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More FAQs about Ozone, Ozonizers 2

Related Articles: Reduction Oxidation Potential, RedOx: A Very Valuable Tool For Assessing, Assuring Maine Aquarium Health, ppt. presentation, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, by Bob Fenner, Physical FiltrationRe-Dox,

Related FAQs:   Ozone 1, Ozone 3, RedOx, & FAQs on Ozone: Rationale, System/Selection, Application/Installation, About Dryers, MeasuringMaintenance/Repair, & Marine Test Gear 1, Marine Test Gear 2, Marine Water Quality, Marine Water Quality 2, Marine Water Quality 3,

An RK2 Ozonizer, monitor/regulator at the SIO/Birch Aq Leafy Sea Dragon exhibit.

R9: Green Hair Algae Problem (Ready to quit!)'¦Ozone & Water Prep -- 09/09/09
Hey Eric:
<<Hi Cindy>>
I read "Bob's" section on ozone last night (only my husband had read it before) and went ahead and ordered an ozone injection system from the show as well after reading it myself (put my apprehensions to rest).
<<Ah good' is a beneficial addition>>
Hopefully the rest of my initial order (skimmer, membrane and pads) will be here in a day or so.
I am already feeling so much better about my reef (my husband is having heart failure over the cost however even though I had warned him that they were a "money pit" right from the start) and that I may finally have this situation foxed thanks to you and "Bob".
<<So glad to have helped>>
Mr. Fenner is right, discus and planted aquariums are very expensive indeed but at least "around here", REEF RULES IN THE COST DEPT., probably because there are so few of us that do saltwater.
<<Maybe so'¦ (Can't help but to keep pushing the NET on you re)>>
I'll start cooking my water for at least a week as he suggested and seeding is a great idea and will make water changes much easier on the corals.
<<Indeed'¦ Many hobbyists don't realize how active/reactive newly mixed saltwater is, or how irritating/stressful it can be on your tank's inhabitants' and maybe even contributory to nuisance algae issues such as yours>>
That book (a real smart low cost investment in your reef systems) and you have been so incredibly helpful!
<<Redeeming to know>>
Do you have pics of your reef online? Must be something!
<<I did have some posted on my local reef club's website at one time, until we had a 'glitch' that wiped out the photo library 'just haven't gotten around to taking/posting more>>
<<Happy to share'¦ EricR>>

Question about ozone and snails, beh./repro. induced  10/15/08 Hello there guys and gals, Grant here. <Howdy> I have what I believe are margarita snails in my 210g tank. They are about an inch across, pretty squat (basically as wide as they are tall) and the fleshy part at the base has 8 or 10 little flanges that stick out around the meat. So for instance, if they are on the front glass and I can see their foot, the little flanges almost make a star pattern sticking out sideways from the foot. I hope that is a good enough description for you to go off of. They eat algae also. <Ok> My question is this... I hooked up a Red Sea ozonizer to my tank last night. Never before have I seen my snails spawn in my tank, but last night they did. The males were almost constantly putting out a small stream of milky liquid for around a half hour and the females would jerk and compress every couple minutes and squirt out a batch of eggs. I find it very coincidental that the same night I started using ozone is the same night the snails spawned, which I know in some crustaceans is like a last ditch effort to ensure the survival of the species. I think its Tridacna clams that can be manually enticed to spawn by adding slight amounts of acid or alcohol to the water? <Yes> If there such a thing for snails? <Yes> Too bad I just hooked up ozone, because those little eggs have no chance of surviving through that. <Mmm, all sorts of life is generally reproducing in captive systems pretty much continuously... not a worry> Anyway, I'm only injecting 50 mg/hour of ozone into the tank until the ORP probe starts reading accurately which I hear can take up to a week. I figure 50 mg in a 210 tank is definitely not pushing my limits. <Correct> It's being injected via the John Guest fitting on my Aqua-C EV-240 protein skimmer. Quick side question, I've never used a John Guest fitting before... is it really as simple as just taking the air hose and jamming it into the hole? <About this, yes> I actually unscrewed the threaded fitting from the skimmer and thought I had to do something to get it to accept the air hose, but as far as I can tell you just push the air hose in firmly and it grabs it plus makes a seal. <Yes, yep, uh huh~!> Thanks for all you guys do! Grant <Welcome our friend. Bob Fenner>

Ozone and Gracilaria   8/21/08I have a 210 gallon system with a 55 gallon sump. I'm considering purchasing/using a Red Sea ozone generator, one of the ones with a ORP probe and controller all built into it, the ozone would be injected into a EV-240 protein skimmer. <Am familiar> My question being. will this end up killing my Gracilaria through lack of nutrients in the water? <Mmm... a possible effect, yes> I really like the Gracilaria as a nutrient export, plus my three tangs seem to love it. The main reason behind the ozone would be to keep my water crystal clear, provide more oxygen for the water and help keep nutrients down so I can feed heavily. However, that is the main reason behind the Gracilaria also PLUS it feeds my tangs, so if I had to pick one of the other in this instance I'd rather stick with the Gracilaria, although I do know the ozone would be more effective. <Well... I would incrementally turn up the ORP setting... see if this is having a discernible positive effect on water clarity, while not eliminating the Ogo... or grow the Red Algae elsewhere> And last question, do I have to have the skimmer effluent directly pass over carbon or can I just have carbon in my filtration? <The last> Basically, does it have to IMMEDIATELY pass over carbon or just eventually go through carbon? <Ditto> I keep a filter bag full of carbon media in my sump that I change out once a month, but I don't have any real means to pass the skimmer effluent directly onto it, it has to go through the bubble trap first and what not so that it doesn't pass tons of bubbles into the main tank. <Ah, understood> Thanks guys! <Do make it known how this turns out please. Bob Fenner>

Low ORP in new tank 10/13/04 Two weeks ago I filled my brand-new reef system with 2100 liters of RO water and mixed in Kent sea salt. I have had the system running since then with a 12 x p/h turnover, no livestock, no decoration and no filtration media other than filter floss so the water should be free from organic materials, pollutants and well aerated. Yesterday I added an ORP controller to the system and it reads 85mv. I would have expected it to be much higher. Is it normal to have such a low RedOx potential in practically sterile water or should I be looking for a pollution source / ORP controller defect? Thanks, Timon <the reading is not correct... all ORP probes need several days to break in (do re-read instructions for reassurance of this). You can expect a reading of 300-350 Mv likely. Do recalibrate the probe if a "normal" reading does not show after several days. Anthony> Looking for specific ozone suggestions Hi, You have the best resource for marine info on the web.  Thanks!  I'd have to quit my job to read all of it ;-). <Mmm, maybe that's what happened to me in a sense> I have a 75g tank with a (Pro Clear) wet/dry and skimmer.  I read up on ozone and decided that it was a good idea for me.  I bought a generator/controller and thought I'd just hook it up to the skimmer.   Unfortunately, I think it will be hard to maintain a level of water as the ozone turns on or off.  It also seems that the suction from the venturi isn't enough to take the ozone, but that adding a pump will be too much (both causing overflow of the skimmer).  Finally, the skimmer output currently goes back into the wet/dry to break up bubbles.  Not sure if I should have it just go back into the (small) sump and rig up something to have it pass through carbon or something else.  Adding to the confusion are the skimmer manufacturers who barely acknowledge ozone or out and out say they don't recommend using it with their skimmer. <Did "they" state why?> I'm open to all options including buying a new skimmer, setting up a second sump to adequately aerate and then filter the skimmer output, etc.  In all of the FAQ, etc., I couldn't find any specific descriptions of how people have set up ozone (which skimmer, how is it plumbed, etc.).  Also, while a reactor seems like a good alternative, I could only find one very expensive one online.  Even with that, I'm not sure whether I should run this as a loop with an inline carbon filter from my sump with a separate pump. <If it were my set-up, gear, I would rig a (plastic) "tee" of good diameter (the size of the current venturi intake, and run both "other" inputs of the tee up higher than the skimmer, the "teed" side to the ozonizer (even if the tubing to it has to be reduced)... allowing the ozone to be "sucked in" when produced w/o resistance in the line... and not worry re the discharge of all into the sump.> I appreciate any specific suggestions.  I'm anxious to get it hooked up. Thanks John <I hope this makes sense. Bob Fenner> Ozone, deep thoughts Hello Bob et al, <Hey Bri> I have a burning ozone question (no pun intended) and cannot find relief to this Q in any posts.  I sincerely hope you can help me find the answer. <Okay> I have dabbled in ozone use in the past but have not used it in a while. Bob, I know you (and others) are a fan of responsible O3 use.  So, my question is:  In my past experience, I've noticed that the skimmer production is noticeably reduced when using O3 (i.e., less (to no) nice brown gunk collected in the skimmer cup). <Yes... makes sense eh?>   I also know that this is because the DOCs are being burned up so to speak.  However, what is the end product of this burning process?  Is it nitrates?  Other dissolved end products? <Mmm, don't know... and am out in HI currently w/o access to reference and search tools... do suspect that one could test for at least the nitrate question here... run w/o ozone, run with...> Is it not better to collect these DOCs in the skimmer cup and export them (as I don't see nearly as much gunk export when using O3)? <Mmm, time to add a pun: methinks you need to consider "thinking outside the box" (the aquarium itself), and wonder re the destruction of such organic molecules to the extent of their changing phase... perhaps solids, gasses... overall it is better to "burn" these metabolite compounds> I have long pondered this question and really hope you can satisfy my curiosity. Many thanks, Brian <Well, you've added to mine. Thank you, Bob Fenner>

Re: Ozone, deep thoughts Bob, Thanks for your quick reply (and food for thought)!  I haven't been able to locate any good articles on the details of this process (maybe you could further direct me when you have more resources/time at your disposal?).  Wish I were in HI as well, you lucky dog! <Come on out and visit, dive, hike about... really. I make it out here every three, four months...> It's intriguing to me that these DOCs are undoubtedly converted by O3 but still must go somewhere (if not out of the system via skimmate) and I suppose a gas phase is a possibility I hadn't considered?  I'm wondering what exactly these DOCs are being converted to and if accumulation of said  is undesirable (where my nitrate thought was going)? <Me too... I'd bet that someone who was both an aquarist and had an understanding of organic chemistry could offer some input here... and perhaps will when they see these emails> Many thanks, and please keep up the excellent work!  You folks are a  priceless resource to all aquanauts. Brian <Pleasure. Bob Fenner>

Finding and Ozonizer that lasts 8/2/04 Hi Crew, some collective help, please. I have a 180 fish-only which relies in part on a good skimmer and ozone. I have been through THREE of the Aqua-Zone Plus models in 18months, two replaced under warranty, I'm waiting to hear on the last. I am told by Red Sea they don't like humid environments, like around aquariums ...?!!!   <this is a big peeve of mine too <G>> Does anybody make a comparable unit that can survive in such an environment and doesn't need its air "pre-treated"?  Thanks a bunch, Steve. <there are two problems here that need addressed, Steve. The first is that most (all as I can see) hobby grade Ozonizers on the market are very poorly made IMO. Very (!) poorly made. That any aquarium instruments made are not tolerant of humidity is ridiculous and simply staggering to me. There is good news though. While the aquarium hobby seems to have an endless stream of consumers that will buy inferior equipment and keep some merchants in business without forcing them to improve or get out... the Aquaculture industry does not tolerate this. Profit margins with fish farmers are leaner (price per pound for food fishes vs. ornamental fishes... no comparison). They are also much harder on their equipment in working hatcheries and as such demand industrial grade gear. Savvy aquarists as you are now :) learn to seek cheaper and better made gear from aquaculture suppliers. You can do general searches online for folks that supply such equipment, but I recall a few brands like Ozotech that crossover and are sold by a aquarium hobby merchants like CustomAquatic.com. DO look for Ozotech... I have used them for years and find them to be an affordable and durable brand. The second problem you/we encounter is the style of generator - some require dry air (corona discharge models), while the better ones IMO do not (electronic generated). Do seek the latter. kindly, Anthony>

- Adding Ozone - I'm considering heavily adding an ozonizer to my 125 Reef with 25G refugium just due to the benefits I've been hearing and reading about. One question I didn't see asked was the difference between the 'corona' and 'electronic' models. Where is one more appropriate than the other? <Both are effectively the same - both produce ozone, although through different means.> Also, if I hook it up to my Precision Marine Beckett system, do I still need to try and run it through carbon somehow, or will the intensity in the skimmer 'blow off' the excess O3? <Well... ozone is highly reactive so the odds of having excess are pretty low unless the unit is improperly adjusted, but yes, running this through the skimmer is a good way to go.> Thanks! <Cheers, J -- > Ozone Tubing Question for Red Sea Aquazone Ozone Unit and Euroreef CS6-2+ I just got the Red Sea Aquazone 100 mg/hr unit, and some ozone resistant tubing (1/4" ID?). However the tubing for my Euroreef CS6-2+ is much wider than this. Any thoughts/suggestions/tips on how I can resolve this? <Yep... look into a "reducer/adaptor", at Lowe's, Home Depot or such of "all plastic" or nylon construction... a big hint: bring the two sizes of tubing with you and fit over the barbs while they're still in the packages while there... and know that you'll likely have to replace the Euroreef tubing over time... with the effects of the ozone shrinking and making it more brittle. Bob Fenner> Thanks in advance for your assistance. Lonnie

