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FAQs about Giant Clams, family Tridacnidae 4

Related Articles: Got Tridacna? A beginner's guide to keeping Tridacnid clams by Laurie Smith, Example Chapter from NMA Reef Invertebrates book, on Giant Clams, Tridacnids, A Brief Guide to the Selection and Placement of Tridacnid Clams by Barry Neigut, Tridacnid Health: Pinched Mantle Syndrome in Giant Clams by Dr. David Basti, Deborah Bouchard & Barry Neigut, Bivalves, Mollusks, Lighting Marine Invertebrates

Related FAQs: Tridacnids 1, Tridacnids 2, Tridacnids 3, Tridacnid Clam BusinessTridacnid Identification, Tridacnid Behavior, Tridacnid Selection, Tridacnid Compatibility, Tridacnid Systems, Tridacnid Lighting, Tridacnid Placement, Tridacnid Feeding, Tridacnid Disease, Tridacnid Reproduction, Bivalves, Bivalves 2, Lighting Marine Invertebrates,

Clam Questions... Tridacnid lighting, fdg....     6/22/11
Hello to all! Christine K here, its been quite a while...please feel free to assume that it is because I have been staying out of trouble!
<Will do; have done so>
I am thinking about adding a blue maxima clam to my 90 gallon reef set up. I have been researching clam care and find that the information is not specific enough for me, so if you do not mind, I would like your most valued advice.
<Go ahead>
Recently, I have upgraded my lighting to 14K, 120W LEDs with a 423 par at 12 inches. They sit about 3 inches above my standard 90 gallon. As Maximas require "strong" light, is this considered strong enough?
My LFS indicated that this was pretty strong light, then shrugged when I asked if it was strong enough, and indicated that I might want to consider a crocea just to be sure. I was under the impression that croceas were not as hardy??
Either way, they did not appear confident so I am leery of their information. What do you think? With that specific lighting, is a maxima is feasible, what would be the ideal placement?
<Some place on rock... likely at a foot or so in depth... Read here:
(low to medium placement depending on light seems to be the standard answer but I am looking for specifics with my current set up) Is once a week target feeding truly enough?
I feed Rods food, all my corals are thriving, what would be the best food to add to that diet to support a maxima clam in your opinion? Can you direct me to some further trustworthy reading?
<Yes; here: http://wetwebmedia.com/tridacfdgfaqs.htm
Additionally, I have added two Koralia powerheads on an adjustable wave timer to create
more natural water movement, rather than a single continuous stream. I believe this is more beneficial to filter feeders, and I would like to start adding some. I am hoping to eventually try my luck at a gorgonian again. A purple candelabra, since it is photosynthetic, I believe I will have better odds, I understand target feeding is still necessary.
Finally, I have been waiting patiently for almost a year for a deep water canary
damsel to come back in the market. I realize that they are rarely collected due to their depths, but this seems unusually long to me. Is there a specific season that I would be more apt to see them showing up online?
<Mmm, not as far as I'm aware. Just has to do w/ whom is out, collecting...>
Chris K

Bicolor clam   6/23/09
Have you seen these yet? Neat, huh?
 -Sara M.
Yes and yes. B

Tridacna crocea Brutality  11/07/08 Hey crew! <<Howdy stranger>> I was researching Tridacna Crocea yet again, after acquiring one (to make absolutely sure I was accounting for everything). I had originally placed it on the sand near the bottom, but upon reading more on WetWebMedia I discovered that I had made quite an error by not having any flat rock under it for protection. <<Indeed? This species is typically found on and in rock. The clam will secrete chemicals that allow it to bore in to the relatively soft calcareous rock where they are found>> This inspired me to re-arrange a bit so I could get a small rock under the clam. <<Okay>> Don't laugh . . . I dropped a 25lb piece of live rock on the clam. <<Oops?>> When I lifted the rock I found the clam almost buried from being pushed down through the sand. I've gently pulled it out and situated it on some flat rock, but I'm not sure if the clam can open/close on its own anymore. The beautiful colors swell out from the shell pushing it open under lighting but doesn't really appear to hinge very far open now, and when I wave my hand under the lights the color retracts back into the shell but the shell doesn't fully snap shut. <<Mmm, hard to say, but the clam likely is/will be fine>> Have I doomed this beautiful specimen? <<Is possible but doubtful if the substrate was sufficiently deep to cushion the blow from the rock>> I don't think my tank specs will be relevant given the nature of the problem (clumsy bad husbandry) but to be diligent - 180gal, three 250w 10k and two 150w 20k MH, no ammonia/nitrites, tank tends to fluctuate between 10-20 nitrates (due to originally going bioballs in 40gal wet/dry, removed bioballs slowly and now plumbed 75gal refugium, with DSB and chaeto will hopefully get the nitrates out of the picture) <<Ah yes the refugium will indeed help>> Thanks yet again for all of your help! <<Happy to share. EricR>>

Tridacnid byssal gland trauma 10/28/08 Dear WWM Crew: As so many others, I have benefited greatly from your expertise, and are in need of some advice. <glad to hear/read this> I bought a Tridacnid clam today, after reading up on the site about how to select, acclimate, etc. a Tridacnid. It is a Tridacna maxima, about 3-3.5 inches. It displayed good reflexes, was not gaping, and had been at the store for 10 days and seemed adapted well, so I purchased it. The sales lady then proceeds to bag the Tridacnid, and when she reaches into the tank to remove it, she just ripped it off of the rock. It didn't look good because I could tell the clam was quite attached, but I figured she knew what she was doing. <Uh... they often don't. In this case, it might have been better to pull more slowly or twist.> Needless to say, I get the clam home, and the poor things byssal gland was completely removed, it was lying in the bottom of the bag next to the clam. I searched, and I know that tears of a byssal gland <Byssal gland? What she likely tore off were the bysuss threads. These are not a vital part of the clam and should grow back.> are not good at all, but what is the prognosis if one is completely removed? Can it regrow it? If so, is it likely to do so or will it succumb to infection before then? <It will likely recover with proper care.> Should I return it? Lastly, will the poor thing survive this? <If cared for properly, yes, it should.> Again, I feel terrible for the little guy and hope that the saleslady's carelessness doesn't lead to its demise. I did put it in my tank, where after acclimating it is showing good reflexes and was starting to spread out its mantle well, but worry that the byssal gland <Bysuss threads> trauma is a ticking clock that it will not overcome. <The clam sounds to be ok. I would just advice you to, as always, keep your water quality high and care for the clam properly and it should be fine.> FWIW, my tank is a 30 gallon main display w/ 20 gallon refugium (systemic volume is ~42 gallons), AquaC Urchin skimmer, a 250 W MH 10k, 3 inch DSB water parameters: calcium is 400 ppm, daily kalkwasser via topoff water, alk 8 dkh, 78* temp, sg 1.025, nitrates less than 10 ppm maintenance: -weekly 4 gallon water changes (have never missed on in the history of the tank) -other than Kalkwasser, no supplements are added The tank is mainly a SPS tank w/25 lbs of liverock, with some Montipora, and Pocillipora, an LPS hammer coral, but no polyps or soft corals. Anyway, any help in trying to save the unfortunate bivalve would be greatly appreciated! Sincerely, Chad S <Best, Sara M.>

Re: Tridacnid byssal gland trauma -10/29/08 Hm, so you aren't thinking it wasn't the byssal gland but rather the byssal threads that were torn. I'll describe the underside in more detail to make sure were on the same page. My understanding is that the byssal gland is the patch of milky white tissue at the valve hinge, and that the byssal threads emanate from that. The fleshy, translucent tissue was completely torn off and was in the bag; it was about the size of a lima bean, with there now being a concave divot left on the underside of the clam protruding up into the space between its valves. You can see the color of the clams insides through the concave window of tissue. Hopefully this is still just a tearing of byssal threads. Thoughts? <Hmm, my guess, without seeing a picture, is that it's the byssal threads... especially since the clam seems to be behaving normally. But please do take a pic and send it in. That might help clarify things.> Thanks! Chad S <De nada, Sara M.>

Re: Tridacnid byssal gland trauma -10/30/08 Sara- I went to take a pic of the byssal area on the clam, and he had already anchored down. <Ah good, as predicted. I imagine that if a clam can be torn off a rock with one pull, chances are it's not all that attached. When they are really griped on tight, it's very difficult to pull them off by hand.> So I guess that kind of answers that. :) We now know for sure the byssal gland is intact in at least some form. Rather than rip him off and retraumatize the poor guy, I am just going to leave him be and hope for the best. <Yes, I do think the clam will be fine-- and must be fairly healthy to be regrowing byssal threads already.> I bought some liquid phytoplankton and will try to smartly dose that to help him with his 'convalescence'. <DT's?> Thanks for your time! Chad S <Best, Sara M.>

Re: Tridacnid byssal gland trauma  11/07/08 Sara- I fear that despite my efforts, the tridacnid is possibly circling the drain (he had the suspected torn byssal gland). First off, there are some good signs. His reflexes are still great, he extends his mantle fully on a consistent basis, etc; however the bad is that he appears to be gaping. Is gaping just with the inhalant opening, or does it have to be joined by a weakening of the muscle that keeps them open? It isn't sagging open, the clam is at it normal gap between valves, but it definitely appears to be gaping. <This is possibly just a symptom of adapting to new lighting, a new environment.> The inhalant opening now extends nearly half the length of the shell, the gills are fully visible, and the sensory villi that normally stick out from the opening are not apparent. It also let go of the chunk of rock it was attached to. Inspecting the underside of the clam the hole left behind by him being ripped off the rock appears to still be apparent, you can actually see up into the clam and see his gills through the byssal opening. Is this normal? <Hmm, possibly, clams can be rather transparent through their tissues in the right light. And if "he" had his byssal thread ripped off, this might just be normal.> Anyway, perhaps I'm just being paranoid. <Hehe, I think so. It seems to me that aquarists with new animals (myself included) often act like first-time parents with a new born. We freak out over every little cough, sniffle or rash that lasts too long... we want to "call the doctor" for everything, making sure everything is normal. That's not to say that your clam isn't gaping. Maybe it is (I can't tell without a pic), but if it is otherwise behaving normally, I would chalk this up to acclimation/adjusting to its new home. Have you see/read James Fatheree's excellent book on ornamental clams?> Let me know what you think! Oh, and sorry I don't have any pics, I only have my cell phone camera and I couldn't get a close enough shot for it to be useful. Again, thanks for your time! Chad S <For right now, I'd just keep the clam, as the med pros say, "under observation" and try not to worry too much. Worrying can cause people to make drastic changes to their systems, which more often than not, causes more problems than they solve. Now, if things get worse and worse, then I'd start to "panic." ;-) Best, Sara M.>

