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Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas 1767), the Banded Archerfish. The principal species used in the trade in the west. Asia and Oceania; India to the Philippines, Indonesia, Vanuatu, the Solomons, New Guinea, northern Australia. To one foot in length. An adult in an aquarium.
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Freshwater FAQs, Ask us a question: Crew@WetWebMedia.com

Updated 1/21/20
Other Specialized Daily FAQs Blogs: General, Planted Tanks, Ponds, Brackish, Last Few Days Accrued FAQs,
Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: Darrel Barton,
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized daily Current Crew Bios., Not so current Crew Bios

New Print and eBook on Amazon

Betta Success
Doing what it takes to keep Bettas healthy long-term

by Robert (Bob) Fenner

Sick Parrot Cichlid       1/21/20
Hello WWM Team,
<Melissa (little sweet one)>
I have a 9 year old parrot cichlid. He has been sick for 4-5 days. He stopped eating & is not very mobile just kind of bobbing at the top of the tank.
<Not good>
He is pale, and has a white spot on his side/belly.
<See this in your pic>
I took a photo of it & went to my local fish shop and explained what is going on. They gave me Fluran 2. I am on my second day of treating the tank, but he is the same. I am afraid he is going to die soon. I tested the water & everything looked good.
<Values please>
I included a photo of him below. Please help , thank you for your time.
<Mmm; well, this looks more like a mark/abrasion from a physical trauma to me... I'd check again re pH, hardness of the water and try to be patient.
You should see some emargination, healing in a week or so. Bob Fenner>

Re: Questions for 2 bettas     1/20/20
Just writing to tell you I decided to put down my SBD/constipated betta down earlier than planned. He started to refuse food and was not getting any better. I knew it would be better to let him go than continue his life floating and hiding all day. My other guy is doing well, no sign of any rot returning.
<Thank you for your note. BobF>

My Turtle; bleeding/shell      1/20/20
Hello, I thought my eastern painted turtle was shedding so i picked the scoots and now it is bleeding, HELP WHAT SHOULD I DO?
<Will ask Neale to respond as well, but you should have searched WWM re: Read here:
Bob Fenner>
My Turtle; bleeding/scutes     /Neale       1/21/20

Hello, I thought my eastern painted turtle was shedding so i picked the scoots and now it is bleeding, HELP WHAT SHOULD I DO?
<Ideally, go to a vet. Honestly. That's the best and most reliable approach here. If the cost is an issue, some charities exist (such as PDSA) to help out. Failing that, 'dry dock' him; see about halfway down this article:
Chances are good that if he's kept dry, the shell will heal over quickly, assuming that there are no underlying problems (such as Soft Shell).
Turtles are generally healthy animals, but there are some non-negotiable things that people skip on, and sadly, once you do that, it's not long before the turtle gets sick. Same with most if not all reptiles. Good
review of the basics here:

Dojo Loach Selling and blisters: Suggestions for care?       11/17/20
Hi there- You were so incredibly helpful last time, I thought I would try again. I have a scenario that I can't find any information on and I thought maybe you would have insight.
<Okay; will respond here and refer this to Neale Monks for his independent input>
This is the second time I've gotten a Dojo (weather) loach into the rescue with Edema (swelling) and blisters on their body.
<Mmm; yes. Unfortunately this situation is quite common. Something about Misgurnis in captive conditions>
The first had been in that state for a year, after jumping out of her tank and being mostly dry when she was placed back in the water. I had her for six months before I put her to sleep because she had swelling all throughout her body, and had trouble breathing and swimming. I tried everything from Epsom salt baths 2x a day (for about 3 weeks), to antibiotics for potential bacterial infections, with no change.
Recently, I got another Dojo in. He was sickly when I got him, but did not have the swelling. About a month after being in the tank with goldfish and Dojo's (150 g, 7 dojos, and about 10 adolescent Goldfish, 2x a week water changes and quad filtration), I noticed he was swollen starting from mid body to tail. I Quarantined him, along with all the rest of the loaches for a few days to make sure no one else was showing anything weird (dojo's in a 150 are a tad bit difficult to keep an eye on), but he is the only
one experiencing this.
I have been giving him some Epson salt baths, though not as frequently as with the other dojo, he shed his slime coat after the first bath, and then developed the blisters, which have not subsided. He is still active, and still eating- but the swelling has not changed and I'm not sure what to do for him. He's now been in QT for about a month with no real change to his edema. He also developed a small white patch on his head- not fuzzy or a wound- just a pigmentation change from what I can tell.
I apologize that the photos are not better- it's not a well-lit tank and he's a wiggly little guy- but hopefully, it's enough to provide some suggestions? I can get better photos if that would be helpful, but they would involve stressing him out a little bit, so I figured I would wait to see what you needed.
Andie Lamantia
The Fish Haus Aquatic Rescue
<I'll (simply) refer you to past replies (myself) as I have no new material to add here:
and the linked files above in this series.
Thank you for your efforts. Bob Fenner:
Re: Dojo Loach Selling and blisters: Suggestions for care?       11/17/20

