costia, velvet and white-spot/ich. Happily they are just as easily cured of these complaints with stock aquarium remedies and environmental manipulation. Infectious agents like bacteria and funguses, as well as larger external parasites like Anchor Worm (actually a crustacean, Lernaea) and Fish Lice (Argulus, another crustacean) are best avoided by picking out clean livestock and housing in optimized environments. 


    Many species have been spawned, reared in captivity, some with considerably more ease than others. As stated above, some are bubble-nest builders others more egg scatterers... displaying the widest range of parental care (rapt to none)... Much has been recorded on these fishes captive breeding and production of young. Most all hobby magazines cover some of the Anabantoids on a regular basis, and you are referred to the citations below in the Bibliography/Further Reading section as a start. 

    Though they can, often do spawn in community tank settings, concerted measures must be taken for successful hatching and rearing of young. Typically breeders are separated by sex (males are often much more colorful, with longer, more pointed unpaired fins), and fed meaty, or all live foods a few times daily to condition them. Egg laden females are easy to spot as they become very plump. Males greatly color up during spawning time... spawners are cloistered in a separate system, generally with elevated temperature... a nest is made or not, spawn squeezed out from the female/fertilized/placed, pressed out and mouth-brooded or simply floated... females or both parents removed... as per species. For nesters two days is about the time it takes to hatch out, the males are then removed, and another three till the young are free-living and must then be fed regularly on very fine foods. 


    What more could you ask for/from a given group of aquarium fishes? Amongst the hardiest and touchiest aquarium species, the Anabantoids have something for everyone. From small, almost-too-shy to keep Chocolate gouramis to great peaceful aquarium types like the genus Colisa and some Trichogasters, to the "mid-levels" of easygoingness with most of the species available (good to go with Angels, larger livebearers, barbs, rasboras, danios, mid-size tetras), to the eat-all "true" Goramis... For folks looking to support their "pet-fish habit" this is a winning group from simple "production" species to those rarely to never seen in commercial numbers.    

Bibliography/Further Reading:


Anon. 1953. Paradise Fish, Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus). TFH 1:4/53.

Anon. 1973. First successful spawning of Kingsley's Ctenopoma. Aquarium Digest Intl. #4, Winter 72-73.

Anon. 1975. A new Labyrinth Fish in aquaria (Belontia hasselti). ADI 2(1)/75.

Anon. 1975. What is a Labyrinth Fish? Aquarium Digest International 3:2/75.

Anon. 1975. Bushfish of Africa (genus Ctenopoma). Aquarium Digest Intl. 3:3/75.

Belanger, H. Mark. 1982. Spawning the elusive Dwarf Gourami. FAMA 5/82.

Boruchowitz, David E. 1999. Four variations on a good theme. The genus Colisa. TFH 11/99.

Burgess, Warren E. 1995. Licorice Gouramis (genus Parosphronemus): An overview. TFH 9/95.

Castro, Alfred D. 2001. A look at the Anabantoids. A new series on these versatile fishes. AFM 1//01. 

Clark, Stephen. 1988. A comprehensive guide to the genus Anabas. FAMA 9/88.

Clark, Stephen. 1992. The fish of paradise (genus Macropodus). FAMA 8/92.

Clark, Stephen. 1992. The fish of paradise  (genus Pseudosphronemus). FAMA 9/92.

Craves-Erlich, Julie. 1985. Thread-fin obsession: Observations on the Chocolate Gourami, Sphaerichthys osphromenoides. FAMA 5/85.

Falcione, Peter. 1991. Gouramis build business. Pets Supplies Marketing 1/91.

Gibbs, Max. 1993. Gouramis of the genus Colisa. FAMA 11/93.

Goldstein, Robert J. 1990. Anabantoids. Hobbyists maintain a strong interest in Bettas, Gouramis and other varieties. Pet Age. 11/90.

Hellweg, Mike. 2000. Care and breeding notes of the Chocolate Gourami, Sphaerichthys osphromenoides. TFH 11/2000. 

Hunziker, Raymond E. 1986. Gouramis. TFH 5/86.

Lewis, Linda. 1998. The Kissing Gourami. Not much on color, but oh those lips. AFM 2/98.

Lewis, Linda. 1998. Coming up for air- the Labyrinth Fishes. AFM 12/98.

Liebetrau, Sue. 1978. Peaceful Gouramis; jewels of the aquarium. FAMA 9/78.