Re: Recommendations for anemone lighting... now Tridacnids, reading  7/11/08 Thank you so much for the fast reply. I also forgot to ask something. Will the Giesemann 3x 250W HQI + 4x 80W T5 lights be enough for Tridacna clams such as Maxima and Crocea? <Read here: http://wetwebmedia.com/marind5_5.htm Giant Clam, Systems, Lighting... BobF>

Questions about a clam... Answers and more posted on WWM    7/1/06 Hello,    <Hi there>   I have a 29g tank (the standard 30x18x12) and I was wondering if I could keep any species of tridacnid? <Mmm, yes, can be done...> My current light is 2x65 watt PC's, 130 watts total. 1   6,5000/10,000k dual daylight and 1  420/460 dual actinic. I have a MDSB (about 2/3" of sand/crushed coral). I also have a 10g sump/fuge underneath my tank with my skimmer, live rock, live sand and carbon with a mag 5 pump for my return and i have 2 maxi jet 1200's in my tank for flow.       I am currently keeping mushrooms, BTA, leathers, many varieties of LPS and 3 varieties of SPS. <Well... a larger system would be better...> My Ammonia/Nitrates/Nitrites all tested at 0 or untraceable (due in part to my water change a few days before testing I think) and My Bioload includes a clarkii, firefish, mandarin goby (I have pods culturing for him in the sump/fuge and in a separate culture in case he ever runs out in the main tank :)) a Fire shrimp, a peppermint shrimp and several snails and hermits.       If I can keep a clam, what species could tolerate my lighting? and could i keep the clam on the sand bed? or rock work?      Thank you for your help!!       Nicole <Mmm... have you read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/BookMatters/WWM/NMA-RI/NMA-RI_Tridacnids-demo.pdf here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/cav1i3/Clam_care/Clam_care.htm here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/tridacnidart.htm and the linked files above? All your answers and more... Bob Fenner>

Waste Not  3/30/06 Dear WWM Crew,  <Hello Michael, Jen here.> I have been reading your FAQs religiously and my second attempt at a reef tank has proven successful so far. <Great for you!> I have a 3 - 4 inch squamosa clam I introduced about a week ago and it has been expelling a fine brown string from it's siphon tube intermittently. <Waste product.> One evening I even witnessed it expelling 3 strands over a 3 hour period. I am not sure if this string matter is a waste product or not, and my other clam keeper friends have never experienced this.  <Absolutely a waste product, you will see corals do this also.> My water parameters are: Ammonia = 0, Nitrites = 0, Nitrates = 2 ppt, Alk = 3.75 meq, Calc = 420, temp = 80 F.  <All good.> System is a 46g, 60lbs LR, Aqua C Remora, no substrate, sumpless, 2x150w 14000k MH with 11 hour photoperiod. (is this too long?)  <You could shorten it to save on electricity, but that's about what mine runs too.> Thanks for your invaluable service to the reefkeeping community.  <You're welcome, Enjoy!  Jen S.> Regards, Michael

T. crocea Lighting and Placement  11/30/05 Hi, <Hi Dustin.> I have read though most of your articles and learned a ton of information for when I set up my next tank, but in the meantime, I have a few questions that I could not find answers to. <Ok.> I would like to purchase a T. Crocea Clam (~1-2"),  <I would go for one in the 2+ range maybe even a little larger.> and have a question about the lighting. I currently have a 40g tank, that is 36"x18" x 12" deep, with a 175w 14000k MH light 5" from the surface of the water, along with 3 - 24w 6500k mini-PC's, and a 65w 50/50 ( ? 10000K, ? Actinic) PC. The MH is in the back-right side of the tank, the 3 mini-PCs are in the back-left side, and the PC is along the front of the tank. I leave the MH and mini-PCs on for 11 hours a day, and the PC on for 15.5 hours a day. I currently have 2 hammer frags under the MH and 4 candy coral frags under the mini-PCs. The hammers open up more than they did at my LFS, and the candy coral seems to be doing OK, although the heads aren't opening as much. <I don't think the lights or to blame for that, the PC's are efficient enough for this specimen, maybe water flow?> My questions are: 1) Is 14000k MH okay for a T. Crocea clam, or should I buy a 10000k replacement bulb? <I would rather see 10,000K for this specimen.> 2) Where would the best placement for this clam be (which area of the tank, and at what elevation)? I would be inclined to say at mid-depth under the MH, but I hear they need a more full spectrum (mixture of my bulbs). <I would place it in the rockwork, upper ? of the tank as close to the MH bulb as possible. T. Crocea is the most light demanding of Tridacnids. Also as far as spectrum, most animals hosting zooxanthellae prefer Kelvin ratings of 6,500K to 10,000K. Actinics and bulbs in the 15,000K to 20,000K are mainly for aesthetics.> 3) Is my MH lights left on too long (11 hr/day) for this clam? (I read here that some people leave theirs on for 6-8 hours per day) <11 hours is a bit long, I won't say that it will hurt the clam but it is unnecessary.> <<Where did these clams evolve?  The equatorial tropics.  Anyone know what the photoperiod of equatorial regions is?  12 hours of light, 12 of dark.  The goal is to mimic natural conditions.  Marina>> 4) What lighting is best for the candy coral? I have read that they do not like direct MH lighting, so I placed them under the mini-PCs, IYO, what is best? <There placement as far as lighting needs appears fine.> Thanks, and keep up the good work <You are welcome and thank you.> Dustin <Adam J.>

Green Algae Problem/Clam Questions  10/20/05 Hello Crew, <Hello Ethan> I have looked on your website to help me with my green algae problem. Do you have any other suggestions to help me with the vast overgrowth? My 120 reef tank is approx 8 months old, I have a hippo, yellow, dwarf angel 2 firefish, 1 royal Gramma, lawn mower blenny, striped goby, 1 percula clown, one blood shrimp, 1 banded coral shrimp, and a skunk cleaner, a couple of feather dusters, a mix of soft corals (mushrooms, polyps, and brains) 75-100 crabs, and a handful of snails. I do 10-15% water changes every 10-14 days, I have a protein skimmer, metal halide and actinic lights. What else can I do? <What brand protein skimmer are you using?  Nitrates/phosphates that encourage nuisance algae growth will come from overstocking, overfeeding and detritus in the substrate.  I think we can eliminate overstocking.  Controlling the amount of food that is fed helps considerably.  Feed small amounts until the fish seem uninterested. Its a good idea to use foods that are high in protein.  When changing water, it is recommended to use a sand/gravel cleaner siphon to remove detritus present in the substrate.  I practice what I just mentioned.  My new tank has been set up for one year with no nuisance algae and nitrate levels that are unreadable with my test kit.  Refugiums also help considerably.  With macro algae present in the refugium, the nuisance algae's food supply becomes restricted.  I'm going to guess your biggest problem is excessive detritus in your substrate. My second question is about my T. squamosa clam that seems to be getting 'pale', what do you think is going on? I think I have adequate lighting and I supplement with phytoplankton. <If your tank is a 72" long model, adequate lighting for most clams will be around 700-800 watts.  As far as feeding, I'll attach a couple of letters here from Barry Neigut (www.clamsdirect.com) regarding feeding.  James (Salty Dog)> Dr. E <<James... where are these links? RMF>>

Shipping Clams and Euphyllia Propagation  8/31/05 Hello Crew! <Fred> You've been helpful with my previous questions, and I'm hoping you may have some insights or thoughts on a couple of quandaries that are pestering me tonight! I've been shipping out clams lately via 2-day shipments (with 100% success rates thus far!...knock on wood), and a recent "issue" got me thinking. Generally these are clams in the 3-4" range that I ship out in small 4x8" Kordon breathing bags. I would guess there's maybe a cup of water in each one. I'm sure you're familiar with the bags, so I won't go into detail. <Do know this Novalek product> Though every one has made it just fine, the most recent shipment arrived in a broken bag and mostly dry, though there was still moisture in the bag due to packing with a lot of newspaper as well. This clam was also just fine upon arrival. <Are very tough animals> This got me thinking: since the clams retain water while they're closed up, would it make sense (or not?) to perhaps wrap a rubber band around the clam so it would only be able to open up a little? <Mmm, I would not do this> The last clam that broke through the bag has a couple of sharp edges on its shell, and I'm sure it was the clam opening up quickly in transit that popped the bag. <Or just it rolling about> I'm not sure how long a clam can remain closed...I would assume there would be some sort of breathing activity necessary? <Yes> I wouldn't want to stop this during shipment (obviously). Your thoughts? Is it a worthwhile method to attempt?? <Not IMO> My second question is about Euphyllia propagation. We have two corals (E. paradivisa and E. glabrescens) in our 24g nano-cube that continuously form buds around the base of the larger polyps. They eventually float away never to be seen again... <?> but I'm starting to feel guilty about letting all these polyps go to waste! <I don't think these are Euphyllia polyps> What would be the proper way to collect and mount these? There is no skeleton on any of them that I can tell, so I'm not sure if they would glue down very well. My other though is some netting over a simple plug of some sort. I consulted Anthony's book but wasn't able to find any specific information on them. <I will cc him here re> The frogspawn alone puts out 6-8 polyps a week or so, and I think these would be excellent candidate for aquaculture if I can figure out a method to save and grow them. Looking for a little insight on the subject if you can provide any. Once again, many thanks! Fred <Bob Fenner>