Awesome! Thanks so much. I'm sorry I did not stumble on this myself!
<No worries Andie. BobF>
Dojo Loach Selling and blisters: Suggestions for care? /Neale       11/17/20

<<Like Bob, I've seen this a few times with Misgurnus species. It does seem to be environmental. One suggestion is that it's a form of the gas-bubble disease you sometimes see in marine fish. If you expose the fish to sudden changes in water temperature (such as adding too much icy cold water to the tank) the saturation of gases in the aquarium water change, and if those gases come out of solution within the fish, any bubbles that tend to move outwards become visible under the skin. There may be some mileage in this explanation, because Weather Loaches are habitual air-gulpers, so tend to have more air inside them than the average fish. They're also more prone to swimming rapidly up and down the tank, and while I can't imagine the pressure difference is very great, it may be enough to make a difference to
the solubility of any gases in their blood. Another suggestion that's perhaps easier to understand is these are mud-dwelling fish poorly adapted to gravelly substrates. Their skins are easily scratched, and rather as you see with Spiny Eels extremely commonly, secondary infections ensure. My problem with this explanation is that the bubbles are apparently under the epidermis, not abscesses or something working their way from the outside in. Either way though, optimising the environment and using antibiotics
against a secondary infection is likely your best move. I'd also warmly recommend Loaches.com as a website with a forum populated with people who are very into loaches. You might find someone there who can help with more certainty! Regards, Neale.>>

A White Cloud dies every few weeks        11/17/20
Hello WWM,
I wanted to follow up with you on advice you gave me several years ago (below). In case it helps anyone with similar issues, the end it was the Paraguard that did the trick. I treated the whole tank (I removed the 2 nerites, one of which is 4 years old now - I didn't know they'd live that long) and finally the WWMMs stopped wasting away and dying. I was down to 3 fish and didn't restock for a year just to make sure. I now have a school of 9 happy WCMMs. I know they are schooling fish and are unhappy in small numbers. It was amazing to see the difference in the 3 fish when I added the 6 new ones. One of the males had completely lost his colour, even the red in his tail. They were all quite pale. Shortly after the new ones arrived, they coloured right up - amazing!
Anyhoo, thanks again for your advice,
Tracey (from frigid Canada)
<Thanks for the follow-up, and glad things worked out well in the end. Does sound like you had a bad batch of fish, and once the survivors were fixed up, they were very glad to see some new friends. Lovely fish, and like a lot of minnows, the more you keep, the better (and healthier) they will be.
So unless the tank is tiny, don't feel like you should hold back getting
more. A dozen would be fine in even 10 gallons, and the more the merrier.
Cheers, Neale.>
<<29 October 2016 16:35
To: crew@wetwebmedia.com
Subject: A White Cloud dies every few weeks

Greetings Fish Gurus!
<Hello Tracey,>
I have a 15 gallon lightly planted tank that I have been trying to keep White Clouds in, but they keep wasting away and dying one by one. The tank has been set up for the last 18 months. The most I’ve had in there at one time is 8 fish (currently 5), so I am lightly stocked.
Tank parameters:
Temp: 20 C (maintained with a heater)
<Depending on room temperature, a heater might not be needed. A definite cool phase, around 18 C, in winter is a really good idea.>
pH: a steady 7.5
GH: 60 ppm
KH: 60 ppm
nitrite: 0
nitrate: < 5 ppm
Water changes: 20% weekly, conditioned with Prime
Food: mostly flakes, peas once a week, the odd algae wafer
<All sounds ideal.>
They start out active and with good appetites, then one by one they stop schooling and eating and just hover around the tank. Sometimes they seem to recover and become active and healthy again, but eventually they fall ill again. I’ve made the mistake of restocking a couple of times when I thought the trouble was over and wanted to maintain at least 6 to minimize stress, but two weeks after adding the new ones, someone stops eating and on it goes. Early on I fed them live mosquito larvae harvested from my rain barrel (I stopped doing that in case it was introducing something) and I did get one (in hindsight) suspect fish in the very first batch that never ate or schooled and died within a month. Attached is a photo of the latest fish on death watch. It has withdrawn and rallied at least once or twice already, but I think this might be it. I have never seen a worm protruding from them, and I have used a magnifying glass to examine them closely and never seen a mark or hitchhiker on them. Medication-wise I have tried General Cure,
<A "jack of all trades, master of none" treatment that is *meant* to deal with external protozoan and invertebrate parasites, such as fish lice. Not nearly as "general purpose" as its name suggests.>
Prazipro (one dose per week for three weeks) and Levamisole (one dose per week for three weeks), but the problem continues.
<These last two are de-wormers.>
Any thoughts on what the problem might be? I love these little fish, but they keep breaking my heart.
<Two things to think about. The first is that none of the medications you've used would seem to match your symptoms. So your lack of success with them is not unexpected. The second is that the symptoms you're dealing with sound a lot more like Neon Tetra Disease (which can/does affect other species,
or at least, similar parasites do) or a systematic bacterial infection (sadly very common in farmed fish produced to a price, as with WCMM, Angels, Guppies, and host of other "bread and butter" species). So, going forwards, probably your best approach is to medicate as per a bacterial infection, something like the popular Maracyn 1 and 2 combo, or better yet, the Seachem Polyguard and Paraguard combo, which should treat just about everything treatable.
Make sure to remove carbon from the filter, if used (generally redundant in freshwater fishkeeping) and provide supplemental aeration, even if that only means lowering the water level a bit so the filter outflow splashes a bit more than usual.>
Thank you,
<It's possible you've been unlucky, and/or the fish are sick because of something going on at the retailer. You might leave the tank to settle, and when no more WCMMs die, buy some more to restore the school, but choosing from another retailer or buying online from a trustworthy source. Your local/city aquarium club can help too. Hope this helps, Neale.>>>