- Cleaning Ozonizer Electrode - How often should I clean my ORP probe? Is there anything else I can use to clean it with besides what the manufacture sells (Red Sea)?? <Hmm... not sure what it is exactly that Red Sea sells... would imagine just a rinse in distilled water once a month would do.> Thanks, Rob <Cheers, J -- > 

Does Ozone Affect Skimmate? Hi crew, <Scott F. here today!> I did as suggested in your web to inject ozone into my skimmer to enhance skimming performance. The observation, however, was that the skimmate is not as dark and copious. Your advice please. Regards, TFChow  <Interesting observation, one which I've seen before myself. My theory is that the ozone is very efficient at neutralizing organics that the skimmate produced may not be as concentrated, or may be some way compositionally different. Just my wacky theory on this. Regards, Scott F.> 

Reactor Madness? Hi, <Hi there. Scott F. with you today!> We have been searching for an inexpensive ozone reactor for our reef tank. Many of the Co2 reactors mix air and water through small bio-balls and look just like the ozone reactors. Their price is around $50 versus $150 for the ozone reactor. Will a co2 reactor work for ozone (with an ORP controller)? Thanks, Doug <Well, Doug- I suppose it is possible. I've actually seen it done by a couple of people. Quite frankly, I'm not certain why the two are sold differently. The long-term effect of ozone on plastic and adhesives might be the main consideration here, as the operation of both are similar. A worthwhile experiment. Good luck! Regards, Scott F> 

ORP meter placing Hi there crew, I hope you're having a grand time. Don't know what I'd do without you....... Anyway, nuff of that for now. Just a quickie, If you please?.......(and not a word from you Marina!.......ok?) <Yikes...> Seriously though I have taken your advice and bought an ozonizer (Certizon model 200, from Sander) and an ORP meter (not a controller). First question is (yup you probably guessed it) where should I place my probe? .......At the moment I have the probe in the main display and it reads 310 so I could do with a little ozone one thinks? <Okay on both counts> I have the input going to the venturi on my skimmer (no air pump as yet) and the outflow of the skimmer is filtered first through PolyFilter & then though carbon. <All righty> Do I need carbon on the top of my skimmer?.....If so this is a real problem as I only have one inch (shut up Marina ;-)) between the top of my skimmer and the base of the tank cabinet. <No need for the carbon> Oh just for the record My LFS said I ABSOLUTELY MUST feed the ozone in with an airstone even though this is a venturi skimmer (Turboflotor 1000 needle wheel) To your knowledge, is there any reason for doing this? <Nope. You can try it both ways... no detectable difference I'd bet> Anyway, one quickie turned into more then just a quickie, sorry 'bout that folks. <No worries> I was about to quit this hobby after many years but you have breathed new life into me and given me the incentive I need to get my husbandry up to date and turn this awful great tank into something wonderful, and I thank you all for that. Cheers for now. Simon <Breathed new life...? I better go brush my teeth! Bob Fenner>

Ozone - To Carbon Filter or Not?  I have read on your website that ozone for aquariums produce such little amount of ozone that there should be no concern about residual ozone reaching the tank and its inhabitants.  <In the vast majority of cases this is so>  I have a 40 gallon reef tank and a Red Sea Ozonizer (model 50) I have a small trickle filter (60 gallon) and an extremely small sump. My protein skimmer is small too. Only runs off a Rio 600 venturi (Pro Clear Aquatics 75 gal brand) Anyway, I am currently using carbon but don't want to if I don't have to just because the myth says so. My reasoning behind not wanting to carbon filter is that since my sump is so small (probably 4 gallons) the skimmer produces so many bubbles and pumps them into the tank. Prior to hooking up the ozonizer I simply pumped the discharge from the skimmer through a vent hole in the acrylic and it would pour over the bio balls and sponge filter in the bottom of the sump. This filtered out all the bubbles. I can't do this if I have to carbon filter unless I just laid a carbon bag over the bio balls and had the discharge spill onto the carbon bag???  <A possibility>  Or not use carbon at all? Will residual ozone in discharge kill beneficial bacteria on the bio balls?  <Doubtful... perhaps a small experiment... even just measuring pH of the effluent with the ozonizer on and off will settle your mind>  The model 50 ozonizer was the smallest they make. Is this overkill for my 40 gallon breeder tank? Also, Only have 3 fish. Everything else is inverts and corals. Can I have the ozone set on 30% now which converts to about 12mg per hour. Is this too much?  <Not too much>  My ORP reads 162 and I am not seeing it go up after a few days.  <This is low... I would increase the setting>  I am shocked. Any thoughts? The ORP probe has a black cap on the end. It had a sticker that said to remove sticker to expose very small hole in side. Should I remove this cap? I don't recall ever seeing a meter with a cap on the end. Thought they were open?  Thanks, Rob  <Me too. Try removing it. Bob Fenner>

Follow Up: pH Test & Residual Effluent Ozone  Bob,  <Rob>  Thanks for your response. I did test the effluent while the ozonizer was running as you stated and it is at 8.2. Can you explain how this determines that there is little or no residual ozone in the effluent?  <Yes, as I suspected... it's all being "used up" very quickly...>  I did find out from Red Sea that the cap should be removed.  <Yes>  Once I did this it gave me a good reading. I notice an amazing difference in how dirty my sponge filters get as well as how much algae grows on the glass and pre-filter. Don't know how I ever lived without it. Can ozone hurt live plankton?  <Only if present in high concentration... very unlikely with hobbyist units>  Recently purchased some DT's.  Thanks again,  Rob  <You're welcome. Bob Fenner>

Follow Up: Ozone burning fish fins? Bob, Me again. Less than 24hrs after discontinuing the carbon I noticed a noticed an area about 1" long on the upper fin of my blue tang. Ever heard of ozone actually burning the surface of fish? <Yes... but not from the small corona discharge units sold for hobbyists> Guess it could be something bacterial and I am going to treat him in my hospital tank but thought it was odd that it appeared so quickly. Normally you can see a bacterial infection spread over time. What do you think? Thanks, Rob <Bacterial infections per se are rare in marine systems... almost always the real/net cause/s are environmental... with bacteria simply "cleaning up", decomposing specimens as it were. Check aspects of your water quality, quick. Bob Fenner>

Ozone Insomnia? (What Is Happening Here?)  Thanks to all of you crew and especially Scott and Marina lately for helping me to keep my head and not to give in after many years in this wonderful pastime of ours.  <Glad that you're enjoying things! Scott F. here today!>  By the way Marina, you were right again. I found my "scarlet shrimp".........Had molted which took about 3 days but he's fine......Cheers to you!  <That Marina is one sharp fish nerd, huh? She really is a "star" here at WWM in many ways!>  Scott?.......Have you had any luck trying to find out what my skimmers may be doing?  <Well, during one of my late-night, Thai Iced Tea caffeine-induced insomnia episodes, I came up with a wacky notion that maybe the ozone is somehow reacting with the plastic of the skimmer, inhibiting foaming action. A bit weird, but it could be a possibility...>  I will try and briefly bring you up to date but I have an idea now, that I know what is going on. .....Will try to explain.  <Please do!>  Have two skimmers on my system (medium load 260g) Berlin Classic (with Eheim 1060) + Aqua Medics TF1000 (driven by Eheim 1260) These were working fine, each pulling out thick brown/green skimmate every day.  <Love to hear that! I commend you on using two skimmers! I'd love to see more hobbyists do that!>  The system has been running for about five years in all.  Then a month ago I added a Sander "Certizon" ozonizer model 200 to the Turboflotor. This had the effect of this skimmer producing about an inch of milky looking skimmate in the collection cup after one day but then, and this is what I need to sort out, BOTH skimmers have appeared to stop working. They have not pulled anything out for the last three weeks! I have discontinued the ozone but I hate to do this, as I have been totally convinced of its benefits by you all at WWM.  <It is very beneficial, if administered properly>  I do not have a controller for the ozone as yet, but this + an air-drier are my next additions.  <Ohh...I wonder if too much ozone is the cause...hmm>  Is it possible that the ozone improved the skimming to such an extent that there was nothing else to skim from the system?  <Well, not "nothing", but it could have broken down one of the substances in such a way as to limit the skimmers' performance. Ozone is very efficient at breaking down large organic molecules. Perhaps yours is a bit too efficient...I may be reaching just a bit with this thought, though!>  Actually as I speak, I just checked the skimmers and they have both (since yesterday) started to work (properly it seems) again. My real question to you now is can I safely administer ozone w/out a controller and if so, at what level in my 260 gallon setup should I add the ozone?  <I really don't recommend the use of ozone without a controller, although many hobbyists may not agree. Although it's unusual for most aquarium-specific Ozonizers to present any problems (in terms of "over-dosing"), the potential for disaster is very real if the ozonizer is excessively large. >  But, before I do this, why, when I connect the ozone to the Turboflotor via a Rena 300 air pump (200litres per hour) does it stop dead the bubbles in the main chamber? Is it possible this skimmer can not be used with ozone? Or could it be it should not be used in conjunction with an air pump?  <Both are possibilities...I'd contact AquaMedic for more information on that one. I suppose that ozone should be drawn in by your skimmer's venturi for maximum efficiency. Its not advisable to introduce ozone directly into the aquarium. The skimmer is the optimum place to introduce ozone, IMO>  The skimmer is of the venturi type with the "patented" needle wheel.  I have tried to contact Aqua-Medic over this but they seem to have gone deaf all of a sudden.  <Grr...I'd keep trying. Perhaps you could call the local sales rep for Aqua Medic for more help>  One other thing I just wanted to fire at you if I may? Reason for the subject. I have bubbles rising from the substrate of my main display tank continuously. It looks horrible. Any ideas what this could be?  <Hmm...Hard to say. Could be CO2, could be nitrogen off-gassing...Even trapped air pockets...Lots of possibilities. Another one of those ponder-while-you-lay-awake-at-night things... >  Again, Thanks to each and every one of you at WWM for your devoted support to all of us out here. Simon  <My pleasure, Simon...Hope that I haven't created more confusion with my theorizing, but I think that we are on the right track here...Keep me posted! Regards, Scott F.>

Sizing an Ozonizer and Lighting 3/28/04 Hello crew! <howdy> I have a few questions I hope you can help with. <OK> First, here's the system: 180 gal tank (6" DSB, LR, Fish, Coral down the road), 2 20 gal refugiums (One with live rock and some of the green spaghetti looking stuff, forgot the name, <Chaetomorpha... one of the best> the other with 1/2 live rock half Thalassia, did I spell that right?) <correct...sweet> and a sump holding approx. 40 gallons.  All water from 5 stage RO/DI filter.  Both refugiums have been on a 55 gal system until the 180 is set up, and both have more critters than can be counted running around.  I have already ordered a calcium reactor, and intend to add a chiller before summer hits.  I currently have a Berlin Classic skimmer, but intend to upgrade to a better skimmer soon as well. <very wise...agreed> Now, the questions, before I purchase the last of what I need to migrate that 55 to the new system: 1.  Ozonizer.  I will be using an Octopus 3000 controller.  Will the Aquazone 200 likely be enough for this system?  I know there are a lot of variables, but should it be sufficient in general.   <tough to say... but likely so, yes> 2. Lighting.  Once the tank has matured I plan to start keeping corals.  There is quite a lot that I can't even identify growing from rock I purchased for the 55 gal already that will be moved.  For additions, I will probably stay with mushrooms and soft corals?  I know this should be a firmer decision before selecting lights, but it is too far off and the wife's input will change whatever I decide anyway :) So, I'm looking more for what would be a good match for the lights I intend, or to know if it is way too much or too little for anything.  The tank is 72x24x24, the lights will be hung about 6 to 8 inches above the water.  The tank is built into the wall with a utility room behind.  I have 4 96W PC lights I plan to reutilize, <these lights should be mounted no more than 3" off the surface to be effective> and intend to purchase MH in addition.  Would be 3 250w Aqualine 10,000k MH, <and yes... 6-8" is good here with MH> 2 96W 6700k PC, and 2 96W actinic PC.  In general, what range of corals would do best under those lights, and what would be REAL bad under those lights? <this is moderate to bright lights. Do avoid deeper water LPS corals, and many/most Corallimorphs/zoanthids> Thanks for any advice! Steve <best of luck, Anthony>

