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FAQs about "Coral" Reproduction/Propagation 4

Related Articles: Captive Coral and Marine Invert Sexual Reproduction by Sara Mavinkurve, Growing Reef Corals For Profit by Anthony Calfo, Coral Propagation, LPS Corals, True or Stony Corals, Order Scleractinia, Propagation for Marine Aquarium Use, Trachyphyllia Reproduction Event

Related FAQs: Coral Propagation 1, Coral Propagation 2, Coral Propagation 3,  & FAQs on Coral: Coral Prop Livestock Selection, Frag Sources (Info., Livestock, Supplies), Frag Tanks/Systems, Frag Methods, Frag Tools, Frag Feeding, Frag Health, Propagation Economics, Frag Troubles, Fraggle Rock (just kidding),  & FAQs Files on: "Frag Momma Frag, Whatcha Gonna Do? " by Group: Cnidarian Reproduction, Caryophyllid Propagation/Reproduction, Soft Coral Propagation, Growing Reef CoralsLivestock BusinessStony Coral IdentificationStony Coral Behavior,

The future belongs to... commerce. You listening Georgie boy?

corals ejecting pearl-like material  1/1/13
Hello and happy new year!
I have a new Euphyllia Glabrescens in a 10 gallon quarantine tank for the past week. It’s under a 96W power compact light. Yesterday evening when leaving for some new year’s festivities, I noticed both polyps with mouths gaping huge, releasing strings of wispy mucous with dozens of white, tiny pearl-like particles into the water. Looking into the mouths, I could see dozens more of these particles inside the polyps, as can be seen in the photos. I placed a bag of carbon, but being on my way out didn’t have time to do a water change thinking I would do it this morning. However today the coral looks absolutely normal with no signs of what it ejected anywhere in the tank. Either it broke down in the water, or the coral retracted it!?  Now I have in the past seen various corals release brown waste/perhaps Zooxanthellae, and other times mesenteric filaments, and video footage of coral spawning. This doesn’t seem like any of those, and as far as I know corals are not egg layers, so what do you think this is?
Thank You
Dave
<Mmm, yes; stress-induced release of planulae... Do search on Google or such with the string "stony coral ejecting planulae". Bob Fenner>

Re: corals ejecting pearl-like material  1/1/13
Thanks so much, Bob!
Funny, I had tried searching but found no explanation, and didn't think this was a reproductive event because these particles were too large to be gametes.
<Mmm, well, eggs are big/ger, not spermatozoa though>
Now, searching the term "planulae" there is lots of info to read!
Interesting that E. Glabrescens is hermaphroditic and can eject planulae while the other Euphyllia species broadcast gametes. Learn something everyday, Thanks again!
<Ah, welcome. BobF>

Coral Restoration Project, artsy    4/5/11
Thought this might be of interest to some of the WWM readers:
http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/958753974/living-sea-sculpture-contemporary-art-as-coral-ref
This is an art project that is setting out to create installations specially designed to encourage coral growth. They are currently raising funds to get the project off the ground.
I'm not affiliated in any way, just heard about it from a friend and thought it was a worthy cause.
Cheers,
-Tommy
Whatever works... thanks for sending this along Tommy. BobF

28 gallon Nano setup, stkg., Jawfish sel., reading   7/10/10
Dear WWM Crew,
<Hello Laura>
I will be setting up a JBJ 28 gallon Nano cube system with LED lighting shortly. I will be using the tank primarily to grow out high end chalice frags that I have begun to collect for my 85 gallon reef tank, and I was hoping to keep a couple of fish in here that I simply can't keep in my larger reef, due to compatibility issues.
<Okay>
My dream is to keep a Blue Spotted Jawfish in this tank as the real "star" of the show.
<Mmm, Opistognathus rosenblatti is really a poor choice here... Needs larger quarters, roomier front to back in particular, and is really a cooler temperature species than the Chalice corals can well tolerate.
Please read here re: http://wetwebmedia.com/BluSptJawF.htm>
I have tried unsuccessfully to keep one in my 85 gallon before, due to bullying tankmates. Although the fish did not make it, I had it long enough to fall absolutely in love with it's personality, appearance, and antics in the tank. I have wanted one ever since. In the Nano, the BSJ would pretty much have the tank to himself, plenty of live rock, sand,
and rubble in attempt to make him feel safe and happy. There is also a tight fitting lid on this tank, to inhibit the jumping instinct that these guys are prone to having.
<Yes... and I'd suggest the "standard" Golden, O. aurifrons, but I think any, all Opistognathids would prove deleterious, at cross purpose with your growing out substrate placed stony corals here. They're digging, 'spitting'
of substrate will harm the corals>
Since the BSJ is a burrowing fish, I was hoping to add a very peaceful, free swimming reef safe fish as well. My thoughts were the yellow or blue assessor Basslet, Helfrichi Firefish, or another fish you might recommend
that would suit this setup.
<These last might well work out>
Also, I wanted to know if I could keep whatever your recommendation is as a pair in the tank, or would just one be the limit due to the small volume of water in addition to the BSJ?
<Again, I'd eschew the use of a Jawfish here>
By the way, I am open to using the Nano as a species setup for the BSJ, and getting more than one as my other fish, all based on your recommendation.
Please know that this tank will have a refugium, protein skimmer, and receive 10% weekly water changes with Tropic Marin Pro Reef salt, as does my main tank. I know the key here is good maintenance and low stocking of
fish.
Any books you would like to recommend to me on Nano Reef keeping are also welcome suggestions.
Thanks in advance for all of your help!
Laura Garmizo
<Mmm, please read here as well:
http://wetwebmedia.com/marine/setup/marsetupindex1.htm
scroll down to the tray on Small Marine Systems, Stocking. There is a general survey article and am accumulating group coverage pieces as I pen them and they run in Ultramarine Magazine (UK). Bob Fenner>
Re: 28 gallon Nano setup  7/10/10
http://wetwebmedia.com/marine/setup/marsetupindex1.htm
Hi Bob,
<Hello again Laura>
Wow, a bit deflated by the (albeit wise) advice to avoid the BSJ. I know better than to not follow it, however.
Well, suppose I design the live rockwork where the chalice frags are grown out on the rock, keep the substrate free of corals, and focus on the o. aurifrons (yellow pearly headed Jawfish)? Would this work better?
<Yes>
I don't know if this particular species agrees more in terms of the temperature levels the stony corals prefer.
<... it does, and easy enough to search, look up. See Fishbase.org for instance, even WWM...>
I plan to run the tank (if heat issues are kept at a minimum) at approximately 78/79 degrees F. Not hard for me to
switch thoughts to a o. aurifrons - just as endearing to me! But, conditions need to be right...
Thanks,
Laura
<Welcome. BobF>