Guest Post on Your Website Wetwebmedia.com     1/16/20
I hope you are doing well.
<Thank you>
I'm Emma Lewis, a professional article writer and Aquarium lover.
I would like to contribute a high-quality article by following all guidelines provided by you.
I promise that I will provide HIGH quality content of 2000+ Words that you won’t find anywhere else.
Here are my two ideas that will be the perfect choice for your website readers.
*Learn the Basics About Aquarium Canister Filters *
*How to Make Your Pet Reptile's Love You *
What do you think about these ideas? Which one of them is more suitable for your site?
<We only "do" aquatic reptiles...>
Looking forward to hearing from you. Thanks
Emma Lewis
<You're welcome to make independent submissions. We pay $200 for non-exclusive use/posting if accepted. Bob Fenner>

HOB Filter Modifications     1/16/20
Dear WWM Crew,
<Hi Mark>
I currently have a 20gal high that is in the middle of a fishless cycle. I don’t plan on making any huge adjustments to the filtration until I have the cycle done. Before I began cycling I modified the Tetra Whisper Power Filter (PF20) that came with the tank. I added a sponge to the intake, removed the activated carbon pad as well as the small sponge that came with the filter to make room for 1 AquaClear foam insert (which was cut down) and 1 AquaClear biomax insert. Over the last few weeks of having this filtration setup I’m beginning to have a few concerns.
- Some of the are not fully submerged.
<Filter media does not work if it is not fully submerged, (wet dry bio balls excepted).>
- The water is not force to go through the sponge and only has to go through the BioMax balls.
<If this is the case, Biomax will just work as a mechanical filter until it gets clogged>
- The added filtration in the chamber stalls some enough of the water so that some water is running back into the tank from where the pump enter the filter.
<I‘d take out at least half of the Biomax balls to relieve the filter and get a decent/constant water flow>
I’m worried that with how the filter is set up that the foam and BioMax balls are not able to build up bacteria. Part of this concern is that I can see build up of something on the intake sponge and not of the bio filters inside the filter (I have a feeling that the intake sponge is just picking up the small particles in the tank and that is all it is). I know these are probably small concerns and should not be worried about; however I’m curious to hear someone else’s opinion. I have attached some pictures if need be. I look forward to hearing a response!
<Just correct the above and you'll be fine. BTW, I resized your pix to a lower resolution, next time please see the uploading guidelines.><<Excellent Wil. B>>
Mark Aikema
<You're most welcome. Wil.>

A woman in my angelfish group has a sick angelfish.     1/12/20
He's not bloated but he swims with his nose pointing up. Thanks
<Please do have them write us; with particulars re the system, water quality measures, diet, and imagery if they think this will help. Bob Fenner>

Trichopodus leerii food     1/9/20
Hello Crew, hope things are status quo in your neck(s) of the woods! Question—any suggestions for a (preferably low maintenance) daily food supplement to give my Trichopodus leerii in addition to flakes?
<A good quality pellet, maybe frozen/defrosted crustacean...>
My last Trichopodus loved your NLS Float suggestion but this guy spits them out, yet my cherry barbs devour them. Package says “regular size” 1-1.5mm pellets—could these be too big for him?
<Unusual... maybe>
NLS does not seem to sell a smaller, floating food, and he is too slow to grab sinking food from other inhabitants. I have Hikari micro pellets but they are smaller than flakes! Any ideas, or maybe his “begging” is an act of dramatics? Thank you! —Matt from NJ
<I'd go with what I do... the frozen/defrosted food in addition daily (better in the AM, use the dry in the PMs). I use (a lot) of San Francisco Bay Brand brine shrimp; though Hikari's line are also excellent. Bob Fenner>
Re: Trichopodus leerii food    1/10/20

