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Pond FAQs
Updated 5/19/2017
 Other Specialized Daily FAQs Blogs: General, Planted Tanks, Freshwater, Brackish, Last Few Days Accrued FAQs, Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Rick Novy, Sue Garrett, Darrel Barton, Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Sabrina Sharp, Eric Russell, Chris Perivolidis, Chuck Rambo, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized daily Current Crew Bios., Not so current Crew Bios ____________________________________________________________
Aquatic Gardens

Ponds, Streams, Waterfalls & Fountains:
Volume 1. Design & Construction
Volume 2. Maintenance, Stocking, Examples

V. 1 Print and eBook on Amazon
V. 2 Print and eBook on Amazon

by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Algae Growth on Water Lilies... New pond, and ponder       5/19/17
Greetings, Crew!
It's Fuzzi here, again, with a question I can't find answered on WWM, or anywhere on the web, so I decided to ask!
I installed a 100 gallon preformed pond this April, adding water on April 16th, then adding filtration a week later, on April 23rd.
<So; just a month back>
I'm running a 330gph submersible pump, a skimmer with basket and filter pad, and the waterfall is full of floating plants doing their best to filter out the less-than-clear water, see photos. It is not noticeably green until you collect some in a jar, when a slight yellow/green coloration is evident.
<Happens... a sign of life... not to worry>

Since I added filtration, I have been steadily adding plants in pots, as well as floating plants (water lettuce and hyacinth), and then two hardy water lilies about two weeks ago. The weather has remained cool until recently.
No fish have been added.
I noticed that the water lilies have a green slimy algae-type of growth on their stems and under the pads (see photo).
<See this>
The water tests as uncycled, high (above 7.6) pH, ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates as zero.
<Uncycled... these should be some nitrogen present>
I believe the algae growth is due to new pond syndrome, but would love your input:
1. If the algae growth is part of new pond syndrome, will it pass once the water cycles?
2. Will it hurt the water lilies?
<It will not>
3. If it will hurt the water lilies, what can I do about it?
<Patience at this point. Your pond may well "green out" for a while... best to shade a good part of it>>
The lilies are planted in clay dirt in plastic baskets, with paper lining the inside and pea gravel on top to keep the dirt from leeching out. Each lily has one fertilizer stick shoved down deep in the pot, on the side away from the rhizome.
Thanks for your advice and thoughts on the algae situation.
Fuzzi (Lor)
<Don't get desperate and chemically treat... algicides are toxic; directly and in their effects
. Bob Fenner>

Trouble calculating my pond volume      4/27/17
I am trying to figure out the volume of my irregular shaped pond. I got 3 different measurements on it. One for the shallow end (2'Lx5'Wx0.1'D), my second deepest part (5'Lx8'Wx1.6'D), and my deepest part of the pond (3'Lx
6.9'Wx3'D). What is the volume of my pond in USA gallons?
<Mmm; multiply all three measurements... add for cubic feet, multiply this by 7.5 (gal.s/cu ft.), done>
I am having trouble calculating these measurements due to a math disability. Can you help me with this one? Thank you.
<Otherwise, time how long it takes to fill a given volume container (like a five gallon plastic bucket) and measure the time it takes to fill the basin. Bob Fenner>

Subject: Cement Koi Pond Question      4/16/17
I have literally been reading for months and stumbled upon your website quite by accident. I have now dug and ":shot" my cement (gunite) Koi pond.
I remain confused. Should I Plaster the pond or coat the gunite?
<Either way.... but needs to be sealed... to render water tight and prevent much alkali leeching>

I did NOT use a liner prior to shooting the gunite. The pond is 25 x 15 x 5 (depth)/
<Mmm; as you likely know from the reading; I am a huge fan of liners. Let's hope your basin/s don't leak, the ground doesn't shake, shift, allowing cracking. Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Franz Criego
Re: Cement Koi Pond Question      4/16/17

Thank you for a very direct and "straight" answer....
<Ahh! The way I am. Cheers, Bob Fenner>
Gunite Koi Pond?       4/23/16

Search as I may, I can't seem to get a straight answer. Can you tell me if GUNITE is toxic to Koi fish.
<Mmm; gunite is actually a mortar... a mix of cement, sand and little water. It's the delivery of being applied through a pressurized hose that makes it different than mortars applied by hand. DEPENDING on the type of cement used (some are quite alkaline), gunite can be more/less toxic to koi and other aquatic life.
Did we chat before? Gunite ponds, swimming pools, spas MUST be coated to make them waterproof AND PERHAPS less toxic. In the pool/spa industries the term "plaster coat/ing" is used though this (plaster) is not what in fact is applied... I would look into the Thoro line or similar products here to seal the gunite>
I am building a 10,000 gallon gunite koi pond in my back yard. I have discovered an article that states GUNITE it toxic to koi. I have read about other sealants, and noted that others have veered away from Pond Armor. So here are my two questions, N 1) MUST I seal my gunite pond and 2) Can I "plaster" my pond walls prior to any sealing using after plaster Pond Armor application?
<Yes and yes>
<Welcome. Bob Fenner; whose old businesses at times dealt with gunite applications for biological systems>
Re: Gunite Koi Pond?