Coral Business Question 1/8/10
HI Gang,
<John>
I've been pondering coral, fish and dry goods sales lately. I own a retail store that caters to people owning aquatic creatures. Because of the economy I decided I need to revisit my business plan and sales strategies.
<Smart>
Fish are selling well. Corals....what is it about corals lately?
<Not as many of the "type" of folks that initially buy these are coming into the trade/hobby interest... the economy>
The market seems saturated with home grown freebies and cheapies. Everything is listed as rare whether it is or not. What are you folks seeing in regards to coral sales?
<Some hotspots of activity in parts of the U.S., but mostly the trade is very slow>
Any suggestions on how to turn them around?
<All sorts of possibilities... trying to work with local clubs, individuals who are producing such... Spiffing up, placing pix of new arrivals (regularly) on your website... RSS'ing folks who sign on to be notified...
Workshops in your shop, yes, on propagation... Seeking out better sub-areas of the hobby for better sales opportunities...>
Would hosting in house coral seminars or starting a club help or hurt?
<Oh! Help>
I know you folks have a ton of experience and I would just appreciate hearing your viewpoints.
Dry goods seem to be the low man on the totem pole. I guess the online stores are getting the edge on price.
<Unfortunately the case... One really needs to hone their assortment... to avoid trying to compete with etailers...>
We continue to offer quality service and advice.
<Do you do installs and maintenance? I REALLY suggest you start, beef up...>
We aren't the store that will sell a Meyer butterfly to a 9 year old, let alone even get one in stock.
Thanks!
Bruce
<I will/would shake your hand... anyone's who would be self-employed in the current USA. Cheers, and "stiff upper lip", Bob Fenner> 

Coral Propagation and Pharmaceuticals   4/26/09
HI ,
First off, thanks for having such a great web site. It's helped me in many ways over the years. This is actually my first time emailing you...so here goes....
I'm looking for information on commercial coral propagation for pharmaceutical companies. Does this even exist?
<Mmm, likely so... though as far as I'm aware, such efforts are proprietary. Am out in CO and have been chatting with another presenter, Christine Williams, who works for such a large co. doing such searches in marines... Will cc her here and ask that she chime in if she has something to say>
I realize that wild caught can be cheaper, but organisms raised under controlled conditions can be much more desirable for research. I searched Google and your FAQ's but found very limited information about this topic. I'm well familiar with culturing corals in a greenhouse setting. Looks like a logical step in propagation and business.
Thanks,
John
<Maybe. Bob Fenner>  

Stress Induced Sex Change in Corals  4/5/09
A very interesting article...
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2009/03/30/mushroom-corals-sex.html
-Sara M.
<Oh, wait... I see it... is interesting... Why should higher temp.s turn
Fungiids into males? Mmmm. BobF> 

Neon Candy Cane Frag Mounting a Caulastrea Frag 9/24/08 Hello, <hi> I have a 24 gal Aquapod, been up and running for 4 months everything is going great with the tank. Last week I bought a neon candy cane frag. My question is on how to get the coral onto the live rock. I read numerous entries and I understand about the super glue attachment way. But how do I get the candy cane off of the piece of material that it is attached to when you buy it from the LFS? Do you cut it off of that piece (looks like an oversized golf tee) the coral is attached to? I am getting how to put them on the LR but I am not clear on how to transfer it. Thanks for any help! <Aaron you have a few options. Easiest would be to just jam that frag plug, (the golf tee looking thing) into a crack in the rocks and either epoxy it with something like Aquamend that you can get at your local hardware store, or super glue gel. Your goal is just to hold it secure so the various tank critters in your tank don't knock it loose. Over time coralline algae will cover the plug and you won't see it anymore. Your second option is to remove it from the plug by force, either by cutting it or breaking it at the base near the plug and doing the same gluing process on the rocks. I personally prefer the first method> Aaron<Regards, Jessy>

Larger Scale Live Rock Alternative -- 07/09/08 Crew, <<Hey Ryan>> Thank you for providing such an extensive resource to our community, your service is second to none. <<Thank you much for the kind words'¦redeeming indeed>> I have read and re-read most of what has already been published here regarding different types of live rock "substitutes", (i.e. cinder blocks, lava rock, homemade, etc.), <<I see>> and our problem/situation is on a bit of different scale than those discussed thus far. <<Oh?>> We are in need of a much larger volume of rock, and due to the obvious costs, etc., are in search of ANY reliable alternatives. <<Mmm, I understand'¦but do realize there is no real 'alternative' to live rock, only poor substitutes of varying degree>> We currently operate a coral propagation facility with roughly 1,300 gallons and 1,000lbs of rock that has been in our tanks for years. Well-seeded, to say the least. <<Maybe so'¦but also likely in need of a 'boost'>> January 1st, we are expanding to a new location, with roughly 5,000g planned, and would like to get "whatever it is we are going to use" for rock/bio, to start seeding in our current system right away. <<Some of your existing rock will serve well as a start-up bacteria culture'¦but after 'years' is low in soluble bio-mineral content and alkaline reserve'¦as well as diminished bio-diversity>> We have the time and space now to start whatever "curing" process is going to be needed before introducing it into the current system, but we are concerned about the long term effects of items like cinder blocks, etc. leaching at the new shop. <<The biggest immediate concern is elevated pH (as high as 12.0 and above with new 'cement' products), but this is easily 'cured' down to acceptable levels'¦though the process can be lengthy (8 weeks or more). Long term issues in my experience with cement-based rock are excessive/problematic nuisance alga growth'¦and the fact that it provides no real bio-mineral content or buffer capacity/alkaline reserve>> So, my 2 questions are... Is there any truth to the different "soaking" methods (vinegar) to prevent this effect? <<The vinegar will not 'prevent' anything'¦rather, the Acetic Acid can be useful in 'speeding up' the curing process. I have no personal experience with this method as I have always just used a plain water-soak, and from what I have heard, the added cost/trouble is little worth it. But do feel free to give it a try and decide for yourself>> In dealing with something on this scale, has any rock substitute been proven reliable on a long term basis? <<Terrestrial limestone may well be your best choice here. It will be much more dense/heavy than good live rock, will not support as much bacteria load as live rock, and brings nothing to the table re bio-diversity'¦but can be bought cheaply in bulk, and is a more 'natural' source than the cement-based products (e.g. -- cinderblock)'¦and though you will need to test to be sure, it will not likely need 'curing.' With the limestone, do consider utilizing as much 'new live rock' as you can to provide those needed elements the limestone can't provide'¦perhaps as much as a fifth of the total volume (but the more the better!)'¦doing so will also make the limestone 'better'>> Thank you for all that you folks do. Ryan Haag <<We are happy to assist. Eric Russell>>

