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Cardisoma sp. (likely C. armatum). Southeast Asia, Indonesia Land Crabs. Soap-Box Crabs for how they're individually shipped (in plastic soap-dishes closed with rubber bands) to prevent cannibalism. To eight inches across... Not a community tank item... Actually not totally aquatic... if you're lucky, yours will crawl out of the tank and leave.  Full Size Link

Updated 2/5/19, Ask us a question: Crew@WetWebMedia.com
Brackish INDEX to Articles and FAQs;
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Other S
pecialized Daily FAQs Blogs: General,
Freshwater, Planted Tanks, Ponds,   
Daily Q&A replies/input from the WWM crew: 
Neale Monks, Marco Lichtenberger, Eric Russell, Chuck Rambo, Bob Fenner, are posted here. Moved about, re-organized into individual FAQs files!
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F8 puffer care       2/5/19
Hi, I have an extra 10 gallon tank and really would like to put an Figure 8 Puffer fish, max size 3in. but the recommended size tank is a 15 gallon I could get a 20 gallon but I wanted to know if you think the F8 puffer could thrive ( no other fish) in a 10 gal.? Thank you!
<Short answer, is no, a 10 gallon isn't really going to work in the long term. A juvenile might be fine for 6-12 months, but they do grow quickly, and like all puffers, they're very sensitive to poor environmental
conditions. If the Figure 8 is a species you rarely see in your hometown, and there's one on sale now, then sure, a 10 gallon tank for the short term, until you buy a bigger tank, will work. But longer term, nope.
Cheers, Neale.>
Re: F8 puffer care       2/5/19

Thank you so much I just picked up a 20 gallon
<Good move! Enjoy your new pet. Don't forget this is a brackish, not freshwater puffer, so you'll need to add some marine salt mix to the water; around 5-6 gram (1 teaspoon) per litre works fine. Cheers, Neale.>

Green spotted puffer     1/28/19
Hi
<Hello!>
I have a 13 year old green spotted puffer. The last week he is refusing to eat looks massively bloated and is pending his time either hiding at back of tank or vertical next to the filter.
Water parameters are the same as his usual Ph7.8 nitrate 7.5 nitrite 0 ammonia 0 temp 24 degrees
<No salt?>
He’s in a 180 litre tank with about 8 ghost shrimps ( originally put in as food about 2 months ago- But he seems to prefer the company!!)
<Understood.>
No changes to food/tank/ inhabitants etc
I am very attached to him and it’s heartbreaking to see him like this.
Do you have any idea what I can try? I know he’s old now but I’ve had him longer than my kids! :-(
<Hah! He's a fair age for a GSP, but with that said, the species isn't really a freshwater fish, and the bloating you describe could easily be caused by some sort of osmoregulation problem. Adding marine aquarium salt, even at a relatively low dose (say, 5 grams per litre; SG 1.002) will probably help enormously. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Green spotted puffer     1/28/19
Thank you so much for replying. I’m so stressed. :-(
<Oh dear.>
I’ve always added Interpet aqualibrium salt ( 1tsp per 10litre)
<Much too little, and the wrong kind of salt. 1 teaspoon is around 6 gram, so that's 0.6 gram per 1 litre, which isn't nearly enough to register as 'brackish'.>
I’ll get some Marine salt tomorrow.
<Ah, much better.>
Tonight he looks like he has a load of tiny white spikes.
<Those are his spines.>
Sent from my iPhone
<Useful to know, I guess? Cheers, Neale.>

Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca)  SW/BR/FW   12/9/18
Hi Neale,
How are you?
<All good.>
I have come across an interesting and seemingly rare puffer for sale. Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca).
<Does turn up very occasionally in the UK trade, mostly at the stores specialising in oddballs; I've seen them at Wildwoods for example. A second variety, known as the Golden Milk Spotted Puffer, is also traded, which may or may not be a regional or colour morph of the same fish.>
I have a tank available in my fish room. I can't find much at all by way of information about this fish?
<Very few people have kept it. I haven't, for a start!>
I saw you made brief reference to this fish in a PFK article.
<Yes.>
Do you know much in terms of care requirements?
<Very similar to the standard issue GSP, though potentially much larger, up to 30 cm. Much more peaceful towards its own kind though, but still a fin-biter, so tankmates should be chosen with care. Might work okay in a jumbo reef or FOWLR system alongside suitably punch, fast, and robust fish such as Sergeant Majors and Damselfish that would hide among rocks when resting. Otherwise very undemanding; hardy, euryhaline, eats all the usual meaty foods. Wild fish probably consume a lot of algae, too, so stuffing some Spirulina flake into, say, mussels would be a good way to keep their vitamin levels topped up.>
Also is £140 an OK price?
<About right. It's never cheap, but is very beautiful.>
Thanks!
<Hope this helps. Neale.>
Re: Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca)      12/10/18