Clams, lights, Feedings - 7/31/05 Hi <Hi Steve, Ali here...> I was reading you site about T. Clams and got mixed information about lighting and feeding T. Clams. Here's my question can an adult T. Maxima survive and thrive in a 60 aquarium with 260 watts of PC lighting. <That won't cut it Steve, you need halides, preferably 2 x 250watt bulbs. P.C. just aren't intense enough to keep the clam happy long-term.> My second question is do T. Clams over 5 inches still need to be feed live phytoplankton, My last is question will a T. Clam eat copepods and such. <No and no. Intense lighting along with stable (moderate-high) calcium/alk. parameters will be enough to keep him healthy and growing> Sorry about all the questions but I really want one but don't want it to die a few days later. Thanks <Good luck and keep reading Steve! - Ali>

- Moving a Well-attached Clam - Hi all, I've got another question for you (by the way Bob thanks for the help last time - I bought a Hamilton 10K bulb and really like the look, I'm thinking about buying a pendent and using the 14K over my 37 gal hex with maybe a clown fish pair and BT anemone - still thinking though - so many possibilities - so few tanks). But on to my new question, I did the lighting change so that I could add a clam to my reef, and my Tridacna maxima is looking great sitting under about 6 - 8 inches of water directly beneath the bulb with about a month under its belt. Problem - I bought a really nicely shaped piece of rock from the LFS where he had it in a sump without any light on it for a long time (this is why I don't think it's simply a cycling issue). This piece of what was once a table Acropora that had been rolling around on the ocean floor long enough to give it a beautiful flat top the size of a dinner plate on a stalk. My clam quickly attached to it and is doing well, but the rock is starting to grow hair algae like crazy. I have no hair algae anywhere else in my tank and never have had - all my rock is covered with coralline algae (this set up is more then 10 years old). I believe this rock is leaching phosphate or something and would like to remove it from my tank. I do not want to risk injuring my clam though, it is really attached quite solidly already. Is there an easy way to get them to let go? I've searched the archives but haven't found anything about this - it seems not attaching is far more prevalent. The clams welfare is of course most important. Any suggestions?? <What I have done in the past is to get a sharp blade on my exacto knife [clean it with alcohol before you put it in the tank] and very carefully cut away the byssal threads at their point of attachment on the rock. Be prepared to move very slowly as I'm sure you're aware of the problems you will cause to your clam if you accidentally rip the clam off its base. I've done this a couple of times without trouble - you just have to take you're time and use a sharp blade.> Thanks again for your wonderful site! John <Cheers, J -- >

Clams 06/07/2005 Hello from British Columbia Canada, <Why hello there!> I would like to thank you for all of the hard work you people put into this site for the hobby, very well done! <Thanks> I would like to ask about Clams, I have just purchased a DE 150w MH with 2X96w Actinic total of 492w, this will be placed on my 55g   system. I would like to ask if this will be enough to have a Crocea/Maxima  clam in the system, the tank is 19' deep from the top of the   glass and 13' wide, the system is 2 years old with 70lbs of LR and 35lbs of LS, as of right now I have a Hippo Clam in the tank he/she   has been there for over a year and doing just fine. <You should be alright. Do some research on those clams. They like light but there are other things that are just as important.  Like Isochrysis for feed.  Also Clams are fond of Nitrates believe it or not :)  Also check out the Giant Clams book by Daniel Knop> Thank you very much for your time as I know that you are very busy   with this site. < No problem.. EricS> Ash

Squamosa or Crocea Hi Bob, <Brian> I am looking at buying a Tridacna Clam. My friend is a clam supplier, and he has a great looking Crocea Clam that is 4.5" that has great reflexes to stimuli and a beautiful mantle. He also has a 5" Squamosa that is in great condition also. I was wondering which would be healthier and live longer. <No way to tell> I have Compact Fluorescents (130 watt, 10,000k) in a 54 gal corner reef tank. And is Kent Marine Micro-Vert food enough of a feeding supplement. Calcium and alkalinity are at adequate levels (according to your site) so I figure I'm ready to add one. <Have you read through WWM here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/ca/cav1i3/Clam_care/Clam_care.htm and the links below? Bob Fenner>

- Derasa Question - JasonC, <Good morning.> Thanks so much for the quick response!  <My pleasure.>  I have a follow-up question for you... I'm also expecting some SPS (Montipora capricornis & an Acro) along with a T. derasa in a shipment to arrive on Friday. I've bought Seachem's Reef Dip for the SPS... is this a good product?  <I have no experience with it.>  Also, is there any special solution I should use for the T. derasa?  <None that I am aware of.>  I have a 250w MH on a 54g corner bowfront about 7 inches above the water. As far as placement of the Derasa, what would you consider ideal, substrate or rock?  <On something solid... I've found that placement on rock can be a little precarious - have had clams cough and fall from uneven mounting attempts. In any case, on something solid [like a bivalve shell], off the substrate is preferred to prevent predatory attack through the byssal opening.>  I want to get it right the first time because I know they can be easily stressed by movement within the tank. I've read the substrate is fine in many places, but according to something I read on the web attributed to Daniel Knop, it is better to have a derasa sitting on a rock because they are sensitive to sediment being stirred which could clog their gills.  <I don't recall this, but there are other good reasons to keep your clam off the substrate.>  Can you clarify this for me... Thank you again for all of your advice... Kevin <Cheers, J -- > 

Giant clam lighting Hello! I have a 75 gal. Tenecor with approx. 2 inches substrate making the height to top of tank approx. 18 inches. Currently running 96W 10KK PC and 96W 03 Actinic PC. What exactly do I need to get to achieve success in keeping T. maxima and T. crocea? I'd like to avoid MH at all costs because of the heat issue. Do not want to have to use chiller or fans, etc. Would prefer clams on substrate but am open to putting on rockwork closer to lighting if necessary to avoid very expensive lighting upgrade. Thanks! <Please read here: http://www.wetwebmedia.com/tridaclgtgfaqs.htm and the linked files (above). Bob Fenner>

JamesF next book... Date: Sat, 27 Nov 2004 14:13:19 +0900 Hola Amigo, <Hey there James!> Well, I've been busy... I finally decided on a subject to do for my next book, and I think it's a good one. I'm going to do a good one on tridacnids (and not for TFH!). Knop's book is about 9 years old now and it's the only book dedicated to the subject, so I figure there's a market for another one - especially considering that his is still going for $42 at Amazon. I think I'll go for a paperback and something in the $25 range if possible. Length - I don't know yet. Unlike my past stuff though, I'm not going to be constrained to a pre-set number of words/pages and photos. So, my plan is to "do it right" and exactly how I want it, and then add or trim only if absolutely required. <Wowzah... do agree with you re the timeliness of this title... But disagree re the target price point... can, maybe should be a good forty dollars, 3-400 pages... FULL COLOR!> I've got access to U South Florida's library, so I've already printed out about 1,750 pages of papers, articles, proceedings, etc. (a whole lot of which is more recent than Knop's book). I also bought "Giant Clams in Asia and the Pacific" (ACIAR Monograph No.9), and have it on the way here now. Still a few more to round up, but I'll get that taken care of soon. Of course, I've got your book and a few others, and the info on WetWeb to go through, too. And the message boards... About the only thing I can't seem to get hold of is Rosewater's original! I can't find it anywhere... My own copy of Knop's book is also in a box at my Dad's house, but I figure that's a good thing. I want to start from scratch. <I'll gladly introduce you to Daniel (Knop) if you'd like to "chat the idea" over... Another friend, Barry Neigut of Clamsdirect.com (and now a retail store owner/operator...), had started on just such a title... a couple years back... but I think his tome is on a far back burner now... anyhow, he was having Daniel help... even with pix and layout> I've already got my outline drawn out and a good bit of layout planning done. I've also been through about half of the papers I've downloaded and have written several pages of notes. So, things are well on their way. What I don't have is A) all the photos I want and B) a publisher. That's where I may need the most help in the near future... <I'll gladly help you in what ways I can> I've been itching to set up some dive trips - so I also think it would be a good idea to try to incorporate a trip to a farm into my travel plans. I was look at the farm at Majuro, but I can't find a ticket there for less than $1,700, so maybe there's a better option than that. Maybe not... Regardless, I'm going to do what I can to arrange a tour of a farm while I'm on this side of the planet, so if you have any ideas about that please let me know. <Unfortunately, all the few places left that do Tridacnid culture are a bit out of the way, expensive to visit.> I've also got to start making some contacts with various folks, because I'm sure that I'll have some questions that I can't look up the answer for. For example - while I've read/heard here and there for 10 years that some species hybridize (including a reference to such in the Reef Aquarium Vol.1) - I absolutely cannot find any scientific literature about it. Not a page... <Do you want to e-chat with BarryN? He is a fine fellow and very up-to-date re the industry, hobby and to a degree science of the culture, business of this family. He would be my best lead to introduce you to re making this/these visit/s...> I've got the time and the resources, so if things go well I imagine I'll have at least a good draft completed by spring, maybe even earlier. So, I hope to have some plan for publication lined up, and all the photos I need by summer. <Great! Another friend am sure you know of at least is Anthony Calfo... he writes about culture of a few marine invertebrate groups... and has some photos, recent experience in layout of such books. You are certainly welcome to the use of any/all of my pix> Other than that, not a whole lot going on over here - as usual. Another conference this week. They love to have meetings... Oh well, I got out of town for a few days for free, so not all bad. I had some Chicken McNuggets for Thanksgiving, too :) <Yummy, Mickey D's and sake!> Let me know what you think. As always, I put a lot of value in what you have to say. Cheers, JF <I say "you go boy" or "Hajime!" James! Count on my help in your endeavor. Bob Fenner>