Airlifts? 4/23/08 Good morning! I am doing research of airlifts for water circulation in large 4'x18'x2'deep tanks for coral propagation. <Oh, Dick Perrin uses this water-movement mechanism in his facility... Tropicorium > I have scoured the internet and WWM and have not found any places that show the functionality of a large scale airlift system. <Mmm, there's a bunch... in the engineering end for destratification systems for lakes, ponds... but you'll have to make a trip to a large (college) library> I know that many people have used them on systems similar to this. Thank you for your time. Andrew Lawing <Maybe a call or email to Aquatic Ecosystems... or Argent Chemicals (the first for general reference, glass airstones... the second for their large collection of in-print materials. Bob Fenner>

Please forward to Bob Fenner. Thanks! Greenhouse coral farming 04/22/08 Bob, <Andrew!> I just wanted to write you a quick note to say thanks for coming down to give us that presentation here in San Antonio. <Welcome my friend> I enjoyed it very much and I do have to say you have had me researching an ozonizer as well. I was the guy that you met at the store on Saturday and my girlfriend worked at PETCO. <Ah yes, I recall. The NAV recruiter!> Thank you for you inspiration. Now on to the question. I have been researching the feasibility of greenhouse farming for about one year and I am very interested in it and your talk and my recent activities in the Hobby have excited me even more. I guess the biggest thing I have yet to plan out is overcoming the heat here in central Texas, but I am working on figuring that out. <Can be done in a few ways... best to shoot for redundancy, and the cheapest, most reliable means> This is a project that is still in the planning phases and nowhere near ready to build. I wonder might you have some advice on greenhouse farming? <A bunch... though unfortunately not put altogether in articles per se... but strung out by topic, e.g. cooling/chilling water, on WWM> So far I have searched around the internet and come up with some very good idea, however I could not find any information on Anthony Calfo's greenhouse. <Am pretty sure he's written quite a bit re in the vol. 1, first and second Ed.s of "Book of Coral Propagation"... have you seen this book?> Thanks for your time Bob and I look forward to you coming back to down Texas again. Andrew Lawing <Keep accumulating those plans Andrew... Bob Fenner> Re: Please forward to Bob Fenner. Thanks! Greenhouse reef farming 04/22/08 Thanks for the advice on the book I will pick it up ASAP, and once again thanks from MAAST! Have a good day <Thank you Andrew. I do hope to visit your operational facility come MACNA XXII in San Antonio. Bob Fenner>

Coral Glue And Coral Light Absorption (Photoperiod) -- 04/12/08 Awhile ago I got a couple of corals that came with a silicone type glue that mounted them to the rock. At the time, I didn't think it would be so good and don't recall where I got these corals. This glue bonds to rock just by placing it on top of it. I have tried to locate this material at all the tropical shops in my area but no one carries it or knows what it is. It is not "super glue" or putty - it stays flexible and doesn't need to be reapplied. Can you help? What is it and where can I get it? <<I can only guess, but there are some better 'underwater epoxies' that remain flexible. These products form a molecular bond that is quite tenacious. They're quite pricey too'¦at around $50 per quart>> On the coral's light absorption - how many hours of light do they really need daily using optimum lighting? <<'Optimum lighting' will vary by species'¦but lighting in the tropics where most all specimens we strive to keep hail from averages a bit more than 12-hours per day'¦and at an intensity we can only dream of replicating>> Does it vary by type of coral? <<Indeed>> I have polyp types, leathers, frogspawns, elegance and coral plates. Thank you. <<I suggest you provide a lighting period of somewhere between 10 and 14 hours per day'¦depending on quality/intensity of the lighting. EricR>>

Re: Coral Glue And Coral Light Absorption (Photoperiod) -- 04/15/08 Can you give me the name(s) of some safe underwater epoxies? And where I might purchase? Thank you! <<I assume you refer to the 'flexible' epoxy mentioned previously. I've not attempted to use any of these myself nor can I vouch for their 'safeness,' and as was previously stated, can only guess that this was the material you were describing in the first place. But...a simple Google search of the NET re 'flexible underwater epoxy' or 'thickened epoxy' does turn up some sources if you wish to pursue. One source that provides a wide array of many types of adhesives is ELLSWORTH Adhesives (http://www.ellsworth.com/adhesives.html?tab=Products), and if you are interested in a flexible Cyanoacrylate (Super Glue) see here (http://news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/29449). Regards, EricR>>

Coral Propagation/Home Business 3/7/08 Hey there crew! <Hi Ryan> This is a terrific site! I have not seen so much quality information on reefs anywhere on the web. Thanks you for your hard work. <You're welcome.> I have had aquariums my whole life. For several years, while I was in college, I bred African cichlids, angelfish, and discus for extra money. I still have many of the same LFS contacts so I think I will be able to develop a strong coral business too. My question is in regards to a 20 gallon long propagation tank that I am in the process of setting up. My plan is to start with some extra mushrooms that I have in my display tank. Profit is not an concern, <Good, since there won't be much.> I just want to develop a working system and gain an understanding of what I am doing before I increase my operation to a "large" scale home business. I just want your comments on any improvements I can make. My plan is to have a 2-3 inch substrate depth, two power heads with low gph (<150), Prizm skimmer, Penguin 150 filter, 130 watts of compact florescent lighting (dual bulbs 10000k/6700k). <The lighting should be fine for most softies.> I have ready Anthony's newest book and much of the information on this site that is relevant to what I am planning. Any help will be greatly appreciated!! <The profit margin on a home coral propagation business is usually just enough to offset the expense. Is done more for the love of the hobby and to offset hobby expenses. I would suggest the use of Rubbermaid Tubs for this purpose. One hanging MH fixture will easily illuminate the entire tub where all types of coral can be grown. Is best to keep coral families in separate tubs to reduce allelopathy. Most folks doing this use plastic eggcrate to place their frags on. Shrooms can be lightly rubberbanded to rubble rock until they attach. Aragonite plugs are now sold and hard coral frags can be super glued to the plug and placed into the eggcrate. Very efficient protein skimming is also recommended. Anthony's book should be of great help in this venture. Do continue reading/learning on this subject, learn as much as you can before starting this venture.> Thanks, <You're welcome. James (Salty Dog)> Ryan