Thanks Neale that’s really helpful. He’s in freshwater at the moment - what sort of salinity is required and how is best to ease him in to it?
<Oh, they're nominally marine fish, but completely euryhaline coastal fish, meaning move in and out of freshwater and saltwater habitats all the time. Juveniles are common in estuaries, and adults seem to be all over the place, from the freshwater part of estuaries all the way to offshore reefs. Good water quality and an alkaline pH are probably more important than the precise salinity. I'd probably keep a youngster around 1.003-1.005, aiming for 1.010 upwards by the time it's above, say, 8-10 cm.>
Could I keep him with. GSPs or figure 8s whilst he is small?
<Definitely worth a shot, and similarly, adults might be tried with the less aggressive Arothron spp. All the limited accounts of this species in captivity seem to agree with the general idea it's non-aggressive, just nippy. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca)      12/10/18

Thank you .
<Most welcome.>
If they are constantly moving between freshwater - could I have a go at keeping it in freshwater- or is that not worth the risk?
<Short term, probably fine. I mean, I've kept Arothron hispidus juveniles in hard freshwater -- but that's another story! Regardless, if you're forking out £100+ for a fish, you'd not be wanting to take too much of a gamble! I'd certainly keep the pH and hardness high, and ensure good water quality. Probably better to add even a little salt, to start with. 1.003 would be ample for juveniles, and easily tolerated by brackish water tolerant plants. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca)      12/10/18

Thanks - sorry last question - how best can I introduce salt without killing my filter bacteria?
<In stages! From freshwater to 1.003 there'll be no noticeable effect.

There on upwards, do small changes, wait a couple of weeks, do the odd nitrite or ammonia test, and act accordingly. Since these puffers are euryhaline, you may choose to grow the fish onto subadult size in low-end brackish, then simply convert the tank to marine -- complete with skimmer and live rock -- on a Sunday afternoon, the puffer sitting in a large, securely covered bucket until you're reading to acclimate it to full marine conditions. The live rock will bring in the entirely new batch of bacteria required for filtration, as per setting up a reef or FOWLR system. Klaus Ebert of Aqualog fame says you can chuck euryhaline brackish fish into marine conditions instantly, but I'm a little kinder, and suggest plain vanilla drip acclimation across, say, an hour. Either way, these fish can, do experience such things in the wild when the tide turns. Cheers, Neale.> 