Skimmer and Ozonizer 2/10/04 Hey WWM, hope all is well with everyone!! Please Help Me!! I am completely  frustrated this morning trying to find out what skimmers are compatible with ozonizer.  I am very interested in using an ozonizer on my reef tank, but  absolutely everyone I have talked to has a different answer on what skimmer to use with the Red Sea Ozonizer, (and wouldn't you know it, the guy at Red Sea that answers questions on ozonizer is out today). <My best suggestion is to be patient and wait for his return.  It is hard to predict what materials will be affected by ozone, and following the manufacturers recommendation should protect you from voiding any warranties.> So after reading through your FAQ's on ozonizer and talking to about six different people, I am just turning  to you for some much needed guidance here.  I have several Red Sea Prizm  protein skimmers, and I also have a SeaClone Protein Skimmer, are either of these capable of injecting ozone into? <There is a way to get ozone into any skimmer, but as I said I would check with the manufacturer.  The downside with the SeaClone is that it is such a poor performer regardless of ozone usage.> If not, I have read on your FAQ's of people using a CPR Bak Pak, and also the Aqua C Remora, would you recommend either of these for using with an ozonizer? <The remora is an outstanding performer and Aqua-C customer service is second to none.  Do check with Jason concerning ozone compatibility.  The CPR is a very capable product and has the distinct advantage of a chamber to which carbon can be added.> I need a hang-on as I do not have a sump, I am also limited on the space behind the tank to 4 1/2".  One final thought, I believed the SeaClone to be the best candidate for the ozonizer, as it snaps together with no gaskets (so no premature wear on the gaskets from the ozone), however the guy at Aquarium Systems said the ozone would prematurely wear the impeller on the powerhead, but I have read through your FAQ's and it seems a lot of ozonizer are run this way.  I truly appreciate your thoughts on this, <Again, hard to predict, but I would worry a lot less about seals and powerheads (which are easily replaced) and worry about some kind of failure that would lead to a flood on your floor.> I would like to do it right the first time, and avoid any mishaps if at all possible.  Thank You,  Jen Marshall      <Just a follow up to my comment about the CPR Bak Pak....  Whenever ozone is used it is wise to use carbon to remove any remaining ozone before the water returns to the tank.  Ozone can be quite harmful to live animals if it is allowed to pass into the display.  Best Regards.  Adam>

Placement of probe to measure ORP Bob, <Sean> Thanks for the great information. Been doing quite a bit of reading.  Here's the stats for my tank: 75 Gallon w/5 gallon sump (converted wet/dry) - 2 years old:  pH=8; Ammonia=0; Nitrite=0; Nitrate=2.5 to 5; Temp=77F; dKH=12; Calcium=350  40-50 lbs of live rock; 2 inch deep sandbed; AquaC EV-150 skimmer (Mag 7); Mag 9.5 return pump; Korallin Calc Reactor.  One yellow tang ; mated pair of Maroon Clowns; Brittle Starfish; Anemone.  Christmas present from the wife was a Red Sea Aquazone Plus 100 Ozonizer.  Dropped the probe into the sump a few days after Christmas and initial ORP reading was zero.  Figured that the reading must be wrong, and it would take a while to settle in and temperature correct. <... unless the water was distilled... and not aerated... yes> Next day reading still close to zero (I think it was 10).  Connected the ozone to the intake on the skimmer and turned on the ozone production (initially, I had it set so that it didn't produce any ozone) at 10mg/hour and a few days later it was at 100, now it reads approx 275.  Despite all of this, the tang is happy (brighter than any store tangs that we've ever seen) and the clownfish have continued their regular mating schedule.  The Anemone is happy (puffed and spread). <Sounds good> Question 1: Where should the probe be placed to measure ORP and control the ozonizer? <Mmm, in the main tank somewhere... about mid water down> I've seen different information on where ORP should be measured.  The manual says measure in the tank, I've also read that it should be measured at the output of the skimmer.  My concern is that the initial ORP reading seems so low that I'm wondering if the probe is correct (am having a hard time finding a solution to calibrate the probe with).   <There are no such things as far as I'm aware> Question 2: Is a refugium (and corresponding slow water flow) required for Mangroves? <Slow is better... a couple, three turns per hour> I'd like to add Mangroves (in the hopes of driving Nitrates to zero), but space under the tank is quite limited. <Would not do this "under a tank"... these organisms are tall... Look to other life, likely algae> I was wondering if I could float the mangroves in the sump, but didn't know if it would do any good with a high rate of flow through the sump.  Thanks!  Sean Perry PS> Your book was the first one that we purchased (before buying the aquarium), and it's become severely dog-eared from reading and re-reading the various chapters. <We are more than friends then. I thank you for sharing. Bob Fenner>

- RedOx on the Rise - Hey guys- Got a question, I recently (last week) bought and hooked up a Red Sea Aquazone 200mg/hr ozonizer and controller for my 70 gallon reef. I set the RedOx controller to 310 @ 30mg/hr. after the ozone level was achieved the red light indicating ozone production went off (as it should), but my ozone has steadily risen since to about RedOx of 400 presently. To ensure the ozone is not being delivered, I've even unplugged the air supply for the last 3 days, and its still rising! <To what?> I don't know what to do, is this naturally occurring? <Well... you have to expect that the introduction of ozone is going to impact the reduction/oxidation potential of your tank... these changes would not have been instant but taken some time as you observed. Will the production now turned off, I'm sure the level will fall in time... it's the natural way of things. For certain any ozone you have added has more than likely been 'used up' and there is no continuing issue from the presence of ozone.> Have you ever heard of RedOx rising this high on it's own, or have I set off some kind of reaction? <I've heard of this, but only in lab experiments. As for you tank and 'some kind of reaction', there's no way for me to know without extensive chemical analysis of your tank, which isn't really practical. I'd just turn off the ozone production and see what happens... I'd be willing to bet the RedOx drops in a couple of days. I would also go through the probe calibration steps again to make certain it is not mis-reading.> I would appreciate your thoughts. Thanks again, Justin <Cheers, J -- > Ozone questions 12/30/03 hey guys- <Hi Justin!>      i have a few questions about ozone. pretty much all i know about it is that you have deemed it beneficial. <Ozone does indeed have many benefits when applied appropriately.  IMO, Ozone has a place in treating specific problems, but is probably unnecessary for full time use in a properly maintained reef tank.> after sorting through your articles and faq's, i am still a bit confused. more specifically, how would i hook this up to my p.s. (AquaC ev-180 w/out ozone modifications offered by aqua-c) or is it even possible? <Jason at Aqua-C is outstanding with customer assistance.  He will be able to guide you well with this question.  You could also Jury rig a way to "T" the ozone into the air intake of the skimmer (being careful not to limit the air intake)>. i noticed this unit as an all inclusive kit by red sea including 100/mg/hr ozonizer/controller, probe w/ air-dryer 250, and was wondering if this is really all the equipment i need (i.e. no other controllers or monitors), <It depends on the controller.  IMO, an ORP meter or controller is mandatory for use with ozone to prevent dangerous overdose.  Some Ozonizers require an air pump to push air through the unit.> sufficient for my 80 gallon reef and an all around decent set of equipment? <This is probably more than enough capacity for your tank.  I don't know about the quality of this unit, but Red Sea almost certainly buys these units from some one else and re-packages them.> and about ozone, what specifically are the benefits, dangers, optimum levels, and how they are obtained? <Ozone oxidizes wastes in the water (as well as parasites).  Overdosing can be dangerous (literally burning animals), and ozonated water must be passed through carbon to remove any remaining free ozone.  Breathing ozone can be dangerous to your health, and allowing ozone to escape into your home must be prevented.  Optimum levels depend on the application.  If you are treating parasitic infections, very high levels may be desirable.  If you are just trying to help keep your reef tank water nice and clear, much less will be required. If you monitor RedOx (ORP) to guide your ozone application (most common and appropriate way), a "normal value is 300-350mV.  A typical ozonated reef tank should not be allowed to go much above 375mV.  If you are treating parasitic infections in quarantine, a value of up to 400 may be appropriate.> thanks for all the help you've provided me and other aquarists around the world, keep up the good work and am anxiously waiting for the next volume to be released, sincerely Justin Barstow <glad you have benefited!  Adam>

- Ozone Questions - hey guys- I have a few questions about ozone. Pretty much all I know about it is that you have deemed it beneficial. After sorting through your articles and FAQ's, I am still a bit confused. More specifically, how would I hook this up to my protein skimmer (AquaC ev-180 w/out ozone modifications offered by aqua-c), maybe through a venturi on my intake line, or is it even possible? <Jason Kim will send you the fitting, and you can just drill a hole on the top of the skimmer body for the fitting - I would not put a venturi on the intake. Do contact Jason at info@proteinskimmer.com> I noticed this unit as an all inclusive kit by red sea including 100/mg/hr ozonizer/controller, probe w/ air-dryer 250, and was wondering if this is really all the equipment i need (i.e. no other controllers or monitors, air pump etc..), sufficient for my 80 gallon reef and an all around decent set of equipment? <Should do just fine - won't need anything additional, except perhaps for some ozone-resistant tubing.> And about ozone, what specifically are the benefits, dangers, optimum levels, and how they are obtained? <Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marphysf.htm > Thanks for all the help you've provided me and other aquarists around the world, keep up the good work and am anxiously waiting for the next volume to be released, sincerely Justin <Cheers, J -- >

Free radicals (not a plea to release terrorists) Bob, <Andrew> I am hoping your knowledge of chemistry can reassure me somewhat about ozone application. Some facts and figures. <okay> 350l reef tank, 6 months old. Biological filtration provided by 55kg of Fiji live rock combined with 30x per hr water movement. No detectable ammonia, nitrite or nitrate. Eheim canister containing floss (changed weekly to avoid biological build-up), <Good idea> chemical media (RowaPhos and carbon), with the return going through a UV. Deltec MCE600 skimmer combined with 35mg/hr of ozone. Extracts a large amount of yuck each week, leaving the water absolutely crystal clear and slightly blue. Deltec calcium generator, with drip rate accurately controlled by peristaltic pump. Calcium 420, dKH 11.2. Combination of metal halide and actinic lighting. All corals, fish and inverts settled and growing nicely. <Sounds good thus far> The use of ozone leaves a strong distinct odour in the room. It is not a smell of burning electricity (i.e., I don't believe it is ozone), rather it is similar to the skimmate. <Not ozone> The room is not that well vented, so odours can and do accumulate. My understanding is that ozone will react with an oxygen molecule to give a free radical oxygen molecule (which is cancer causing with long term exposure). <Mmm, not so much reactions with oxygen... more a "falling apart" of the ozone/O3... with the monatomic oxygen becoming/being a free radical... in turn going on (quickly in general) to react with...> Is there any chance that the room is accumulating free-radical oxygen molecules? <No... the amount of ozone produced by hobbyist reactors is small... and the "life" of the reaction series resultant similarly limited> Do you agree with my assessment that the odour is likely to be a harmless bi-product of the ozone rather than ozone itself? <Yes, well put> Any ideas how I can reduce the odour? My LFS tells me "in the days when ozone was used extensively carbon air filters where used for this purpose" - but I don't know how I could apply a carbon air filter to the skimmer. <You can remove most all the smell and its cause by regular (weekly or even more frequent) placement of activated carbon in the filter flow path... yes, even though the ozone is introduced in the skimmer. Otherwise, I'd look into a "room air cleaner" (there are a few technologies to consider here...) and opening the window a bit when weather permits> On another subject, all parameters on my tank look good, healthy and stable. One exception is my slightly low pH which starts at 7.90 early morning and finishes at 8.25 by the end of the day (as determined by a good quality electrical meter). <Not to be overly concerned here> I know vigorous aeration would raise this, but I don't believe it would look right in the reef setting. My LFS has recommended a Kalk stirrer, timed to come on overnight. No doubt this would work, but I am reluctant due to unnecessary(?) (a) cost, (b) complexity of set-up / maintenance overhead, (c) risks of getting the dose wrong and causing damage to the reef environment. I believe I read a WWM comment saying 7.90 as a low point is not really a problem given that many ocean reefs can be lower than this. Would you recommend I leave my set-up as it is, add a Kalk stirrer, or tackle this is some other way completely? <You are wise to be cautious here... and consider your possibilities. The diurnal fluctuation in pH is not a worry... could be best "adjusted" by the use of a continuous or reverse daylight photoperiod refugium/sump... with photosynthesis during the main/display systems "lights off" period being offset> Finally, My reef contains a variety of reasonably peaceful fish - yellow tang, regal tang, royal Gramma, orchid Dottyback, couple of common clowns, cardinal, six-line wrasse. I would like to add a Pomacentrus Alleni, as I think it is the most beautiful damsel. My research says it is semi-aggressive, one of the more peaceful damsels, but a damsel all the same. A couple of months ago I had to re-home a blue damsel as he was a naughty chap, seriously disturbing the harmony of the tank (although I had made the mistake of adding him before many of the others - I know, I know, but I've learned a lot since then!!). I understand that each fish is an individual, therefore there are no guarantees in this game, but do you believe the Alleni is likely to reasonably behave himself in my tank? <I do think your chances are good with adding an Allen's Damsel... more than 80-90%)> Thank you very much for your advice. I frequently lose an hour or two reading from you site. The rumour mill suggests Father Christmas may even be bringing me a copy of your book this year! Andrew Senior <Ahh, hope/trust you enjoy same. Cheers, Bob Fenner> Lost in The N-Ozone Layer.. >Hi, I am completely lost on this. >>A map is needed. >What is ozone? >>O3, an unstable molecule of three atoms of oxygen.  It "wants" to get rid of one of those atoms, making it an excellent oxidizer, and killer of fauna micro. >How do you use it? >>Personally, I like the smell, so I sniff it.  I hear you're not supposed to, though.  J/K  One uses an ozone generator, and small amounts are fed into the water, often the water column of a foam fractionator.   >Is it expensive? >>It can be, I've never had call to use it, and haven't priced any units in years.  A quick Googlization should net many results. >I have read somewhere on WetWebMedia that it can be effective to control diseases like Ich and other things. Thanks, Adam >>It can be, yes.  It's also used (more often I believe) to keep the oxygen saturation up, and maintain proper RedOx.  These are all things that are not, in my opinion, really necessary if you've properly set up a stable system, though.  If you're having trouble with disease, it's wiser to assess your husbandry.  Marina