Frag tank   2/5/08 Hello Crew, Hope all is well with you. I have recently studied several books such as Anthony Calfo's book on Coral Propagation, and Bob Fenner's Conscientious Aquarist and have been overwhelmed and awestruck with the massive information. <Is an involved, involving hobby interest eh?> These books have been extremely worthwhile investments, and I have got an insatiable desire to start a small frag tank in our spare bedroom also known as the fish stuff room. <Jumping right ahead!> I have a 75 gallon aquarium and I would like to run my ideas by you for your input. I will build a egg crate rack with one 12 inch shelf at 12 inches below the waters surface and one 6 inch shelf 4-6 inches below the waters surface. Lighting will be natural sunlight through the window for about 5 hours a day and supplemented with T5HO (4x54) for about 5-6 hours a day. The targeted species of propagation would be primarily softies such as Zoas, Mushrooms, Sinularia, Leathers, and Xenias with some interest in less light demanding LPS. <Mmm, ahhhhh, I am encouraging you to read a bit more re which to cut up first... not to mix... to rinse thoroughly before placing...> My ideas for filtration are protein skimmers (HOB), <Mmm, a sump would be better... for quite a few reasons... flexibility...> a container or even 2, approximately 16 inches x 12 inches x 6 inches filled with sand and placed on the bare bottom of the tank. <I'd place this material in the sump...> This would be for the benefit of DSB and also cleaning issues with bare bottom. <What if pests become an issue? easier to find, isolate them...> I will place 20- 25 lbs of live rock for biological filtration in the tank. <This too...> I want to utilize a Mag 12 pump in the tank with a manifold placed around the rim "Calfo style". I don't want to utilize a sump with overflows on this tank and don't feel confident in glass drilling. <Not hard to do, have someone do for you... even the manufacturer...> I will utilize a refugium above the tank <Oh! Good> and allow water to gravity feed down to the tank for nutrient importation and exportation. Do you think this will work? If not where should I tweak this plan? Thanks for your time, Wade <This system can be made to work... but is not categorically what I would devise... Perhaps a bit more reading and reflection. Please start here: http://wetwebmedia.com/cnidreprofaqs.htm and the linked FAQs files above. Bob Fenner>

Propagation Setup, Cnid.   2/1/08 I am thinking of setting up a small propagation tank using a 20 gallon long aquarium. My plan is to drill the bottom and have an overflow down into a 20 gallon sump/refugium. I am thinking of propagating mostly soft corals (Nephthea, Capnella), Zoanthids, and mushrooms. <Mmm, okay... best to do/use this small volume for just one of the three groups at a given time...> My first question is how much improvement would I get from having an upstream refugium vs. an in the sump refugium? <Mmm, about the same> I would have the refugium set up on a deep sand bed plenum and fill it with Chaeto algae. Furthermore, I would not use a filter screen on the return pump so hopefully all the copepods/amphipods will make it into the tank. <Mmm, the screen won't hinder their passing here... it's to prevent other, larger materials from damaging or clogging the impeller> This is how my 75 gallon reef is setup and I've had good results for over a year now. I was thinking of using a 600 GPH pump to run the sump and two 300 GPH powerheads with rotator deflectors in the display tank for additional circulation. Is this too much flow and if so what would your recommendations be? <Posted on WWM... see Circulation... and Systems and Propagation/Reproduction FAQs files for the Cnid. groups listed> As for lighting, I was thinking of using 2 T5's at 10000K and actinic with a total output of 48 watts. I specifically chose the 20 long for its shallow depth but with a decent size length for holding multiple specimens. Will the T5's be a good amount of light for my intentions? <Yes> Lastly, for feeding I was thinking of offering small amounts of Cyclop-eeze, oyster eggs, and liquid coral food every other day with no mechanical filter present. On the alternating day running the system with a mechanical filter to clean out whatever is left in the water. Does this seem like a good feeding regimen or is there a more efficient/better way of doing it? Thanks so much for your help. <For a home-hobbyist attempt this should work out fine. Bob Fenner>

Frag tank... Mechanicals, reading  -- 1/26/08 Hello there I was interested in setting up a tank to use as a frag tank mostly softies maybe a couple of LPSs and sps corals also . I have a tank spare tank I bought of my boos at the pet store I work at. <Spell checker...> The dimensions are as followed it is 60 inches long (5 feet) 18 inches (1.5 feet) wide and 12 inches deep(1 foot) deep . <A good size, shape> It was custom made by oceanic . It is drilled in four places all along the back . It also has a glass brace in the middle . I consider my self very lucky that I got that tank and another tank of around 50-60 gallons for 80 bucks . What I was wondering was your thoughts on lighting and filter choice if my budget is around 200 to around 400 dollars. Any other input would be greatly appreciated. Tom von Bargen <All posted... Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/corlpropfaqs.htm and the linked files above... and a cursory (re)read of Anthony Calfo's newly re-done "Coral Propagation" book. Bob Fenner>

Was: Cherub Angelfish Question... Now Skimmer op., Frag tank set-up Good day Bob, <Eric> Thank you for the quick response. I really appreciate it. I have another question. Well, actually, two questions. One is related to my skimmer. It has been up and running continuously for about 3 weeks, and is still creating about 1-2 cups of skimmate per day, however it's a lighter green to light-medium shade brown color. It's not the "dark coffee" colored, thick skimmate that I have been expecting. I have adjusted the height so that the skimmer cup is about as high as it can go (the O-ring is as low as it can go on said cup) and it's still producing the above colored skimmate. I don't think I'm too low on the stocking level.. Is this normal? I know that the skimmate production is different for different folks as well... Do you have any suggestions? <This may be about all that the given make/model skimmer can do with the present conditions in your tank... There are means to change this... by adding ozone for instance... But I would not be concerned> The second question is in regard to a "Frag Tank". I have been thinking of setting up a 20 Gallon Long tank to have some "easy" polyps and (mainly LPS) corals. I am in the exciting planning stage, and here's what I have so far: -Power Compact Lighting, somewhere between 80-100 watts, 60 (or so) 10,000K and (20 or so) watts 6,700K (or 20 watts Actinic). -An over sized filter (rated for 30-50 gallon tank) -An extra powerhead with rotating deflector. (Flow will be toward the filter. One will be on left side of the tank, the other will be on the right hand side) -plastic egg crating or similar, set up on different levels ( like a few stairs.. from West to East) so that I can have 2 or 3 different heights for acclimation and differing light requirements. -a few pounds of live rock set under the egg crating. - There won't be any fish (...If you think it will be "better" I could add a small goby or similar) Questions: How does the above sound so far? Should I add a sand bed? Would a 3-5 inch plenum type help here, or should I leave this out.. Maybe have a 1 inch sand bed if I decide to add some inverts? If yes, I will add part live sand and part "non live" sand to the mix. <Okay, I would and no... Please read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/corlpropfaqs.htm and the linked files above. Have you seen Anthony Calfo's (new 2d. ed.) Coral Propagation book?> Also, I am a bit concerned with the nitrification process, especially in the beginning, and will be reading more about that in the meantime. I am familiar with setting up a FOWLR or Fish-Only set up in this regard, but not a "coral/polyp only tank, with some inverts" <Best to fast-start with water, substrate from an established system, use make-up water from there...> Once again, Thank You for the Help! Eric <Welcome. Bob Fenner>