Bumblebee goby parasite?     1/6/19
Hi .
My Goby, Crazy Horse, developed the growth in the attached photo. It started maybe two months ago as a small white spot on one side growing larger and then appearing on both sides. Then it looked as though it was falling off, resembling a loose fish scale (but too big to be one of Crazy's scales) or looking very similar to the fin it is behind, I treated with Praziquantel and it seemed to calm down for a while but is back now with vengeance. Pictures may not show clearly it is now a opaque sack like growth, when I netted her I tweezered one side removing the ‘sack’ which is about 2-2.5mm. In the area I tweezered remains a white spot/growth about .5-1mm, she is currently in a bag and I am treating her with Avitrol plus, a Levamisole and Prazi combo bird wormer and I gave her a Potassium Permanganate dip the other day, neither of which seem to be having much of an effect (other than stressing the poor little soul) She also seems to have developed a bit of a humpback over this time, it has not effected her appetite or weight but she is quite pale on and off. Tank is 65 litres has a total of 7 Gobies and a ton of trumpet snails, salinity 1.005, Ammonia 0, Nitrites 0, Nitrates never been above 5, PH 7.6. None of the other Gobies showing any issues. Appreciate your time, and ideas if you have some.
Kind regards, Teresa.
<Hello Teresa. I don't think this is a parasite, but some sort of bacterial infection. Still, you could see if saltwater dips help. These aim to stress any external parasite before the fish gets stressed, and with brackish water species, you can immerse the fish in full strength seawater for a long time, in some cases indefinitely, which will usually kill any freshwater parasite such as Anchor Worms. Conversely, freshwater dips will shift marine parasites like Sea Lice. In this instance, some dechlorinated water at 25C with 35 gram marine salt mix dissolved into each litre should produce seawater (SG 1.025 at this temperature) and you can immerse the Bumblebee Goby for anything up to 20 minutes. Remove if the BBG looks stressed, but from experience I've seen them handle seawater for some days, so 20 minutes should be fine. Anyway, if this is an external parasite, this should work. But as I say, this looks more like a pocket of tissue fluid under the skin, whether caused by a physical injury or a bacterial infection is hard to say. Medicating as per internal bacterial infection with a reliable antibiotic is probably the best approach. Kanaplex or something along those lines would be my suggestion. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: Bumblebee goby parasite?     1/6/19
Thanks so much Neale. I am in New Zealand and Kanaplex is not available here but I see I can try to get some from overseas, unsure if it will make it through though.
<Understood. Here in the UK, and most of the world in fact, antibiotics are prescription-only, so you can get them from a vet. This isn't often cost effective for small aquarium fish, but some reasonably reliable
alternatives to exist. My particular favourite is a product called eSHa 2000. Waterlife Myxazin is often recommended too, but I haven't used it, so can't vouch for its efficacy. The main thing is to avoid tea-tree oil and other such herbal treatments as these generally don't work at all.>
Otherwise (I have not found a vet in my area with any decent experience/knowledge) I will try my vet and see if they can come up with an alternative now I have an idea of what we are dealing with.
Much appreciated
<Good luck, Neale.>

Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca)  SW/BR/FW   12/9/18
Hi Neale,
How are you?
<All good.>
I have come across and interesting and seemingly rare puffer for sale. Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca).
<Does turn up very occasionally in the UK trade, mostly at the stores specialising in oddballs; I've seen them at Wildwoods for example. A second variety, known as the Golden Milk Spotted Puffer, is also traded, which may or may not be a regional or colour morph of the same fish.>
I have a tank available in my fish room. I can't find much at all by way of information about this fish?
<Very few people have kept it. I haven't, for a start!>
I saw you made brief reference to this fish in a PFK article.
<Yes.>
Do you know much in terms of care requirements?
<Very similar to the standard issue GSP, though potentially much larger, up to 30 cm. Much more peaceful towards its own kind though, but still a fin-biter, so tankmates should be chosen with care. Might work okay in a jumbo reef or FOWLR system alongside suitably punch, fast, and robust fish such as Sergeant Majors and Damselfish that would hide among rocks when resting. Otherwise very undemanding; hardy, euryhaline, eats all the usual meaty foods. Wild fish probably consume a lot of algae, too, so stuffing some Spirulina flake into, say, mussels would be a good way to keep their vitamin levels topped up.>
Also is £140 an OK price?
<About right. It's never cheap, but is very beautiful.>
Thanks!
<Hope this helps. Neale.>
Re: Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca)      12/10/18

Thanks Neale that’s really helpful. He’s in freshwater at the moment - what sort of salinity is required and how is best to ease him in to it?
<Oh, they're nominally marine fish, but completely euryhaline coastal fish, meaning move in and out of freshwater and saltwater habitats all the time. Juveniles are common in estuaries, and adults seem to be all over the place, from the freshwater part of estuaries all the way to offshore reefs. Good water quality and an alkaline pH are probably more important than the precise salinity. I'd probably keep a youngster around 1.003-1.005, aiming for 1.010 upwards by the time it's above, say, 8-10 cm.>
Could I keep him with. GSPs or figure 8s whilst he is small?
<Definitely worth a shot, and similarly, adults might be tried with the less aggressive Arothron spp. All the limited accounts of this species in captivity seem to agree with the general idea it's non-aggressive, just nippy. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca)      12/10/18