- Ozonizer - Hi Bob, I really appreciate the website, I have learned A LOT from it. I have a question regarding the use of an ozonizer. I have a 55 gallon currently setting up to be a reef tank with a 20 gallon sump and 20 gallon refugium, after reading about the benefits of an ozonizer I decided to get one. I was initially planning to get a small 50 mg/hr unit but was able to get a 200 mg/hr Aquazone with a controller unit from a friend, however I am worried that this is going to be too much for my tank. Do you suggest I sell this unit and purchase a smaller one or would having the controller on the larger unit allow me to save the money and get by safely? <Well... the amount of ozone produced is adjustable and with the combination of the controller, I don't think you have anything to worry about. It will also suit your needs when you choose to upgrade to a larger tank.> Thanks, Andy <Cheers, J -- >

OZONE SAFETY 11/15/03 can ozone be harmful to humans. <it can indeed... early symptoms of excess are headache and nausea. Yet controlled it can be quite effective. Even used in some commercial air cleaners> I some times smell a faint smell of chlorine am my room, <I suppose that could be residuals... you also hear it described as the smell after a lightning storm/strike... or off of the miniature train track transformers> even though I have a carbon bag on top of my skimmer. thank you <if you dose ozone with a controller (not just a meter) and use carbon changed regularly on the effluent air and water, you should have no troubles with it... there are many benefits to properly applied ozone in aquarium systems. Anthony>

- Ozone Use - Hi Guys, <Hello.> I am in the process of adding a Red Sea Aquazone 100 (with air drier) to my 350l reef tank; connected directly to the Deltec MCE-600 skimmer venturi. The tank already benefits from a electric Pinpoint pH meter running 24/7, giving me valuable accurate pH information without the hassle of test kits. I have the option of paying ?150 more to get the Aquazone Plus with RedOx Controller (these things are not cheap in the UK!). <Ouch.> My thinking is the controller is not essential given that I intend running the ozone at modest levels (perhaps 50mg/hr) and can indirectly gauge the ozone level via the pH reading (keeping it less than 8.4); saving me money and the time needed to service the RedOx probe. Is this an advisable strategy, or is the RedOx Controller really worth the money and maintenance? <You'd need to service the pH probe anyway, and using pH really isn't the optimal way to gauge ORP, but I would be as hesitant as you are just due to the increased cost.> I don't have the benefit of a sump on my system, so any excess ozone will return directly to the tank. Is this something I should worry about? <I wouldn't think so... if dosed at the low levels you say you plan to... ozone is highly reactive, and so it's going to be a challenge to have any excess - the ozone will find something to react with.> Would it be advisable to counteract any remaining ozone by putting activated carbon in the skimmer "out" chamber? <Wouldn't be a bad idea as a safeguard, but again... at such low levels...> If I do use carbon in this way, how often should it be changed? <Bi-weekly.> Thank you very much for your help. I honestly believe I would have long since left the hobby if it was not for the sound advice gained from your site. Andrew <Cheers, J -- >

Ozone and its affect on plankton Greetings. <Hello there> I would like to know the affects of ozone on the planktonic stages of the reef critters in our tanks, pods, Stomatella, bristle worms.. etc.  Does the Ozone really kill them like a UV would? <Don't have specifics, but beyond a RedOx reading of 400 or so I do believe O3 would become more and more toxic to larval forms of invertebrates, fishes> Do they become oxidized by the O3? Cell structure get weakened and they die?  Will the use of Ozone wipe out a tank of plankton?  Any info you can help or link me to  would be appreciated. Thomas <Like "too much of any good thing", too much ozone would be harmful. However, its utilization as an adjunct to improved water quality would be beneficial... let's say to a RedOx reading of 300 or so. Bob Fenner>

Next Stop...The "O" Zone (Ozone Use) Please help. <Will try!> Its been 10 years since I kept reef tanks and I'm now confused. <It's been longer for me, and I'm STILL confused! Don't stress over it! :)  > Back in the day I used to use a counter current skimmer and air stone with ozone injection. Now I am starting a new reef tank and I purchased a Turboflotor 1000 skimmer. The only problem is you cannot inject ozone into this skimmer. What I came up with, and this is where I need your advice, is an ozone reactor. Basically it is a 3" dia clear pvc pipe 30" long filled with BioBale. Water is pumped over the media and air and ozone is pumped in via a tetra Luft pump. The exhaust tube starts 1" off the bottom and the water is forced out by the air pressure. The water exits and passes through another piece of pvc filled with carbon to eliminate any residual ozone. Does this sound proper or could I just connect the output of my reactor directly into the input of my Turboflotor (without a carbon filter in line) or would the residual ozone in the water still corrode the plastic impeller assembly? <I like the idea of the "reactor", myself. I've seen similar devices in use before...I'd give it a go for awhile and see what kind of results you could get. I think that you will see less potential damage if the ozone is injected in this manner, although there are no guarantees either way...> Please help me I cannot find any information on this anywhere. <You might want to check out the DIY site ozreef.org and see if they have anything similar to what you're contemplating> Thanks, Mark <Glad to be here for you, Mark! Good luck, and keep us informed! Regards, Scott F>

Proper Ozone Addition... This is how I plan to connect Coralife ozonizer to my 90 gallon reef tank. The dosage will be 3mg/10gallons (max dosage for the ozonizer I have). It will be connected to the venturi port of my BakPak2 skimmer. I was told that the usual dosage is around 5mg/10 gallons, but that is all I have right now, so I hope 3mg/10 gallons will still be somewhat sufficient. <If applied properly, it may supply some benefit...> I was also told that since I connect the ozonizer to venturi of skimmer, I really should not worry about passing water through carbon, because one will react by the time water goes to the main tank. <Umm...I still like the idea of filtering some of the effluent water through carbon to remove possible residual ozone...Still a possibility, and better safe than sorry...> The main question I ponder is can I do without ORP controller for a few months? <Personally, I would not use ozone without an ORP controller...Haphazard application of ozone is potentially problematic...Maybe a low dose (mg/gal) is not too bad, but it's the practice of adding ozone without precision and control that would bother me...Don't get into the habit of using ozone, additives, or anything designed to manipulate tank environmental parameters unless you test or otherwise can measure precisely the dosage of what your adding! You know what I mean? Just good practice, IMO> Especially since the dosage is way less than the recommended average. So the questions that remain are: -Should I run the ozonizer all the time? <As above...I like control, baby!> -What are some overdose symptoms in fish and inverts that I should keep an eye on? <Difficulty in breathing, "burned" finnage...the signs will be obvious...> -Will 3mg/10 gallons still be beneficial? <If applied properly, it could provide some benefit...> -Is it possible for the ORP to be too high? <In theory...> -And finally will ozone take out any essential trace elements, such as iodine, calcium, strontium, magnesium etc.  that I should increase supplementation of? <I would measure these parameters regularly if you are concerned about their depletion...Personally, I have always maintained that, in most situations, it's better to utilize regular, frequent water changes with a high-quality salt mix as your "supplement"...> Thanks, Luke <My pleasure, Luke! As  author John Tullock always asserts- "Test, then tweak!"...Good advice, IMO! Good luck! Regards, Scott F.>

What do you think of this ozonizer? Coralife Electronic Ozonizer? Thank you, Luke <Coralife/ESU has not been known for producing top shelf/high end quality products. Rather, their niche seems to be making affordable hobby grade products with a lot of advertising invested <G>. I have had friends/folks use this product with great content. I personally would not pay money for it, but rather invest in a more industrial/durable instrument. Best regards, Anthony>

- Ozonizer Questions - OK, got a few ozonizer questions, I hope you guys could help me out with. - How effective is Ozone in killing parasites such as marine Ich and velvet? <Not.> - How effective generally is ozone compared to UV light for bacteria/viruses/parasites? <Not.> - Will ozone somehow burn or convert the nitrates and phosphates? <No.> - Will ozone in any way affect alkalinity, ph, Ca levels, iodine, Strontium or other vital water parameters? <Shouldn't.><<Mmm, will raise pH. RMF>> - Any specific ozonizer that you recommend? I'm looking at the Red Sea Aqua Zone Plus 100 <Is a fine ozone generator - the one with the built in ORP meter is the styling-kind.> - How much carbon should I put before the water return to the tank (how much is enough) and how often do I need to change it? <Depends on the ozone reactor you are using - if you dump the output into a skimmer, you probably don't need to worry about carbon - so all that said to say this: it depends on your setup.> Now, for the ozonizer setup. In my 90 gallon tank, I have 2 CPR BakPak2 skimmers (no sump). I also have Fluval 404 filter. I understand that I could hook up the ozonizer to the venturi input of the skimmer, so I'm ok on this part. <Yep.> But the BakPak doesn't have a chamber for carbon right before the outlet. <Ozone is highly - did I mention highly? - reactive compound. You have to believe me when I say this - 99.99% of it will be used up before it leaves the skimmer.> Is the carbon really necessary? <No - not when run with a skimmer.> What will happen if some of the ozone gets back to tank? <It will quickly react with something and be used up.> Could I somehow hook up ozonizer to the Fluval 404 filter? <No way that I can think of.> Or perhaps I could hook up the ozonizer to the venturi port on the skimmer, but keep carbon in the Fluval (in this case some ozone could escape to the main tank, but the Fluval would filter it out.) <You should run carbon for other reasons - if you choose to do this via the Fluval, that is fine.> Or are there any commercial 'ozone reactors' for that purpose? <Yes.> As always, huge thanks. Luke <Cheers, J -- >

- AquaC Urchin and Ozone - I have a urchin pro which I just found out is not compatible with ozone. <I don't know if I'd use the word incompatible - there just isn't a easy place to get the ozone in like the fitting on the AquaC EV series. You can use a venturi fitting on the powerhead to get ozone into the skimmer, but it will affect the efficiency of the skimmer.> I know that the ozone discharge is supposed to go into the skimmer intake. <It doesn't have to go there.> Is there another way to dose ozone safely without adding it directly to the skimmer? <There are ozone reactors on the market which will accomplish the same thing.> Thank you for this wonderful site. Alex <Cheers, J -- >

- Ozone Reactor - Hi, <Hello, JasonC here...> As I am always trying to improve my system (albeit behind my wife's back!) I was wondering what was your opinion about ozone reactors. <Neither here nor there really... they work. You would do just as well running the output into your skimmer. Oh wait, you already are ;-) > I am particularly interested in one made by Coralife, since right now I am mixing the ozone through an airstone in my Sea Urchin Pro, and suspect the currents created by the airstone my affect the skimmer's performance. <Well, no matter what the presence of ozone will affect the production in any skimmer.> What is normally needed to run such a reactor? <Water in, water out... an ozone generator... not much else.> Finally are the Aquazone generators any good? <They work... some have built in ORP measurement and control, which is handy. Nothing wrong with them that I am aware of.> As I want to upgrade my small 25 Sander, but no one seems to sell those anymore. <I've seen them around, but you will likely need to use a search engine to find one.> Kind regards, Harold <Cheers, J -- >