Thank you for a "straight" response....
<Glad to provide it. BobF>

Pond Pump Question     4/14/17
Hey Crew!
The last time we "talked", I had an injured Kuhli loach, but it appears to have recovered, without use of antibiotics, but only using frequent water changes. Thanks for your input!
Now, my question(s):
I've recently noticed that you have a pond section of WWM, woo! After reading most of the articles about ponds, and using the internet, AND researching with (!!!) pond books, I still cannot figure out something, and am hoping you can help me:
<Let's see>
About three years ago I purchased and installed a 20g preformed pond. It has a waterfall and pump that have served well, with filter media located in the top of the waterfall. I am upgrading to a 80-100g preformed (approximate
size as it's second-hand, irregular shape, and I won't know the exact size until I add water).
A couple years ago, in anticipation of a pond upgrade, I bought a brand new Gen-X GX-6000 submersible pump (great sale), and am now getting ready to install it in the new pond. However, I can't figure out how it works, as it
only has one output nozzle (see photos). There were no instructions, as it was sold "out of box", with just a portion of the original packaging remaining (see photos). I have spent many hours scouring the Web for a users' manual, without success.
Could you clarify how this design works? The websites I've gone to are not helpful.
The printing on the side of the pump reads:
GX-600 Submersible pump, AC110V, 60Hz, 130W, Hmin>0 Hmax, 3.8 Qmax, 6000L/H
The box states the pump has a ceramic shaft.
Thanks so much!
Sorry about the quality of the photos. I hope they are clear enough: I used my iPad.
<The three threaded by ribbed connectors are for variously fitting discharge (the top) for attaching hose for... waterfall or jet for fountain on the discharge (top). This pump is designed for producing more volume and pressure than the application you have in mind here... To repeat: this may well prove to be too much pump for what you have intended here... IF you find that too much water is being moved about, you might want to look into a smaller unit. Bob Fenner>

pond goldfish with one showing blisters     4/5/17
Dear Crew,
I have aprox 3000 gal recirculating pond with waterfall. There are 7 adult goldfish (2 comets, 3 Sarasas, and 2 Shubunkins ranging from 6 to 8 inches) as well as 4 fingerlings, (native frogs that I can't keep out) and a variety of water plants. I just had the spring cleaning done by a professional (which included replacing the water) last week. There is 1 functioning aerator (a second one is waiting for repair). We also replaced the Triton ionizer anode but the controller doesn't seem to be working so are waiting for parts to replace that as well. I live in Texas. We had a gentle winter so they never truly hibernated this year. Our spring/summer warm-up began in March and they have become correspondingly ravenous. I don't feed them daily but when I do, I use Tetra season appropriate food. I converted them to the summer food when the water temp reached 60 a few weeks ago.
<With you so far>
Today (April 4) I noticed that the largest Comet has aprox 5 blisters (none of the others have any that I can detect). I last fed them on April 1 and didn't notice any blisters. The comet with the blisters is currently acting normal. It is the largest of the fish and the most voracious eater.
Any ideas?
<Could be... nuptial (breeding) tubercles (do look up)... As none of the other fishes are showing such, I doubt if there is an environmental or pathogenic issue. I would do nothing at this point... but watch the one "blemished"
fish for reproductive behavior. Bob Fenner>
Thanks, Sharon Nilsen
Re: pond goldfish with one showing blisters     4/5/17

Thanks so much for a quick response! Will monitor.
<Please do keep us informed. BobF>

Deer Vs, Water Lily     3/18/17
Greeting WetWebMedia Crew, I'm currently moving to a new property and am transporting a fairly water lily collection over. I've been told by previous owner they have a fair amount of axis deer moving thru property.
Do have any predictions on how the water lilies will fair. The house actually has 2 in-ground ponds and I'm moving some above ground stock tanks over. Do you think the deer will be very attracted to the water lilies or do they have a chance of co-existing without netting and/or fencing?
Thank You
<Mmm; Axis deer will eat water lilies. Whether yours are attractive to this particular bunch though remains to be seen. You'll definitely notice in both cases. Bob Fenner>
Re: Deer Vs, Water Lily      3/19/17
Thank you for reply Bob. I actually dropped off a few stock tanks with water lilies yesterday and wont be back for a few days. I'm hoping once my dogs move onto property they should keep the deer away but in the mean
time, I'm a bit worried. I'll keep you posted with any developments. Thanks for the great site.
<Am with you. Had the local deer eating my Avocado tree leaves... tried the wolf pee product, shiny ornaments... Finally fashioned four by welded wire (for driveways) around them. Then the price of water quadrupled!!! BobF>

Hiding Ranchu in Pond. Mixing comets w/ fancies...       3/14/17
I worry about my little Ranchu. She lives in a 765 gallon pond with other goldfish. Some of which are comets. The comets never hurt my Ranchu the few times she has met them. But she is also only about 2 inches, not including
her tail fins.
<Can't compete w/ them for food. Comets are much faster than fancies>
But she still only hides under the filter and won't come out. I have to lift up my pond filter to feed her. It has been about 4 weeks. What do I do to get my Ranchu to stop hiding? Thank you.
<IF the fish is thin, it will have to be moved, separated. BobF>
Re: Hiding Ranchu in Pond       3/14/17

She is not thin. She gets plenty of food. I make sure of it. I just can't get her to stay out from under the filter. Really scratching my head in confusion on this one. Just can't seem too get my finger on what the problem could be. It is like she is scared but I have no idea what she is so scared of. The comets don't harass her or anything. They get a little pushy at feeding time, but certainly nothing out of the ordinary for goldfish. Should I just put her in the 40 gallon pond I was planning for if I have move?
<Yes I would. B>

Re: Hiding Ranchu in Pond     3/15/17
Thank you so much Bob for clearing that up for me. I was wondering if I might have to make it my Ranchu's permanent home. Thank you so much.
<Ok. B>
Ranchu hiding # 3     3/15/17

I can't keep my Ranchu in the 40 gallon pond. I have no choice but to keep her in my 765 gallon pond with comets. What can I do to make her feel more secure. Should I include more hiding places. There are only 2 deep spots in
my pond. The rest is all too shallow for her. Should I place something for her to hide in within one of the deeper parts of the pond? What would you recommend I use for her to hide in that the other fish wouldn't get into?
Thank you.
<Look up Anacharis, Ceratophyllum and Myriophyllum on WWM>
Ceramic pvc and resin ornaments use in Goldfish ponds      3/15/17

I am looking for hiding spots in my pond for a- inch Ranchu. I was wondering if I could use ceramic mugs.
Also I was wondering, could I use pvc pipe or resin ornaments too? Thank you.
<You could; I would use floating plants as stated. B>
Re: Ranchu hiding # 3       3/16/17

Thank you Bob.
<Welcome Cam>
Re: Ceramic pvc and resin ornaments use in Goldfish ponds       3/16/17

Can I use fake floating plants? I got a few more fake lotus lilies I can use. Should I try them? Here is a photo of 2 of them already in the pond.
<Yes to using the fake; though some live would definitely be of use here.