Thank you .
<Most welcome.>
If they are constantly moving between freshwater - could I have a go at keeping it in freshwater- or is that not worth the risk?
<Short term, probably fine. I mean, I've kept Arothron hispidus juveniles in hard freshwater -- but that's another story! Regardless, if you're forking out £100+ for a fish, you'd not be wanting to take too much of a gamble! I'd certainly keep the pH and hardness high, and ensure good water quality. Probably better to add even a little salt, to start with. 1.003 would be ample for juveniles, and easily tolerated by brackish water tolerant plants. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Milk-spotted puffer (Chelonodon patoca)      12/10/18

Thanks - sorry last question - how best can I introduce salt without killing my filter bacteria?
<In stages! From freshwater to 1.003 there'll be no noticeable effect.

There on upwards, do small changes, wait a couple of weeks, do the odd nitrite or ammonia test, and act accordingly. Since these puffers are euryhaline, you may choose to grow the fish onto subadult size in low-end brackish, then simply convert the tank to marine -- complete with skimmer and live rock -- on a Sunday afternoon, the puffer sitting in a large, securely covered bucket until you're reading to acclimate it to full marine conditions. The live rock will bring in the entirely new batch of bacteria required for filtration, as per setting up a reef or FOWLR system. Klaus Ebert of Aqualog fame says you can chuck euryhaline brackish fish into marine conditions instantly, but I'm a little kinder, and suggest plain vanilla drip acclimation across, say, an hour. Either way, these fish can, do experience such things in the wild when the tide turns. Cheers, Neale.> 

Spaghetti Eel... which reminds me of bugs bunny    11/9/18
Good day Neale, Marco and all you good people in WetWebMedia,
<Hello!>
Neale, I remember this chat in fishforum, many many years ago (2006)
http://www.fishforums.net/threads/got-my-freshwater-snowflake-eel-today.140196/
In the chat you are advising a brackish aquarist to get an Echidna Rhodochilus (I already have it) and/or Spaghetti eel.
<Ah, yes. Back when I had time to do online forums! A distant memory, sadly.>
Well, since I already have E. rhodochilus (a model citizen, very nice, stay small and docile),
<Yep, this is the usual experience.>
and I have given away most of my eels to other eel lovers (except for my E. Rhodochilus), I decided that I still have room for small slimmer non-aggressive eel, so I asked my procurer to get me a Moringua
raitaborua.
<Nice!>
What he ended up sending me are these two eels (pictures included), which a bit surprising to me. What bizarre eel, I thought, when I saw them first time. Body like Monopterus albus, paddle-like tail (like some kind of fish.. well eels are fish anyway), face like moray... but they behave more like Bugs Bunny!
<The paddle-tail is presumably to help with digging. As you're seeing, these fish are extremely happy when half buried in the sand.>
That is, not long after I plunge them to my aquarium, they immediately burrowing! I just turn my back for a short while, then as I look back, they already gone beneath the sand. They stuck out their head every now and then (like Bugs Bunny!), but every time I bring my face closer to my aquarium, they will pull their head back in and swim underneath the sand, making curious patterns. Even my white cheek moray got confused (I think ;) ) as it remained home and not coming out at all.
<Neat.>
So, are they Moringua raitaborua? But they are not pink, their color are more like Monopterus albus. The smaller one is about 30cm in length, the bigger one is about 40cm. They have slim bodies, shaped like Monopterus albus... kind like spaghetti :D so the name is proper. They are caught in a freshwater river several kilometers away from the estuarium, and they were being kept in freshwater for months before my procurer bought them and send them to me. Maybe M. raitaborua change colors when they grow bigger? or maybe they are M. microchir? but isn't M. marine eels?
<It's really hard to say. The pale colour could easily be down to the light coloured substrate -- many fish adjust their colours, becoming paler if the substrate is pale. I'd be looking at the pictures on Fishbase for a start:
https://www.fishbase.de/summary/Moringua-raitaborua
https://www.fishbase.de/summary/8051
While both occur in brackish water, as you say, of the two, Moringua raitaborua is the one more associated with fresh and brackish conditions, and presumably the more adaptable in the longer term, Moringua microchir being more marine when adult. That being the case, I'd be maintaining the tank around 1.003-1.005, and seeing what happens. If the fish stop eating or get ill, upping the salinity may be required.>
Well, thank you for your time, and have a wonderful day with your fishes!
Best Regards, Ben
<And to you! Cheers, Neale.>