Clams... QT, please 6/11/04 Hi Crew, <cheers> I was wondering if there is any type of dip or cleaning process for a clam that may follow me home from the LFS someday. <yes... like wit all new livestock, please quarantine properly for 4 weeks and you will be assured of not contaminating your main display> The store gets in some nice ones now and then, but keeps them in a tank with lots of other corals. I am a little afraid of introducing some unwanted snails or flat worms. <quite a valid concern, yes> My 10g QT tank only has 30 watts of light so I don't think he would be happy in there for several weeks. <on the contrary... its just fine. Although the wattage is low, the water is shallow and the clam can be placed near the surface (more similar lux if you could take a reading against where it will go deeper in the display). More importantly, you can easily overcome deficiencies in light with feeding for corals and clams. The rule of thumb stands: QT for all new livestock without exception> Can a clam be dipped in anything (low salinity, fresh water)? <yikes... not safely and if you want it to live <G>> Any suggestions? <yes... QT and don't dip :) > Thanks! <best regards, Anthony>

Clams... QT, please II 6/11/04 Thanks Anthony, <always welcome> So you are saying the amount of light is OK? <yes... its not ideal, but really is adequate if the clam or coral is kept shallow enough and especially when fed. They can easily navigate the 4 week QT period and better off for it> It is a 2 bulb Eclipse with 1 Actinic and 1 Ultrasun (Zoomedic) bulbs. Should I place the clam up on a eggcrate type stand so it's real close to the surface? <very helpful, yes> Do I QT for 4-6 weeks <4 weeks is all that is needed> and would this setup also work for QT of SPS corals? <exactly> Thanks again for the help. <best regards, Anthony>

Tridacnid Book Bob, Just got off the phone with Ted Ford of Knepper Press and he is going to send me some prices for the cost of printing the book. What time frame do I need to get the manuscript to you to review and someone to edit and do the lay out.  <Will ask friends here if they can help and how much/fast...> Any suggestion would be helpful. Am looking at approx. 150 pages including images. With some sort of time frame that will give me something to shot for as far as completing the writing. Would love to have it printed and out before MACNA. <A very good time frame. Bob F> Barry www.clamsdirect.com

Tridacnid color change Hey guys, I just recently found your web....didn't know about it, didn't know how I survived without it.  awesome site!!!  If you don't mind me asking a couple of questions....I have 4 tridacnids in my 55.  they sit about 6-8 inches from the top, where they are bathed with 6-65watt retro fitted power compacts (2-10,000k; 2-50/50 and 2-actinic 03's) can't have halide, sorry....mega light fluctuations in my condo.   <I'm sorry to hear that.> Recently, I saw a shift in the color of their mantle from light brown, to a dark purple/brown (almost invisible in the actinics when I have the dusk/dawn timer).....Is this a good thing?  water parameters are right; no traceable NO, NO3, NH3, 420ppm calcium, etc etc.  The tank is Berlin, with approximately 70 lbs of very porous Fiji live rock, no corals yet, but soon to be.  Any answers are appreciated <Tridacnid clams are able to lower or raise the amount of zooxanthellae they have within themselves to help adapt to the lighting provided. Browned tridacnids are clams which have increased the amount of zooxanthellae to catch as much lighting as possible, while colorful tridacnids often have less zooxanthellae and the true colors of the clam will come out. I would consider it a good thing that your clam is turning purple (unless you prefer the color brown). If you're interested, You may want to look at the clam from above water rather than through the glass (if you aren't already). Clams show their true colors when viewed above. If you have any further questions please do not hesitate to email us back. > Take Care, Graham Stephan

Clam questions 12/12/03 Hello, I have recently added 2 large clams to my 180 gallon tank. One Derasa and one Squamosa. They are both over a foot and are beautiful.  They are both placed on the bottom on the tank (2" medium grain sand). If I pick them up there are always a few small bristle worms under them. <generally a minor concern for larger clams which can sustain some abuse, but do keep an eye on them... particularly the Pyram snails> Also the Deresa is constantly shifting so that it's inhalant siphon is higher than its exhalent siphon. Should I be concerned about either of these things? <some settling is to be expected> The clams seem perfectly happy. Lastly my LFS has some snails that they say will do an excellent job cleaning detritus from the substrate but I cannot find mention of them in any of the books that I have which are all the major reef keeping ones. <heehee... perhaps you need our new book <G>, "Reef Invertebrates" Calfo/Fenner. Consider detritivores like Nassarius and small Strombus species> These snails are slightly smaller than your average turbo with a somewhat conical shell. They are white with a couple cream colored bars on them. They are in the sand and if pulled up out of the sand will immediately burrow back down under the sand until out of sight. Ring any bells? Thanks in advance, Seth <hard to say without a picture. Do look up Nassarius for starters. Best regards, Anthony>

Follow Up (visit in Sing., looking for Ricordea floridae and tridacnids) Hi Bob <Edwin!> Nice meeting you the other day.  I trust that you have by now rested from the trip. <Yes... somewhat. Thank you again for taking the time to share with us re your business> Anyway, below are my contact information, please forward these to the Ricordea culture and also if possible a clam jobber/wholesaler. <Am going to first cc Barry Neigut (the gentleman I mentioned who owns, operates ClamsDirect(.com) for his input. He's coming over for lunch and chatting this very day>   Been looking for real show grade stuff for quite some time already.  Can get at least 100 ricos polyps or 200 clams at one go, if they are real show stuff. <Amazing> Name: Edwin Lam Contact number: +65  98582018 Email: lamcy@i2r.a-star.edu.sg Thanks for the help and do let me know if you are dropping by in the region again. <Will do so. Hello to Perry. Bob Fenner> Best Rgds Edwin Lam

Re: Giant Clams!! Hi Bob,          the farm is owned by Robert Reimers Enterprises, which is on of the largest privately owned companies in the Marshalls! As well as the Clam Farm they have a grocery store, Hotel, Restaurant, Drinking Water plant plus a Pearl Farm. I (Rod) have managed the farm since the beginning of '99! <When are we coming out to visit?> We presently raise Maxima (primarily), plus Squamosa, Crocea, Hippopus and a small number of Gigas. <That's about it for the trade> Today it pissed down with rain all day, but we did a good dive anyway!! <Wet already!> A local brew is called "yeast", and it contains this plus sugar fermented with drinking coconut water!!! Gets the job done but really scours you out as you will see when you take a dump the next day!!! <Have tried to drink this "green beer" (always with the local "revenge" as a consequence) in a few South Pacific island countries. Ho-boy> I brewed some once and after 12 days it was pretty potent (I kept on decanting off the alcohol floating on the top of it)! I gave it to a local who got really hammered and then barfed all over my mates kitchen!! Really nice effect!!!! <Sounds all too familiar> I prefer beer! <Me too> Seeya, Rod. <Hope to soon. Am cc'ing Barry Neigut of Clamsdirect.com. He has an avid interest in making a "video" of the clam biz and hobby. Maybe we can haul out and do a bit of diving, picture making with you. Bob Fenner>

Giant Clams!! Please give me a buzz if this is Bob Fenner the old aquarium hippy!!!! Rod Bourke. Giant Clam Farmer! <Mmm, same old pet-fish type. Howdy Rod. Bob F>

Giant Clams!! Yo Bob,          let us know when you are coming out as we will need to order more beer for the island!!! <Yay!> Shortages tend to make the natives a bit savage!!!! <Do you folks make "bush beer"?> Seeya, Rod. <Rob, who owns, operates the facility on Majuro? What "flavors" of tridacnids are you raising? Bob Fenner>

Re: Giant Clams!! Bob, Yes I have emailed Rod before and that would be great if he would allow us to visit. Nice to get some images for the manuscript other than us some of Daniels. <Yes> Eric and John from SDC told asked if I wanted to come to LA to meet Rod as he was in town but was out of the country at the time, sorry I missed you Rod <G> Cheers, <Let's keep communicating and get on out to Majuro for a visit. Bob F> Barry www.clamsdirect.com

Re: Giant Clams!! Greetings Chaps,                 sorry to not get back to you straight away but I have been "flat out like a lizard drinking" recently!!! <I understand> Just at this point in time it would not be convenient for a visit, as we have a lot of things going on. <We'll wait till you have time> Once we get thru these jobs etc then we might have a bit of time plus better facilities for you to see! This is not a "No", it is just that we have so much going on right now that we cannot afford any distractions whatever! I think that by winter things will be shaping up nicely, so maybe remind me about this in 3-4 months and I can see how things are looking then!!! <Okay> Barry would need some restraints though, as he may get "rather excited" when he sees thousands of ultras lined up just out of his grasp!!! <I'll restrain him... somehow> Best Regards, Rod. <See you soon. Bob F>

Re: Giant Clams!! Ron, THANKS so much for the reply. Bob Fenner and I would LOVE to come and visit with you. I will only take pictures of what you want us to. Promise ! I will contact you in 3 to 4 months. Hopefully things will settle down by then so we can have a good visit and see who can out drink who <G> Seeing all those Ultra would make me cry to say the least. <See you both soon. Bob F> Best Regards, Barry www.clamsdirect.com

Stuff (about tridacnids) Hey Bob! <Hi James> I got the new book the other day - excellent indeed, and a much, much needed resource for everyone. <Thank you for your kind words> I do have a question for you though... I'm doing an article on tridacnids and was reading that some are still being collected in the wild, but I thought ALL were coming from farms at this time.  <No, unfortunately... some of most species are still wild-collected> Are the wild caught specimens still allowed? I looked at wetweb and reef central and can't find any specific info. <Mmm, you might contact some of the marine livestock importers directly... and I'll cc a friend in the trade here, Barry Neigut of ClamsDirect(.com) for his input> I haven't bought any myself in a couple of years it seems like, and the selection to go look at around here stinks for some reason. None of these stores ever has more than a couple. <You'll enjoy chatting the whole subject up with Barry... he is REALLY into clams> Thanks and congratulations, jf <Thank you. Be chatting, Bob F> P.S. Leaving for Yukuhashi in 2 weeks! Very excited!!! James W. Fatherree, M. Sc.