Attaching Coral to Live Rock -- 12/9/07 Hello Everyone, <Hello, Brenda here tonight!> I'm sorry if this has been covered. <Not a problem!> I searched but did not come up with the answer. Any way, I'm waiting for my tank to cycle, so I'm looking for info on coral frags. <This is an exciting time!> My rock does not have any flat areas. Will they still attach to an uneven surface? <Oh yes! It may possibly need some assistance (depending on the coral), super glue gel, fishing line, toothpicks, bridal veil to name a few. Many corals come attached to rock rubble, and just need to be placed in a crevice. What corals are you planning to keep? I have propagated many corals and may be able to give you more in-depth detail knowing the coral. Be careful when purchasing newly propagated coral. These generally need to go through a recovery period before adding the stress of a new/different environment.> The rock is very porous. It has a lot of craters. <Sounds like excellent live rock!> If this has been covered I'm sorry. <I'm not finding a whole lot of information here myself. You can try reading here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/corlplcfaqs.htm and here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/corlpropfaq2.htm You may also want to Google 'coral propagation' for more information.> I know you are very busy. Thanks for the help. Should I try to find rock with smooth surface? <No, what you have is best. Just be sure that your tank is ready before adding coral and know the care required for each. Since it is still cycling, it will be some time before it is ready. Until then continue doing what you are doing by reading and asking questions. Good luck to you! Brenda>

Re: Attaching Coral to Live Rock, Zoanthid Toxins and Safety -- 12/10/07 Brenda, Thank you for the info!! <You're welcome!> I was thinking of starting with some Zoanthids, and go from there. I figured I would start with these they seem to be hardy enough for my skill level. As you know they will add lots of color to my tank. <Yes, you have a lot of selection here. I have worked with and propagated Zoanthids many times. Let me give you a quick run down on Zoanthid safety. As with all coral, when handling you should wear gloves. However, with Zoanthids it is a must to use eye protection, a complete face shield is best. Zoanthids are extremely toxic, and can be deadly in extreme cases to humans and their furry friends. I am aware of several cases where this coral has released toxins by squirting someone in the eye or mouth, so you will want to keep your mouth closed if not using a full face shield. Keep pets and children away while you are working with these. Disinfect your work area, and any tools used when you are finished. Some important links to read: http://www.cbwinfo.com/Biological/Toxins/Palytoxin.html http://www.asanltr.com/newsletter/02-2/articles/Neurotoxins.htm http://reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?s=&threadid=158663&perpage=10&pagenumber=1 http://www.wetwebmedia.com/zoanthidreprfaqs.htm If you decide to propagate these, it is best to remove a portion of the rock underneath the coral. This can be done using a chisel or even a razor blade. Then use super glue gel to attach to another rock, or frag plug.> Thanks again for the info, and keep up the good work, your services are invaluable and always appreciated. <You are welcome! Thank you! It is always good to hear we are appreciated! Good luck to you! Brenda>

Re: MACNA & Frag Exchange, StevenP   8/15/07 Yeah Mac, it is official now. Frag Exchange is not going to be an exhibitor at MACNA XIX, so if you can, get one of the WWM passes. In case you were wondering, I have long hated that the coral propagation workshops fragment freshly imported corals. It is simply poor husbandry and contrary to what Eric, Anthony, and I all recommend. But up until now, I could do nothing about it other than not do the workshops. But this year, we made the decision to only fragment corals that had been held for 1-2 months prior to the show. I let John know this back in early May and he agreed to the terms. MACNA XIX would give Frag Exchange a quad booth, four 10' by 10' booths, with 5  full show passes provided he could obtain corals ahead of time. In the end, he failed to live up to his end and we felt we had no other choice than to go with  plan B and leave Frag Exchange out. Re: MACNA & Frag Exchange , MacL    8/15/07 Hey Steven and Anthony and Eric and Bob, I included you all in this email since Stephen said that having corals that have been kept for a while before they are used was a joint decision recommended by all of you. <Not anything to do with me> I totally understand why you would dislike fragging freshly imported corals. They have been stressed in various ways by their importation and the changes that they have gone through and then they come in to be fragged. But my question for you is, isn't that the reason to frag corals to begin with? <In part, yes> Yes people frag their friends coral that is in great shape but more often they want a piece of the coral that is dying and want to try to save it. In our demonstrations, we take the dregs of the corals that have been shipped. We ask for corals that are stressed and in poor condition to do our demonstrations with. We talk to the people and we tell them these corals have been severely stressed. We are trying to take corals that would for the most part be disposed of anyway from these distributors and put them to good use and in a lot of circumstances SAVE the coral or a part of the coral. I do think its a lovely idea to bring in corals from the local clubbers and we usually do have some of these. I recognize that when they do the demonstrations that you guys perhaps would prefer to use corals that look nicer but I know Anthony always mentions that he uses fragging to assist in saving the coral. In fact, I believe Anthony prefers damaged corals. I know that sometimes these corals look very bad and are very badly stressed but many corals go on to survive and thrive from these shows. I personally have a gorgonian that is from the very first show that frag did so I know for a fact that they do survive. I had planned to bring a frag of this coral and frag it at this show. Additionally, our coral sponsors for the show are very generous people and have been kind enough to let us have corals for both IMAC and MACNA but asking for corals without a gap in time between our requests to me seems to be abusing the generosity of a group who is giving us something. It was mentioned Steven that you had space in your greenhouse to keep the corals should they have been donated to us early as you requested but I also worried that that could cause additional problems and suggestions of impropriety with the corals. For instance, what happens if they ship 25 corals and only 19 survive to make it to the show. What kind of documentation would be necessary to provide proof of what happened to the corals. In the past I would have said that only your word would suffice but after past circumstances I don't think that would suffice anymore. <Certainly seems a "Catch 22"> Additionally you have the complications of what to do now with the frags that you all will be fragging. What will you do with them? Will the club give them out?? Will the club "store" them? That's where having the corals that are not in the best conditions come into play as well. The vendors cannot see them as competition to what they are selling because they are corals that are damaged and we are essentially trying to "safe" them. <Good point> I do want to point out that our philosophy has always been to save the reefs and that at any time if we thought that we were doing damage to the reefs we would stop fragging period but its our philosophy that by teaching these people how to frag and by letting them have hands on experience at the booth that we are giving them something that they can't get anywhere else. I was disappointed at IMAC that more people didn't get that experience but at the last MACNA we reached out to a tremendous amount of people and let them have hands on fragging experience. This is something they do not get from just watching a fragging demonstration and something that FRAG can give them. If you look on frag you will see a connection to pictures with a demonstration of one person who had never fragged before and when he left he became comfortable with it. Once again the corals that get fragged on the first day would be put in tanks with others. There isn't really any other way around this but we have done everything we can to prevent problems by using as many methods as possible to keep the tanks clean including doing multiple water changes, diatom filtration, and using ozone.? I also want to mention the support that frag has always given to all of you. I realize that while we may not have the most sponsors or the most hits of any of the sites there are always people on the site and looking at information on the site from searches on Google and other search engines. Our presence is mainly at the shows and we need to keep going to the shows to keep alive as you all well know. I don't know what plan B is but it has to be hurtful to frag and the many people who have supported MACNA and IMAC and you gentleman over the years. I would really like you to reconsider this decision Steven. I do understand the reasons why you have made them but I hope you have come to know more why I personally objected to storing the corals before hand and why I think it is essential that frag exchange be at the show. Whether it is represented by me personally or not. As you know, I have other interests along with Frag. Thanks Mac <Mac Lewis is part of FRAG as well as WWM. Bob Fenner>