 

Re: Spaghetti Eel... which reminds me of bugs bunny      11/10/18
Hello Neale and all you cool people in WetWebMedia!
<Hello Ben,>
Thank you for the reply. The smaller eel immediately begin eating chopped shrimp and bloodworms, while the larger eel looks like it's not hungry yet.
Or maybe it's eating the bloodworms when I wasn't looking. Closer examination reveals that the larger eel actually does have a pinkish face.
It's the smaller one that is not pink. But both has the same morphology.
The smaller one is now more outgoing and will leave the sands for food, while the big one is still behaving like a mole or a bugs bunny.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tHaDQgCWiZ0&feature=youtu.be So, maybe one of them is M. Microchir and the other one is M. Raitaborua?
Or maybe they are both M. Raitaborua, and simply changed colors when getting old! :D
<Could be either situation. I admit they don't look like the same species, and maybe their behaviour is different too. But you really can't be sure without contacting someone who actively studies this genus, or at least knows the common fishes collected in this area. Indeed, there may be other Moringua species (described or otherwise!) that we aquarists aren't aware of, and without photos online, we wouldn't be able to compare them to the fishes in front of us.>
My salinity is 1.005sg (fluctuating) at the last water changes, so I hope it's still within range.
<If they're eating, it's probably fine; with Moray Eels at least, refusing food is a good sign the salinity is wrong.>
These eels will hide under bright lights (just like my white cheek moray), but when I reduce the lights, they will eventually come out, especially when smelling food.
<Correct.>
It is rather difficult to find more online info about these spaghetti eels, even though our local fishermen and procurers here are familiar with them and their behavior.
<They are extremely rare in the aquarium trade, in Europe at least. So likely very few experiences among the sorts of people who write web pages!>
They are known as agreeable pets, but not as desirable as morays (morays are considered more "beautiful"). And to catch them would require some patience as they only easy to catch in the rivers at certain times of the year.
<May well be migratory, by the sounds of it.>
Well, thank you for your time, and I hope my report will be useful for all you WetWebMedia fans out there who wish to know more about these spaghettis!
<Oh, I am quite sure this will help those luckily enough to obtain Moringua spp.>
Best Regards, Ben
<Cheers, Neale.>

Some mudskipper questions     9/4/18
I've gotten interested in keeping some Periopthalmus novemradiatus (dwarf Indian mudskipper) in my 180 liter tank (47.55 gallon) and i was wondering about several things:
<Fire away.>
how to make substrate thy can burrow in? i have found that a combination of sand and pottery clay should work, but it will stink after a while, any other options?
<In terms of actually doing this, it's very hard in a home aquarium. You will find it easier to buy various pieces of straight and bent PVC tubing (as used for domestic plumbing) and create some burrows, then bury them in the sand or gravel. Your Mudskippers will usually use these without complaint. You can use coral sand mixed with smooth silver sand, but it won't really 'stick' together in the same way as mud. By all means experiment though.>
i was also wondering about algae control and was thinking about adding brackish water snails, i have Nerite snails in my other brackish tank of which i could get more, however i can also get Littorina littorea (common periwinkle) for it which is cheaper, but I'm not sure if they can stay in brackish water.
<Littorina littorea can tolerate strongly brackish water, but only down to about half-strength seawater, so maybe SG 1.012 at 25 C. Your bigger issue is that these snails are temperate zone animals, with only limited tolerance for high temperatures. They may adapt to maybe 25 C, but their mortality is likely to be higher than at, say, a normal 15-18 C. That said, these snails are strongly intertidal and will spend all their time trying to escape from warm water -- that is my experience simply keeping them indoors at room temperature. So certainly worth trying, but don't expect miracles.>
and is lava rock safe for mudskippers, as i have a couple of nice pieces around but they are kind of rough, so i wonder if mudskippers can get damaged by it?
<It is certainly a risk. I would suggest not using it. Best stick with bogwood roots, water worn cobbles, etc.>
Met vriendelijke groet,
Thijmen
<Cheers, Neale.>
Re: some mudskipper questions     9/4/18