Tridacnid Clams Hi James,
 Bob Fenner forwarded your note to me regarding farmed clams and wild tridacnids.  From all the information that I have been receiving these past years is that the farms can not seem to keep up with the demand of buyers.  Not only for the hobbyist but as you know, the food industry where high numbers have been sold for consumption.  Was chatting with David Palmer ( has several collection site) the other day and he says that some of the farms have lost their grant money so unable to stay in business. 
 In the past years I have seen less of cultured clams and more of the  "wild" ones be shipped in by the importers. One importer conveyed to me that he can see a rise in price in the cultured tridacnids in the future.
 Hope this answered some of your question.

Will mantis shrimps or bristle worms in any way damage corals or clams? 6/15/03 <Hello, PF with you tonight> Will mantis shrimps or bristle worms in any way damage corals or clams? <Ok, I'll break this down: Mantis shrimp will generally not harm corals, unless they disturb them by walking across them. Depending on the relative size of the clam and the mantis, and the type of mantis (smasher vs. spearer), it could kill and eat a clam. A 2" mantis is no threat to a 10" clam, a 6" mantis is another story. Bristle worms: in general, no. If they are in plague numbers, they could irritate a corals tissue. As for clams, they have a bad, and undeserved rep. Often a clam with be doing poorly, but still look healthy overall. The clam dies overnight and the worms come out and eat it, the nest morning the aquarist sees the worm shell crawling with worms and makes the obvious (but wrong) conclusion. There are a few species of worms that prey on clams, but they are very rare in captivity. Bear in mind these are generalizations, you can get a more specific answer with a more specific question. So on that note, have a good evening, PF>

Predatory Polyclad flatworm 6/7/03 Hey guys, <cheers, mate> I've been trying to find out what this thing is for about a month now with no luck.   <no worries... an easy ID> The first sighting was by my wife as she walked out of the bathroom and saw it on the glass.  She woke me up and I took some pictures of it thinking it was some kind of sea slug.   <actually a true flatworm> Since my tank was cycling I was sure that my water conditions would kill it.  About 3 weeks later we returned home late at night, and for some reason I decided to turn the tank lights on to see if there were any nocturnal hitch hikers that I didn't know about (bristle worms, mantis shrimp and stuff like that).  I saw this thing again, but it was much smaller, about half to one-third the size of the first one I saw. <could be the same one... color is paling, and it is slowly starving to death. Such flatworms have very specific predatory diets in the wild> I took some more pictures as it crawled into a hole in my live rock. Someone suggested it is a polyclad flatworm. Any ideas? Thanks in advance, Kevin <yep... I took a series of photographs of a very similar looking worm for our new Reef Invertebrates books. This species preys on Tridacnid clams and actually resembles the mantle of a T. squamosa. It needs to be removed. See attached pic. Kind regards, Anthony>

Squamosa attachment - 4/18/03 Hello, <Good evening. Paul here rooting and tootin for the Tampa Bay Lighting!> This squamosa clam is my first clam.  I got it a couple of days ago.  Today I noticed part of a shell attached underneath it.  I pulled on it a bit, but it does not want to give way. <Attached to the shell with it's byssal gland or "foot" or byssal thread as it is sometimes called>  It is attached with a stretchable stringy thing. <Yes, definitely attached via byssal.> Attached is a picture. What is going on here? <Well, as it does in nature, it uses its byssal "foot" to attach to substrate for stability and for protection> What should I do? <Leave it be! Sometimes the forceful removal can lead to infections, exposure to parasites, as well as general unhappiness for sure> I have the clam placed on the sandbed. <Good place for it in my experience many things to consider though, like light>  Is it really better to place on a ceramic tile or something? <Again, there is a great deal of knowledge to be had. Definitely better to have a piece of shell or some sort of "shield" in place for a lack of a better term.> Would it actually attach itself to the ceramic tile? <Very likely.> Thank you very much.  I love your site. <Thank you Anthony. I recommend for you to research and gather information on Squamosas and its care not only on our site, but the great many that exist in the internet ether. Barry of clamsdirect.com is a great source of information and he loves to chat about his many years experience. A #1 A-rated stand up guy, and a Conscientious Marine Aquarist to boot. His site is one of many with good information> Anthony

"Gaping" Squamosa - 4/2/03 Hi there WWM Crew... <Hi there. Paul here for a few> I hope this email finds you happy and healthy today. <Actually no, I have a horrible cold. A little slow on the draw, but otherwise fine> I have a question regarding the well being of my new T. Squamosa. <OK. Go for it>  Is it normal for them to gape for the first few days following acclimation? <Well, in my experience they can "gape" anytime and usually recover. You just never know though. If I remember though it seems to me that Squamosa kinda "gape" anyway.>  The lil guy was delivered Tuesday and was acclimated over a period of an hour plus. <Well, nice but did he go into an acclimation tank? In any event sounds fine>  I ensured that I added some tank water, via a turkey baster, over and over until the container was full. <very well>  I then dumped half and did the process over again.  After more than an hour, I finally placed him on a piece of empty clam shell just under the substrate for him to become accustomed to his new environs. <Very good. Lights off?>  Other than a troublesome wider inhalant, it seems okay.  Color is good and mantle expansion seems normal for a newbie. <Sounds about right> The packaging from the seller was wonderful. <Who is the seller if you don't mind me asking?> Many air filled bags of insulation surrounded the live specimen bag. <Cool>  There was 2 inch foam lining the box and two heating pads therein. <Good> The water temp was not all that cold, considering it is New England. <What does that mean?> I waited at the door all morning for delivery and acclimated it right away. <Very responsible>  It was en route for a short period of time (Next state overnight - FedEx) <Still could be a lot of handling between seller and buyer> The reason I chose Squamosa is that I have power compacts. <ahhh, good choice then> Everyone I speak with says that my 6w/per gallon should be sufficient. <Definitely>  I've read the book "Giant Clams" and it too says that Squamosa would be my choice. <Very good. Glad to hear you on board as a Conscientious Marine Aquarist> I was planning leaving him on the substrate, but your opinion on this is appreciated as well. <I would leave him there for about a week minimum. Then slowly start moving him toward his final resting place. In the wild though, these guys are usually found on the substrate. So he may be fine where he is. If he continues to gape though I would definitely hold off on moving him anywhere. Clams have been known to crash and die in about 12-24 hour period, so keep an eye on him. Oh yeah, definitely let the seller know he came to you in this "gaping" condition. From the picture though he looks pretty good!> I may just be paranoid.  Others have told me that Squamosa have larger siphons as compared to other Tridacnas. <True> I'm used to seeing Maximas which rarely "open wide". <Also true. Healthy ones anyway> I've attached a picture for your viewing. <Looks good>  You can email me direct if this is not FAQ worthy. Definitely FAQ worthy. Did you get a chance to read our FAQs? Lots of good info there. you can always contact Barry Neigut at ClamsDirect.com as he has quite a good amount of experience in the various hobby clams.> Thanks for all your help. <My pleasure David. I am sure your clam will thank you for your research as well!> David  

Clam exudation 3/27/03 Greetings!  I have a blue Tridacna maxima, about 5 inches below the surface of the water under a 175W MH with 40W of fluorescent actinic.  The clam is about two years old.  Recently I have noticed that in the evening, I see a very thin brown strand of  (I assume) zooxanthellae algae coming out of the exhalant siphon.   <could be... sometimes they are expelled naturally in small packets, other times induced by stress (increase in light as with new bulbs or clarity as with water change or sudden use of carbon)> The clam is well extended and looks great.  Water parameters are great and unchanged, except that I recently (1 month ago) noticed that the pH was dropping to 8.00 during the night.  I slowly used Reef Buffer to raise the pH to about 8.45 during the day, dropping to about 8.30 at night.  Salinity is 1.025 and nitrites are zero, and nitrates are 5ppm.   <all good> I use PolyFilter and an Urchin Pro.  Is this algae discharge normal? thanks tom <likely no worries at all. Be mindful not to overfeed (at risk of clogging gills) with liquid supplements too. Best regards, Anthony>

Re: Clam exudation 3/27/03 Thanks for your response, Anthony.  I have been feeding liquid food, perhaps a little bit more than usual.  This afternoon I noticed some bleached spots on the mantle which weren't present this morning.  The mantle is open/out. <not good signs at all... and rules out coagulated food from overfeeding as the primary. Stress from a physical parameter is more likely now... the sudden influx of a larger than normal bit of freshwater perhaps for belated evap top-off? Dosing supplements in strong concentration near it at the top of the tank (sans dilution in sump or strong stream). Hmmm... many possibilities. Predation is more common in general but would not expectedly cause the bleach spots. Instead we are looking for stress or disease here. Perhaps a new fish or coral added recently without QT brought in a pathogen> Any suggestions? thanks, tom <watch nightly for predators, but otherwise do not disturb while evaluating water quality. A water change is usually helpful too (dilution of the unknown). Anthony>

Stressed no more... better Tridacna days 3/28/03 Anthony, Sorry to have raised the alarm.. My otherwise beautiful, talented and intelligent wife mistook the golden mantle highlights as "bleaching".   <ahhh... no worries. An easy mistake to make under the circumstances. Kudos for her attentiveness indeed> The clam did put off some brown strands of material, which I was earlier asking you about.  I had gone out of town, though, and I asked her how the clam was doing and whether there was any bleaching.  She reported back, and I emailed you again.  Ah well. <better days ahead for sure> Thanks for your very prompt, thoughtful and caring response.  You are a credit to the hobby! tom <its truly redeeming to hear you say so, my friend. Thanks kindly and best regards! Anthony>