Re: MACNA & Frag Exchange, EricB's go   8/15/07 Dear all: Since this is my first foray into this ongoing discussion, I will be brief. I have gotten to the point where I am generally against all commercial wild collection of corals for aquariums, period. <Unrealistic... what will indigenous peoples do with their resource if this "higher and better use" cannot be made of/with it? Cement? Building material? Dynamite fishing?... think> I am even against Mariculture at this point until standards are set to avoid the pest species now being introduced by Mariculture operations, <Unrealistic as well... who is going to produce, enforce such standards? Who is going to pay for it?> although I am hopeful an upcoming workshop may help address those issues. And, I am against frag trading by clubs without quarantine and proper post fragmenting husbandry for the passing of pest species and the potential of non-native and invasive introductions by the many coastal dwelling aquarists of the world. <...> Ethically, I do like to save damaged corals, especially from other aquarists who are having tank problems, but I am less assured that the average aquarist is able to save a stressed or damaged coral. I am unsure of the survival of fragments we create since there is no post monitoring period, and we don't take our own frags home to see if it is the post fragmenting conditions or the aquarist who takes home the frags that results in any mortality. I know when I frag my own corals they don't die. I know when I try to save a stressed wild coral, it might make it and it might not. I can even say that for healthy wild corals. But those sick and healthy wild corals are then replaced by more, and frankly it just sits wrong with me. <Perhaps another interest... like human birth control?> And, let's face reality here. The aquarium hobby isn't saving reefs in any way shape of form no matter how much talk there is of our concern. Concern and action seem to be Kapela <<? RMF>> and always have been. <Mmm, I/we disagree... the long term effects of acquaintance, knowledge of the living world protect it more than any other activity... Is this/the "cost" worth it? I believe so> I did not know the terms Steve and Anthony suggested for this MACNA, until now, but fully support them and think their suggestions are, as mentioned, long overdue and well thought out. I resent any implications that Steven would be involved with impropriety of gifted corals. We have more corals than we know what to do with - I could give away a tank full and never notice they were gone - and the novelty of having this coral or that coral - and I think I speak for all of us - has long ago ceased to be a temptation as it is for so many hobbyists. I dare say we have had or kept just about every species available and could get them easily, if not for free, if we desired. In terms of the support given by sponsors or vendors, I also really don't have any interest in their financial success of failure though always appreciate the generosity of others as we have so generously donated our time and effort for literally two decades now. I appreciated being able to help Frag with demonstrations and by their hospitality at events. In terms of personal gain to us, I have a few T-shirts and some conversation for a few hours a year, so it is not particularly important to me either way. My main concern is that the corals entrusted to us survive and all the rest is virtually immaterial. Steven, Anthony and MACNA XIX seem to have attempted to address this concern and I stand by their decision. Eric Borneman <Bob Fenner>

Re: MACNA & Frag Exchange, MacL responds    8/15/07 Well since I apparently have opened a can of worms here. I can only speak to these things from MY personal experiences. Corals I have fragged, responses I have seen, people that we see at the shows. And once again let me point out this is NOT my website and I cannot speak for anyone from there besides myself. I personally value all that you all have done for Frag both for myself and for the website. I have had much success with fragging corals and sending them home and yes I have fragged corals straight out of the box both at the shows and at stores. I do see the value of having the corals settled but I also see where they would be disturbed by moving them to the shows as well. <Mmm, the thought here is likely to promote better circumstances for the candidate... and business for the folks involved> As for any impropriety I do NOT think that Steven would ever do anything wrong. But I know you wouldn't as well Eric and I personally shut several people up at IMAC that started to tell me crap, My point being that there are people who do not know or respect you like I do. At this point it doesn't matter as Anthony said its over and done. I am sorry if I have offended anyone, I just for once felt my opinion should be known. For the less than two cents its worth. Mac <Thank you for sharing. BobF> Re: MACNA, Fragexch., advocating more gov't unrealistically...  8/15/07 Hi Bob: <Howdy Eric> Not arguing the realism of your post. <Realism?> My remarks are personal decisions and controlling behavior and things of which are in the realm of control. <For yourself I take it> I can't stop, nor have connections to stop, all major threats to coral reefs. I drive a car but wouldn't if there were viable options. I opt not to have a lawn and to eat organic and no meat. Will it solve global warming? No. <But does help> Unrealistic? Yes. But a journey begins with a single step. To me, everything makes a difference and arguing that "our contribution" won't make it right is why things are so f'ed up in the first place. E <Thanks for your further input. BobF>

Conservatory Frag Tank...How To Control The Heat? -- 08/06/07 Hi There, <<Hello Karl>> I wonder if you could help or offer any advice on a system that I am setting up? <<I'm happy to try>> I want to setup a 55g frag tank (to grow pulsing Xenia, Metallic Green Xenia (Star Polyps), various other Zoanthids) in my conservatory (not sure if these go under the same name in the US - it is like a glass house with plastic roof built onto your house). <<Ah yes, I am familiar with these/this term (lived in Ipswich for 3 ½ years). The U.S equivalent is called a three-season room...or as they often call them here in the South East, a 'Florida' room (even though it may not actually be located 'in' Florida)>> Anyway, the conservatory does not get full sun, only afternoon sun. I would like to utilize this natural sunlight, as well as supplement this with a 250w 14k metal halide lamp (would you suggest this or a lower Kelvin globe as I am aiming for this to be a grow out tank). <<This is doable...and if 'growth' is what you are after I recommend a Kelvin temperature closer to natural sunlight (5500K -- 6500K)>> My question is this... Even though I get only afternoon sun (and I live in chilly old England) <<I do recall! [grin]>> the temperatures still soar once the suns starts coming through. <<Mmm, yes...I imagine with all those transparent walls/ceiling the solar gain would be quite intense, even at your latitude>> I am planning for this system to be open top, with 1 or 2 large fans blowing across the water. I also plan to extract heat from the metal halide out of the window with an inline extractor fan. Do you have any ideas on how else I can keep the temperature down during summer (winter is not a problem)? I really cannot afford to air-condition the entire room, or purchase a chiller. <<Hmm... The extractor fan will also likely pull some ambient room heat and may prove to be enough. You could also install a louvered ventilation fan in one of the windows that operates on a thermostat to pull excess heat from the room...much like those used in greenhouses to control temperature. Visiting a greenhouse may give you other ideas such as installing window or roof vents that can either be opened manually or controlled with a thermostat to open up when the temperature rises to help vent hot air>> Will evaporative cooling (automatic top-off using an Osmolator and Kalkwasser) <<I love those Tunze Osmolator top-off units>> be enough to keep temps within the acceptable range? <<Only testing will tell...but is worth a try. Evaporative cooling can be quite effective>> Any advice you could offer me would be much appreciated. <<I hope I've given you a few things to consider/investigate>> I have had a great deal of success with my nano and now that things are getting a bit crowded, wish to grow these frags out to sell/trade. <<Quite common>> Sadly, my conservatory is the only space I have available to setup a frag system... :O( Any advice would be much appreciated! Best Regards, Karl <<Good luck with your venture. EricR>>