thanks for the answers, you are fast.
<Glad to help.>
i still have some pottery clay somewhere so I'll mix some with sand put it in a bucket and check for smells for a few weeks, just to check how bad it is.
<Is this unfired (soft) clay? Seems an odd addition to an aquarium. Can't
think why it wouldn't work, but never seen it used in an aquarium myself.>
since i prefer not to experiment with animals I'll get some Nerite snails for algae control
<Probably best. Various estuarine species available, such as Clithon and Neripteron species, do turn up in the trade. There are some true freshwater species (mostly Neritina spp.) so check first.>
i kind of like the looks of lava rock but i guess I'll find another rock to keep the land part from collapsing
<Wise. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: some mudskipper questions        9/5/18

The clay i have is unfired river clay that has been filtered of impurities, the bag even states the river it's from. (The Waal from memory)
<Interesting.>
I'll be adding some sand and pea gravel to reduce the amount if clay i need. (Keeping the top layer mostly clay.)
<Understood. Mudskippers are diggers though, and in water, small particles (such as clay) will eventually sink to the bottom, below larger particles like gravel and sand.>
A tip i got from another place was to add some mud from a river, lake or estuary to seed it with bacteria, is that a good idea?
<I can't think why clay would have filter bacteria on it. So no, doesn't sound like it would help. Filter bacteria live on solid surfaces exposed to oxygenated water. The best places to get them into your fish tank are things like floating plants (their roots are covered with bacteria) and the surface layer of sand or gravel from a mature tank.>
And i'm currently busy figuring out how to make a tidal system, working on airlift pumps, though i wonder if it would be able to lift water high enough.
<Indeed. There's no real reason to create a tidal flow here. Tidal systems are available and used in some reef tanks, but they're often expensive. Mudskippers spend almost no time in the water if they're happy, and really you only need enough brackish water for them to bathe and osmoregulate. The rest of the time they'll be much more interested in the bogwood roots, rocks, hollow ornaments, plastic plants, and any potted plants (kept out of salty water!) in the vivarium that they can explore. Cheers, Neale.>

Re: some mudskipper questions      10/21/18
The tank is finished, I put in 4 Periophthalmus novemradiatus, I plan to get some Clithon snails for the water part at a fair that is happening in 2 months.
<Cool.>
Other than that I want to set up some live food cultures, do you have any suggestions?
<Only that there's no real need. Mudskippers feed on a range of foods, and will do very well on flake and frozen foods smeared on the sand or rocks.
River shrimp could be offered of course, and flies such as wingless Drosophila and even Houseflies will be readily taken while they're foraging on the land.>
And I wonder if Artemia nauplii are too small as food.
<Probably, yes, because Mudskippers aren't very effective hunters in the water. It's better to offer them terrestrial prey, such as small insects.
Cheers, Neale.>

Brackish to Freshwater; lost Violet Goby; Fire Eel sys.       8/8/18
Hello Crew.
<Renee,>
I lost my Violet Goby today. He was in the tank when I did his water change last night, but when I went to feed him this morning, I couldn't find him. When I did find him, he had gotten out of the tank and wiggled into my closet. He was very dried out, but I tried floating him in the tank in a net all day - but he was gone.
<How cow! That's bad news indeed. Sounded a great fish.>
I've decided I'm not going to get another one, at least for now, and to convert that tank back to freshwater. I sent you a post a few days ago about compatibility between my BGK and a Fire Eel I will be getting from my friend this Saturday, and instead of putting it in with the BGK, I'm going to put the Fire Eel in the goby's old tank. My question is, how sensitive are Fire Eels to salt?
<Not especially, but they don't want brackish. On the other hand, a trivial amount is actually quite therapeutic, and a safer treatment for Whitespot and Velvet than the alternatives. Certainly, the addition of 1-2 gram salt per litre of water has been standard operating practise in Europe when keeping Spiny Eels of all kinds, including these.>
This tank is low end brackish, SG 1.005. Do I have to completely rinse out the tank, sand, filters, everything and start over, or can I replace the water, or a portion of the water, to drop the salinity as low as it can go without destroying the biological filter that currently exists in the tank.
<A succession of water changes will be fine, which I'd do across a couple of days to allow the filter to adapt. Keep adding a little flake or something to keep the filter bacteria ticking over. Once the salinity is
1.001 or less, you can add a Spiny Eel without problems. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Brackish to Freshwater      8/8/18