New Clam system from Barry/ClamsDirect Hi Bob, <Hey Bar> Just a up date on the ClamsDirect Clam Tank. It has turned out really well. I have sent you some images of the tank. Just have a few clam in it at this time as I want to stock it with some really nice ones. The 1st one is just the tank, 2nd one is with pictures taken through the side like normal tanks, last one is looking through the 45 degree angle. So much better to view this way as it shows the true color of the clams. <Yes> Tell Di I haven't forgot to get by there but just haven't had time. Working 16 hr day and taking a half day off on Sunday. So damn tired! <Rest my friend> Hope you enjoy the images. In a week or so when I get some nice clams in that tank maybe you could post someone on WWM if you like. <G> <Will do. Bob F.>

Paper, clams, corals - 3/18/03 My question may sound simple but I  am about to buy my first clam or two. <Good for you. Do as much research about their environmental conditions and needs for successful keeping> My question is can corals hurt the clam's mantel if placed too close? <Absolutely! If not from direct contact to the tentacle, then just by close proximity through chemical release of toxins. Definitely keep them away from corals at a minimum of a 3 inches or more minimum.> I have nice place picked out for one or two  2-4"  clams but I also have a torch coral near by. <Definitely too close to this coral as the torch has the ability to sting quite severely as part of its procurement for food as well as an offensive and defensive strategy for territory. I just talked to Barry Neigut of ClamsDirect.com and he stated in his experience clams are very susceptible to chemical allelopathy and physical damage from sweeper tentacle nematocysts. "Keep a good amount of distance is the best policy"> If he grows well and so do the clams will it hurt the mantel if stung by the torch. <Absolutely! See previous note> Same goes for tube worms such as a feather duster. It is near some Xenia. Will it kill the feather duster? <Hmmm...... I would use a minimum of 3 inches if you can. Xenia can be very toxic. Congratulations on the new clams. Paulo> Thanks David

Re: clam lighting for a 75 gallon Hello there, I have a 75 gallon tank with two of the 48 inch Aqualights, which total 520 watts of light. Split it would be 4 10,000k bulbs and 4 actinics, which are 65 watts each. Anyway, would this be enough light for 1 or 2 clams if kept in about the middle of the tank or closer to the top?      Jim >>Wow, Jim!  First, have you gone through this section on our site?--> http://www.wetwebmedia.com/tridacnidart.htm Here is some more information specific to lighting questions--> http://www.wetwebmedia.com/marlgtganthony.htm >>Part of the issue is species of clam, for instance Tridacna derasa and Hippopus can do well with lower lighting.  I'll assume that you would like to know which species you can keep with the lighting you have available for them, and I see no reason why you couldn't keep either of these species.  If you wanted to get something like T. crocea, then I would be sure to place it higher up. >>>>Ok guys, I'd like to bump this to someone who REALLY knows their stuff on the clams.  I've spent about an hour reading through old FAQ's and as many articles that appear to be related, but I feel I can't give a very complete answer regarding which species will do well with his lighting, or which might be better, as I've not had experience with every species.  Also, because of this lack of experience, I can't tell him which species *can* be placed up on rockwork, and which others will do better on the tank bottom.  Nor can I advise him on specific bulbs, and I don't want bad information to slip by or to have left something important out.  Thanks!<<<<

Crocea Clam lighting 3/15/03 I would like to buy a Crocea Clam and would like to know how close to the lights it would need to be. Its a 55 Gallon tank 20 inches deep with 4 36inch VHO's 2 Super Actinic URI 1 Actinic White URI 1 Aquasun URI <within the top 12" of the water surface will be fine, my friend. Have you read the sample chapter on Tridacnids from our new book, by the way? Click on the chapter link on this page: http://wetwebfotos.com/store/nma-ri.html best regards, Anthony>

Clams and Dwarf angels 3/14/03 I would like to know if my maxima clam can live with my lemon peel angel and flame angel can you give me a rate where 1 is the lowest & 10 is the highest on the safety of my clam and/or 2 angels. Thank you <I would rank the lemon peel as a 3/4 (rather risky) and the flame as a 7/8 (rather reef-safe). The lemon peel with other reef invertebrates like coral however is even more dangerous. Some behave, but most are nibblers. They are one of the first dwarf angels to rule out of a reef tank when considering the genus. Best regards, Anthony>

Alas... Shrimps will nibble clams 3/14/03 Hello Bob et al, <cheers, mate> My Tridacnid is doing well but for one problem.  It has decided that it likes its placement on my reef and has attempted (a couple times) to attach via its byssal thread/tissues.  Unfortunately, my Lysmata amboinensis feel that this byssal production is a gift from the heavens and pulls it free to dine upon it!!  I've placed small pieces of rubble around the clam's shell, enough to protect it, but not to impede on its ability to open and close at will, however, the shrimp excavate and harvest with little problem. Is this going to hurt the clam?   <unfortunately... many/most shrimp will nibble and eat clams. It is well-documented in popular aquarium literature. A few behave, but most will nibble> Should I get rid of my efficient cleaner shrimp?   <yes, indeed... with the clam in residence> Any advice is greatly appreciated. PS.. Bob, Anthony, Steven, Jason, David...heck.. all of you are wonderful.  Thanks for all that you do for this community! David <thanks kindly for saying so :) Best regards! Anthony>

A Clan For His Clams... Thank you for all your help in the past. <Our pleasure!> I have recently set up a 30 gal refugium tank in line with my 75 gal reef tank I set it up with a 6 inch deep live sand bed and 175 watt metal halide with 2 x 55 watt actinic pc lights. I plan to stock it with a few Tridacnid clams and soft corals. What fish tank mates would you recommend for this size of tank that won't decimate my sand bed in-fauna? I heard the six line wrasse and juvenile Coris are good for control of parasitic snails. I have also entertained thoughts of farm raised seahorses. Your suggestions are greatly appreciated. Sincerely, C.S. Blashko <Yep- I tend to favor small Fairy wrasses, cardinal fishes, and possibly some mid-water-swimming blennies, such as the Meiacanthus species. Also, you may want to look into a Pseudochromis, as most of them are colorful, remain small, and offer some of the same benefits as the sixline wrasse. They also have the added good characteristic of not destroying your infauna! Lots of choices here! have fun perusing about on the wetwebmedia.com site for more research! Good luck! Regards, Scott F>

Printed Material Good morning Bob, Have you heard that CA has passed a law that places selling pets and animals must provide information on how to take care of the animal?  <Have heard of pending legislation to this effect> Wonder if this would apply to our trade?  <Might> Of course I already have most of that information on my web site but wonder if I need to send material as well. Not a bad idea , I think that people should have already done their some home work prior to purchasing. <A good idea to include IMO, including instructions/suggestions on acclimation> Just wanted to pass this on to you. Best Regards, Barry www.clamsdirect.com <Thanks Bar, Bob F>

Waiter, There Are Snails In My Clam! (Pyramidellid Snails) I have a 6" T. Derasa. A few days ago I noticed that it wasn't extending its mantle as much as usual and its incurrent siphon was opened much more than usual. I picked it up and it had about 30 pyramidellid snails attached to it. <Yikes!> I was able to pick most of them off but there more today. What can I do? I can temporarily move it to a different tank, but it only has NO fluorescents on it. I do have a sixline wrasse that does a good job of getting the snails that attach to the clam up towards the mantle but it can't get to the ones that are attached to the bottom. Thanks, Eric <Well, Eric, I think the sixline wrasse is a good "assistant" for you, but manual extraction may be the best way to go here. I you want to move the clam to this separate aquarium, you can compensate for the NO fluorescents (at least for a short period of time) by placing the clam higher up in the tank. Just keep an eye on this clam...Ya know- I'm a major quarantine freak (even for clams and inverts)...a nasty pyramidellid snail infestation is a great lesson on the value of quarantine. As you are finding out, these little @#$%#@ snails are a real drag to get rid of once they get a foothold <G> in your tank...quarantine can help. Just stay on top of things...keep inspecting the clam daily, and, in time, hopefully you can end this infestation! Good luck! Regards, Scott F>

Feeding Corals and Clams Ammonium Anthony- What sort of regimen would you advise I use if I began using ammonium chloride?   <I personally like using nitrate better... no idea of ammonium is better though> Is there any ay to test the level present in the tank? <not as easy as nitrate <G>.> Darrell <Anthony>

Feeding Corals and clams that feed by absorption Nitrate solution????  Something like Barium Nitrate?   <sodium nitrate actually, bud. And done so in aquariums with limited (or zero) nitrate. Yes... nitrate is bad if excessive... but zero is bad too. Many of our reef invertebrates need a direct source of nitrogen> Again, what would the regimen be? <p 323 of the Book of Coral Propagation says <G> Heehee... [just shameless]: citing Knop...1 gram of sodium nitrate per 1000ml distilled water to make a stock solution. From the stock solution, dose 10ml per 100 L of aquarium water incrementally to maintain a nitrate level under 2 mg/L > Darrell <ciao, bub. Anthony>

Re: Skimmer and pump recommendations Thanks now for my lighting what would you recommend for my 24" cube, I would like to keep a clam or two. I am looking at MH & PC lighting. Thank Dave <Hi Dave, For clams and high light demanding inhabitants, a 175 watt MH (or 250 watts) perhaps with two VHO or PC actinic bulbs to supplement the blue spectrum would be ideal. I would favor the 250 watt for the depth and they are available in a "radium" which may do away with the need for actinic lighting.  The color rendition is a personal choice, you may want to look at clams under different types of lighting to "see" the difference. The blue light will definitely help "fire" the colors of clams and corals.  For PC's try to find "true" actinic blue bulbs. I prefer VHO myself, with Ice Cap ballasts very flexible. (Can drive PC/NO/HO/VHO). Have Fun!  Craig>

Clams and rocks Bob how deep do you put the rock under the sand when you put the clam over the top of it?    RGibson <heehee... you engineering guys over think everything <G>. The clam is not to be buried far to begin with... and the rock used to protect the byssus of the clam can be very small... just big enough to cover the footprint of the clam. It could even be a small piece of ceramic tile. Even a larger rock though is buried in the sand just the same. If its easier... let the clam attach to the rock above sand first before burying both. Kindly, Anthony>