Aquazone 100 and air pump size - 8/11/03 Hi hope all is well.   <with you in kind> I wanted to ask a question about ozone.  I recently purchased a Aquazone 100 for my FOWLR 90 gallon tank, I read your recommendation about adding an air dryer so I added one of these.  I have an in- sump ASM skimmer G2 venturi type, I am planning on drying the air prior to unit then send into the venture air intake tube.  I have not been able to find any information as to the size of air pump to use for pushing the air through the dryer.   <the dryer will have recommendations, but the flow is minimal at any rate. Just get a nice sturdy pump in the mid range and be sure to use a gang valve with it> I do have a couple of air pumps sitting around but would like help on sizing for this unit.   <we have no way of knowing even if I knew what brand of dryer you bought [ahem ;) ]... short of one of us owning that same model> The air pumps are a Whisper 700, and also an optima 500cc/min.  minimum, and 5500cc/min  maximum PSI 4.2.  Any help would be appreciated.  Thanks. Kevin <do let the mfg earn their sale, my friend... and I suspect that one of these pumps will meet their specs. Anthony>

Ozone and Alkalinity Question - 8/10/03 Dear WWM crew, <howdy> My 240 gallon tank is currently running at 375 mv to 398 mv without my Clearwater ozone generator turned on (last several days).   <very fine> The ozone is set to turn on at 345 mv.   <And your hi-point is set for just under 400 I presume?> If I understand it from Bob's book, that over 400 mv is dangerous to the life in my tank. <rather... it's the high end of the safe zone. Agreed> My tests for alkalinity yield 14.0 dKH.  My calcium is 350.  Any advice or suggestions? <your ALK is too high... do let that stray down to a ceiling of 12dKH. The calcium is fine however. No need to fixate on specific numbers... just stay stably within a range> Current parameters: Ph ranges from 8.28 in the a.m. to 8.4 in the p.m. Calcium Reactor effluent Ph is 6.78 Ammonia=0 Nitrites=0 Nitrates=25 Salinity=1.026 Temperature=80 (temperature is controlled) 300 lbs live rock in display, small amount of live rock in refugium.  Live rock teaming with copepods and amphipods. Several white Syconoid sponges present on the rock. Small amount of coral gravel (1 to 2") in display and refugium. Good amount of macro algae in refugium. (Light on 24/7) <all fine> Fish=Picasso trigger (In sump waiting for a home), blue tang, 3 yellow tangs,6 blue/green Chromis, 6 line wrasse, watchman goby, green mandarin and scooter blenny. Corals=torch coral, brain coral, cabbage coral, colt coral, Kenya tree coral, button polyps. Inverts=Crocea clam, bubble tip anemone, cleaner shrimp, coral banded shrimp, tube anemone (in refugium), several hermits and a few snails. <dreadful to see the anemone mixed in with sessile cnidarians/corals... do reconsider removing to a species tank or ancillary tank at least (very risky long-term as a motile cnidarians... unnatural too)> Additional equipment=Acrylic tank with corner overflows, 3-175 w 10k M.H. w 2 - 95w blue actinic VHO's, CS8-4 Euro reef skimmer, 4 maxi jet 1200 powerheads in display tank and 2 Mag 1200 return pumps. <you have a fine system overall... no worries. Best regards, Anthony>

Ozonizer 7/30/03 Dear WWM Crew How are you all doing? <keepin on keepin on> I just have a quick question. Which is the best/most efficient 100mg/h electronic ozonizer on the market right now? <cannot say definitively... but I have no care for the old corona discharge styles... and I am not endeared to any of the junky (IMO) hobby models available. I do like the sturdy Ozotech units> Which corals can I keep in a 16" deep aquarium using 1 30W actinic blue and 1 30W power glow light?? <not many even considering the shallow water> I think none, and if I add a 90 or 110W VHO?? <yes... much better. Do look at mostly soft coral (Alcyoniids particularly), Corallimorphs and Zoanthids> Thank you  Best regards Helio <kindly, Anthony>

- Residual Ozone and Silicone - Hi, <Hello.> Again, I bother you with my inquiries. <Not a bother at all...> I was wondering if residual ozone, say .05ppm is dangerous for tank inhabitants and also for the silicone sealant? <Should be no such thing as residual ozone - is HIGHLY reactive which means that any trace amount will have reacted with something and removed itself from the loop.> I have a small 25mg Sanders Ozonizer and even though I pass the water through carbon my Red Sea Fish Pharm kit always indicates a residue of .05ppm. <I'd blame the test kit.> I have done some research regarding 100% elastomeric silicone sealants and supposedly they will not deteriorate with ozone, do you have any knowledge of this? <No personal experience, but again... ozone in aquarium water is typically used immediately so there is very little left to go astray. I wouldn't be concerned.> Thanks as always for your invaluable help. Kind regards, Harold <Cheers, J -- >

New reef set-up questions - OZONE usage 7/4/03 Hi Anthony! <Cheers to Greece.> Since my Remora skimmer is not designed to work with ozone , I have decided to start my reef without ozone. Have you seen reefs being successful without the use of ozone? <More often than not, yes.> In case I do not use ozone, is it worth to buy an ORP monitor? <Yes! very much so... and excellent measure of water quality in general.> From the reading I have made so far, it seems that it is a good tool to check every moment your system's overall well-being, and take the appropriate actions when something seems to go wrong. <Quite correct.> My heater is not 200W, as I wrote in my previous memo, it is 150 W. I am thinking of buying an extra heater of 100 Watts and place them both in the sump. <Very wise.> Will the total 350 Watts  be enough for the 270+70 liters of my tank + sump? <Hard to say... depends on the interior ambient temperature and any fluctuations... but I suspect it will indeed be enough.> Best regards, Thanassis  <Kindly, Anthony>

Calcium reactor, UV, Ozone Hi again, <Hello to you, JasonC here...> I have a simple one this time. I am constructing a FOWLR. Will this benefit from having a calcium reactor? <Not especially.> Will the presence of calcium help me grow a more diverse range of "things" on the live rock or in the sand (I plan to have a deep sand bed too). <It would pay to keep the calcium in a decent range, but you could achieve that with additives. Calcium reactors become more useful when you have organisms that consume large amounts of calcium.> Will a UV sterilizer help or hinder a DSB and LR? <Don't think it will affect it either way, but in general more useful for hospital and quarantine tanks.> I want to use ozone, how do I know what size of unit to buy? <Buy what you can afford WITH the controller.> I cant find much on that. I plan to use an ORP controller so that will take care of things for me but I don't want to buy a unit that is too big or small. <Most of the small units available to aquarists are too small to get into big trouble with.> Thanks, Adam L <Cheers, J -- >

Don't Get Down From The Brown! (Algae)... Hi crew, 2 unrelated questions if you would be so kind: 1: Is there any evidence suggesting that use of ozone could contribute to fin degeneration  and/or HLLE? <I have not heard of any connection between ozone and HLLE.. More of an environmental "disease". As far as fin degeneration- it's possible that over-dosing ozone can damage tissues on the fish, and lead to other potential health problems. If used correctly, however, ozone is a very useful tool for enhancing water quality><<Indirectly does/would help... with improvement in water quality... RMF>> 2. I am in the process of breaking in a 20low which I intend to use primarily as a live rock/gorgonian invertebrate system, with a couple of hard corals; inhabitants will be limited to those collected in two to four feet of water in the Florida Keys. For this purpose, I am lighting with 130watts of power compact, 50/50 10,000k/actinic. The system is less than a week old, and I have moved several gorgonians and some Halimeda and Caulerpa from the tank it is replacing into it. The old system had a little brown algae here and there, but within a few days of being under the PC's it has really taken off, mantling the gorgonians, Halimeda and now the substrate; the usual algae eaters are present and doing their job, but not keeping up. <Algal blooms are common in new systems with abundant nutrients. And, when you add into the equation a lot of light-wham! A recipe for nuisance algae! The key here is balance...You need to activate nutrient export processes, such as protein skimming, water changes, use of chemical filtration media, and good overall husbandry techniques>     To date, I have fed very little, and plan to keep ahead of things with water changes until cycling is complete, but this algae is a problem; this is my first experience with PC's, and I assumed the high light levels would ultimately disfavor the browns. Any  suggestions would be appreciated. <As above, fostering nutrient export processes will really help, as will a dose of patience! In time, and with good water conditions, these nuisance algae will give way to corallines...hang in there!> Along the same lines, assuming use of turbo/Astrea snails, emerald crabs, and blue legged hermits, I would be grateful for an unbiased estimate of how many of each this system should utilize. Thanks for your help, Steve. <Well, it's really hard to say...I'd go for about 6-8 of each...These guys are good with hair algae, but may have minimal impact on the brown "slime" algae...Just keep maintaining good water conditions, and hang in there...These nasty algae will eventually go away! Good luck! Regards, Scott F>

Ozone generators Dear Bob & crew, Trying to get a straight answer. Does ozone injected into a skimmer specifically help remove phosphates and nitrates? I see in your FAQ responses that ozone helps remove dissolved organic compounds, but I'd like to know about these two (end results? of the bio process specifically. <Does help to reduce these compounds> Also, I purchased a Euro Reef skimmer on your recommendation. Works great as advertised. Any recommendation on what Ozone generator or use on a Euro Reef CS12-2 and on a 400 gallon tank with heavy bio load? <Am still a big fan of the Sander's line> Except in certain circumstances, I know you guys shy away from product endorsements, but if you've had any experience with a specific model of Ozone Generator on Euro Reef skimmers, I'd appreciate learning from your knowledge. I really cant afford to buy two Ozone generators (the one I always buy first) then the best one for my situation (which I inevitably buy 3 months later when the first is yielding mediocre results). As always, best regards and thanks for your help. <Bob Fenner>

- Ozonizer Set Up - Hello, <And hello to you, JasonC here...> Once again, I'm at your mercy and begging for help! I purchased an Aquazone Plus 200 Ozonizer with probe and Sanders Air Dryer on eBay. Just as I suspected, I can't figure out how to use them. I am using a Remora Protein Skimmer but it has been modified to sit in sump and powered by a Maxi-Jet 1200 power head. Where and how should I pump the ozone in? <I guess, ideally it should go into the skimmer via a venturi on the pump.> Should I use the air dryer? <I would.> Could you just come over and hook it up for me? <Sorry, no...> I have read over the FAQ's on Ozonizers, but I need specific directions! <Then you should contact Red Sea, the people who make it.> I'm new to the marine aquarium hobby, mechanically challenged, and blonde! <No worries, it's not very complex, but some manufacturer's recommendations would really help.> Seriously, if you can help me out, I would greatly appreciate it. Lynn <Cheers, J -- >

- Ozone HELP - <Greetings, JasonC here...> I just hooked up a Aquazone 100 with controller and probe on Saturday.  I have it going into a Aqua- C EV-120.  It made a incredible difference in clarity.  I have not received my residual ozone test kit yet.  I had it set a 30 ml  and ORP set at 300.  The ORP was 240 when I first hooked it up Saturday according to the pin point probe.  I have read on your site to have the exit water out of the skimmer to go over carbon. <Not really so important - the AquaC EV series of skimmers is very efficient, and with all likelihood 99.999% of the O3 is used up by the time it leaves the skimmer.> I could not figure out a good way to do this, so I put carbon in my sump.  I got like 5 bags of Chemi-Pure right around the exit port of the skimmer.  I have not contacted Aqua-C as of yet to see if they make something that can screw into the exit port of skimmer and add carbon to.  Right now I have a plastic cup with holes drilled in it and a bag of carbon in it, plus 4bags of carbon. <Running carbon every so often is a good thing - running this much constantly is a drain on the wallet. Again, I wouldn't worry so much about excess Ozone.> Tonight when feeding the fish, I opened the canopy and could smell ozone. <Did you check your ORP reading at the time?> I shut it off for now.  <I think you're safe - 30ml per hour is not a lot of Ozone.> I thought I had enough carbon in it. <The smell could have been from another source...> Also I noticed the skim was lighter which you said in one of your articles.  Any ideas? <Don't worry so much about it.> My colt coral does not look good today, kinda sloughing.  Is this due to ozone getting to the tank? <Probably not.> I thought I had enough carbon in the sump.  I also have a Aqua-C waste container that has a place for carbon on the top of it and also has carbon in it.    <There seems to be a lot of urban myth about Ozone generators going awry and causing havoc - I think these are mostly hearsay and where problems were caused, it was due to oversizing of the generators, and/or poor monitoring on the aquarist's part. Again, at 30ml/hr you're going to find it hard to get into trouble. Cheers, J -- >