Thank you!
<Most welcome! Neale.>
Re: Brackish to Freshwater      8/8/18

Thank you!
<PS. If a Violet Goby jumped out of your tank, a Spiny Eel will definitely do so. They are notorious escape artists. Double check every hole is sealed off with plastic mesh, filter wool, or something else that lets air through but nothing else! Cheers, Neale.>

Green spotted puffer      7/12/18
I have a green spotted puffer and I have had him for about a month now!
<Do remember these are brackish water fish, despite what pet stores tell you. They will not live well or live long in freshwater conditions. Adults may even need marine conditions, though I'd argue around SG 1.005 is perfectly adequate for a long and healthy life, i.e., about 9 grammes marine aquarium salt mix per litre of tap water (that's about 1.2 oz per US gallon).>
He is still very small and bright!
<Neato!>
But I noticed tonight his left side by his tail is almost flat looking but his right side and head are fine! I’m not sure what could be wrong with him I just didn’t a total tank clean.
<Puffers can/will change their shape somewhat, especially when they're overfed. But they can also turn dark when stressed, which can make them look very different.>
But I also was wondering could he need his teeth trimmed this little and what could I feed him other then the flakes they gave me at the pet store?
<Yikes! Flakes are not an option here. Sure, if he eats them, once in a while they're useful. But he should really be eating mollusk and crustacean foods, whether small snails, or small shrimps, or slivers of seafood. A variety, really. Even if your puffer can't eat whole 'cocktail' shrimp (which shouldn't be a staple anyway) he should be able to eat krill or brine shrimp. Do let me have you read, here:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/brackishsubwebindex/gspsart.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/volume_6/volume_6_1/thiaminase.htm
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/brackishsubwebindex/gspfdgfaqs.htm
The key things are: use mussels and prawns/shrimps sparingly; use snails and cockles liberally; choose crunchy foods where you can; visit marine aquarium shops for suitable bite-size frozen foods such as krill and Spirulina-enriched brine shrimps for economical staple foods.>
I’ve been looking into his diet and such but no one can seem to help me and I don’t think he is big enough for shrimp.
<He'll manage small frozen whole shrimp when he's bigger, but as a youngster, frozen krill and brine shrimp are more realistic. You can also try woodlice from the garden -- assuming no pesticides have been used. Bloodworms, daphnia and other pond foods are an option too.>
Please help and the faster the better!! I am worried he has become my baby quickly
<Hope this helps. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Green spotted puffer    7/13/18

Okay I will check into other food today! But the place I got him from told me that he was raised on flakes so far and that he should be fine with those for now until he got bigger but upon my research is why I asked about it!
<For a start your Puffer was wild caught. It wasn't 'raised' on anything.
He may/may not eat flake, and if he does, that's great. Flake will provide a good range of nutrients. But it won't do anything for his beak.>
Also how will I know when he needs his teeth trimmed because he is only about and inch and half or maybe two if that big right now he has grown a lot since I got him as well!
<If you can see the teeth all the time, they're probably too long, and if he can't easily eat, they need dental work. Bear in mind that it's easier to trim the beak when the overgrowth is slight. Let me direct you to some reading:
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/fwsubwebindex/smpufferdentistry.htm
Personally, I wouldn't use a net to hold the puffer while doing the work,
but wet hands firmly. Nets can be rough and can damage fish.>
Now I have him in a small tank at the moment because I was worried he was getting sick so I upped the salt level a bit to help him over it but he may not need it!
<He needs salt. Quite a bit of it. Do read, understand about these fish.
They are brackish water fish, not freshwater fish. If you're not buying marine salt mix, and not weighing out substantial amounts each water change, you're not keeping it right. Cheers, Neale.>
Re: Green spotted puffer    7/13/18

(Cheyanne here) I got freeze dried shrimp that he loved he ate till he was full and I took the extra out but he loved it I have not seen him eat this well ever so I’m happy I found you guys
<A-ha! Good news he's eating well, and glad to help. Cheers, Neale.>

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