Attending a Frag Swap...Who Will/How Do I Store My frags? - 04/18/07 Hey guys and girls, <<Howdy Greg>> I plan on attending a frag swap at the end of June. <<Ah yes...that's the coral conference being held by Foster&Smith isn't it?>> The frag swap is 10 1/2 hours away. <<Driving then?>> We will be going on a Saturday and Sunday and plan on coming back on a Monday (early).  My question is what to do with the corals that we purchase Saturday and Sunday. <<Mmm, this will depend on how the vendors/traders are "set up."  If they are equipped with "running" systems and are there for the duration of the swap-meet then ideally they would mark and hold your purchases to be bagged the morning of departure (much like the vendors at the MACNA conferences).  If not, then you will need to bring storage/transport containers as well as a means to perform water changes/re-bagging>> Would it be possible to bring water out of my tank for a 10 or 20  gallon tank with a powerhead and a CF to store the corals until we bag them before we go home. <<This would work (if the place you will be staying has no objections)...do be sure to "acclimate" the corals to this holding tank>> Or should I just mix up the water when we get there??? <<I suppose you could do that, but I would prefer water that is "matured" as this will be less aggressive/stressful on the corals.  If hauling that much water is a problem, you could just bring a few gallons of the tank water and mix-up the rest at your destination...then mix this with the matured water you brought with you.  I recommend you do this as soon as you arrive and get the holding tank up and running before venturing out to the frag swap>> Any other options would be greatly appreciated. <<Do contact the person/agency sponsoring the swap and get their feedback as well...there may well be some type of consideration already in effect>> I plan on asking the vendors if they will keep the corals until Sunday but if this is not possible I want to do the best thing for survival! <<Indeed>> Thanks, Greg <<Enjoy the meet.  EricR>>

Propagation System in My Garage... -- 03/03/07 Hey WWM, <<Hey Erik!>> I've often referred to your site and expertise when I need a question answered about one of my tanks, and through experience I've found that you guys know your stuff! <<Ah, thank you'¦a diverse and knowledgeable assemblage here for sure>> Usually I can find someone else has had the same problem as me and use your answer for that, but in this case, I think I need some personalized help. <<I'm here to assist'¦>> I am planning on setting up a propagation/holding system in the garage and am having some doubts about my plumbing knowledge (I've attached a picture of my "plan" )... <<I see it'¦and for future reference, please resize images to a few hundred Kb at most>> Each tank on top is about 55-gallons, and I have a 180-gal sump area. <<Ok>> First off, from my sump there should be close to a 4 to 4 1/2 foot head, straight up, no turns, one gate-valve, and one union. <<Sounds fine>> I am planning on using either a Quiet-One 6000 or a Mag-Drive 18, which according to their chart should give me in the neighborhood of 1200 to 1300 gph.  Right? <<Sounds about'¦yes>> Should I go bigger or is this adequate? <<Should be adequate as is>> From my sump, water is pumped into tank 1 (top left), then I want to pipe it to tank 2 (bottom left), and into tank 3 (bottom Right), and into tank 4 (top right), and finally in tank 4 it drains back to my sump. <<I understand>> My question here is: what size bulkhead should I use between the tanks? <<A 'pair' of 1.5' bulkheads or a single 2' bulkhead should suffice with the water flow you are planning>> I was thinking a single 1.5" between tanks and then two 1.5" drains to the sump. <<Not sure why you would think the other tanks would need fewer throughputs than the one draining to the sump'¦but I would 'double-up' on all the tanks>> Will that work or do I need larger bulkheads between the tanks? <<As stated>> Does it even matter? <<Oh yes!  Make like easier for yourself and think 'super size me!' re these throughputs>> For additional flow in the tanks, I plan on using powerheads. <<Hmm'¦with 1200-1300 gph of flow going through these 55g tanks I think you'll likely find the powerheads as unnecessary>> I think I'll figure it out, but I would appreciate any help you can throw my way. <<Happy to provide my opinion>> Thanks a lot. Erik Hunter Long Time Reader
<<Quite welcome, Eric Russell>>

Frag tank lighting   10/2/06 Hello WWM crew   I have a 20 gal SPS frag grow out tank I am setting up plumbed into my main system.  I have a 2X55 watt 6700k fixture I have considered using (the frags will be on a rack 8-10" below the water surface).  Do you think this will work or  should I go to option #2 which would be a 150 watt HQI Iwaki 6500k.  Thank you very much for your opinion and all the information you have on you awesome site. Scott <I'd use the fluorescent... and make the grow out tank water depth adjustable... an inch or two above the frags is ideal. Bob Fenner>

Re: Custom Frag Tank lighting -- a follow-up - 1/18/07 Thank you for your quick response.   <No problems, my friend. I enjoy feeling helpful.> Okay, I'm going to go back to a standard aquarium as a sump so I can put in the refuge for the corals but I have a follow up in regards to the lighting.  I would  rather have MH than VHO, just my preference. <Fair enough, we all have our preferences. VHO would not be my choice either, in fact if I were to endorse any specific technology, it would likely be T5-HO, due to their smaller size, lower heat, longer bulb life, and good penetration, but I digress...> So if I went with MH lighting, being that that my tank is 3 ft wide, would something like a 2x250 HQI with PC actinic 48"x15"x3" centered over the tank give enough lighting to the edges.  Or is their a different set-up you would recommend. <This sounds good to me, my friend. I think it will serve you well. -JustinN> Thanks again.