Re: ozone Hello Bob and cohorts, I recently contacted Euroreef regarding the ozone compatibility of their skimmers and received the following advice... "We do not recommend using ozone in protein skimmers as it greatly reduces the efficiency of the skimmer and produces more nitrate in the system."  I have heard some praise from you guys regarding the stuff, so I'll assume that it's good in some situations, bad in others. <Actually, am surprised by the second statement. Would you please send their (Jeff or Bob Macare's) response to you en toto?> Here's my rundown... 55 gal. w/ 20 gal sump., 15 gal refugium w/ Chaetomorpha, & 5 gal DSB 130 lbs. rock (split between main tank & refugium) 260 W of PC light, Euroreef CS6-2 skimmer EHEIM canister for carbon & PolyFilter B-Ionic is only additive NH3, NO3, NO2, PO4 - zero pH -  8.3 kH - 11 Ca - 460 sp.grav - 1.025 temp - 79 F O2 - 4 to 5 mg/l lots of LPS, soft corals, 1 squamosa, plenty of fish & critters I am concerned that this dissolved oxygen level is a bit low and ozone might help. <Should, yes>   I understand saturation at my conditions is around 6.6 mg/l. <About this, yes> What are your thoughts as to me getting an ozone generator for my system?  What would be the benefits / drawbacks?  Is Euroreef on to something?  I appreciate your advice. <This is a worthwhile addition, adjunct to your systems filtration. Would add one myself, and likely run through the skimmer... a small unit of a few tens of milligrams per hour of 03 production... Please see WetWebMedia.com under "ozone" re use. Bob Fenner> -Mario

Re: ozone Sure, here is the complete message (from Jeff Macare, 3/17/03)... --The skimmer is ozone safe. You can attach it to the silicone suction to the venturi. We do not recommend using ozone in protein skimmers as it greatly reduces the efficiency of the skimmer and produces more nitrate in the system.-- <... perhaps our experiences just vary... I'm of the opinion that "efficiency" is improved (if overall water quality is the measurable, desired result... and nitrates are reduced overall.> Pretty short and sweet.  My original question was whether or not I should hook the air intake from the skimmer directly to the ozone generator.     Thanks again for all of the shared knowledge, -Mario <Thank you, Bob Fenner>

Regarding ozonizer selection MUSALLAM TRADING EST PB NO 4533,COMMERCIAL AREA, HODEIDAH-YEMEN, PHONE:00967 3 219791/2 FAX:00967 3 219790 E-MAIL: mus123@y.net.ye Website: www.m usallam .co.ae Dear Sir We are just beginners in the aquaculture field. We are on the way to start our shrimp culture unit with 300 ha water spread and a hatchery with an installed capacity to produce approx. 30 million Post larvae of the Penaeus Spp . We are looking for an ozonizer system for our hatchery to treat the incoming water. Could you please suggest us the correct design and specification for our system. Which one would be ideal  the in-line contacting type or the other one.     Please go through the diagram and suggest us the best suiting ozonizer system with all the required accessories like the injection devices, contact chamber, degassing column etc. And we prefer a system with an adjustable ozone production control (0 to 100 %) to be fitted with. What would be the optimum O3 concentration levels for an aquaculture system Thanking you With best regards For Musallam Trading Est. Radhakrisnan P Manager hatchery <Mmm, am referring your mail to a few friends/associates who may be able to help you. Bob Fenner>

Berlin Skimmers and Adding an Ozone Unit I am thinking about adding a ozone unit to my 75 gallon tank.  It has fish live rock and some brain corals, maze corals.  I have a Berlin classic skimmer inside a 20 gallon sump below the main tank.  It has been upgraded to the turbo model.  I read on the box it is not ozone compatible the upgrade I am assuming.  The skimmer itself says its is ozone compatible.  I am looking at buying the Red Sea deluxe with controller and probe.  Not sure what size to get though.  100 or 200 model.  Are they hard to hook up?  Do you know if I should go back to the original venturi in the skimmer and run a larger power head than they send in the turbo upgrade?  The turbo model does not seem to collect that much waste, or I may not have it set just right.  Which is probably the case.  I have the water flow on the turbo power head all the way up with air control valve about half closed.  I do have the water coming down to the sump going through a 100 micron bag filter.  I do not know if this will cut down on some of the work the skimmer has to do.  I friend said to use a power head with venturi action and a needle impellor.  I cannot find one of these powerheads.  Any Ideas? <Honestly? You can spend a fortune trying to make your Berlin (Edsel) a Corvette, change the engine, ignition, etc. It will still be an Edsel. Consider one of the better skimmers designed for ozone (if you really need it, which is doubtful). We all like Aqua-C and Euro-Reef skimmers at WWM. Perhaps take a look at the new Euro-reef ES Series skimmer for in-sump use.  Some of the Euro-reefs and Aqua-C's come with ozone capability. Craig>

Ozone Stable Plastic  - 2/14/03 can i use a AMiracle counter current skimmer as a ozone reactor? thanks <the correct answer is a serious matter. Do consult the manufacturer to verify if their acrylic is ozone stable. Anthony>

Ozone With An Aqua C Urchin Skimmer? Hi guys! <Hi there! Scott F with you> Just wanted to know if you have any experience about applying ozone to an Urchin Pro skimmer, maybe adding an airline with an airstone, or something similar. <Hmm...Not personally, but I'd recommend contacting either the manufacturer, or perhaps put a post out on the wetwebmedia.com chat forum to see if anyone has tried this.> I am planning to upgrade my non-skimmer (SeaClone) to an Urchin, but I use ozone and wanted to see if anyone has had any experience with this skimmer. I wish I could get a bigger skimmer, but my sump is very small and the Urchin seems to fit nicely. <It is really an excellent skimmer, and will do a great job for you!> Also, just as a quick fact, I sent AquaC a couple of e-mails to them, and promptly got a response from the president of the company. Now that is what I call costumer service!! <Aqua C's owner, Jason Kim, is one of the nicest guys in the industry, and, being a hobbyist himself, is always helpful and enthusiastic. I'd bet that he could give you some tips on the use of ozone with this skimmer! Try contacting him again!> Thanks, Harold Chamberlain Costa Rica <Sorry I couldn't be of more assistance to you...Do contact Jason again- I'm sure he'll have some ideas on this! regards, Scott F>

- Ozone Questions - Dear WWM Crew, <Hello, JasonC here...> This is Howard in Wisconsin again looking forward to the new book and once again trying to learn a bit more of what I don't know about this hobby With a two year old set up circulating about 160+ gallons, net - set up and modified 100% in accordance with TCMA and WWM and never a disease process, I should be satisfied. However, several months ago I added a second refugium with "non-Caulerpa" macro algae, peppermint shrimp, worms, copepods, and amphipods. First refugium has 6 inches of fine sand and is packed with often harvested Caulerpa. Fish bioload is about half the "rule of thumb" level but I know that the large 'convicts' living under the rock and sand in caves have created a space that can't be cleaned and gets little circulation. Deep sand (5 inches oolitic), inoculations from 3 sources, and fully cured live rock completed the second refugium which I hoped would be the last step in my little ecosystem. I figured  I could grow natural food and perhaps enough other macro algae to later swap out the Caulerpa in the first refugium. Well, the live sand brought with is a plague of red algae which slowly killed off the 4 species of macros and infected everything else in the system. A very productive Turboflotor, lots of carbon, poly filter, 1600 gph circulation, and my "only when needed" 25 micron - 700 gph mechanical filter all proved inadequate. Frequent chemistry checks continued to show 0 ammonia, nitrate, and silicate (I have R/O and D/I). Nitrates ranged from 0 to 0.4. I used two different low range test kits  to confirm nitrate. I just couldn't figure out what was feeding the red algae! Last week, after reading tons of advice from the web and re-reading sections of TCMA I decided to add the only bit of technology in that book that I did not have - an ozone generator and ORP monitor. This is an addition that I know Bob is very high on but I thought I could do without. The ORP monitor read 60, yes SIXTY while chemical tests still showed no chemical pollution. How is that possible?? An ORP test solution standardized at 200 - 250 mv read 205 so I assume the actual reading may have been even less than 60! How is it possible to have so much dissolved organics and/or low oxygen and still be shown that all is well by the chemistry panel? <You should pose this question to the manufacturer.> By the way, my fish and corals have been fine through all this but now that the ozone has produced a steady ORP reading of about 350 the red stuff is fading. I didn't think my water could get any clearer but it has. If you're there, Bob, thanks again for the ORP/ozone advice. Now I have it all. <<Heeeeee! RMF> I'll be starting over with the new refugium concentrating on Anthony's "non-Caulerpas". I'll wait for the new book and follow you guys' advice on doing so.   There is a mass of tiny bubbles on the walls of the tanks which I hope will subside? I didn't have those with the Turboflotor breathing air only. Are there any creatures or plants that may not like the 350 mv ORP? <Not that I can think of.> The Red Sea generator/controller lets me set it anywhere I wish + or - 5 mv, ozone per hour up to 200 mg. (I'm running 150)With a carbon pad on top of the Turboflotor and a bag in the discharge there is no ozone smell at all. Howard <Cheers, J -- >

New plankton refugium/red algae/ozone Dear WWM Crew, This is Howard in Wisconsin again looking forward to the new book and once again trying to learn a bit more of what I don't know about this hobby <Me too!> With a two year old set up circulating about 160+ gallons, net - set up and modified 100% in accordance with TCMA and WWM and never a disease process, I should be satisfied. However, several months ago I added a second refugium with "non-Caulerpa" macro algae, peppermint shrimp, worms, copepods, and amphipods. <Okay> First refugium has 6 inches of fine sand and is packed with often harvested Caulerpa. Fish bioload is about half the "rule of thumb" level but I know that the large 'convicts' living under the rock and sand in caves have created a space that can't be cleaned and gets little circulation. <Yes> Deep sand (5 inches oolitic), inoculations from 3 sources, and fully cured live rock completed the second refugium which I hoped would be the last step in my little ecosystem. I figured  I could grow natural food and perhaps enough other macro algae to later swap out the Caulerpa in the first refugium. <Sounds good> Well, the live sand brought with is a plague of red algae which slowly killed off the 4 species of macros and infected everything else in the system. A very productive Turboflotor, lots of carbon, poly filter, 1600 gph circulation, and my "only when needed" 25 micron - 700 gph mechanical filter all proved inadequate. <Thank goodness> Frequent chemistry checks continued to show 0 ammonia, nitrate, and silicate (I have R/O and D/I). Nitrates ranged from 0 to 0.4. I used two different low range test kits  to confirm nitrate. I just couldn't figure out what was feeding the red algae! <... could be a few sources> Last week, after reading tons of advice from the web and re-reading sections of TCMA I decided to add the only bit of technology in that book that I did not have - an ozone generator and ORP monitor. This is an addition that I know Bob is very high on but I thought I could do without. <You could> The ORP monitor read 60, yes SIXTY while chemical tests still showed no chemical pollution. How is that possible?? An ORP test solution standardized at 200 - 250 mv read 205 so I assume the actual reading may have been even less than 60! How is it possible to have so much dissolved organics and/or low oxygen and still be shown that all is well by the chemistry panel? <It is likely the dissolved organics are at the base of the low ORP> By the way, my fish and corals have been fine through all this but now that the ozone has produced a steady ORP reading of about 350 the red stuff is fading. I didn't think my water could get any clearer but it has. <Great> If your there, Bob, thanks again for the ORP/ozone advice. Now I have it all. <We'll see...> I'll be starting over with the new refugium concentrating on Anthony's "non-Caulerpas". I'll wait for the new book and follow you guys' advice on doing so. <You'll really enjoy the algae section... the book could be labeled "Marine Refugiums and reef invertebrates..."> There is a mass of tiny bubbles on the walls of the tanks which I hope will subside? <Me too> I didn't have those with the Turboflotor breathing air only. Are there any creatures or plants that may not like the 350 mv ORP? <None that you'll likely want to keep> The Red Sea generator/controller lets me set it anywhere I wish + or - 5 mv, ozone per hour up to 200 mg. (I'm running 150)With a carbon pad on top of the Turboflotor and a bag in the discharge there is no ozone smell at all. <Shouldn't be. Thanks for writing. Bob Fenner> Howard

Re: 180 gal tank wet dry question plus ozone? hi guys killer site... just got a 180 gal tank with 2 overflows a custom aquatic wet dry a ts-8 Euro reef skimmer and 1/8 horse sequence pump. 1st question its a FO might convert to a reef later. is live rock in the sump better than bio balls and if i use live rock in the sump does it need lighting above the filter? <I would go for the live rock rather than the bio balls, and no, it doesn't need to be lighted.> does it need the same trickle action the bio balls need? or should it be under the water? <Better for it to be submerged.> if i use live rock instead of bio balls will it cut down on algae in the aquarium? <Not necessarily. There are other factors that will influence this more that the choice of filter media.> or is there something else you would put in the sump? <Live rock is fine.> 2nd question want to get ozone looking at the aqua zone plus 200 mg-hr ozonizer with controller and ORP probe also has air dryer...is there a better one you would recommend? <Perhaps the next model up... once you add the sump, your system will be larger than 180 gallons.> i would like an ozonizer that's complete do you know if the aqua zone plus is complete? <Need to check with the retailer where you intend to purchase it.> thank you for your help...Scott... <Cheers, J -- >