One last question on my 40 gallon pond I am planning. Overwintering small pond     3/8/17
As you know I have a 40 gallon pond I am planning. I want one fancy goldfish in the pond. The pond will be outdoors. I live in the subtropical desert region of the AZ desert. I might use common fantails, as they are hardier than most fancies. But I have got that Ranchu in my big 765 gallon pond right now. She is with 9 comets, 1 comet Shubunkin hybrid, 1 Ryukin, 2 common fantails, and 1 Oranda. She is very nervous right now. Just got her about 3 weeks ago. She is also the smallest and slowest fish I have. I am making sure she gets all the food she needs. But she concerns me the most out of my fish. I may I have to take her with me if I move anywhere. Or I may have to put her in this new pond I have planned. The whole purpose of me obtaining this new pond is so I can take one fancy goldfish with me if I have to move. It might wind up having to be the Ranchu. The Ranchu needs me the most. This pond must be able to work outdoors for any fancy goldfish I have to take with me. Any suggestions on insulating the pond or warming it with a heater during winter?
<Put it indoors, like in a garage during the cold months of the year (when nights are below 55F let's say) is what I'd plan on doing.
Bob Fenner>
Thank you.
RE: One last question <?> on my 40 gallon pond I am planning     3/8/17
Garage is not an option either. Anything else I can try?
<Spray foam on the outside? Building a wood box and lining it w/ Styrofoam and placing the pond inside? A submersible heater set on low?
Here is a photo of my 40 gallon pond I plan to use.

<Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/PondSubWebIndex/contpdsart.htm
here: http://wetwebmedia.com/PondSubWebIndex/pddessiting.htm
and here: http://wetwebmedia.com/PondSubWebIndex/pdmaintwint.htm
and the linked files above.
RE: One last question on my 40 gallon pond I am planning     3/8/17

Will try those ideas. Thank you so much Bob! ��
40 gallon pond Photo and Bubble wrap question     3/8/17

Here is a photo of the 40 gallon pond I have been talking to you about.
<... you already sent this>
Would bubble wrap work as temporary insulation too?
<Doubtful; IF the temperature vacillates too much diurnally; there will be trouble... Too much stress. I'd just keep the fancy goldfish indoors in an aquarium. >

New Ranchu Questions; pond fdg. gf        3/6/17
My latest addition is Leia. She is a green Ranchu. She is very small right now. I am feeding her goldfish granules right now. She lives in a 765 gallon pond with 15 other adult goldfish. Is there anything else I should be feeding her.
<? Not if the goldfish food is complete nutritionally; no>
I tried green seaweed the other day, but she didn't like it. She seems to be getting enough algae. But I worry about her. She hides under the filter since I added her to the main pond three weeks ago. I have been making sure
she gets fed every other day by temporarily turning off the filter and lifting the filter up carefully to feed her. Then I wait until she gets some food. And then wait until she swims away. Then replace the filter and turn it back on. I always feed the adults first so they don't get in the way of me feeding Leia. Am I doing the right thing in making sure Leia gets her share of food?
She is the slowest fish I have when it comes to feeding. I also have pond comets in my pond. Leia has met the comets and the comets never hurt her.
They are used to small fry being in the pond. Is Leia hiding because of the comets?
Or is it normal for a goldfish to hide for this long?
<Possibly both. Bob Fenner>
Re: New Ranchu Questions       3/6/17

Thank you so much Bob!
<Welcome Cam>

Algae Blooms in Naturally Hard Water and No UV       3/5/17
I have a 40 gallon oval pond. It's made of Ldpe Plastic. I checked to be sure it was safe to use. It measures 27" W x 40" L x 13" Height. I got a Tetra submersible flat box filter good for 200 to 2,000 gallons for it. I got a Superflow 1300 pump for it. It has a gph rate of 306 gph. How do I get rid of green algae blooms in naturally hard water without a uv sterilizer? Thank you.
<Please learn to/use the search tool on WWM; on every page... for such general questions. READ here:
It's Me Again (Algae Bloom Prevention and Treatment)      3/5/17

Hello. It’s me again. I have a new question regarding algae blooms.
Here is a repeat on the specifications on my pond and its system. I have a 40 gallon oval pond. It's made of Ldpe Plastic. It measures 27" W x 40" L x 13" Height. I got a Tetra submersible flat box filter good for 200 to 2,000 gallons for it. I got a Superflow 1300 pump for it. It has a gph rate of 306 gph.
I cannot afford an aerator or a UV at this time.
My question is, does water flow and circulation help with green algae blooms?
<Some; yes. Though if there are other predisposing factors... light, nutrient, water quality.... favoring the algae bloom, they won't solve it much>

And Do you have any other suggestions on what I can do about algae blooms without an aerator or a UV?
<All gone over where you've been referred. Sigh... BobF>
Thank you.
Re: It's Me Again (Algae Bloom Prevention and Treatment)      3/5/17

Thank you so much Bob! You are awesome.
<Just m'self Cam. B>

Is this gph rate enough? Fancy goldfish in a small pond      3/3/17
Hi. I couldn’t find the information that could help me on your site. I need to know the gph and filtration requirements of one adult fancy goldfish. I have a 40 gallon oval pond. It's made of Ldpe Plastic. I checked to be sure it was safe to use. It measures 27" W x 40" L x 13" Height. I got a Tetra submersible flat box filter good for 200 to 2,000 gallons for it. I got a Superflo 1300 pump for it. It has a gph rate of 306 gph. I think I got enough power to run the filter. But I got 1 burning question for you. Is my pump’s 306 gph enough for 1 fancy goldfish in this pond? Thank you.
<It is more than adequate; in fact, do see that this current isn't buffeting the goldfish about... it may have to be restricted... best on the discharge side; with a variable valve. Bob Fenner
UV and Liner Questions       3/4/17