Re: Lighting on a 300 gal. reef Anthony, You're not saying that the lighting companies out there have us by the #$%^& are you? <rather... "creative marketing"... heehee> Anyways, thanks for your reply. If I went with 2 4' hoods and supplemented with 2 daylight VHO and 2 actinic VHO for dawn and sunset, would clams be able to survive on my substrate? <easily.... but be sure that they have a rock buried in the sand underneath them. Never place a clam on sand without rock underneath (risk of predation on young clams)> Never had clams before, so I guess I'll do some more reading and research. By the way, your book is probably destined to become as good or better than the "reef aquarium" vol. I ,II. in my eyes. <yowsa! thanks but what if it had pictures <G>!> At least you can understand most of your chapters on the chemistry of our reefs. Thanks again, Charlie <with kind regards, Anthony>

Clams and Pyram snails and angry little wrasses Anthony (or whomever else, Anthony just seems to get all my e-mail hehe), I hope all is well and pleasant!   <and with hope for you as well> I'm planning to get my open water dive cert. before this summer and hopefully take a trip to Australia and the GBR.  I absolutely cannot wait!   <outstanding!> Well, onto the point of this post, which is quite the direct opposite of the excitement of diving in a natural, well-preserved reef. Interesting observation inside my clam.  I'll paste here what I posted on RC and sent to Barry. ------------------- Looking into its inhalant siphon you can see the gills and internal body structure.  Well, right between the gills, there is the fleshy (could not find the correct anatomical term) divider which separates the guts, internal organs, exhalant chamber from the inhalant chamber.  This flesh is translucent, that is, you can see through it to a degree.  Well I'm peering in at my little shrimp today, doing whatever it is they do in there, and I see a black shadow on this fleshy divider.  I look closer and come to find it has the outline of a 2mm (rather large) pyramidellid snail.  I can see the foot outline and the shell on top of it.  No mistake as to what it is.   <alas, yes... they are too common> I can see no way to remove this pest without killing the clam.   <actually no... you can have a soft bumper (foam) ready to slip at the splayed opening of the clam to keep it pried open and use surgical tweezers (pointed tip) to extract the snail perhaps... like the game "Operation" as a child... except without the buzzers> I am guessing this is why my clam usually seems stressed.   <Oh, ya> It is probably also why the mantle surrounding the inhalant is bleaching out.   <hmmm... stress here> There are no snails on the outside of the clam and no eggs on the bottom.  I figure even just one of those snails sucking away at its insides could do it in though.   <agreed> This bothers me because there is nothing I can do.   <maybe we can find a 4 mm six-line wrasses with an attitude to swim into the clam's body and kick that snail's ass <G>> Generally all I'd have to do is remove this snail and all would hopefully be well (barring other problems/diseases I am unaware of) but I cannot. If anyone has any advice at all please do share! <use the bumper and tweezers instead> *edited in* I now see 4 simultaneously.  One is still the 2mm one, it hasn't moved much, and there are 3 others, varying from .5mm to 1.5mm.  *sigh*  I'm frustrated! ------------------ Thread is here http://www.reefcentral.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?s=&threadid=142032 -------------------- Please do tell me your thoughts on this.  Is it possible this might be the "clam disease" that has been wiping out clams over the past several/many months?   <I suspect they are unrelated> Freshwater dips seemed to have helped in some of these cases.  Obviously the freshwater killing the snails within the clams could account for the success here.   <risky... but possible> I believe Minh Nguyen had much success with freshwater dips.   Either way this might be something worthwhile to put on your Tridacnid FAQ so others might know what to look for.   <will do... with thanks. Anthony>

Clambering For A Clam! As I have written to you before I am about ready to setup my 55 gallon reef tank which will include 45 lb. Fish: 1 small Antennata Lionfish (the last to be added in the tank) 2 yellow tangs which will be added simultaneously 1 true pair of Large maroon  1 Blenny 1 Six lined Wrasse (to clean the clams of parasites) Inverts: 2 bubble anemones 1 Long Tentacle anemone 5 feather dusters several spotted mushroom corals 1 toadstool mushroom leather coral 1-2 star polyp 1 brittle star 20 snails 15 hermit crabs 3 flame red scallops (if easy to keep) <Generally not- these guys really don't do well for the majority of hobbyists who keep them, unfortunately> 2 Crocea clams 1 Debelius' Reef Lobster several red Gracilaria algae for my tangs to feed on Are Crocea Clams easy to keep? Will any of the fish  or inverts harm the clam or the clam harm them? <The clam won't harm anything...but the lobster, and possibly the clams, might be a problem for the clam, IMO. Crocea are quite possibly the most demanding clams, as far as light intensity and quality are concerned. I'd go with a T. squamosa, which is generally agreed to be the most undemanding of the Tridacnids, as far as lighting is concerned> Will my 110 watt compact fluorescents be good for these clams and corals? <Halides would be a better choice, IMO> Do I have to place the clams on the substrate or on the liverock? <Best to place them on/in/around rock, as this makes them somewhat less susceptible to predation from crabs, snails, etc., IMO> Will my antennata lionfish nip at the clam's mantle? <not in my experience...will probably be completely uninterested..> Is the Debelius Reef lobster compatible with these fish and inverts? <I'd pass on it, if it were my tank..> Will it be eaten by the lionfish? <Hard to say...just depends on the individual. On the whole, I'd say "no"- but that's a bold (and possibly erroneous) assumption!> Do you suggest I put a dwarf zebra lion in the tank instead of the antennata? Will the dwarf zebra lion be a safer choice for this tank than the antennata?  <Yes- I think that a dwarf, although slightly less hardy- would be better suited to this sized tank. I still am of the opinion that you should just go with one tang in this tank...> I really appreciate your help....I do not know how to thank you! Michael <The best way would be to learn all that you can from these experiences, and share them with your fellow hobbyists! Good luck! Regards, Scott F>                               

Clams Mmm beer, yes, beer is good!  One day if you are ever in the Sacramento area let me know and we can find somewhere to share a good lunch and of course BEER!  On me of course.  :) <one day if we are lucky :) A virtual beer in the meantime... low calorie> Regarding shipping...  the clam was actually shipped from San Diego to here, Sacramento.   <not exactly <G>. It was shipped from SD to a FedEx processing center (Atlanta? who knows) to Sacramento> It was shipped via FedEx overnight.  The clam arrived around 1030AM.  I believe FedEx picked it up from his place around 330PM, but I could be mistaken.  That gives us approximately 13 hours. <<heehee... again, not exactly (the many problems with FedEx) You are assuming it was packed the minute before the FedEx guy rang the door-bell. The other possibility is that is was packed at 10AM or earlier in wait for the random afternoon FedEx pickup and adding several to many hours to the total in-bag time> The temperature of the water was a good 78F.  It took 2 hours to properly acclimate it, so a total of 15 or so hours.  When I say minor discoloration in the water, I do mean minor. <there really shouldn't be any. It takes a lot of stress for an animal to shed zooxanthellae> The excerpt would be nice, as I do not yet have your book.  I am assuming you mean your book on coral propagation yes?   <correct... will send it along and perhaps polish it later for a WWM posting> What other shipping options are there besides overnight via FedEx, UPS etc.? <Dude.. buddy. FedEx and UPS make up the tiniest fraction of all animals shipped daily in the US because they have an explicit policy forbidding the shipment of such animals (which they rarely enforce) and more importantly... because they are not designed (able) to do so safely. Almost all animals in the US just like fruit, flowers computers and much of the US mail(!) are shipped as domestic freight in the bellies of commercial airplanes. There's even PDQ service for airport to airport service. In exchange for you driving to the airport to pick up your livestock, you shave half a day off transit time. Every single fish at your LFS came on the airlines. Too scary the other way... I talk to aquarists every week that have there little coral frags and zoanthids DOA by FedEx. And its not FedEx's fault... they should have never been shipped that way.> I am glad I trusted my instincts on the gaping and got more pictures taken. I don't know that it will do much good for the clam, but I now have a good idea of what to look for.  Very difficult to find any pictures of gaping. Barry is a fine person and businessman!   <a very cool guy... passionate, energetic and has some of the most awesome clams around! :) > I do not attest this to being his fault in any way.   <Mostly agreed... but I regret to see any new industry people make the (common) mistake of using or encouraging the use of overnight carriers... it just stresses and kills too many organisms. Please understand my perspective ... I have made most of my livelihood as a small importer shipping and receiving towards 10,000 lbs of livestock/freight monthly.> Pardonne moi francais, but s##t happens.   <I disagree... there is a better and time-tested way. Again... coast to coast in an insulated box with heat or ice packs if necessary. 9 hours with freight recovery on the high end> These are after all living creatures, and very sensitive ones at that.  Much like doctors of medicine can attest to I am sure, even the best treatment/care sometimes fails. <yes... but we are not talking in absolutes here... the big numbers don't lie. 20-40% mortality on one hand... 5-10% on the other> Eh, I smelled it to be sure there was no decomposing going on. <heehee... understood... just teasing before> I do however think the Nassarius sp. and two tiny hermits would have let me know if it were.   <absolutely> As far as the wrasse goes...  I don't pretend to know what goes on in its mind, but you never really know...  it could be into those kinds of things.  Look at the pearl fishes.  hehe <Ha! Now that's funny!> Well, based on your reply, I went ahead and tied it up a bit (that sounds really bad)..  It's shell opens to about 1.5" (6cm or so) maximum.   <seems reasonable... agreed> It is really the only treatment out there that I have heard/read so I'll give it a try.   <do let us know how this works> Except for the gaping the clam seems very healthy so maybe this will help. For reference, here is my water chemistry.  It stays stable and has changed little in 2 months. 79F day and night pH 8.15-8.2 day and night dKH 12.5-14 Ca 420-450 NO4 0 NO3 .8 (just added the clam 7 days ago and the wrasse today so probably just a small spike from the bioload change) NO2 .05 SG 1.024 RVM <best regards, Anthony>