Linke, Horst. 1991. Labyrinth Fish- The Bubble-Nest Builders. Tetra-Press, Melle Germany. 174pp.

Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 600pp.

Pinter, Helmut. 1984. Labyrinth Fish. A Comprehensive Guide to the Care and Breeding of Exotic Tropical Fish. Barrons, NY, London, Toronto, Sydney. 144pp. 

Pohl, Achim. 1979. The Kissing Gourami (Helostoma temmincki). Aquarium Digest International 1(1979) #23.

Richter, Hans Joachim. 1978. The Mottled Pointed-Tail Gourami- Malpulatta kretseri. TFH 1/78.

Riehl, Rudiger & Hans A. Baensch. 1996, 5th rev. ed. Aquarium Atlas, v.1. MERGUS, Germany. 992pp.

Tavares, Iggy. 1996. Popular freshwater fishes (genus Colisa). FAMA 1/96.

Tavares, Iggy. 1998. Paradisefish. FAMA 2/98.

Tomey, William A. 1969. Trichopsis schalleri. The Aquarium 1/69.

Vierke, Joerg & K.H. Lueling. 1972. Aquatic archery and the Dwarf Gourami. Aquatic Digest Intl. 1(2)/72.

White, Jim & Nancy. 1988. Meet the big guy and baby (Osphronemus). Pet Business 11/88.

White, Steve. 1996. Out of deepest Africa. A new genus for bubblenesting Ctenopoma. TFH 8/96.

Betta Bibliography:

Anon. 1956. Fightingfish. TFH IV-4/56

Bender, Nat. 1992. Healthy fish mean Betta sales in your store. Pet Dealer 12/92.

Benn, John. 1993. Bettas- Custody, care and controls. An expert tells you how to do it. AFM 1/93.

Bertholdt, Walter. 1953. Breeding the Fighting Fish. TFH 2:2/53.

Cypher, Ronald L. & Patrick C. McCarthy. 1976. A new approach to the old problem of fish classification: Electrophoretic studies of Betta. TFH 7/76.

Falcione, Peter. 1990. Setting up a Betta corner. 1/90.

Gordon, Myron. 1953. The legendary Albino Fighting Fish. TFH 2:2/53.

Lucas, Gene A. 1978 on. Series on "Bettas... and More" in FAMA.... especially:

Lucas, Gene A. 1980. On the history of Bettas. FAMA 9/80.

Lucas, Gene A. 1986. The literature of Bettas: books and monographs. FAMA 1/86.

Maurus, Walt. 1978. Bettas, a truly splendid fish. FAMA 1/78.

Maurus, Walt. 1986. Reminiscing about the future. FAMA 3/86.

Ostermoeller, Wolfgang. 1972. Peaceful coexistence among Siamese Fighting Fishes. Aquarium Digest International 1(2)/72.

Rainey, Arthur D. 1990. Soldiers of fortune. Betta sales can soar. Pet Age 2/90.

Saunders, Steve. 1988. The Betta revealed. Bettas come in a rainbow of colors, are easy to care for and require very little space. AFM 12/88.

Other Bettas Bibliography:

Boggs, Sallie S. 1981. Mouthbrooding Bettas (Betta pugnans, B. picta, B. taeniata, B. brederi). FAMA 9/81.

Burgess, Warren E. 1982. Betta- one genus of two? TFH 4/82.

Burgess, Warren E. 1995. A new look at some Betta species. TFH 2/95.

Howe, Jeffrey C. 1992. Original Descriptions (column): Betta rutilans. FAMA 6/92.

Howe, Jeffrey C. 1993. Original Descriptions (column): Betta brownorum. FAMA 3/93.

Kirtley, Paul. 1988. Breeding the Crescent Betta- Betta imbellis. TFH 1/88.

Liebetrau, Sue. 1978, Wild Bettas are fun! FAMA 8/78.

Liebetrau, Sue. 1982. The wild Bettas: a series in six parts: FAMA 1,2,3,4,5,7/82.

Lucas, Gene A. 1985. Betta fasciata (Betta bellica?), the better bigger Betta. FAMA 9/85.

Lucas, Gene A. 1987. Betta pugnax: Observations on a large mouthbrooding Betta. FAMA 3/87.

Pinto, Tony. 1997. The quest for Betta livida. TFH 7/98.

Pinto, Tony. 1998. Betta foerschi- a jewel form Kalimantan. TFH 9/98.

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