Hello Bob. Thank you for answering my previous question.
<Welcome Cam>
I have a few more questions. I have a 40 gallon oval pond. It's made of Ldpe Plastic. I checked to be sure it was safe to use. It measures 27" W x 40" L x 13" Height. I got a Tetra submersible flat box filter good for 200 to 2,000 gallons for it. I got a Superflow 1300 pump for it. It has a gph rate of 306 gph. Is the gph enough to add on a UV sterilizer as well?
<Indeed it is; yes>
If so, what is the type and gph rating of the UV should I get?
<If there is an easy way to attach the filter pump to the UV, I would use it for this as well; for both the filter and UV>
And my second question. Should I use a liner with this pond?
<No liner is necessary. I would just use it as is>
Thank you.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
2nd Goldfish GPH Question... Repeats       3/7/17

Hello again. Here is a repeat on the specifications on my pond. I have a 40 gallon oval pond. It's made of Ldpe Plastic. It measures 27" W x 40" L x 13" Height. I got a uv filter fountain hybrid with A 265 gph. The uv has a
13 watt bulb.
My question is, will the 265 gph be too much for 1 fancy goldfish?
<Already asked and responded to...>

I will only get common fantails, Ryukins, Orandas, or Ranchus. This will be an outdoor pond. I live in the subtropical AZ desert. Ice never makes the water freeze over. So that wouldn't be a problem. I got 2 fake pond lotus I plan to use as shade for the fish. They are both 6 inches in diameter. I have the option of adding two more if I need to. I don't want snails and have no luck with live plants. So my only option for algae control is algaecide. I am very careful with algaecide. Is there anything else you think I should do in the planning of my pond? Thank you.
<Am not a fan of pond algicides... too dangerous, toxic... at any concentration. READ please where you were referred to (again). B>
RE: 2nd Goldfish GPH Question      3/7/17

Ok. Thank you Bob. Just making sure I am correct by asking you first. You know a lot more than me.
<Am much older; studied in the field Cam. B>

Filter photo     3/8/17
Here is a photo of the filter I will be using in my 40 gallon pond.
<? This looks to be just a fountain spray pump with a screen. NOT a filter; NOT what you mentioned: "Tetra submersible flat box filter good for 200 to 2,000 gallons for it. I got a Superflow 1300 pump for it. It has a gph rate of 306 gph">
Here is a picture of Leia, my green Ranchu. ��
<Very nice. B>

Re: Filter photo       3/8/17
Thank you Bob. ��Yeah, the filter is a new one I am going to be trying. They tell me it filters and reviews say it keeps the pond clean. It has a gph of 265 and is recommended for ponds up to 500 gallons. It also has a uv and a fountain. They said it was designed for small ponds. I did what research I could on it. It seems to filter ok.
<READ on WWM re pond filtration.>
RE: Filter photo       3/8/17

Ok. Got another filter. What do you think of this one?
<How is biological filtration provided? SEE as in READ on WWM Re.>
Pennington Aquagarden In pond 5 in 1 300
3 stage filtration
203 gph pump
20 watt uv clarifier
Has a fountain feature
Dimensions 14” W x 15” D x 7” H
Water flow is adjustable

RE: Filter photo       3/9/17
How is biological filtration provided? Well, it has course foam pad, a medium foam pad, a polymer wool pad, and ceramic biomedia. Water flows through the top of the filter, through the foams, then through the ceramic media to the UV. Then it goes from there to exit through the pump. Does this answer your question? Anything wrong with this?
<It does sound like the stmt.: Triple filtration provided. This should work. I would move a good deal of your established ponds water to the new pond to prime the bio. B>

RE: Filter photo          3/10/17
Can do! Here is some drawings I did of what the setup might look like when completed.
Thank you so much Bob. Your help means a lot to me. I greatly appreciate it.
<Ahh; very nice. Thank you for sharing>
RE: Filter photo          3/10/17

You are welcome

Very small, leaky pond; liner repairs f'       2/1/17
I am trying to build a very small pond of sorts. I have yard timbers stacked to make the walls about 30 inches high. I installed a pond liner but have trouble with the seams where they are connected together.
<... connect? Where the liner bunches up in corners I'll take it>
The pond is about 5 feet square with a canal running out from it, under my porch ramp, then turning and running along the ramp with a small turn in it, for about 12 feet. The canal is about 1 1/2 feet wide.
<Mmm; very/too wide for this volume in transit>
The liner continuously leaks somewhere, but I have several raccoons that visit it nightly and have probably put little holes in it with their claws.
I have decided to cement over the liner to prevent the little claws from causing leaks. I understand that I would need to put a waterproof coating over the cement, but I am unsure what thickness the cement would need to be for such a small pond.
<I would not try coating this liner... unless it is PVC... Poly/Ethylene and Butyl (Rubber) won't allow good adherence. Instead I'd very likely (have you read and) put down a reinforcing mesh and... Let's have you read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/pondsubwebindex/linerpdrepfaqs.htm>
I live in North Florida with 1-3 freezes per year that only last about 3-6 hours with temperatures below freezing.
Would I need to put the chicken wire over the liner to give the concrete something to hold on to for the walls,
and if so, would it need to be attached to the walls other than hanging from the top?
<Best to do all the pond basins and runway/canal>
Any help would be great as I am doing this on my own with very little concrete experience and even less pond building experience.
<I have a BUNCH! And glad to share with you. >
Thank you,
Robert Winkler
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Very small, leaky pond      2/1/17

Thank you very much for a quick and helpful response.
<Glad to assist your efforts here. Do please send along pix, news of your progress; and feel free to write me regards any concerns. Bob Fenner>