Gaping clam.. take a sniff Hey everyone!  I ask you guys so many questions I feel like I should send along a keg of beer!  Maybe one day I will have the opportunity to repay you for all the help you have given and likely will continue to give, but for now I hope that my passing on information to those less knowledgeable than myself and keeping my mind open to those more knowledgeable will suffice. <actually... lets get back to talking about that beer. Ahem... oh, sorry... Yes. Your question <G>> Two questions for you this time accompanied by a picture.  It is about the clam again, but this time I am hoping the picture will show what I was describing in more detail. <it does> T. squamosa.  About 5" long, 4" wide 4" tall.  Coloration is fine, but not accurate in the picture.  In reality it is a nice golden/rust color.  The central fading has regained about 50% of its zooxanthellae since I got it 7 days ago (probably expelled some zooxanthellae during shipping - shipping water had some minor discoloration).   <understood and common with imports... but not domestically shipped clams. What happened? Coast to coast on the airlines in even inclimate weather takes only 6-9 hours. For bleaching to have occurred, the animal would had to have been subjected to an extreme of temperature or a delay. Was this the case? Please don't tell me this was clam shipped via overnight carrier instead... Ughhh! Very few organisms if any should be shipped that way (discussed at length in my book... I'll excerpt it for anybody interested)> Initially I was told by several people (based on written descriptions, which were/are lacking) not to worry about my clam, but something just doesn't look "natural" so to speak. <normally I would have agreed with them as it is most often the case... but your picture helps, and your clam is not feeling well (gaping inhalant siphon... the beginnings are clear to me)> The two questions are: 1.  Is the inhalant siphon gaping?   <yes... just starting. And I have laid eyes on thousands of clams... literally (as an importer for wholesale)> If you look closely you can see the edges of the siphon are rolled back a little bit.   <agreed> This has been progressing more every day I have had it.  Right now the inhalant siphon is the size of a half dollar and almost perfectly round.  Also, there are no tentacles left to speak of.  Barry had the clam for 6 weeks and the quality of his clams is reputed to be excellent (and I have no doubts about this), <and I also agree with this> but do you think maybe the shipping was just too much stress? <depends... if we are talking New York to California on Delta... 4.5-6 hour flight... 2-3 hour recovery... 7-9 hours total. No problem even if New York was cold. However... if you ship FedEx Premium, for example (and most people do not pay this extra-extra overnight fee... but take the "by 3PM" option)... the animal is in transit for a bare minimum of 14 hours (usually closer to 20 hours) and almost every bit of that is at ambient temperature... whatever that is (they pay for no climate control for planes, trucks or warehouses.. can't blame them... they are not in the livestock shipping biz). Again, 14 hours cold is a best case scenario... if the office closes at 8PM, and if the clam was packed outside their door at the last minute (Ha!)... and if the clam makes it into your tank by 10AM next morning. Overnight parcel services are not scaled for livestock and many marine creatures die this way. I just don't see why some merchants still use them> At night it is able to partially close its inhalant siphon. 2.  Is the siphonal mantle spread too wide?  It looks stretched a little bit, especially right at the top of the inhalant siphon. <agreed> I'm wondering if the adductor muscle is weakened at this point and it cannot maintain a more closed position (it can definitely slam its shell shut if it wants, but it doesn't do this unless I'm really messing with it). <what was the water temp when you got the clam and how long would you estimate shipping took?> I should add when I removed the clam from its shipping bag it wasn't completely closed then either. <no biggie at that point> Everything else about the clam seems fine.  Quick reactions to light changes, shadows etc.  When it wants to it can completely close its shell.  At night it pulls its mantle in and closes up a little bit.  I saw a few pyramidellid snails, so I picked those off.   <no biggie... common and controllable> Today I pulled the clam out and saw a small orange mass on the bottom so I promptly took my nifty Oral-B toothbrush to the whole clam and made sure to get all the orange off, which I am assuming were snail eggs.   <correct, possibly> Also while it was out I smelled it (and I got squirted right up my nose for my efforts, but it was funny) and it smelled just like it should - fresh marine/fish smell.    <dude... you are weird <G>> Also my six-line finally made it into my tank and within 10 minutes was circling the clam and picking at the shell. <maybe it was looking to sniff the clams bunghole> Presumably and hopefully at the snails.  Also, I have stayed up fully two nights in a row watching for predation.  None.   <good to hear> I read a post on Reef Central ( http://www.reefcentral.com/vbulletin/showthread.php?s=&threadid=81032&highlight=gaping) that seemed logical.  Basically he tied the clams shells shut.   <The thread is interesting... but I have some concerns with the reasoning and logic of it at length. Something to discuss at length over a beer <G>> I don't think I would want to tie them completely shut as he did, but do you think, IF there is even anything wrong with the clam in the first place, that this would be something worth trying? <weakly if so> Once again thank you kindly!  Yours is an invaluable service to the hobby and to the creatures entrusted to our care! RVM <with kind regards, Anthony>

Anemone- thanks! Ok my Entacmaea quadricolor did not split but it is better now.  thank you for advice on it!   <our great pleasure, my friend> also it is color is much darker now and it eats a lot.   <excellent... regular feeding with very finely minced foods is so important> I might get a percula for it who knows!   <if you like... but know that the anemone will fare as well or better without the clownfish. More than half in the wild, some say, don't even host clownfish> the websites you have given me were very good! I also have a clam but not sure what kind.  it brown and cream coloring.   <have you read the sample chapter we have posted from our new upcoming book here (link to sample is in center of the page): http://wetwebfotos.com/store/nma-ri.html I have read a book by Mr. Daniel Knop and it isn't answering a question I have.  when placing my clam in tank should a part touching the bottom of tank where the sand exists be a byssal part or a hinge part? The byssal opening should be resting squarely on a flat rock that can be buried in the sand... this protects this port (opening) from invasion through the sand by worms, crabs, snails or other predators. Never simply place a clam on the sand bottom without at least a small flat rock underneath. Best regards, Anthony>

Clam Care Ok thank you again!   <you are very welcome my friend> My clam is a Tridacna squamosa, it is 20cm.   <T. squamosa is one of the best and hardiest species! A favorite.> purchased from www.eastcoastclams.com.   my cousin had to give to me because it got too big.  I put it on bottom of tank with flat type rock under it.   <excellent> I have had clam for 1 month maybe.  the hole with many little tentacles keeps growing larger and more round and tentacles are going away.  now instead of a long hole it is a round one, 3cm diameter.   <hmmm... May not be anything to worry about, but do inspect it closely for any evidence of Pyram snails (tiny like grains of rice) or other predatory activity> nothing is eating the clam I watched it a lot at night and day.  also tank has run for many years.  I read on WWM site that clams need plenty of light.   <true for most species> I have 2 175 watt halide lamps of 10k colour on my tank.  it is 40cm deep.   <your lighting is very good if your water clarity is too (carbon used monthly or better to remove yellowing agents in water)> my clam seems happy and full of colour but for the hole.  this is my water quality it never changes much >NaCl 32 >temp 27c >NH4 0 >NO2 .07 >NO3 1 >Ca 410 >dKH 12.3 >pH 8.15 >PO4 .15 >Si .8 <your water quality is very fine except that the pH is a bit low if theta is a day time reading... it would be better at 8.3-8.6 > I'm scared for my clam as dr. Knop has said in his book that wide holes are not good.  I think he calls the holes siphons, and this one is the in siphon.  the book I borrowed from my library at my university.  my first English classes I did not have great grades I am sure you can tell! <no problem at all... your English is quite understandable and I suspect that your clam will be fine too. Best regards, Anthony>

Clams, clicks and clacks Anthony, Mark here. We were talking around Thanksgiving about water quality issues and my tank of tangling tangs, I'm sure you remember. Everything is still fine in the tank, other than the fact that my xenia has crashed. I had a couple of quick questions if you don't mind. I once had a clam but it didn't last very long, and was wanting to try another one. I'm sure my water quality issues had something to do with it, <hmmm... doubtful as primary cause... clams feed on high levels of ammonia and nitrate> but I also had an Eibli angel at the time that was picking at it, <ahhh... more likely indeed. It is like going into the office every day for work and getting punched in the face and then blaming the air quality for a somewhat tender feeling in the jaw that develops after a couple of weeks <G>>> along with most of my other corals in the tank. I removed that angel and took it to my LFS. It seemed as if something ate it, but I'm not sure. I was wondering if my brittle star would have done this? I know starfish in general eat clams and such but wasn't sure about the serpent. <actually... you are quite mistaken, my friend. Ophiuroid starfish are overwhelmingly reef safe and will not attack live healthy clams... with the exception of O. incrassata (the green brittle star... wicked and even eats fishes). All others are simply great scavengers and simply clean up the already dead and dying> I also have 2 cleaner shrimp and have read they might have had something to do with it. <also unlikely... Pyram snails and crabs of any/all kinds are far more likely> Could you please shed some light on this for me? <have you read the sample chapter on clams that we posted from our new book (and did it help)?: http://wetwebfotos.com/store/nma-ri.html (link is in center of page)> Also, there is something in my tank that makes a clicking or popping sound after the lights go out. It sounds as if a marble is being thrown at the glass. Originally my LFS said it was a mantis shrimp, but I have never seen one in my tank. <also could be a simple pistol shrimp... fairly harmless. Mantis tend to wreck snail populations and are fairly bold and conspicuous. Use a baited glass jar at night to see who's who <G>> The sound always comes in twos, like "click-click" I read mantis make several repetitive clicks. I also read it could possibly be a pistol shrimp. The sound has been going on for probably close to 2 years, and I have never seen anything in the day or night that could be doing this. Do you have any ideas, and should it be cause for concern? <likely not... trap and see> Thanks,    Mark

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