Protein skimmer and ozone Hi, Merry Christmas. <and the same to you my friend> Just a short question.  When I started to inject ozone into my Tunze skimmer. I found that the foam was weakening and in half-hour or so, it didn't accumulate in the cup.  Is this normal? Regards, TFChow <patience good sir. Any disruption will cause a delay in skimmate production... 12-18 hours is no surprise. Even without the ozone, often just your hand in the tank disruption the proteins at the water surface is enough to delay skimmate. All in good time. Tunzes once tuned correctly are generally very good skimmers. Best regards, Anthony>

Ozonizers Holiday Greetings: <and to you in kind> Thanks for your previous advice on set-up and stocking as I convert from freshwater to marine. I have set up an 80G FOWLR system with 1 Emperor 400 and 2 Fluval 404s left over from the freshwater. I also have a Remora Pro skimmer. I would like to add an ozonizer for its various benefits. I see from the Conscientious Marine Aquarist and your site's FAQs that you recommend injecting the ozone into the skimmer.  I contacted AquaC and received the following answer: >Steve, >Thanks for the message, the only way you can use ozone with the Remora Pro is to add a venturi attachment to the pump and use that to suck the ozone in.  This doesn't work very well, however, and I don't recommend it since it will take away from the available pump pressure and the skimmer's performance will fall as a result. Please let me know if you have any other questions and I can help out! >------------------- >Jason Kim >President, AquaC, Inc. My question for you is then: So where can I put ozone into the system as currently plumbed? Thank you for your input. Steve Allen <No worries here Steve. Injecting ozone has many benefits. It should always be done with good carbon on the effluent/excurrent air and water sides and it simply must be controlled by a RedOx meter. If you do this you will enjoy some great benefits well worth the dear price of the equipment. In your case, you can simply buy another small skimmer like the cheap Sanders models to use as an ozone reactor (they are only about $30)... to be mounted in the sump or refugium. If you don't have a refugium... an upstream 10 gallon tank might be wonderful here for you for many reasons. Do be sure to use a RedOx (ORP) controller with your ozonizer... if not it is just plain dangerous or weakly effective at best dosing blindly. Best regards, Anthony>

Re: Ozone and brine shrimp questions Anthony <Cheers, Pete> Thanks very much for your efforts in sending the answer to my previous question regarding ozone use for our 600,000L tank - I did receive it via the alternative address you used, and I also read it on the WWM FAQs.  Ozone sounds perfect for our application... can't wait to use it!  We are now looking for an ozone generator that produces around 30g/hr, ideally for less than the AUS$20,000 for a new unit.  Have some months before we'll need this so hopefully a better (i.e. cheaper) option will come up in the meantime. <I have sent some e-mails to aquaculture folks here in the states for you regarding commercial Ozonizers... I'll send word when I get some figures for you here for perspective> Thanks also for clarifying the 4% protein levels found in some adult brine shrimp.  Wow!  Suppliers of these brine shrimp must simply hatch them and feed NOTHING while waiting for them to grow to an acceptable size for the aquarium trade.   <worse... they harvest them wild unfed and without enriching them from the salt lakes here in the US> That's pretty slack isn't it!?!   <Heehee... its capitalism exploiting uninformed consumers, actually> There might be an opening for someone to produce adult brine shrimp properly enriched for use by aquarists.   <it cannot be produced and marketed cheap enough to outcompete this wild, low grade high profit industry> It's not that hard to do!   <agreed in principal> I'm glad you explained to me how this 4% protein comes about... I'm quite happy to eat humble pie for trying to correct you <G>, <no need to eat that pie at all my friend! You have reminded us of the often overlooked value of live or enriched brine. For reef keepers I strongly recommend feeding very freshly hatched brine nauplii to trip some corals to planulate (like the Pocilloporids... they planulate easily when fed)> as long as others can learn from the exchange! <agreed! With thanks> Talk again soon.  Pete McKenzie.      <curious question too Pete... I'm going to be in Singapore this Spring... how far of a flight is it to visit your region of Australia from there. Considering its on the other side of the globe from where I live... I'm going to visit a few places on an extended tour. I've been invited to lecture in Hong Kong (going north of Singapore!)... but from my perspective, Australia is just a hop away <G>. Bob wants to go diving in Vietnam!?! I'm more of a land tourist personally :) Best regards, Anthony>

Ozone quantity for Australian tank Hello Anthony and Bob <Hello Pete! Bob is off to the Caribbean again :) But I am faithfully here to chat with you> Pete McKenzie from Western Australia again with some ozone queries.  Ozone treatment sounds like it would suit our new public aquarium setup perfectly, so I hope we can use it.   <agreed... most large public aquaria use it. It is time-tested, very effective and well understood> I read in one of the "ozone" FAQs on WWM that 10mg ozone per hour per 100L of water is about right for a normal marine tank.  Does it then follow that we can scale this up proportionately for our big tank; i.e. 60g ozone required per hour for our 600,000L tank? <I suspect that you will not need that much. Perhaps quite a bit less. The hobby aquarium recommendations are for small aquaria that are likely to have a higher level of dissolved organics and a heavier bio-load (inherently overstocked fish tanks). Your display by virtue of its size/volume will have a considerably lighter bio-load and hopefully less DOC levels with careful feeding, aggressive skimming, water changes and the virtue of the water volume> Or do we need more/less than this?  The tank's fish bioload will be quite light for such a large water volume - around 150kg.   <agreed... less ozone likely needed> Tank will also have the filtration benefits of DEEP sand beds and seagrass, plus a large quantity of live rock.   <all good, but these are mineralizing faculties and not nutrient export processes (unless you harvest the seagrass in which case you will have some small benefit here). The ozone instead facilitates the export of reduced organics through the protein skimmers (PS: be sure that your skimmers are made with ozone stable plastics)> Natural light will provide a nice ecosystem with associated natural foods, and I'll be careful not to overfeed of course.  We'd like this tank to have "oceanic" quality, crystal clear water, and think this is achievable if we run the appropriate amount of ozone through the skimmer.   <exactly... among the many benefits of ozone, imparting a superb crystal blue water clarity is achieved with the application> Skimmer will be 4m high, 1m diameter, counter-current design with air pump and diffusers... can wooden diffusers handle ozone, or is there a better option? <the wooden airstones will be fine with ozone. The inherent nature of the wooden block diffuser requires that they are changed regularly for optimal performance (not used more than 4 weeks for most). As such, their ability to produce adequate bubble sizes will fail before ozone degrades them> I've been looking at some of the bigger ozonators on the net, and must say that they all look very complicated and expensive.   <not complicated at all... they are extremely easy to use and should/must be used in concert with a RedOx controller (simple meter with setpoints to dose and monitor ozone). They are not that expensive if you buy them from an industrial or aquaculture source. They are expensive however if you buy them from an aquarium supply house (marketing... price gouging).> Hope we can afford one!  If we do need 60g/hr, the power required to produce this amount is around 1kW, which is not too bad really... <agreed... very low power> we always try to minimize our running costs where possible.  Can you recommend a manufacturer of a suitable unit, or perhaps suggest where I might find a second-hand unit? <ozone is an extremely common industrial application. They almost certainly are manufacturers of such units somewhere in Oz. Again, do avoid aquarist supply vendors, but instead ask around to water treatment facilities (your regional drinking water authorities). Also seek out food fish farmers (shrimp culture, food fish culture, etc). Aquaculture units tend to be cheaper and less expensive. You might contact other big/public aquaria on the continent as well... but don't be surprised if they bought or only know of over-priced units. With all due respect, many of the folks in the zoological community are learned men and women in the sciences, but poor shoppers/bargain hunters for having been spoiled with large budgets. Many of them  quite frankly are barely competent at husbandry! I'm not sure what its like in Oz, but here in America, many of the big public aquaria need to employ more actual aquarists and perhaps a few less lab monkeys with impressive degrees but no practical experience in animal husbandry :) Case in point... it gets back to finding a product in a market that will charge you a fair price. Food farmers (fish/shrimp) are hard-working people... and they are very savvy about their expenses. They will demand a good product that is made strong, lasts long and is affordable. Lets find an aquaculture supply house for you in Oz. And if we cannot find a good vendor easily... then lets do some keyword searches for aquaculture facilities instead, call them and ask for their professional courtesy and advice. We could even contact your governments department of fisheries and aquaculture for contacts and referrals. Perhaps your local/regional department of commerce (they have all such businesses licensed and listed)> After using ozone in the skimmer, what needs to be done before the water returns to the display tank?  Activated carbon removal is probably not an option at this large scale... <hmmm... this is the best and most common way to disperse. Without it I would have to defer to the manufacturers recommendations> would a "settling tank" with a water retention time of some minutes suffice?   <perhaps not, and residual ozone in the display can be fatal and a health hazard. You may need to build an off-gassing tower> The tank will have inverts including corals... Thanks once again Anthony, your advice is invaluable :) <it is my great pleasure, my friend. Best regards, Anthony>

Ozone use, filtering output water through carbon Bob, <Steven Pro in this morning.> I am using a large Euro-Reef skimmer in my sump. I'm getting ready to install an ozonizer, but can't see any simple way to filter the outflow through carbon. <Simple enough, just add a T to the top of the outflow, so that it is arranged with one part straight down, one part straight up, and the last part sticking out the side. To the side piece connect an elbow. Under the elbow, Jimmy-rig some sort of basket to hold carbon. In this way, excess air/bubbles are able to vent out the top of the T while the water is redirected to the carbon. The only hard part maybe finding pipe fittings to match the Euro-Reef plumbing.> So I'm going to purchase an oxygen/ozone reactor and plumb the reactor in line with my magnum canister filter using the carbon basket. Is it necessary to do this. <It is safest to use the carbon after ozone, if that is what you are asking.> Seems to me that the ozone would be more effective running through the big 12 inch diameter skimmer. <I would first double check that the Euro-Reef is ozone safe. Their webpage is here http://www.euro-reef.com/> Then again, the ozone reactor is will be used with 4-6 PSI so perhaps I'm wrong. The magnum canister pump will be circulating the water (350 gph) nothing compared to the flow of the skimmer with its two pumps. The ozonizer I purchased is a Aquazone 200 with RedOx control. Must/should the ozonized water be filtered through carbon? <Yes, for safety sake.> Also, I am having an outbreak of ick or velvet. <Two very different looking diseases with somewhat different treatments. Cryptocaryon looks like grains of salt attached to the body of the fish. Amyloodinium looks like a film on the body, not as easily seen and kills much faster than Cryptocaryon. Please reference www.WetWebMedia.com for additional information.> I'm slowly raising the temp to 85 and dropping salinity also. <Only moderately effective against Ich/Cryptocaryon, this will do nothing against Velvet/Amyloodinium.> Contemplating using ruby reefs reef safe medication. <I found the Ich medication from them to be almost useless. My complete coverage of treatment options will be coming out in our new online magazine, "Conscientious Aquarist", in the second issue.> Tank is 450 gal reef, lots of stuff in it. No way to strip it, catch, put everything. Any experience with these reef safe medications? <Nothing that will make you happy to hear.> I foolishly fed the tank some live brine shrimp and this seems to have started the problem. <I would look for another root cause. There is extremely little likelihood that this was the problem.> Any suggestions? <Are you a religious man? Have you led a good life? Perhaps you will get lucky. Let us assume/hope that this is Cryptocaryon. I would start with the lowered salinity and increased temperature, but you are stuck with the inverts not to go too low. With corals, I would not feel comfortable going lower than 1.020. I would get that ozonizer running, ASAP. There are other alternatives; daily 50 gallon water changes, find a medicated food or make your own food with Metronidazole, add some cleaner shrimp, and use garlic.> Thank you, Paul <Good luck! -Steven Pro>

Ozone Question Hello Again, I have another question about running OZONE in my tank. I have a Tunze 3115 skimmer, Clearwater Tech Ozonizer, Coralife Controller with probe. I have switched between a few size air pumps. As soon as I turn on the system the skimmer stops producing. Bigger the air pump worse the skimmer works. <it sounds like you are blasting air into the venturi causing large bubbles which reduce efficacy. Supported by the fact that a bigger pump yields worse performance. It is a sucking venturi (!) and should need little or no air flow to draw ozone into the unit. Again... forced air disturbs foam production> I thought the skimmer was going to work better.  <absolutely> Right now I am using a Rena model 100 air pump. It's pretty small.  <hook it up to a gang valve and bleed it lower to see if that helps> Also how long does it take for the ORP level to rise?  <hours/overnight> It has been running for a day and there is very little change in the ORP level. I also do get a smell of ozone in the room. <good heavens! Stop. Do you have a carbon satchel atop the skimmer and pass all effluent water over carbon without any possibility of a bypass? If not you will eventually and literally burn the eyes and gills out of your fishes in days/weeks from the residual ozone in the water and if enough gets into the air you'll start to get headaches as well. Please read the instructions my friend! Ozone is a tremendous benefit when properly applied but quite dangerous if misapplied (like iodine, Kalkwasser or most anything else in excess). Your skimmer needs to be in a skimmer box with a drilled overflow that passes entirely over carbon...not simply in the sump or main display. It needs to be so even without using ozone to have a very static water level for optimal performance. Otherwise they will only work if you top off evaporation at least once daily for consistent head against the skimmer. Best regards, Anthony> Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks Again, John