Pond Supply Resource Suggestion      12/23/16
Hi there,
<Hey Beth>
I saw you have some awesome pond supply resources on your website here, (http://www.wetwebmedia.com/pondsubwebindex/pondlinks.htm ), and I wanted to make another suggestion for that list if you are open to it. It is Aquatic Ponds which you can check out here, (http://www.aquaticponds.com/ ). I think
this would be a useful and relevant addition to your existing list. Please let me know your thoughts. I hope to hear from you soon!
All the best,
Beth Greene
<Thank you for your suggestion. Will add their link. Bob Fenner>
Re: Pond Supply Resource Suggestion      12/23/16

Awesome thank you so much Bob!
<Thank you Beth! BobF>

Argulus medication in Fresh Water Ponds of Catla Catla & Labeo Rohita     11/15/16
Dear Robert and Wet Web Media,
<Krishna; hey; one of our dive guides shares your name here in Mauritius>
I am a Chemical Engineer and working in Aquaculture Industry in India. Our Fish farmers raise Major Carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita etc.,) .
<Ah yes; many important food Cyprinids>
The is too much of Argulus (sea lice) here. We found existing medications cease to work due to raised resistance of Argulus.
<Mmm; I take it you mean organophosphates... acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors>
Would you enlighten us with some new formulas which we can try out?
<What have you tried/used thus far? Common/generic and IUPAC names please>
Thank you, I look forward
<Cheers, and we'll be chatting... Am out dive-adventuring to mo.s end; so no access to chem. abstracts, what have you. Bob Fenner>
Re: Argulus medication in Fresh Water Ponds of Catla Catla & Labeo Rohita     11/16/16

Emamectin Benzoate used to solve the problem some extent. But it became obsolete now in our Aquaculture industry. There are few unknown costly medications used by some dealers, (some say 'Biospot') whose formula is unknown. They stop the outbreak a bit, but again they lice come severe.
<Mmm; have you tried Lufenuron along w/ the Emamectin (1:4)? Is there a possibility of formalin flushing, or bathing stock while sterilizing holding facilities? Bob Fenner>
Re: Argulus medication in Fresh Water Ponds of Catla Catla & Labeo Rohita      11/16/16

Lufenuron, I did not try it myself. I am not sure whether people would have tried Lufenuron here. My best guess is someone would have already tried it here since we have around 1 lakh acres of inland Fish culture here, (dealing with Argulus is pretty aggressive here ) and few of the fancy new compounds (unknown chemical) worked for a while like 1 month, however they cease to work as the Argulus increases its drug resistance. Its a closed secret when a new medicine comes out here. However none of them hold more than 2 months. But I am not really aware of the 1:4 combo Lufenuron with Emamectin.
<There's some recent literature in the sciences re. Do you know Ed Noga down in Florida? He's retired from teaching, but still does consulting re fish disease... and another friend I'd contact is Myron Roth; in Canada>
In my research in the literature, I found these compounds Cyromazine, Trichlorofon and Praziquantel, which might not have been tried at our side.
<Mmm; Trichlorfon and its many brand/generic names I'm quite familiar with.
You can search re on WWM. Prazi has issues w/ water solubility and is expensive in actual large scale aquaculture>
I wish to make new combinations with these and try out, with your suggestions.
Regarding the sterilization of facilities, these are very large ponds (ranging from 10acres-100acres, with avg water depth ~5ft). We use formalin just as nominal water sanitizer, but it is not effective with Argulus.
<Needs to be border high dip/bath concentrations. NOT added to ponds>
My idea here is ......considering a pond of 1 Acre with 5 ft depth (~160,000 gal, with 2500 pc.s Labeo Rohita), I want try out new compounds and combinations to checkout which works the best. I'd be more than grateful if you offer some insights in formulating. Thank you.
<It's been many years since I had first hand experience w/ Argulus, these pesticides... Hence my suggestion to contact people in the field presently.
Bob Fenner>

Pond Newbie - Pea Soup! En Espana        8/1/16
Hi all!
<Hey Nik!>
This is a long one as I want to explain the situation fully in the hope I can get some informed answers... and save my fish!
I am a complete pond newbie but bought a property in Spain that had a 2300 litre pond apparently thriving with life... lilies, various fish and frogs/toads. Alas also mosquito larvae in the top section as the pump and filter was not functioning and had been standing still for many many months (quite possibly over a year).
<Do look for "Mosquito fish"... see WWM, the Net re... a reliable biological control>
I have been renovating extensively and in an attempt to keep the pond relatively healthy in the ever increasing heat I have been topping it up - I resolved to clean it out however it was not a priority. I have never owned a pond and so had never experienced the joy it can give.
<Not hard to keep up once you know what to do; establish a routine. Please
read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/PondSubWebIndex/pdmaint.htm and the linked (blue) files above>
I have grown to love the pond very much over the last 6 months but also grown very concerned with it's health. As temperatures rose the level went down more and the water greener. After heavy rainfall 2 weeks ago I lost 3 of the larger fish (I assume goldfish but may have been Koi? large at around 7"). It was then that I knew I had to take action.
The following Sunday when my partner joined me in Spain I netted out the fish, frogs and as much of the life I could find. I placed them in a huge bucket of their pond water in the shade. We pulled out all the plants and placed them in large buckets of pond water.
We emptied the pond by hand (sheesh that's a lot of murky water to shift!) and my partner scrubbed the walls of the pond clean... while he did that I washed and separated the lilies, washing away algae and thinning out the roots and throwing out those that were damaged or sludgy and rotten.
We bought around 20 litres of bottled water and poured this in (ha! 20 litres in the 2300 litre pond!). We added the plants back in and the rocks/pots....we added the water from the plants. We topped up bucket by bucket until the rocks and pots were comfortably covered then I took some of the water and added it to the bucket of fish. I did this occasionally in
an attempt to acclimatise the fish. Then I sat the bucket in the pond and gently tipped the fish out into their new pond...... it was a thing of wonder...
I have 3 large goldfish and at least 30 smaller black fish - all very lively now! The frog comes and goes!
I also have food for them not and give them a handful every 2 days.
I was always afraid that I may have stressed the fish but they seemed so happy... and I fell in love with it all a little bit more :)
Since that clean I have lost no more fish :)
The pond itself is in two sections - the old filter box was placed under low palms next to the top section which is small but deep. This section has a waterfall to the lower section where the fish and plants live. The original pump sat close to the bottom at the furthest end from the top section - around 3/4 meters away from the filter box.
Seems to be a well constructed pond.
Now my problem is this. I still don't have a pump or filter and am searching for the correct one.
<There are many choices, avenues to go here; low/no tech. to quite involved... w/ concomitant expenses. Again, you must decide. I have three books available through Amazon.com that cover all this, or you can just sort through what is archived on WWM: http://wetwebmedia.com/PondSubWebIndex/Pond%20Sub%20Web.htm
Scroll down to "Filtration" and read from top to bottom>