Selling to wholesalers   9/26/06 I would like to propagate a fast growing coral species to sell to wholesalers.  If I were to reliably produce a relatively high volume of a single species each month would there be a market for this product? <Possibly> If so, is there a comprehensive list of wholesalers to contact about their interest in buying from a single species supplier. <Mmm, not as far as I've ever seen... many can be found through searching about in "Buyer's Guides"... produced by industry mag.s... Phone directories, you can peruse at large/r libraries... searching the Net... e.g. organizations members lists like OFI...>   Also, is there an industry standard as far as contacting wholesalers regarding this situation (i.e., letter, phone call). <Good question... Best to call them, ask who makes such decisions, what they might be possibly interested in some/several months down the line... what they might be willing to pay (FOB/landed) for such... But, allow me to cut to the proverbial chase here and suggest you sell a mix of such possible cnidarians more locally... likely the fish stores you can drive to will take about all you can realistically produce... The nature of the trade is such that guessing "what will be hot" and the margins being so small to non-existent dealing through wholesalers, that you will first be most likely selling to LFSs, and second to this, only/either to end-users/consumers... Not to both. BobF> Thank you, Amy

SPS collection business   8/21/06 Dear Bob and crew, <Alan> I'm thinking of starting  an exclusive Acropora collecting business to supply to the trade. I only wish to collect Acroporas from the wild by fragging a few branches from a colony and gluing them unto rocks for sale in order to minimize impact on ecosystem. <Mmm... can't really be done this way... need to collect colonies, keep them in captive conditions... some time (months) later frag them... Too hard to make the transition otherwise> I suppose this will generate faster returns rather than having an aquaculture facility which requires more overhead cost and time. <...> Do you think this is viable in the long run? <Nope> Any words of wisdom? Thanks a lot. Best regards, Lee <Keep studying, dreaming, planning... Bob Fenner>

Brain (coral) frags, xenia repro.  - 04/19/06 Hello,     I was wondering if it was possible, or how to, frag a brain coral. <Can be scored, cut with a chisel et al., but best cut with a power tool that is securely mounted... a "wet-saw" for cutting tile, or a band-saw is most often employed here> Also, once xenia starts growing all over the same rock, is it normal for it to sort of grow taller as it fights for position, the last time it started getting taller was because a bulb had burned out and they needed more light, I think. <Happens> I checked and all the bulbs are good and since the last burn out I have even got a new lighting system that adds about 55 watts more, they are reproducing like crazy, and fully opened all day and most of the night, so I don't think they are unhappy, but when I first got them they were shorter.  Is it because there is almost 10x the amount now versus when I bought them?   Thank you for your time. <Maybe. Please see WWM re Cnidarian culture: http://wetwebmedia.com/marine/inverts/index.htm Bob Fenner>

Holding system manufacturers?  - 04/11/2006 Hello Bob,   Miguel from Fraggle Reef here, you guys have helped me out on several occasions, and I was wondering if you had any information on companies in the Los Angeles area or anywhere nearby that manufacture retail/wholesale holding systems?   <Mmm, yes> I know of rk2 systems, but Chris is apparently in the Colorado office, and I was looking to get the ball rolling immediately, and wanted to compare prices and services.  I was planning on making it a centralized system, in a relatively small area, holding system space for corals is 17'x18', so I wanted maximization of that space, and would put it together myself, all I needed was the actual raceways manufactured, along with the rk2 style smaller holding systems for inverts.  Thanks much for your time, it's very much appreciated, thanks! Sincerely, Miguel Fraggle Reef <Well, the Krechter's are very good at what they do, and friends... but their products are indeed pricey. Another couple of choices worth chatting with till you decide are Alan Lem at Advanced Aqua Tanks and Craig DeWalt at SeaClear/Tradewind/CASCO in Cerritos... A note also re checking around to see if some folks have some gear that they might want to sell used. I would call the large livestock wholesalers and ask their owners re this... Totes, tanks, even mechanicals and controllers can be had for much less... and really... does it matter much if they're scratched up a bit? Not to me. Now, if "price is no object"... Bob Fenner>

Re: Holding system manufacturers?  - 04/11/2006 Hello Bob,   Very true, I'd rather have a scratched up el cheapo tank than pay a premium for the same tank unscratched, I'll contact some of the wholesalers and see if they have extra gear, thanks much for the tip. <Certainly welcome. Works to all's advantage for you to have/use...> In the meantime I'll also contact Alan Lem and Craig DeWalt to get some pricing on the raceways, thanks again for your time Sincerely, Miguel <Real good. Do please send along pix once all is in process. Cheers, Bob Fenner>

Please lend advice to a budding coral farmer    3/24/06 Hi Mr. Fenner, <Niki>      I know you are so busy, thank you for all you do. My name is Niki, I have actually spoken with you before on a couple of occasions. I have been working for a retail saltwater store for a while, and recently I got 15,000 to start my own business. not a whole lot, I know. My dream is to have a little place to grow coral and then sell on the Internet. <A worthy project> I have good relationships with a lot of agents at ERI, ORA, etc. due to working in the industry for a while. I am 23, but I am fairly confident in my knowledge.     I would love to have something like reefer madness or ultimatefrags. I love the idea of Internet and not retail. Do you think it could be done with 15,000, a 20ft x 30ft room and a lot of grit and determination? :) and passion for he hobby? <Yes. Of a certainty> I would love to hear any input at all. If you think it would be a pipe dream or if I would even make any money at all. <Could be made to be profitable... with careful planning, the use of as many "shortcuts" as you can find/make... Particularly issues of energy use/consumption, scheduling your time/discipline, knowing and developing your market niche... E.g., what species will you culture? How will you find, contact your potential buyers? How to ship, process payments?>    I am going to go to bar tending school and work that as a second job so any money that the farm pulls can go right back into it. I have Mr. Calfo's book, it's been a big help. thank you in advance for even reading this.       Sincerely, Niki Englerth <Much to consider here. One very worthwhile and telling experience is to "do a business plan" with layout, costs to build, operate your proposed farm... AND a spread sheet with time frame, showing what you expect to sell, the subsequent profit... Go into this with your eyes open Niki... can be done, but... important to realize the "opportunity costs"... that is, what you might otherwise do with the same resource/s... particularly your time. Think on this well, and feel free to write back. Bob Fenner> Mounting M. capricornis Frags - 11/18/05 WWM Crew, <<Kevin>> I received a small capricornis frag today, and I am inquiring in to the best way to attach the frag to a small rock for placement in my tank. Is superglue necessary or are there other possible means. <<Superglue is the best way in my opinion. Very easy to do...gently blot the back of the frag dry with a paper towel, place some superglue (gel) on the back and press to the rock...a quick dip in the tank water while holding the frag in place will speed curing. Once the glue starts to set (usually about 15 seconds), place the frag where it will receive good water flow and adequate light and it will begin to encrust/grow in no time at all.>> Thanks.
Kevin
<<Regards, EricR>>  



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