Thank you for the suggestion, I’ll give it a shot.
<Glad Bob's suggestion of use. I find Gouramis tend to have "small mouths" and consume smaller foods than you think, preferring even tiny live foods like Daphnia and Artemia nauplii over chunky foods.>
Could his habit of staying up at the surface be a symptom of anything else?
<It is largely what they do; they are associated with floating vegetation in the wild, and rarely stray away from such.>
My water quality has 0 ammonia and nitrites, and my filter media is fresh. I have a steady air stone firing plenty of air through the tank and my filter is keeping the surface moving. The tank is a 15-gal column with 2 synodontis nigriventris and three cherry barbs, along with the pearl.
<S. nigriventris can be a 'fin nibbler' at times, but I think the real challenge here is the tank. 15 gallons is too small, and it's unlikely such big fish are going to feel comfortable in this tank, especially when it's a tall design. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Trichopodus leerii food   1/11/20

Thank you both. Yes, I have regretted purchasing this tank since the day I opened up the box... it’s a water quality nightmare... but I’ve managed to keep it going for almost 5 years so it’s a personal challenge at this point! I had a rock solid trichogaster trichopterus for 4 years in there and my cherries and these cats are years old (corys, as expected, grew sick of swimming to the top)... so I think I’ve done relatively ok. I’ve always shied away from the live foods out of both convenience (honestly) and fear of water quality issues. Maybe it’s time to “dive” in. You and Bob have inspired me. I will search WWM for some rookie tips on live foods.
<Understand your disappointment with the tank. Frozen foods can substitute for live foods in many cases, so well worth trying these out. Certainly Gouramis aren't too fussed about live vs. frozen foods. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Trichopodus leerii food    1/12/20

Thank you! This gourami is not going to make it...
<Oh dear.>
I’m on the third and final dose of Kanaplex after many water changes and removing the carbon from the filter—I hate medicating my tank but I thought it was necessary here—and now he’s showing fin rot, lost posture, and rocking back and forth. If I lose him, and after I let the tank sit stable for a while, do you think a smaller gourami would work in my setup, such as a T. chuna?
<In a tank this size and shape, I'd be thinking perhaps of a 'bed' of floating vegetation at the top, and then something smaller, like Sparkling Gouramis or Croaking Gouramis. Both associate with floating plants, and being farmed but not selectively bred, they're pretty robust. Sensitive to cold air, like all labyrinth fish, but the Sparkling Gouramis are tiny fish, and would be fine in a columnar tank. They have lovely colours! Floating Indian Fern would be an ideal plant to use, being adaptable and forming thick beds several inches deep, if doing well. Do see BobF's piece on this excellent species, here:
Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Trichopodus leerii food    1/12/20

Great ideas all around, thanks so much!
<Most welcome. Cheers, Neale.>


Freshwater Aquarium  Articles & FAQs

  • Set-Up: Gear/Components:, Set-Up, Tanks, Stands, Covers:, Water, Filtration of All Sorts, Sumps, Refugiums:, Circulation, Pumps, Powerheads, Aeration, Electricity, Heating/Chilling,  Light/Lighting:; Types of Systems:, Substrates, Aquascaping:
  • Livestock 1: Stocking/Selection, Biotopes, Quarantine, Acclimation. Fishes: Stingrays, Inadvanced Bony Fishes, Eels, Tetras & Their Relatives, Killifishes, Livebearers, Catfishes, Goldfish, Barbs, Danios, Rasboras, Minnow Sharks, Loaches, Misc. Fish Groups

    New Print and eBook on Amazon

    Goldfish Success
    What it takes to keep goldfish healthy long-term

    by Robert (Bob) Fenner

    Livestock 2: Gouramis, Bettas, Cichlids, Fresh to Brackish Water Fishes, Invertebrates (Hydra, Worms, Snails, Insects, Crustaceans...),

    New Print and eBook on Amazon

    Betta Success
    Doing what it takes to keep Bettas healthy long-term

    by Robert (Bob) Fenner

  • Herps: Amphibians, Turtles,
  • Maintenance/Operation: General Maintenance, Algae, Foods/Feeding/Nutrition, Disease/Health,
  • Freshwater Aquarium Science:  Behavior, Topics, Reference and Aquatics Writing Business, Reviews, 

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