There are many and I am trying to learn what is best for my pond. I have not filled it completely (the top section is still empty) but while I am learning, looking things up and searching for the correct filtration/pump set the pond is going green again.
<Oh yes; it will>
I have been emptying some water and adding new - a little each day - in an attempt to keep on top of it. I have sometime 'sprayed' the hose onto the water to aerate it.
So, my questions are:
1. How do I best keep the water healthy while I wait for the filter/pump?
<Shade the pond as much as you can, give it a spritz by hand every hot day>
2. Is there any easy way to clear the algae?
<Mmm; "easy"... no. Control is only achieved via a long term plan... avoidance of factors (light, nutrient, foods), use of competitors, predators... maintenance>
3. For a 2300ltr pond with fish, is a 2500ltr per hour pump ok?
<... depends on what you hook it up to>

The 'Velda Eco Filter 12000' set seems ok but it only has a 2500ltr per hour pump and I was told I need around 4000ltr per hour. If its ok I will buy tomorrow and get ready for installation! (Alas it is still likely 2 weeks until delivery!).
<The reading for now>
So sorry for the long email but I wanted to ensure the full story was here and am in need of swift informed advice.
<No worries re length. Important for me, for you to understand what you're up to (in life as well as ponds!). >
Thank you for your time and excellent website!!
<And, we'll be chatting. Bob Fenner>
Re: Pond Newbie - Pea Soup!       8/2/16

Bob thank you so much for your quick reply and pointers for where to read now - this will be my bedtime reading tonight ;)
<Heeee! A few nights!>
One thing I was not sure about: "3. For a 2300ltr pond with fish, is a 2500ltr per hour pump ok?
<... depends on what you hook it up to>
The 'Velda Eco Filter 12000' set seems ok but it only has a 2500ltr per hour pump and I was told I need around 4000ltr per hour."
<There are ranges for such pumping... and again VERY important to do your research here.... as some cost many times more to operate at low pressure... >

~ so originally the 2500l/h was for the 12000 filter set. Is it worth me getting the 4000l/h pump for the same set?
The pond is in sunlight for much of the day (i heed your advice while I wait for the filter/pump) and there is no easy way to shade other than plants which I will swat up on now.
<These are fine as sources of shade... should cover a good 3/5 plus of the surface>

There are trees etc around so debris will fall into it. Today i found a 4000l/h pump which I can buy in addition to the set - rendering the 2500l/h a 'spare' - so I'm guessing the 4000l/h pump is the better option.
<... to do what? IF you want, must have clear water, look into UV, O3... and enough pump/ing to service that... for ornamental effect... whatever floats your boat. Read. BobF>
Thanks again,

Koi with black spots on eye      5/30/16
Greetings Bob,
I noticed some of my koi fingers have black speckling on sclera portion of eye. Most fish look affected but show no signs of distress(flashing or similar behavior) or deaths. This line of koi does develop a fair amount of black pigments on skin. Hoping this isn't a fluke or similar parasite.
<I don't think so. Have seen this sort of marking on tategoi... speculative, smaller fish... and chatted w/ koi breeders in Japan and the US in places re... they and I don't know what the black specks are... Sometimes they "resolve" on their own; and other cases are persistent. As you state, the spots don't appear to mal-affect the Koi>
The tanks are well established tanks connected to aquaponic grow beds, nitrates rarely creep over 10ppm and NO-2 and NO-3 are zero. We are on a "hard" water supply. I do have access to a microscope... Any advice would be greatly appreciated.
<I'd keep these specimens if they're otherwise attractive (physically proportional, well-colored....). Bob Fenner>

Question about a worm; pond       5/5/16
Hello, I was cleaning out the pond skimmer this morning and felt a sharp mosquito like sting on my arm. I looked and there was a tiny wet worm. It sort of looked like an inch worm or the little tree worms that are short and squiggly.
<Mmm; could you see that the body was segmented? Did the body feel solid (vs. squishy)?>

Then I felt another stinging bite and knocked it off. My arm got a couple of welts that look like mosquito bites (still there 1.5hrs later so far).
I've never heard of a biting worm, and it seemed too thin unless it was just age to be a leach.
Do you have any idea what this could be?
Thank you, Dan
<My guess is that this was an insect larvae of some sort, as opposed to a worm... Please read here re: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/FWAqInsectF3.htm
and the linked files (in blue, above) in the series.
Bob Fenner>

How many goldfish for my pond?      5/5/16
My pond is irregular in shape.
Average width is 4.5 ft.
Average length is 11.9 ft.
Average depth is 1.6 feet
Deepest area is 3ft. L x 3ft. W x 3ft. D
It is 86 cubic feet, I think.
I think it is, 602 gallons
The ph is around 9
<Way too high... see WWM re>

679 gph pump
9 watt UV sterilizer
Filter can handle up to 1,500 gallons
No live plants. I can’t keep them alive.
<The pH... You need to drain, acid-wash this pond... >