Re: Ozone Question Anthony, Thanks for your quick response to my ozone question.  <quite welcome my friend> I have the Coralife ORP controller working OK. and just picked up a Clearwater Tech model MZ-250 ozonizer from a friend. I have one last question though. My TUNZE 3115 skimmer sits inside my tank. How do I carbon aid the output for residual ozone? Again may Thanks for all your help. John <the in tank design of Tunze is actually quite brilliant when applied to an aquarium with an overflow... this allows the skimmer to operate at a very consistent level (and subsequent head) of water whereas a sump model skimmer that is not placed in a dedicated overflow box must suffer sump fluctuations which significantly impact performance. Unfortunately in this case... you really cannot release ozonated water into the aquarium through this skimmer. Once possible solution is to have a small skimmer box made just slightly bigger than the skimmer and drilled with an appropriately sized overflow hole. This skimmer box can be placed above or slightly out of the tank water (fed by a dedicated pump or the sump return) or perhaps better yet, placed downstream of the overflow (between the overflow drains and the sump inline) catching raw tank water. Either way, the overflow of this skimmer box can simply pour into a bag of carbon before continuing on. Ozone is a great benefit when used properly, but if abused can harm aquarium inhabitants and even you if enough gets into the air without carbon filtration. I personally like using it... many merits to its application (Disease control, increased RedOx and O2, improved water clarity, etc). Best regards, Anthony>

ORP Controller Question I have a Tunze 3115 Protein Skimmer which has a port for OZONE. I just picked up a Coralife electronic ozonizer model 100 and a Coralife ORP controller.  <nice collection of hardware there!> My question is: There seems to be a way to check your ORP level when you turn the dial on the controller. But will the controller shut the ozonizer off when it reaches the set point on the dial.  <exactly!> There is an outlet on the unit for the ozonizer. I have check the Coralife website and can't find the answer. So again I come to you for HELP. Many Thanks! John <its really that simple, John. Program a targeted set point and ozone will be injected until that point is reached. Don't aim too high... around 400mv would be fine. And make sure all effluent water passes over carbon. Best regards, Anthony>

Ozone/skimmer question Hello again, A week ago, I asked about in-tank model protein skimmers. I picked up a Tunze 3115. <Very nice. Same thing I have.> It has a port for ozone. I happen to have a ozone pump from a water purification system. It is an APOLLO model M5, 5watt. I do not have any other information on it. I have hooked it up with a timer and have it going on every other day for 4 hours during the night (pump quite noisy). Without the cost of expensive monitors do you think this is OK. <No, I think it is dangerous to dose ozone unmonitored.> Too much or too little? <No way of telling without an ORP tester/controller.> The tank setup is, 55 gallon, Tunze 3115 skimmer, fluidized bed filter, canister for chemical media, UV light, (4) 65watt power compact 50/50 smart bulbs and (3) power heads for circulation & lots of rock. If all goes well next step is coral. <You may want to consider removing the fluidized bed filter is you have a sufficient amount of Liverock.> I have picked up some great tips from your site. Many thanks for all your help. It is greatly appreciated. John <Good luck to you. -Steven Pro>

Continuously injecting ozone Thanks for the previous responses. I have a question now about injecting ozone into my skimmer. I have a fairly large Beckett skimmer (40"), that has a lot of swirling/agitation/etc, so the ozone should all be worked off. <Not necessarily.> Right now its connected to an ORP controller for 350mV. There is carbon in a chamber post skimmer, so that helps as well. <These two do more than help, they work very hard to ensure that no residual ozone makes its way into your tank.> I'd like to continuously inject ozone into the skimmer chamber, rather than off/on which it is doing now. Even if the ORP is at 350 right now, is it feasible/safe to constantly inject a low amount of ozone into the skimmer (like 60-75mg)? <No> Will this raise the ORP too high? <Yes, and then burn/melt/oxidize your fish.> How can you consistently shoot ozone into a system when the ORP is already high? <Not a good idea.> Is my water quality/ORP staying high which is a good thing? <Yes> and injecting more just isn't worth it? <Isn't worth the risk.> Thanks, Jim <You are welcome. -Steven Pro>

Ozone or UV In a large main display (fish only with LR) like 360-400 gallons. What would be a better choice to add first for parasite/pathogen control. An ozonizer (500mg/l) with ORP controller, or a large UV (120 watts). We plan on following religious quarantining, but it is possible for crypto or others to occasionally get through dips/quarantine/etc. Don't want to envision trying to track/capture a tang in such a large tank. I know the UV will have to be de-sized from manufacturer claims, but am inquiring into effectiveness of each method. Thanks, Jim <The best defense against disease is first off a strict quarantine protocol. And then next, maintaining an optimum environment (water quality, foods/feeding, decorations/hiding spots, temperature, compatible tankmates, etc.). Now to your question, I would get the ozonizer/controller and skip the UV. Much more effective at killing parasites and helps to maintain top notch water quality when properly installed and monitored. -Steven Pro>

Super Reef Devil + Coralife ozonizer Hello, <Cheers... Anthony Calfo in your service, telling everyone that Bob is in Australia when he really has taken a "judicial detour" after getting picked up for skinny dipping in a local university fountain. He says he was looking for wildlife... and judging by the reported sorority brand ("Property of...") on an undisclosed location of his person... I'd say he found it> I own a Super Reef Devil (SRD) protein skimmer. It has taken me 3 frustrating weeks, but it is now running *very* well. (I had to elevate it in the sump (1.75 inches) and add 2 additional bio-balls (for a total of 10)). It took 3 long weeks, but the results have been well worth the wait. <necessity... the mother of invention. Kudos to you> **NOTE** Word to the wise. The instructions that come with this skimmer are GROSSLY inadequate. Set up is not the issue. Tuning is the issue.  <as it is with most skimmers> Prior to hitting the 'magic combo' (elevate 1.75 inches in sump plus add 2 bio balls) I thought I wasted my money. Now I think the SRD is wonderful (it pulls burnt coffee colored skimmate from the tank to the tune of one full collection cup per day. Bio-load is light to boot, as the tank is only 3.5 weeks old. I had one day last week when it pulled 3 full collection cups of skimmate from the tank (I was experiencing a severe outbreak of diatom algae at the time)). ** END NOTE** <Excellent!!! Thank you for passing this along. ATTENTION: All Daily Q&A Readers... this is exactly how a skimmer should work. Yes... in a young, low stocked system you should still be able to pull out a cup of dark skimmate daily. So for tanks that are more established with fishes and haven't produced skimmate consistently... do not let yourself think that there is not much to skim. It will catch up eventually beginning with nuisance algae (thanks for the info and diversion Mark)> After much reading (including your very informative website) I am debating purchasing a Coralife Model 50 electronic ozonizer (or maybe the Model 100). I've never used an ozonizer before. Therefore, I have the following newbie questions: 1) In general, how is an ozonizer hooked up to a protein skimmer?  <in-line with the venturi or other air supply> 2) Is it possible to hook up an ozonizer to the SRD? To any skimmer? <yes...to any skimmer indeed. Even if that means adding a small airline> 3) Is there someplace (on your site or someplace else) where I can review some sort of set up and/or planning guide?  <I haven't exhausted the archives but do a keyword search on this site only (tag the bullet on the Google engine) for ozone... we have answered some recent replies that may be helpful> If it is possible, and not back-breakingly difficult, I would like to run ozone to improve the already pretty darn good skimming performance of my SRD (okay, so I'm greedy). <agreed... it will improve skimming through saponification, raise RedOx and O2 levels, is antiseptic and improves water clarity noticeably which will help with light penetration for corals> If it helps, my SRD in is my sump (a 20 gallon long tank (30" x 12" x 12", I believe) located directly under my main 75 gallon tank. Between the sump and the Eheim Pro II 2028, there is not a lot of room left under the tank -- some, but not much. <the electronic ozonizer is very small and does not require an air dryer like corona discharge units> If you need any additional info, please let me know. I want to make sure that I can actually use this model ozonizer (or another) *before* I spend my money. I know my wife would appreciate it :-() <make sure you pass all effluent water over carbon and also coordinate the application of ozone with a RedOx meter or controller (better yet)> Thanks in advance. Sincerely, Mark Schwartz <very welcome, my friend. Anthony Calfo>

Super Reef Devil + Coralife Ozonizer II Anthony, I contacted A.E. Technology (manufacturer of the SRD). They told me that using ozone on that skimmer was not an option (they actually used the word 'dangerous', but did not elaborate, and I did not press the issue). <wow! There are only two explanation for this: 1) they are mistaken and do not truly understand and appreciate the merits of Ozonation and 2) they have used a really cheap grade of "plastic/acrylic" that is destabilized by ozone. Good quality skimmer plastics and PVC can handle ozone with no problem. Two of the biggest European skimmer manufacturers (Tunze and Sanders) give specific instructions on how to apply ozone through their skimmers. Ozone misapplied is indeed dangerous just like iodine supplements and a lack of water changes... but I would not have insulted your intelligence by saying that they were "dangerous" without at least elaborating> They also felt that I would not see much, if any, improvement in performance (a little surprising to me, but they know more about skimmers than I do). <no my friend...trust your instincts. They give you an admonition and don't explain it...hmmmmm? As I stated before... ozone and UV are really only necessary for commercial applications (new fish/coral in and out frequently). Few home aquariums truly need them (especially if you are QTing properly) although some do benefit by it in special circumstances (high bioloads, coral fragging/farming, overfeeding fish/coral for growth, etc.> Thank you for your assistance. I do appreciate it. Sincerely, Mark Schwartz <best regards Mark. Anthony>

Which type of Ozone producer? <Anthony Calfo in your service while Bob travels to Australia intent on speaking the language... which means, I think, that he will be shirtless with a hat on his head and a beer in his hands at all times <wink! to my friends in Oz>> I appreciate your input on the protein skimmer, it was on my list of things to upgrade.  <a must have piece of equipment> Are you telling me that an ozonizer is not a worthwhile investment?  <I personally find them to be a very fun toy after you've bought everything else. Really must have only in commercial applications if you have good husbandry at home (QT all new livestock)> And I have read all the FAQ's and not one compares corona to UV. Can you give me any ideas, I would greatly appreciate it. Thanks Don <they are two entirely different beasts with Ozone being far more useful and dangerous. Neither are necessary for a traditional marine aquarium if you QT (again). UV simply irradiates the water and denatures algae and some pathogens (if the flow if slow enough, the water is clear and prefiltered, the bulb is changed every six months, the sleeve is cleaned quarterly or more often... very strict to apply UV successfully). Ozone, besides being more effectively germicidal, also increases O2 and RedOx in water, naturally clarifies (better than carbon), makes protein skimmers work far more effectively and has little maintenance issues to name a few. Misapplied though it can kill livestock and make you ill. Determine your needs before plunging into UV or Ozone. Kindly, Anthony Calfo>

Corona or U.V. Ozone? Hello Bob, I hope you can help my or at least point me in the right direction. I have a couple of questions to ask you (probably will be several by the time I get done). I have been reading for months about the benefits of ozone in the aquarium. I have a 100 gallon reef tank in which I would like to incorporate an ozonizer. The question is what type, corona discharge or U.V. Depending on which article or ad your are reading, their company makes the best. I read that corona technology provides higher ozone concentrations than UV, then I read that UV is better because you do not have to use a drier and that its ozone output is better. The drier is not a main concern for me, the air here is pretty much dry and driers are inexpensive. I just want your input here. Like many other aquarist I have invested countless dollars into my hobby much of which is sitting on a shelf in my closet because of experimentation or something better comes along and I buy that. Please, if you would, give me the pros and cons of each or any suggestions, or better yet, just tell me what to get. I have been looking at an Aquazone Plus (corona) and an Ultrazone 360 (UV). Also can I run the ozone into my SeaClone Protein Skimmer through the Venturi. Will it have enough contact time with the water? And is post-carbon filtering necessary? Thank you for your time. Don <I would read through the FAQ's on ozone and its use, here http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ozonefaqs.htm But if you really wish to improve your water quality, your most effective use of your money would be investing in a new high quality protein skimmer. Euro-Reef, Tunze, and Aqua-C brands all spring to mind. -Steven Pro>

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