I have plenty of fake plants in the pond and fish shelters to provide shade.
I live in Arizona and have naturally hard water.
<What hardness, pH?>
I am having trouble locating any specific information regarding my problem. I have 11 comets and 2 fantail gold fish in my pond. I have an Oranda and another yellow comet on the way. In total about 15 goldfish will be in this pond. Is that too many for this pond?
<Not too many of the types listed>
How many gallons does each goldfish need in a pond?
<Depends on a few factors... filtration, circulation...:
Thank you for your time.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

natural pond question; maint.       3/22/16
we live in Westchester NY and have had a pond for many years- issue- algae and cleaning-
we have used an anti algae product but summer seems to bring little green budding plants to the water surface( 2 rounded leaves attached to a short stem) - don't know if it is pollen that now grows in pond or another matter.
<Need to address root causes... nutrient availability, sunlight... algicides are a poor idea>
***Also husband wants to clean our pond (we have water lilies and some invasive grasses). We have rotting leaves and matter at bottom of 18-2ft deep pond- much more shallow 50% of the pond. Is there a product you recommend after we get rid of water and power wash the boulder/stone that makes the basin to line this natural rock so the muck at bottom doesn't stay - clogs the waterfall pump every now and then.
<A few products.... look into Nualgi and Tim's "Waste Away".... Need circulation, oxygenation... many possibilities. READ here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/pondsubwebindex/pdalgcontrol.htm
and the linked files above.>
we have had koi but the blue herons go them- we were fortunate that they reproduced but the birds got all the fish over 2 summers.
Is there a number I can call to speak with you?
<Mmm; no... I do at times consult, but not over the phone.>
Laura Lavan
<Bob Fenner>

White bubble floating in my pond    3/13/16
Hi, we live in Southern California and have a 15000 gallon pond with gold fish, Koi and three white albino catfish. Had three bullfrog tadpoles, but haven't seen them in a while. Found this floating in the pond. Any idea of what it might be?
<Strange.... looks "biological", but what and from where? A bird passing over? Don't know. Bob Fenner>

Like a fish swim bladder?

55 Year Old Concrete Koi Pond - Five Years Later      2/12/16
Hello, Bob. Remember me?
<Let's see....>
It has been four+ years since our last contact. I hope you are well and prosperous.
<I thank you>
My now-55-year-old concrete pond is still wonderful. The Thoroseal is still perfect.
<Ah good. Was out w/ a friend in the trade last night, car-pooling to a hobbyist get tog. and we were discussing Thoro's fine products. Oh, Mark Lawson still works in the pond biz>
The bottom portion of the pond, which is the old un-coated concrete and slowly-exposing-aggregate of the old pond, is seeping and leaking. All fish are removed, pond emptied and bottom cleaned in preparation for some type of coating. It was recommended that I use Cement All, a fast curing product made by Rapid Set. It can be applied up to 4" thick, and edges can be feathered paper thin. Cures rock hard, fully cured to 9000 psi. I have the SDS for it when it is in powder form. Can't find anything about it for after it has thoroughly cured.
<I would acid wash the basin ahead of use, and do the same procedure after it is well set (a week or more) to remove alkalinity>
It is a lot harder/more durable than Thoroseal. I have a call in to Rapid Set, spoke to a tech, he is going to ask an engineer. In the meantime, I thought I would contact the Koi/Pond community to see if there is any info out there, positive or negative, about Cement All. I've Googled the subject, didn't find anything.
<I do not other than what can be found on the Net; have no personal nor second-hand experience w/ this product>

Have you had any experience with Cement All? Have you heard any stories?
Thanks in advance for your help and info.
Shirley Walle
Turner, Oregon
<Please do report back your further findings, experiences. Bob Fenner>
Re: 55 Year Old Concrete Koi Pond - Five Years Later      2/12/16

Oops! Hello, Bob. You replied so quickly, I thought I sent my message to myself. Please disregard the resending a moment ago, other than to look at the photo, perhaps.
<Ah; got it>
Thanks for your reply and information. Cement All seems to be a miraculous product for ponds, which might mean it could be too good to be true. I'll keep investigating.
Thanks again. Best regards, Shirley
<And you, BobF>

RE: Floating islands on dam after killing some waterlilies
Many thanks Bob!
<Welcome. I had many such "mistakes" w/ glyphosate use over the years w/ lilies... due to overspray incidents. Unless yours got a high dose, they should come back. Bob Fenner>

How often do I clean my entire pond?       9/29/15
Hi. I have a 765 gallon pond. It is an oddly shaped pond. It has no drain. It has a filter rating of about 1,000 gph. It contains 12 very active an healthy comet goldfish. 10 adults (9 males 1 female) and 2 babies ( sex has not been determined with them yet). The babies were born just this year.
Filter gets cleaned every 2 to 4 months. Filter head gets cleaned every 2 weeks. Evaporated water gets replaced every 1 to 2 weeks, depending on how hot it gets.
<Need to take some out... as well as topping off. When water evaporates it leaves solids behind>

I live in the Arizona desert. We have naturally hard water here. My filter has a Ultraviolet sterilizer built into it. I also use algaecide
<See WWM re pond algae control. Have you heard of the product Nualgi?>

because we do not use snails in the pond. Between it, the uv, and the goldfish, the green algae is usually not a big problem. About how often should I clean out my entire pond? Thank you.
<Let me introduce you to how to use the site. See here:
Scroll down to the "Maintenance" tray and READ. Bob Fenner>
Re: How often do I clean my entire pond?       9/29/15

Thank you Bob! :) Your opinion is appreciated. :)
<What did you glean from the reading? BobF>
Re: How often do I clean my entire pond?       9/30/15

I need to clean my pond better. :) Thank you Bob! :)
<Ahh, good. Do write back if you have specific concerns, questions. BobF>

Koi fry, dying       9/19/15
Greetings WetWebMedia crew,
I recently separated some Koi fry and added a few to a 150g aquarium. I'm noticing some of the fish in the 150g are whirling and I'm starting to notice some deaths.
Could this be a parasite?
<No; not likely. How recent is recently? I'd be adding a BUNCH of the pond water to this tank.... like maybe changing all of it out and replacing... STAT! As in right now>
If so, which one and what's best treatment. Also what would be best way to ID. I'm not seeing any outward signs of illness(aside from whirling). I have HexShield and Ickshield on standby, is there any harm in treating fish so young? Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks
<.... not parasitic likely, but environmental. Bob Fenner>
Koi fry parameters      9/19/15

I forgot to include parameters. This is a cycled tank with over the top filtration. Nitrates less than 10 due to the Aquaponic grow bed that filters this tank in additional to a few sponge filters. Water is moderately hard and have had no issues with my Koi in other tanks/ponds. Please help. Thanks again.
<IF it's not the water they were born in.... CHANGE IT OUT, NOW. Something in the tank is toxic. Bob Fenner>
Re: Koi fry parameters      9/19/15
The only odd thing is, I have a few other aquariums loaded with fry and only this tank is showing symptoms.
<..... RE read the last mail. B>
I have been separating them out for a few weeks. I do drip acclimate when transferring. This particular tank was holding a pair of cichlids that I removed 2 weeks ago, added heavy salt and let run without fish. I then lowered salinity to zero and added fry. I knew this was risky but because of grow bed, I didn't want to sterilize; this is the reason I suspected parasites. Thanks
Re: Koi fry parameters      9/19/15

Thank you for your input.
<Welcome! B>

Goldfish size for spawning / mystery fish in pond         9/8/15
Just wondering how big one year old goldfish are.
<Mmm; can be "dwarfed" to just an inch or so; or more than four inches under good conditions>

We have some new little fish in the pond which are a mystery because our largest goldfish are only 5 inches long. The new fish are brown,
<Start off as such>

the largest about one inch long. The likelihood of our goldfish being old enough to spawn is...not...we think.
But where could these new fish have come from???
<Likely are young from your existing... though "fish from the sky" (mainly water spout events) and trickster humans shouldn't be totally discounted.
Bob Fenner>
Re: Goldfish size for spawning / mystery fish in pond        9/8/15

Thanks for your reply! Very helpful.
<You're welcome>
I particularly like the waterspout theory...
<Am re-reading all "The Aquarium" mag.s... 1932 on.... there's quite a few summations, accounts>
The young are dark brown, the bigger ones lighter with pale bellies. Is that common?
<Ah yes; BobF>

Water Lily vs. Lotus      9/1/15
Greetings Crew, I've noticed my lilies tend to do fairly well but my lotus seems to barely hang on. Do all lotus sleep during the winter months in the tropics
<Yes; as far as I'm aware>
Can you tell the difference in cultivation techniques, mainly in regard to fertilization but any tips would be appreciated. Thanks
<Do you use fertilizer (tabs are best?); I'd feed heavily in Spring and Fall. Bob Fenner>
Re: Water Lily vs. Lotus      9/1/15

Thank you Bob. Yes, I'm using tabs but it seems the lotus shows slight fertilizer burn along edges of pads.
<Burn.... yellow like chlorosis? You may have a deficiency syndrome here.
Does the water have any Fe2 or 3?; What's the pH and hardness measures like?>
The lilies just seem to want to feed and out compete the lotus. Thanks
<I'd have these in different/separate pots/containers. BobF>
Re: Water Lily vs. Lotus      9/1/15

I don't think its a deficiency. It's in a separate planter from the lilies with Bacopa monnieri and the Bacopa is thriving nicely, almost growing aggressively. I'm currently using a complete fert with cal/Mag but will try to switch brands of fert. Can you recommend a good book on water lily/lotus? Thanks Brandon
<I have a few faves (ducks around the other side of his office...); the classic by Perry Slocum comes to mind:
Waterlilies and Lotuses: Species, Cultivars, and New Hybrids

Koi and Water Lilies       8/31/15
Greetings Crew,
I’m revamping my pond and wondering aside from creating a separate grow bed, what are the best ways to prevent my Koi from bothering my lilies.
<A plastic (Naltex is a fave brand) corral to keep them entirely away>
I’m using potted lilies and covering them with rocks, which works to an extent. I don't like the idea of floating rings for ascetic reasons.
<The Naltex poly is a neutral black>
Also what are the best planter boxes for larger lilies or multiply lilies. What are your ideas.
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>
Re: Koi and Water Lilies; now floating plants for ponds        8/31/15

Thank you Bob. What would be your suggestion on adding floating plants like Azolla, Salvinia or duckweed or should I stick to just lilies?
Thanks again Brandon
<Our business (service) stocked these and other "grasses" as posted on WWM's pond section... again, within floating barriers if there were plant-eating fishes, turtles present. BobF>
Re: Koi and Water Lilies
Thanks for the fast reply. My concern with the smaller floating plants/ferns, it seems I'm always scooping out or getting covered in duckweed and etc. when working in pond. I like the look, just wasn't sure about the maintenance. Thanks
<Most all species of what is sold/considered duckweed are delicious to fishes. Not to worry. B>
Re: Koi and Water Lilies       8/31/15

I can't thank you enough.
<Ah; welcome>

Fish Pond Fountain. Metal use in biological features        8/31/15
<"Woman of the sea">
My name is Andrea. I have a question regarding my Koi/Goldfish pond. We have a 500 gallon pond with a water-bog filtration system and waterfall. I would like to line the waterfall with copper sheeting but have been unable to see if it will harm my fish.
<No need to experiment; unless the copper is very carefully sealed, it will kill all life>

Every waterfall I have seen uses stainless steel, personally I find in gaudy looking. However, I do not wish to compromise the safety of my plants or fish and if the copper is a no-go can you suggest any other metal?
<All will require similar careful coating... there are clear treatments...
we had one done years back made of an olde mash tun at/for a brewery here in San Diego; though this was made into a abiological fountain>
Preferably one that does not stick out like a sore thumb.
Thank You
<Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Orfe; missing         8/15/15
We found 5 baby Orfe in pond we took them out and put them in there own box, we had a wire over the top but 4 of them disappeared and we don't know how, we have one left he is on his own and still going but this has us baffled, do you have any suggestions were they could have gone x
<Well; these fish can "jump" out.... and/or possibly an animal (cat?) has gotten to them. Bob Fenner>


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